(Revision of ASME B30.4-2003)

Portal and
Pedestal Cranes

Safety Standard for Cableways, Cranes,
Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, and Slings



Copyright ASME International
Provided by IHS under license with ASME
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale




Copyright ASME International
Provided by IHS under license with ASME
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale

ASME B30.4-2010
(Revision of ASME B30.4-2003)

Portal and
Pedestal Cranes

Safety Standard for Cableways, Cranes,
Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, and Slings


Copyright ASME International
Provided by IHS under license with ASME
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale

Date of Issuance: April 19, 2010

The next edition of this Standard is scheduled for publication in 2015. This Standard will become
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Copyright ASME International
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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale

. . . . . 12 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Operating Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 Standard Hand Signals for Controlling Portal and Pedestal Cranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS Foreword . . . . . . . . .8 Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Section 4-3. and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Luffing (Boom Hoist) and Trolley Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Section 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Maintenance. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 14 Chapter 4-2 Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . .15 Operator’s Cabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Section 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Section 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Site Preparation and Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4-0. . . . . . 25 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Chapter 4-3 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ Section 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 iii Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Section 4-1. . . . .2-1 Core Failure in 19 ⴛ 7 Rotation-Resistant Rope . . . . . . . 1 Section 4-0. . . . . 2 4-0. . . . . . . . . . 12 Section 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Electrical Equipment . . . . .10 Boom and Jib Support Ropes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Scope of B30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Section 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Load Ratings and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hoisting Equipment . . . . . .2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Rope Inspection. . . . vii Summary of Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 Danger Zone for Cranes and Lifted Loads Operating Near Electrical Transmission Lines . 16 Section 4-2. . . . . General Requirements .. . . . . . . .3 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions. . . . .6 Slewing (Swing) Mechanism . . 9 Section 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.````-`-`. . . . . 12 Section 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Travel Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Section 4-1. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Section 4-3. . . . . . . . .11 Reeving Accessories . . . . . Replacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristics. .4-1 Dead Ending Rope in a Socket . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Section 4-1. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Section 4-1. . . . . . . . .4 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Documentation . .1-3 Portal Crane With Luffing Boom . . . . . 6 Section 4-1. . 13 Section 4-1. . . . and Maintenance . . . . . . . . .2-1 Required Clearance for Normal Voltage in Operation Near High Voltage Power Lines . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Portal Crane With Level Luffing Boom . 1 Section 4-0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .3 References . . . . . 11 Section 4-1. . 7 Section 4-1. . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .```. .1 Qualification for and Conduct of Operators and Operating Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Section 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Switches and Limiting Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 --`. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Counterweights . . . . . . . . .`--- Chapter 4-1 Erection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`. . . .16 General Requirements . . . iv Committee Roster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4-3. . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Section 4-2. . . . . . . . . . 24 Section 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x Chapter 4-0 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 Pedestal Crane With Luffing Boom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Section 4-0. . . . . . . . . . 22 Section 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Section 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Figures 4-0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

`--- Cranes. and operation) would cover the different types of equipment included in the scope of B30. 1926. was reorganized as an American National Standards Committee on January 31. iv Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . has been developed under the procedures accredited by the American National Standards Institute (formerly the United States of America Standards Institute).. and changing environmental and industry needs. the administrative or regulatory authority may grant variances from the literal requirements or permit the use of other devices or methods but only when it is clearly evident that an equivalent degree of protection is thereby secured. This Standard presents a coordinated set of rules that may serve as a guide to government and other regulatory bodies and municipal authorities responsible for the guarding and inspection of the equipment falling within its scope. For the 2010 edition. in accordance with the format described in Section III.```. inspection.`. operating under procedures developed by the ASME and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. administra- tive or regulatory authorities are urged to consult the B30 Committee. This document was reaffirmed in 1952 and widely accepted as a safety standard. Department of the Navy. Jacks. with 57 members representing 29 national organizations. Department of the Navy. The call for organization of this Sectional Committee was sent out October 2.. 1962. new data. FOREWORD //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ This American National Standard.2-1943. new developments. the Sectional Committee. Department of Labor and Industry — State of Pennsylvania. before rendering decisions on disputed points. advancement in techniques.. The suggestions leading to accident prevention are given both as mandatory and advisory provisions. and the Locomotive Crane Manufacturers Association. 2010. and maintenance. This Standard had its beginning in December 1916 when an eight-page Code of Safety Standards for --`. and Hoists. On June 11. Derricks. prepared by an ASME Committee on the Protection of Industrial Workers. testing. Revisions do not imply that previous editions were inadequate. and hoists were held from 1920 to 1925. Hooks. compliance with both types may be required by employers of their employees. under the joint sponsorship of ASME and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. The format of the previous code was changed so that separate standards (each complete as to construction and installation. or unnecessary hardship. and Slings.4 removed all references to tower cranes and revised the title. Derricks.S. Cranes. the American Museum of Safety.````-`-`.3-2009. Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance public safety. and general interest of labor and industry in safety. the Committee was reorganized as an Accredited Organization Committee.`.. Meetings and discussions regarding safety on cranes. ASME B30. 1925. In 1982. was created from the eight-page document referred to in the first paragraph.. B30. Bureau of Yards and Docks. To secure uniform application and interpretation of this Standard. U.S. Hoists. with 39 members representing 27 national organizations. The Safety Code for Cranes. the Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers. was presented to the annual meeting of the ASME. invitations were issued to 50 organizations to appoint representatives to a Sectional Committee. Department of Labor — State of New Jersey. the American Engineering Standards Committee (later changed to American Standards Association and subsequently to the USA Standards Institute). In March 1926.. In case of practical difficulties.`. involving the ASME Safety Code Correlating Committee. 1926 and the committee organized November 4. All tower cranes were incorporated into B30. Safety Standard for Cableways. and ASME as sponsors. Revisions result from commit- tee consideration of factors such as technological advances.. derricks.4-2010 was approved by the B30 Standards Committee and ASME and was designated as an American National Standard on February 25. Due to changes in design. the American Engineering Standards Committee approved the ASME Safety Code Correlating Committee’s recommendation and authorized the project with the U. ASA B30.

`--- Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . Bridon American Corp. I. Walker Magnetics Group D. W. E. R. D. Jackson. J. The Cardon Management Group D. Vice Chair K. D. The Manitowoc Co. Imerman. RZP International Ltd. Eckstine and Associates J. H. Alternate. Edwards.````-`-`. Osborn. DuPont D. E. B. Alternate. Inc. LLC W. The Manitowoc Co. J. Sleightholm. Zorich. Bolen. A. Liberty Mutual Group J. Jacobs Field Service North America M. Ruud. General Dynamics. The Crosby Group Technical Board R. Inc. Dahlin. M.. C. Hyam. Ingersoll Rand T. Alternate. P.S.S. A. Advanced Crane Technologies. K.. E. Inc. W. W. G. Link-Belt Construction Equipment W. J. W. ASME B30 COMMITTEE Safety Standard for Cableways. L. Alternate.`. E. P. Andrew...) STANDARDS COMMITTEE OFFICERS P. Alternate. Juhren. D. K. Inc.. Schober. Consultant D. Consultant. L. Inc. Alternate. and Slings (The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Standard. R. L. Terex Corp. LLC P. C. L. Alternate. International Union of Operating Engineers H. G. Alternate.. Columbus McKinnon Corp. Closson. A. Boeckman. J.```. Alternate. Smith. Remus. Alternate. Eckstine. Electric Boat K. Inc. Egging. M. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers A. L. Sayenga. Hooks. Army Corps of Engineers R. Department of the Navy J. E. D. Navy Crane Center R. Fair.`. Stewart. T./Power Crane & Shovel Association S. M. Crane Institute of America R. Means Engineering and Consulting/Wire Rope P. R. M. Alternate. U. Associated Wire Rope Fabricators E. Inc. Haag Engineering Co. Jankowski. N. G. Consultant T. Gantry Constructors. Lusi. Hargrove. Hoists. Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. R. Bishop Lifting Products P. U. Strain. R. NBIS Claims and Risk Management. Alternate. Fidler. A.. Calta. Wire Rope Rigging Consultants/Industrial Training Insurance International M. Army Corps of Engineers D. The Crosby Group A. B. Bluff IV. Hyam. Alternate. Alternate. Parnell. E. E. Hargreaves. John P. DuPont K. NACB Group. M. Tulsa Winch Group J. Equipment Training Solutions. Jr. J. Secretary //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ STANDARDS COMMITTEE PERSONNEL N. Morrow Equipment Co. Hetherston. Leidich. Duerr. Miller. C. Alliance of American Insurers/Liberty Mutual R. A. W. J. Ryan. Lucas. P. Manitowoc Crane Group F. Alternate. Engineering Consultant B. Reed Manufacturing J. W.. M. Alternate. Smith. LLC K. Leidich Consulting Services A. Kohner. Atkinson Construction R. C. C. Wiethorn. Crane Industry Services. E. W. I. National Crane/Manitowoc Crane Group C. Colletti & Associates. Inc. D. Walker Magnetics Group J. Toth. U. Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. Brown. W. Marburg.`. Colletti. Alternate. Dickinson. Wild. G. Alternate. Gilbert. Ireland. Cranes. Chair R. Wolff. D. Owens. Columbus McKinnon Corp. R. E. Alternate. Jr. QinetiQ North America R. v --`. DeMark. Alternate. American Bridge Co. Perkins.. Jacks. Ritchie. Massaro. LLC J. David Ritchie Consultant. D. Rowland III. J. Richardson. W. Derricks.S. Inc. Landmark Engineering Services E. J. M. R. Alternate. 2DM Associates. H. Alternate.. Alliance Concrete Pumps D. Sweeney. Alternate. LLC E. Christensen. Weir. S. P. Jaxheimer. National Oilwell Varco Co. Headley. D. Brunet. Craft Forensic Services. Whitford. D. Burkey. D. M. Jacobs Engineering A. Brown. HSE C. Alternate. Means. Fair Associates. J. M. Alternate. J. Mills. Boh Brothers Construction Co. A. S. ThyssenKrupp Steel USA. Zorich. HSE N. T. National Erectors Association/Norris Brothers A. L. D. Blanton. National Oilwell Varco B. E. Morris Material Handling C. Parnell. Rammelsburg.

John P. Jaxtheimer. J.`.. S. HONORARY MEMBERS J. National Oilwell Varco H. J. Inc.````-`-`. Chair. Closson. LLC B.. Navy Crane Center vi --`... M. A.`.`. D. P.. Consultant B30. Navy Crane Center J. Parry. Downs Crane and Hoist Co.. Juhren. Alternate. RZP International Ltd. Ireland. W. Morrow Equipment Co. Lift-All Co.. Egging. W.`--- Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ . Franks. W. Richardson.. E. L. R.. National Oilwell Varco P. Klibert. Colletti & Association. M. W. Colletti. Inc. Fair Associates. Consultant J.```.4 SUBCOMMITTEE PERSONNEL C. Inc. R. Zorich. Craft Forensic Service J. Fair. P. M. Jr.. Downs. H.

4 Portal and Pedestal Cranes B30. shipboard cargo-handling equipment. For the B30. JACKS.`.24 Container Cranes The ASME B30 Standard contains provisions that B30. maintenance.22 Articulating Boom Cranes These volumes are currently in the development process... ship- B30 Standard comprises the following volumes: board cranes.20 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices B30.`--- B30. excavating B30.21 Manually Lever-Operated Hoists 1 B30. Running Trolley Hoist) B56.18 Stacker Cranes (Top or Under Running ernmental use.```.12 Handling Loads Suspended From Rotorcraft sible for. The B30 Standard does not apply to track and automo- As of the date of issuance of this Volume. Industrial Rollers. CRANES. A120.13 Storage/Retrieval (S/R) Machines and (c) guide governments and other regulatory bodies Associated Equipment in the development. AND SLINGS B30 STANDARD INTRODUCTION (10) SECTION I: SCOPE B30. or equipment covered under the scope of Bridge. A92.23 Personnel Lifting Systems B30. and property B30.28 Balance Lifting Units1 into separate volumes.29 Self-Erect Tower Cranes1 under the direction of the ASME B30 Standards Committee and has successfully completed a consensus approval process under the general auspices of the SECTION II: SCOPE EXCLUSIONS American National Standards Institute (ANSI).2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running equipment.9 Slings by prescribing safety requirements B30. testing. skip hoists.````-`-`. promulgation.26 Rigging Hardware lifting and material-handling related equipment. users. If adopted for gov- B30..7 Base-Mounted Drum Hoists (a) prevent or minimize injury to workers. operation.17 Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running These Volumes may be adopted in whole or in part Bridge.. inspec- tion. truck Hydraulic Gantries body hoists. Multiple Girder With Top or Under and standards in the specific volumes may be changed Running Trolley Hoist) to refer to the corresponding regulations of the govern- B30.14 Side Boom Tractors appropriate safety directives B30. B30.27 Material Placement Systems convenience of the reader.`. car or barge pullers. Single Girder.1 Jacks. Single or Multiple Girder. or respon- B30. Air Casters. Top the following standards: A10.11 Monorails and Underhung Cranes employers. its application B30.. Each volume has been written B30. and enforcement of B30.6 Derricks The B30 Standard is intended to --`. limb.`.19 Cableways mental authorities. the references to other national codes Bridge. Underhung Hoist) for governmental or regulatory use. DERRICKS. B30.25 Scrap and Material Handlers apply to the construction. and well-drilling derricks. owners. HOISTS. and other- B30. vii Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ .. the tive jacks. B30.16 Overhead Hoists (Underhung) B30. the Standard has been divided B30. A90.3 Tower Cranes B30.5 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes SECTION III: PURPOSE B30. and B77.8 Floating Cranes and Floating Derricks wise provide for the protection of life. conveyors. B30. railway or automobile wrecking cranes. B20. A17. and use of cranes and other B30. HOOKS. SAFETY STANDARD FOR CABLEWAYS.. installation. mine hoists.15 Mobile Hydraulic Cranes (withdrawn 1982 — requirements found in latest revision of B30.5) SECTION IV: USE BY REGULATORY AGENCIES B30. and others concerned with.10 Hooks (b) provide direction to manufacturers.

they should not contain any proprie- The SI units are a direct (soft) conversion from the tary names or information. ever.. testing. Correspondence will be provided to facilities constructed after the effective date of this the requester defining the actions undertaken by the Volume shall conform to the mandatory requirements B30 Standards Committee. the request will be //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ forwarded to the relevant B30 Subcommittee for a draft SECTION VIII: REQUESTS FOR REVISION response.```. overloading. How- U.`. (b) Existing Installations. RECOMMENDATIONS Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s) Requirements of this Standard are characterized by and the relevant heading(s). Serious hazards include. The values stated in submitted to clarify the question. and trained in the proper operation of the equip- Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s) ment and the handling of loads. inspection. maintenance. Customary units are to be regarded as the Recommended changes Requests should be in the following format: shall be made by the owner (user) within 1 yr. Equipment manufactured and facilities constructed prior to the effective date of SECTION IX: REQUESTS FOR INTERPRETATION this Volume of the B30 Standard shall be subject to the The B30 Standards Committee will render an interpre- inspection. Such requests should be directed to will be available online at http://cstools.S. Such ments of this Standard after the effective date. Secretary. installation.. and Standard. nance. but only by the exercise of intelligence. Plans or draw- This Standard contains SI (metric) units as well as ings that explain the question may be U. tation of the provisions of the B30 Standard. B30 Standards Committee --`.S Customary units. but are not limited to. careful. ASME Codes and Standards ments shall be reviewed relative to the requirements Three Park Avenue within the current volume. Upon receipt by the Secretary.. Upon receipt by the Secretary. The effective date of this Volume of the B30 Standard shall be 1 yr after its date of issuance. which will then be subject to approval by the B30 Standards Committee prior to its formal issuance. NY 10016-5990 The equipment covered by the B30 Standard is subject to hazards that cannot be abated by mechanical means.. It is therefore essential to have personnel Volume: Cite the designation and title of the involved in the use and operation of equipment who volume.. Recommendations of this Standard Question: Phrase the question as a request for an are characterized by the word should.. of this Volume. care.`. testing. dropping or slipping of the load. and the relevant heading(s). physically and mentally quali- Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the volume. SECTION VI: REQUIREMENTS AND Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the volume. However. The need to meet the current New York. viii Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . NY 10016-5990 requirements shall be evaluated by a qualified person selected by the owner (user). SECTION V: EFFECTIVE DATE Rationale: State the rationale for the suggested revision. improper or inadequate mainte- Request: Indicate the suggested revision. mainte. requests should be directed to It is not the intent of this Volume of the B30 Standard to require retrofitting of existing equipment. and operation require. Secretary. not as a request for approval of a proprie- SECTION VII: USE OF MEASUREMENT UNITS tary design or situation. Customary units.`. use of the word shall. U. and com- Requests should be in the following format: mon sense. the request will be Construction. The B30 Standards Committee will consider requests Interpretations to the B30 Standard will be published for revision of any of the volumes within the B30 in the subsequent edition of the respective volume.`--- ASME Codes and Standards SECTION X: ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE Three Park Avenue New York. and operation of equipment manufactured and eration and action. (a) Effective Date. interpretation of a specific provision suit- able for general understanding and use.. its performance require.S.````-`-`. Volume: Cite the designation and title of the volume. fied. are competent. forwarded to the relevant B30 Subcommittee for consid- nance. B30 Standards Committee when an item is being modified.

```.````-`-`. and arrangement of sheaves or mum dimensions. sprockets. and using equip. sprockets.. designed. chains. sheaves.. and other limiting criteria of wire other parts rope or chain and their fastenings. wear all of which are closely connected with safety. and judg- (a) the condition of the equipment or material ment used in determining their application. (b) the loads ment for a purpose for which it was not intended or (c) the acceleration or speed of the ropes. (g) many variables that must be considered in each strengths..`. --`.. sheaves.`. minimum or maxi. These factors depend on the volumes must be interpreted accordingly.. often varying with the installation and The requirements and recommendations provided in uses. or drums The B30 Standards Committee fully realizes the (d) the type of attachments importance of proper design factors. (e) the number. (f) environmental conditions causing corrosion or drums.`.. obstructing the free passage of the load. and similar criteria are dependent on many individual case //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ different factors.. size.`--- ix Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . Sizes. and similar equipment covered by the standard.

1..2 Revised in its entirety 23 4-3.```. and corrections introduced in ASME B30.9(a) through (e) (2) 4-1.8.````-`-`.2..4 redesignated as 4-1.11(a) through (d) Section 4-1.2.8(a) through (d) --`.`--- Section 4-1.2 First sentence revised 25.1 through 4-1.10 4-1.11.4 redesignated as 4-1.12(a) and (b) 21 4-3.5 redesignated as 4-1.2 (1) Term boom stop added (2) Term buffer revised to buffer/bumper 3 Fig.9 (1) 4-1. tower crane.4-2010 includes editorial changes.2. 12 Section 4-1.8.10(a) through (e) Section 4-1...12 4-1.5 redesignated as 4-1.10.3(a) Revised 9 4- (1) Terms construction tower crane. 4-0.1 and 4-1.4-2010 SUMMARY OF CHANGES Following approval by the ASME B30 Committee and ASME.2 redesignated as 4-1. as well as the following changes identified by (10).1-3 Added 6 4-1. ASME B30. 2010.. ASME B30. and after public review. revisions.1. 4 deleted 4-0.4.1 through 4-1.3(a) Revised 8 4-1..`. 4-3.1 through 4-1.12.9(f) added Section 4- Title revised x Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale .11 4-1.10.1 Revised 4-0. 26 Fig.2(c) Revised 11.2.9. and tower crane //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ (construction) deleted (2) Former Fig.8 4-1.4-2010 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on February 25.. permanently mounted crane.`. ASME B30. Page Location Change vii–ix B30 Standard Introduction Updated 1 Section 4-0. hammerhead crane.2.`.1 through 4-1.

clutch: a means for engagement or disengagement of ture with operating machinery and boom.2.```.3). impact when a moving boom or crane reaches the end of its permitted travel. 4-0.2.1-2. operation. it swings with the crane... petent to perform specific duties. 4-0.. 4-0. usually with a portal counterweight: weight used to supplement the weight of opening between the gantry columns or legs for traffic the machine in providing stability for lifting working to pass beneath the crane. all of which power.1 Types of Cranes or stopping motion by friction or power means. crane.4 appointed: assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer’s representative. accessory: a secondary part or assembly of parts that designated person: a person selected or assigned by the contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a employer or the employer’s representative as being com- machine. pedestal crane: a crane consisting of a rotating superstruc- ture with operating machinery and boom. chains. tackle at its outer end and with a hoist mechanism to raise or lower the boom in a vertical plane to change buffer/bumper: an energy-absorbing device for reducing load radius (see Figs.1-2 and 4-0. ization of loading on the wheels. Volume B30.. the crane controls. braking means: a method or device for retarding or stop- structure at its inner end and containing load-hoisting ping motion. and authorized: approved by a duly constituted administra- maintenance of electric motor or internal-combustion tive or regulatory authority. inspection. rods. are used for hoisting work. boom point: the outward end of the load-bearing boom.2. 4-0.1-1). standby: crane that is not in regular service but (10) 4-0. 1 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale .`.2.. and References (10) SECTION 4-0.. telescopic boom cranes. ropes.2. installation. boom stop: a device or structure designed to limit boom travel to its highest allowable position.1-3). is mounted on a gantry structure. hydraulic cylinder(s).`--- superstructure rotates. //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ luffing crane: a crane with a boom pinned to the super.1-3). administrative or regulatory authority: governmental drum: the cylindrical member around which a rope is agency or the employer in the absence of governmental wound and through which power is transmitted to the jurisdiction. twin boom container handling cranes. that may be mounted on a fixed or traveling base. The crane may be fixed or on loads. portal crane: a crane consisting of a rotating superstruc. all of which cab: a housing provided for the operator and containing is mounted on a pedestal (see Fig. utilizing a drum and wire rope for hoisting and that hinged to a fixed or rotating structure or to a mast.2. a traveling base (see Figs.````-`-`. or by means of a trolley traversing a horizontal boom.`..2. and knuck. SECTION 4-0.1: SCOPE OF B30.1-1. used for retarding (10) 4-0. lebroom cranes are not included in this volume.4-2010 PORTAL AND PEDESTAL CRANES Chapter 4-0 Scope. or cranes (refer to ASME B30. ASME B30.4 includes provisions that apply to the construction.2: DEFINITIONS brake: a device.`. other than a motor. and 4-0. and bogie: an assembly of two or more axles arranged to to any variation thereof that retain the same fundamental permit both vertical wheel displacement and an equal- characteristics. This volume applies only to portal and pedestal cranes boom: a member used for supporting the hoisting tackle.2. The requirements for tower with its outer end supported by ropes. Definitions.2 General used occasionally or intermittently as required. engine-powered portal and pedestal cranes that adjust axis of rotation: the vertical axis around which the crane operating radius by means of a boom luffing mechanism --`.

ASME B30..`--- Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ .`..```..2.1-1 Pedestal Crane With Luffing Boom Luffing boom Pedestal Fig..`..`.4-2010 Fig.1-2 Portal Crane With Level Luffing Boom Luffing boom Pintle Portal 2 --`. 4-0.````-`-`. 4-0.2...

```.`..2.. ASME B30..`--- Portal 3 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ ..`. 4-0..4-2010 Fig.`..1-3 Portal Crane With Luffing Boom (10) Luffing boom Cylindrical gantry (with internal stairway) --`.````-`-`..

the prepared to endure winds above the in-service level. qualified person: a person who. or framed but without a portal of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of opening. applied rated loads. load block. drum. in-service: the condition of a crane ready for or engaged service life: the time. the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the traction (high-strength) bolts: see high-strength (traction) subject matter and work.`--- measured at the centerline of the rope.`. or who. normal: that service that involves operating at load. structural competence: the ability of the machine and its pawl (dog): a device for positively holding a member components to withstand the stresses imposed by against motion in one or more directions. --`. shackles. a part of a power-driven machine or equipment to alter or disconnect the electric.. from direction of travel. ing capable of supporting a superstructure with its training. without power and with the controls unattended. and slings. an operator is at the controls. with loads generally about one-half or less of the load hoist: a hoist drum and rope reeving system used rated load. This has the used in the assembly of crane components.4-2010 dynamic loading: loads introduced into the machine or radius (load): the horizontal distance from a projection its components by forces in motion.```. //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ as load blocks. rotation. expressed as the sum of the periods in work. working: the external load applied to the crane. ages when required. 4 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . lower: the assembly of sheaves. not on the crane. parking track: for rail-mounted cranes. to the center of verti- drum flange where the rope changes layers on a rope cal hoist line or tackle with load applied. gantry: a movable structural frame consisting of columns rope: refers to wire rope unless otherwise specified. by possession of a recog- nized degree in an applicable field or certificate of pro. hydraulic. followed. layer of strand laid in one direction covered by a layer high-strength (traction) bolts: high-strength tensile bolts of strand laid in the opposite direction. or pneumatic circuit pitch diameter: the diameter of a sheave or rope drum associated with the machine or equipment. and experience. hour as a regular specified procedure.or out-of-service service. has successfully demonstrated working and dynamic loads. flange point: the point of contact between the rope and gantry. advisability of which depends on facts in each situation. The jib operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruc- may be in line with the boom or offset to various angles. service. ASME B30. or heavy service. over which a stressed component can func- jib: an extension attached to the boom point to provide tion without undue risk of failure when the crane is added boom length for lifting specified loads. of operation. tions under either light. a level greater than that produced by in. normal. light: service that involves irregular operation suspended from the boom or mounted in the load trolley.. it is provided with storm anchor- the components connected by the rope.. ton (short): 2. and frame service. pedestal: a fixed raised crane base or foundation that swing (slew): rotation of the superstructure for movement may be solid... The bolts effect of counteracting torque by reducing the tendency are installed in tension. limit: a device that is actuated by the motion of or more before dismantling and re-erection. enclosed. lines of the tow rails measured perpendicular to the remote-control station: a location. or pedestal. a section of track standing rope (pendant): a supporting rope that maintains supported so that it is capable of sustaining storm- a constant distance between the points of attachment to induced bogie loads. pins.````-`-`. ropes. less than 85% rated load and not more than ten lift cycles including the weight of load-attaching equipment. tower: a structural frame consisting of columns and brac- fessional standing. before loading. such per hour except for isolated instances. rail clamp: a device for fastening a traveling crane to its gage. bolts.. of the axis of rotation to the base of the crane tower. at of the finished rope to rotate. and bracing capable of supporting a crane with its work- rotation-resistant rope: wire rope consisting of an inner ing and dynamic loads. by torquing or other means. by extensive knowledge. for hoisting and lowering loads. which the operator can control all the crane movements. permanent installation: a crane installation intended to last the working life of the crane or for a period of 5 yr switch. heavy: that service that involves operating at 85% loads for the purpose of reducing the likelihood of bolt to 100% of rated load or in excess of ten lift cycles per fatigue failure.`.`. and should: indicates that the rule is a recommendation.000 lb. shall: indicates that the rule is mandatory and must be out-of-service: the condition of a crane when unloaded.. track: the horizontal distance between the center rails to limit wind-induced travel.

3-1996. ANSI/SAE J185 — JUN 88 Access Systems for Off-Road that has a readout giving wind speeds.3-94. Specification for Welding Earth- boom of a hammerhead crane and contains the upper Moving and Construction Equipment load block. out of service. Publisher: Wire Rope Technical Board (WRTB). Part ICS 3-443. Des Plaines. VA 22314-1757 (www. MA 02169 the wind. block. 3rd Edition Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).org) wind velocity device: a device. 400 Commonwealth Drive. reference is made to the following Standard publications..html) //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ --`. Order Department.nfpa. Quincy. 1800 East Oakton Street.domesticwirerope. travel: the assembly that includes a pivot. 22 Law ANSI/ASCE 7-95. 550 NW truck.. Stairs. 801 1801 Alexander Bell Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).org) axle(s).org) unattended: a condition in which the operator of a crane is not at the operating controls.`.````-`-`. VA 20191-4400 North Fairfax Street.asce. IL 60018- 2187 (www. Alexandria.4-2010 trolley. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures WRTB Wire Rope Users ( Three Park Avenue. Reston. ANSI A14. such as an anemometer. Safety Requirements for Ladders — Warrendale. International). Floor and Wall Openings.1-1995. and wheel(s) on which a crane rides on rails (see ANSI/NEMA ICS3-1993. frame. FL 33126 (www. VA 22209 (www.. Publisher: American Welding Society (AWS).3-1992.`. (www. P.3: REFERENCES Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highways — Safety Within the text.`. Industrial also bogie).asse. Construction Tower Cranes Publisher: The American Society of Safety Engineers ASME B30. Miami.. ASME B30. Safety Code for Safety Glazing SECTION 4-0.```.org) Fixed ASME B30. 1300 North 17th Street. Fairfield. and Railing Systems Box 2300.. National Electrical Code weathervaning: wind-induced swinging of a crane. Hooks (ASSE). ANSI/NFPA 70-1999. when Publisher: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Systems two-blocking: the condition when the lower load block Publisher: National Electrical Manufacturers or hook assembly comes in contact with the upper load Association (NEMA). Rosslyn. ANSI A1264. Le Jeune Road. load: the device that travels along the horizontal ANSI/AWS D14.O. copies of which may be obtained from the Publisher: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE publishers as indicated.`--- 5 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale .. NJ 07007-2300 (www. Safety Requirements for Workplace NY so as to expose minimal surface area to 1 Batterymarch Park.nema. New York. Machines ANSI Z26.sae. PA 15096-0001 (www..

1. ance that is specified by the manufacturer. shall not be erected until repaired in accordance with er’s specifications. before (10) carry cranes electrically powered from an outside source. for use in design of the supports (see para. work commences to implement the erection instructions should be designed to provide a moment resisting over.. 4-1. supports shall be tested. particular consideration should be given least 15 min at each critical position. Erection shall be performed under the supervi- tracks shall be constructed or installed to support the sion of a qualified person. using test loads that are (g) Both ends of all tracks shall be provided with stops 110% of rated load at the radius producing the greatest or buffers adjusted for simultaneous contact with both load moment. with the crane oriented so as to cause maximum wheel (j) The crane manufacturer or qualified person shall loadings on one rail. or wheel loads. If not designed to crane. and rail dations. they shall cally designed for curves or grades. unless specifi. shall be established. (e) When required. (d) Splices in rail tracks (bolted or welded) shall have (g) Crane towers should be erected plumb to a toler- smooth joints. In addition to supporting vertical load. 4-1.1: SITE PREPARATION AND list of the weights of each component to be erected shall ERECTION be at the site. 4-1..```.1. it against unwanted movement along the track. (c) Procedures shall be established before erection foundations and supports. The turning equal to a minimum of 150% of the maximum need for temporary guying and bracing during erection crane overturning moment. the manufacturer’s or a accelerations and decelerations below ordinary opera- qualified person’s written erection instructions and a tional levels. supports.`--- surface in a manner capable of resisting the horizontal bers during erection.4-2010 Chapter 4-1 //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ Erection. Traveling cranes to the number and disposition of parking areas..1 Crane Supports (b) Cranes shall be erected in accordance with the crane manufacturer’s or a qualified person’s recommen- (a) All load-bearing foundations. a designated portion of the track (h) Cranes required to weathervane when out of ser- should be arranged and constructed as an out-of-service vice shall be installed with clearance for the boom and parking area complete with means needed for support. When (f) Wind velocity at the site at the time of erection applicable..`. The track and support system should the manufacturer’s or qualified person’s instructions or have sufficient rigidity to limit dynamic oscillations and replaced. and Construction SECTION 4-1. crane loads and transmit them to the soil or other sup- port medium. should be considered as a limiting factor that could sion and contraction. Damaged members for the crane trucks in accordance with the manufactur. (d) Before crane components are erected.3 Preoperation Procedures (f) Rails shall be electrically grounded when they (a) After erection. 6 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . designed to travel with load shall be tested by slowly (i) The hazard of earthquake effects appropriate to traveling the loaded crane the length of the runway the site or zone should be considered. (e) Slings and lifting accessories should be selected (c) Rails shall be securely attached to the supporting and arranged to avoid damaging or marring crane mem- --`. and properly spaced be visually inspected for damage. Pedestal cranes shall be tested with the sides of the travel base.1). placing the crane in service. the park- ing track should be in place before erection commences. superstructure to swing through a full 360-deg arc with- ing the crane against storm wind effects and anchoring out striking any fixed object or other crane. load rotated slowly to those positions that cause maxi- (h) When more than one crane will be operating on mum loading of each foundation and then held for at a run of track.````-`-`. require suspending the erection operation. then returning with the crane ori- provide maximum resulting loads at the base of the ented to similarly load the other rail. (b) Rails should be level and straight.3. Characteristics. 4-1.`. deviations from plumb.`. ASME B30. and vertical loads specified by the manufacturer... rail supports excepted.. travel with load. traveling cranes shall also be tested as for a stationary crane in each operating location. care is required to maintain (a) When cranes are erected.1. and adapt them to the particular needs of the site. provision should be made for thermal expan.2 General Erection Requirements (b) During overload tests.

and. the manufac- (g) The order in which tests of a newly erected crane turer shall ascertain that the crane is capable of support- are to be performed is as follows: ing rated loads without stresses exceeding predetermined acceptable values. The manufacturer 4-1. inertia (e) Functional motion tests shall be performed first forces and forces induced by the maximum allowable without load and then at rated load. be verified.````-`-`. or combination of competence. The actuating mechanism of the limit such attachments are part of the published load ratings.2. such ratings shall not forces. (f) The trip setting of hoist limit devices should be (3) Lifting attachments that are a permanent part determined by tests.```. if the crane specification includes ratings for other (d) For cranes designed to travel with load. in sufficient time to prevent contact Governs Lifting Performance of the lower load block with the upper load block or boom point sheaves. counterweight arrangement. setting and operation.2. shall be considered in establishing structural affected by the length of boom. evaluation is made by a qualified person. and hoisting speed range. fore.`--- series of runs each at increasing hook speed up to the maximum speed. and safety devices above. all functional mum in-service wind velocity. (e) For cranes designed to travel with load. When wind is considered. if applicable. when applicable. stresses may be affected by boom or jib length. the load rat. Each load rating shall therefore be shall be provided with each crane and attached in a 7 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ ..`. and forces induced by the maximum allowable exceed the applicable tipping percentages. except as in (e) (5) limit. fore. the combined effects of static and wind loads in a direction other than the least stable direction for shall not exceed 77% of the calculated tipping load. The tests shall include (f) In addition to the above. stability is turer. (d) Wind forces should be determined using the maxi- (d) Before placing a crane in service. (2) functional motion tests at rated load and wind. locking. if the crane specification includes ratings for other siderably higher loading to produce a tipping condition than the least stable direction. Therefore. counterweight arrange- 4-1. if siderably higher loading to produce a tipping condition applicable..4-2010 (c) Displacement of a support during testing is reason determined for the least stable permitted configuration to refrain from placing the crane in operation until an governed by the rating. the structural com- ing is established by taking a percentage of the load that petence shall be evaluated for the least favorable config- by calculation produces a condition of incipient tipping uration and operating conditions covered by given load when the boom is in the least stable direction. (a) For each stipulated operating radius.2 Load Ratings Where Structural Competence under all conditions. shall be considered in establishing load ratings. and brakes shall be checked for facturer.`. A durable rating chart with legible letters and figures ing load ratings. as specified by the manufac- (c) For a load at any operating radius. as specified by the manufac- priate.1 Load Ratings Where Stability Governs Lifting ment. (a) For each stipulated operating radius. device shall be located so that it will trip the device.. jib.2. static conditions. tower height (when applicable).. hoist line reeving. applied in the direction least favorable to operation.2: LOAD RATINGS AND STABILITY (b) Under any condition of loading. ASME B30. track variation from level. track variation from level. 4-1.. the load ratings shall not exceed 67% of (c) A nonsymmetrical mounting may require a con- the calculated tipping loads. Dynamic effects asso- (1) functional motion test without load ciated with hoisting and slewing shall be considered.3 Load Rating Chart shall take these conditions into account when establish. Limiting devices shall be checked for proper stability. Under ratings. as specified by the manu- motions. shall be taken in the least favor- (3) overload tests of supports able direction and at the maximum in-service velocity. inertial than the least stable direction. in which case they shall which basic load ratings have been established. or where appro. There- (b) A nonsymmetrical mounting may require a con. such ratings may be gov- in a direction other than the least stable direction for erned by structural competence. the following stipulations (1) load hoisting and lowering shall apply to the establishment of load ratings: (2) boom hoisting and lowering or traversing the (1) Incipient tipping exists when the algebraic sum trolley of the overturning (tipping) moments equals the sum (3) swing motion of the stabilizing moments. radius.. with the overload test load boomed-in to rated turer. (4) brakes and clutches (2) The crane is mounted level. locking devices. swing speed Performance changes and other dynamic effects. tower height. as specified by the manufacturer. with an empty hook comprising a of the crane in its working condition shall be considered part of the load for stability calculations whether or not --`.. which basic load ratings have been established. SECTION 4-1. There.`. boom and jib mounted.

3: DOCUMENTATION 4-1. applicable). block. but not limited to. as determined Data by calculation.3. traveling cranes on fixed bases shall have a margin of stability against incipient tipping (e) crane dimensional data when exposed to out-of-service wind forces appropriate to the installation site and in accordance with winds as 4-1. satisfy the applicable portions of this volume. The records shall include calculations and draw- (d) indication of the least stable direction and. see para. Rail clamps shall not be used to secure out-of- length.3.. unless storm wind anchorages are pro- all stated operating radii for each permitted boom vided. as set forth in paras. nonweathervaning cranes shall (10) (a) the crane manufacturer’s name. the following.2. unless the by strength limitations as opposed to stability.. tion and location of the particular installation.4 Backward Stability Each crane shall be provided with informational liter- (a) The backward stability of a crane is its ability to ature. the data shortest boom permitted (as applicable) can be stated in terms of wheel or bogie loads (2) boom or load trolley to be positioned at mini. If the manufacturer elects to include the time of testing. For fixed cranes. is such that the horizontal distance For use of the crane support designers. of rotation shall not exceed 60% of the radial distance (a) vertical and horizontal forces and torsional and from the axis of rotation to the backward tipping fulcrum overturning moments applicable to the crane configura- in the least stable direction. size. the rationale for selecting those (g) advice that slings and lifting attachments are part test conditions. jib length. 4-1.. the model and be taken in their least favorable attitude. the directional that the entire crane and/or the affected components limitations applicable to each set of ratings. and overturning what is listed below should be provided. of the tests performed.1.2.```. for traveling cranes.`--- lower load block as part of the load. and the signature of the qualified person --`. but not be limited to. data such as exceed 80% of the stabilizing moments.5 Out-of-Service Stability for traveling cranes The manufacturer shall ascertain by calculation that (d) anchorage arrangements for cranes to be installed in each recommended configuration. (b) the basis of ratings. the boom shall be taken in the attitude dictated charts shall include.2. and type lations shall include a recitation of the engineering crite- of rope for various crane loads. the owner (c) cautionary or warning notes relative to limitations of the crane shall maintain records of the work per- on equipment and operation procedures. SECTION 4-1. in the configuration for the partic- ment weight) ular installation and precautions that shall be taken to (4) crane standing on level track or foundation secure cranes at higher wind velocities (c) rail track installation requirements and tolerances 4-1. should indicate whether governing forces are due to in- nation of the backward stability condition are as follows: service or out-of-service winds and the applicable wind (1) crane to be equipped for normal operation with velocities and direction(s). formed.````-`-`. For weathervaning trols and at remote-control stations. and a full and complete shall also possess a margin of resistance to storm wind- range of manufacturer’s approved crane load ratings at induced sliding. as deter- (3) crane to be unloaded (no hook. 4-1. by identification of those ratings governed Whenever cranes are altered or modified. (b) maximum wind velocity for which traveling mum achievable radius cranes possess adequate resistance to sliding. mined by calculation.1 4-1.`. and combination boom and jib (when service stability. resist overturning in the direction opposite the boom point while in the unloaded condition. including.1. the date and ambient conditions at the of the load.`.2 Erection Instructions given in ANSI A58. the data (b) The general requirements applicable for determi. The minimum 4-1.`.2. records of tests required under para. The calcu- (e) recommended parts of hoist reeving. the following: by its wind area balance. ASME B30.. cranes. or attach. Overturning moments shall not For the use of crane erection personnel. anchorage devices shall not be used. ria governing the design. Traveling cranes serial number of the crane..1(a). work is done by the original manufacturer. 4-2. in the ings prepared and signed by a qualified person that case of nonsymmetrical mountings with ratings given delineate the alterations or modifications and that verify for other than the least stable direction. and if free fall is shall be maintained and should include a description available.1 Site Preparation and Crane Support Design acceptable backward stability condition.. data such as between the center of gravity of the crane and the axis what is listed below should be provided. manually controlled.. shall so state.6 Altered or Modified Cranes and 4-1. the rating chart who supervised the tests.4-2010 location visible to the operator while seated at the con. The content of these cranes.2. For all altered or modified (f) whether hoist-holding mechanism is automati. 8 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ .1(a) cally controlled.2.2.

turer or by a qualified person. 4-1. an auto- (c) limitations on service life of load-bearing members matic means shall be provided to stop and hold the load or mechanisms.. advice on welding procedures located so as to afford sensing by the operator.. the load hoist mechanism shall be provided with erection personnel when member strength or stability a clutching or power-disengaging device. be provided with overspeed protection. the method (d) Hooks shall be provided with latches unless the of assembling the joint. 4-1.3. etc.. and than 125% of the full load hoisting torque at the point functioning of limiting and indicating devices where the brake is applied.`. warnings should be given alerting drive. data such as what is listed below should (b) The load hoist mechanism shall be equipped with be provided. proper settings and adjustments. (b) location and required settings of hydraulic or (c) When power-operated brakes having no continu- pneumatic pressure relief valves and locations of points ous mechanical linkage between the actuating and the where circuit pressure can be checked (see para.3. when (a) When using recommended reeving.4-2010 (a) weight and dimensions for components and SECTION 4-1. if applicable.16.4). requires particular methods or sequencing (c) Electric-motor-operated cranes that are capable of (e) details.. shall be provided to hold the drum from rotating loads.`--- 9 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . para. (f) Drum rotation indicators should be provided and If repairs are needed. or through a hydrostatic bly. and 4-1. should be provided.4 Maintenance Requirements and extend a minimum of one-half rope diameter but not Recommendations less than 1⁄2 in.`. or hydraulically con- trolled braking means.````-`-`. under means for retaining components such as pins slack conditions. pneumatically. in the lowering direction and be capable of holding the rated load indefinitely without further attention from 4-1. Limitations. when applicable. dynamic counter torque. data.. or eddy current braking 4-1. 4-1.6 Design Characteristics Affecting Safety or a mechanically. When applied to prestressed bolts. at least one brake having holding capacity of not less (a) location.```. (c) Drum flanges shall at all times during operation (10) 4-1.1 General Requirements (b) recommended lifting attachment points. including diagrams where necessary. such as regenera- tive. (b) Unless coupled directly.2 Hoist Drums Precautions (a) No fewer than two full wraps of rope shall remain on the drum when the hook is in the extreme low Information. and recommended operating prac- position. chains. of overspeeding the power plant on overhauling loads shall critical component connections describing and identi. (d) When directly coupled electric or hydraulic tion of severity of service motor(s) are used for controlling loads. the loosening of prestressed bolts.3. Refer to ASME B30. This information should include identification of (d) The diameter of the drum shall be sufficient to those members or locations it is advisable to periodically provide a first layer rope pitch diameter of not less than observe or test for the purpose of detecting the onset 18 times the nominal diameter of the rope used.3. controllable from the operator’s wear affecting the ability of the crane to support rated station.4. of metal fatigue.3 Operating Instructions.3. an automatic --`. or (e) Positive means.4: HOISTING EQUIPMENT subassemblies 4-1. shall be provided and capable In addition to the information called for in of maintaining controlled lowering speed of rated loads.3. 4-2. and the for the purpose of retaining slings. if applicable. pins. (13 mm) above the top layer of the rope. the torque or tension to be application makes the use of the latch impractical. the latch shall bridge the throat of the hook erection process for applying torque or tension. the load hoist applicable shall be capable of hoisting and lowering rated loads (c) center of gravity location for nonuniform compo- with operational characteristics required for crane nents and subassemblies //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ service. and the type of metal used for load-sustaining members shall be identified 4-1.. tices shall be provided by the crane manufacturer or a (b) The drum end of the rope shall be attached to the qualified person for use by the crane’s operator and drum as recommended by the crane or rope manufac- supervisory personnel. recommendations for frequency of inspection as a func.`.3 Hoist Brakes (see para.4. (d) the method and recommended sequence of assem.4. (a) A power control braking means.8) braking means are used for controlling loads. fying bolts. and other parts needed.. including manufacturer’s in the event of loss of brake-actuating power.10.3. ASME B30.5 Repair Recommendations the operator. the point in time in the provided.

remain on the drum(s) with the boom point lowered to its lowest possible position.5.```.1 General Requirements in the applied position without further attention by the (a) When using recommended reeving and with rated operator. ing the boom during operations. 10 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . and a means shall be provided for holding the brakes 4-1.1(a)(4). hold the rated load indefinitely. respectively.. direction.2.5 Hoist Ropes (2) Each drum end of the rope shall be attached (a) The hoisting rope shall be of a construction recom.. wheel or axle breakage or side loading.5.. be the total nominal breaking strength of all hoist ropes (b) Pitch diameters shall not be less than 15 times the supporting the load divided by the static load imposed nominal diameter of the rope used. (a) The boom hoist drum(s) shall be provided with (c) All sheave bearings shall be provided with means an auxiliary ratchet and pawl. but when rotation-resistant ropes are used. (c) Drum diameter shall be sufficient to provide a first (b) The design factor of hoist ropes shall be not less layer rope pitch diameter of not less than 15 times the than 3. 4-1. 4-1.4-2010 means shall be provided to stop and hold the load in (g) For ambient temperatures at the rope in excess of the event of loss of power or pressure. against ropes becoming fouled in the sheaves when the (1) No fewer than two full wraps of rope shall block is lying on the ground with ropes loose.`. (e) If a load is supported by more than one part of (b) The body or frame of the trolley shall be fitted rope. such as a manual release. manufacturer or by a qualified person.. the nominal diameter of the rope used. (d) Rotation-resistant rope shall be given extra care 4-1. the tension in the parts shall be equalized. SECTION 4-1.4. 1. //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ tarily unloaded shall be provided with close fitting guards or other suitable devices to guide the rope back 4-1. the boom hoist mechanism shall be provided with a close-fitting saddle for the size of rope used..4. block sheaves shall not be less than 18 and 16 times the (b) The drum(s) shall have sufficient rope capacity to nominal diameter of the rope used.2 Boom Hoist Drums --`. The sides a suitable clutching or power-disengaging device. where the brake is applied. loads suspended. or other positive locking for lubrication.. with means to restrain the trolley from becoming (f) Socketing shall be done in the manner specified detached from its guide rail(s) in the event of trolley by the manufacturer of the rope or fitting. should be furnished resistant core shall be used. The cross-sectional radius (b) Unless coupled directly or through a hydrostatic at the bottom of the groove should be such as to form drive. to the drum(s) as recommended by the rope or crane mended for that service by the rope or crane manufac. turer or qualified person.4 Load Trolley Systems during installation as it may be more easily damaged (a) Load trolleys shall be under control when travers- than other rope.4.5.5. 4-3.4 Hoist Sheaves from the operator.4(a) through (c). Flange rims shall at least one brake having holding capacity of not less run true about the axis of rotation. except for those that are permanently device to hold the drum(s) from rotating in the lowering lubricated.````-`-`. ASME B30. on the hoist ropes. than 125% of the full load hoisting torque at the point (b) Sheaves carrying ropes that can become momen.800°F (820°C).5.5: LUFFING (BOOM HOIST) AND (f) When provided.] (a) Boom hoist sheaves shall meet the requirements (c) The design factors in the preceding clause shall of paras. operate the boom at all positions from horizontal to the (e) The sheaves in the lower load block shall be highest angle recommended when using the manufac- equipped with close-fitting guards that will guard turer’s recommended reeving and rope size..`. foot brake pedals shall be con- TROLLEY EQUIPMENT structed so that the operator’s feet will not readily slip off. a or wire strand core or other temperature-damage- means. the boom hoist shall be capable of raising the boom. holding it stationary without attention 4-1.`--- into the groove when a load is reapplied. to permit controlled lowering of the load in the event of loss of power or pressure.`. that could cause rope damage. [The design factor of 5 or greater may be modified by the crane user by 4-1. and lowering it only when coupled (a) Sheave grooves shall be free from surface defects to its prime mover or suitable retarder. of the groove shall be tapered outwards to facilitate (c) The boom hoist mechanism shall be equipped with entrance of the rope into the groove. rope having an independent wire rope (e) When automatic braking means are provided. design factor shall be 5 or greater. and be con- (d) The pitch diameters of the upper and lower load trollable from the operator’s station.3 Boom Hoist Sheaves complying with the provisions of para.

. it shall and dirt. (c) When a crane is out of service. a visual or audible indicator shall be furnished to warn the operator of device engagement. SECTION 4-1. When provided. other means shall be provided or recom- vice shall be equipped with means controllable from mended by the manufacturer or by a qualified person. if a wind alarm sounds.6 SLEWING (SWING) MECHANISM not applied to the travel drive.1 General Requirements provided to lock the wheels against rotation to resist (a) The swing mechanism shall be capable of smooth the effects of wind as stipulated by the manufacturer or starts and stops and of providing varying degrees of by a qualified person.8: BRAKES. structure should be provided.6. with or against the a separate magnet circuit switch of the enclosed type wind. if provided. the trolley shall frames in case of wheel or axle breakage to a distance be equipped with an automatic braking device capable that will not cause the crane to overturn.7.. deceleration. they shall be subjected to compression only.9: SWITCHES AND LIMITING (10) DEVICES SECTION 4-1..1 General Requirements an upper overtravel (two-blocking) limiting device or a (a) Means shall be provided to prevent cranes from two-block warning feature.. brake is lost.4-2010 (c) The trolley shall be provided with an operating 4-1.3 Travel Brakes are used.`. if such ropes 4-1. (b) Brakes shall automatically engage on loss of power or actuating pressure to the brake and when power is SECTION 4-1. the operator’s station that render the rotating upper structure free to rotate. If a positive locking device is pro. means shall be 4-1. 11 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . operator.. Cheek plates shall be arranged so tional forces. shall engage automatically if power or pressure to the (b) Truck wheels shall be guarded.6. that the stripe will be visible as the sheave turns. be arranged for avoidance of inadvertent engagement (d) Where springs comprise part of the braking mech- or disengagement.. or other such liquids. (c) A warning signal shall automatically activate The magnet disconnect switch shall be connected on the --`.2 Slewing Brakes and Locking Device REQUIREMENTS (a) A braking means with holding power in both (a) Brakes shall be arranged to permit adjustment directions shall be provided to prevent movement of the where necessary to compensate for lining wear and rotating upper structure during operation and shall be maintain force in springs. anism. wheels and rails is insufficient to restrain the crane from //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ (b) Cranes required to weathervane when out of ser. ASME B30. capable of being set in the holding position and (b) Braking means shall have heat dissipation capabil- remaining so without further action on the part of the ity consistent with service needs.`.````-`-`. vided. GENERAL (10) 4-1. If that friction between locked acceleration and deceleration. Provision should be made in the travel (c) Lifting Magnets drive(s) to provide power characteristics that permit the (1) A crane for use with a lifting magnet shall have crane to travel to a parking area. movement. shall have at means shall be provided to hold the crane in position least one broad stripe of bright.```.`. running into the buffers or stops while under power. of stopping the outward movement of the load trolley in the event of trolley drive rope breakage. (c) Brakes shall be protected from the weather and (b) A device for positively locking the rotating upper from lubricants.7.`--- whenever the crane travels in order to warn persons in line side (power-supply side) of the crane disconnect the vicinity.7.2 Travel Trucks brake capable of stopping the trolley in either direction.7 TRAVEL EQUIPMENT (a) The load hoist of all cranes shall be provided with 4-1. (a) Crane trucks shall be fitted with sweeps extending The system shall include means for holding the trolley to the top of the rail and placed in front of the leading without further action on the part of the operator and wheels in either direction. switch. hydraulic fluid. (b) Lower overtravel-limiting devices should be pro- (b) Drives shall be capable of smooth starts and stops vided for all load hoists where the hook enters areas and of providing varying degrees of acceleration and not visible to the operator. contrasting color on when not traveling and to lock the wheels against rota- each side so that it can be determined whether or not tion to resist the effects of in-service wind and opera- the sheave is turning.. A brake or other (e) The boom point sheave. (a) Braking means shall be provided. where used. with provision for locking in the OPEN (OFF) position. SECTION 4-1. (c) Means shall be provided to limit the drop of truck (d) In addition to the operating brake.

shall be applied as recommended by the rope. that limit the angle of the boom.1 Crane Function Controls (a) Eye splices shall be made in a manner recom. shutoff. (4) For a remote-operated crane.4-2010 (2) Means shall be provided for discharging the Fig. compressed. (a) At the operator’s station. (c) Swaged.`. When bly used as a boom pendant shall be proof tested to the counterweight position is controlled by ropes. or (b) Standing ropes that are used as live ropes during fitting manufacturer or a qualified person. SECTION 4-1. Rotation. shall either (e) Any new poured socket or swaged socket assem. the loss of the remote signal shall not result in demagnetizing the lift- ing magnet. (3) Indication or signal lights should be provided to indicate that power to a lifting magnet is on or off.. or structural strand’s nominal strength. shall be installed in enclosures that can be locked or sealed to (a) Loop Back Method (b) Extra Piece of Same inhibit tampering and unauthorized adjustment. and rope thimbles should be used in (f) Booms the eye.. Wire rope clips overturning.11. Mal- overtravel-limiting device or boom elevation cylinders leable cast iron clips shall not be used.4-1 Dead Ending Rope in a Socket inductive load of a lifting magnet. or wedge socket fittings resistant ropes and fiber core ropes shall not be used.````-`-`. Rope clip nuts should be (a) For standing ropes supporting booms or jibs. move automatically or shall be equipped with a position indicator with readout at the operator’s station(s). (c) The design factors in the preceding clauses shall SECTION 4-1.`.5.```. if used. or hydraulic dead end of the rope and the live rope resting in the relief shall be provided to stop the boom hoist automati.. clip saddle. erected condition. manufacturer’s specifications. and to hold them in posi- (d) Sheaves used during erection and dismantling that tion with means provided to guard against shifting or remain in the support system shall comply with dislodgement during crane operation. and torque values. the minimum design factor shall be 3. erection. 4-1. and accelera- tion/deceleration limiters.0.13. mended torque. Size Rope Is Clipped (e) Motion-limiting devices may be provided with to Main Rope means to permit the operator to override them under controlled conditions. After the initial load is applied to the rope. (1) Boom Stops. all controls used during mended by the rope or crane manufacturer. para.. 4-1. For spacing.`--- qualified person. or by a the crane operating cycle shall be located within reach 12 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ .3.10: BOOM AND JIB SUPPORT ROPES mended torque to compensate for any decrease in rope diameter caused by the load. ASME B30. 4-1. Clips shall be tightened evenly to the recom- cally when the boom reaches a predetermined angle.11: REEVING ACCESSORIES 4-1.4-1). --`.5. crane. means crane or fitting manufacturer’s recommendation but in shall be provided to prevent uncontrolled movement in no case greater than 50% of the component wire rope’s the event of rope breakage.and motion-limiting devices. refer to the clip (2) Jibs shall be restrained from backward manufacturer ’s recommendation. and boom hoist running ropes. decrease in rope diameter during usage. These lights.12: COUNTERWEIGHTS (10) be the total nominal breaking strengths of all the ropes supporting the boom or jib divided by the static load (a) Crane superstructures shall be arranged to receive imposed on those ropes when supporting the weight of counterweights.13 CONTROLS (10) SECTION 4-1. number of clips. when provided. the retightened periodically to compensate for any further minimum design factor shall be 3.`. (d) Load. made in accordance with the crane the boom or jib structure and rated loads.. (b) Movable counterweights. shall have a (d) Wire rope clips used in conjunction with wedge minimum design factor of 3.. for running ropes. Boom stops and bumpers shall be (b) Wire rope clips shall be drop-forged steel of the provided for cranes not equipped with a boom single-saddle (U-bolt) or double-saddle type clip. shall be visible to the crane operator and persons on the floor.11. if provided.. attached with U-bolts shall have the U-bolt over the (3) A boom hoist disconnect.0 for the loads occurring sockets shall be attached to the unloaded dead end of during erection but shall comply with (a) above for the the rope only (see Fig. the clip nuts shall be retightened to the recom- (10) SECTION 4-1.

unless intentionally the crane. (d) Wiring shall comply with the provisions of ANSI/ NFPA 70 for temporary wiring. (e) Provisions shall be made to guard against (g) Provisions shall be made to prevent simultaneous reversing of each motor due to reversed phase activation of controls when more than one operator’s connections. to be restarted until the control is brought to the OFF position or a reset switch or button is operated.2 Resistors crane function shall be provided with a clutch or other means for disengaging power. oil. Fixtures. wiring. as with consideration for avoiding the accumulation of applicable combustible matter.`.4-2010 of the operator.`. areas of the cab roof shall be (b) Travel distance on hand levers shall not be greater capable of supporting. shall be restrained from inadvertently opening or not be greater than 10 in. (b) An adjustable operator’s seat with backrest shall (a) Forces to operate shall not be greater than 35 lb be provided.14. the weight of a 200-lb (90-kg) person. (360 mm) from the neutral position on two. slewing. engines with a direct mechanical or hydrodynamic (such (h) Lightning protection shall be provided. guarded that live parts are not exposed to inadvertent tive. with provisions to lock (b) Resistor units shall be supported to minimize in the stop position vibration. and connec- line on failure of power and will not permit any motor tions exposed to the weather shall be of weather- resistant type. Controls shall be labeled in words or SECTION 4-1. that crane motion shall stop. The seat should be arranged and con- (156 N) on hand levers and not greater than 50 lb (225 N) structed to minimize operator fatigue...1 General Requirements priate. closing during travel or operation of the crane.13.15. Resistors shall be installed --`. (e) Electric-motor-operated cranes shall be provided switches. Hoist. trolley. It shall be constructed of materials that do not support combustion 4-1. within reach from the operator’s station. (2) means to control speed of internal combustion //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ engines SECTION 4-1. This switch shall have provisions for locking restrained for functional purposes.. and moisture. ASME B30. (b) Controls for hoisting.14. (260 mm). provision shall be made for venti- (b) Controls for operating the power plant shall be lation to forestall overheating. circuit from the operating position.```.2 Power Plant Controls (g) Individual overload protection shall be provided (a) All cranes powered by internal combustion for each motor. where appro- 4-1. If guarded or enclosed. (610 mm) (d) Cab doors. and other electrical equipment shall meet the with means for the operator to interrupt the main power applicable requirements of ANSI/NFPA 70. Part ICS 3-443. nor less than 8 lb (35 N) on foot pedals. with a device that will disconnect all motors from the grease. contact under normal operating conditions. 4-1. and travel controllers shall conform to (f) Remote-control stations shall include provisions ANSI/NEMA ICS3. The control shall be (a) Resistors shall be of corrosion-resistant material. (f) Electrical circuits between the fixed and rotating (h) Where cranes are powered by hydraulic motors.`. (a) Each electrically powered crane shall have a main and travel shall cut off power to the motion drive when disconnect switch mounted at or near the initial base of engagement pressure is released. controls.14: ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT symbols to indicate their function and. station (remote control) is provided.. without permanent distortion.````-`-`. portions of the crane shall pass through connections that means shall be provided to automatically stop the power permit continuous rotation in either direction unless plant on loss of hydraulic pressure.`--- within reach of the operator and shall include. swing. Motors.. the direction of the motion imparted. in the OFF position.13.1 Construction under emergency conditions (4) means for shifting selective transmissions (a) An operator’s cab shall be provided. (1) means to start and stop.15 OPERATOR’S CABS (3) means to stop internal combustion engines 4-1. trolleying.3 Control Forces and Movements and shall have means for ventilation. (d) Electric-motor-operated cranes shall be provided (c) Electrical equipment shall be protected from dirt. for emergency stop in the event of a device malfunction. (c) Remote-operated cranes shall function so that if (b) Electrical equipment shall be so located or the control signal for any crane motion becomes ineffec.. Travel distance on foot pedals shall type. (c) Where necessary. other means are provided to prevent damage to the electrical conductors. as a torque converter or fluid coupling) drive to any 4-1.. than 14 in. way levers and shall not be greater than 24 in. 13 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . whether of the swinging or sliding on one-way levers. luffing.

sheaves. (a) Exposed moving parts. railings.3 Lubrication Points (d) When access to the operator’s cab requires a climb Lubrication points should be accessible without the of 100 ft (30 m) or more..`--- ladders. as applicable. Windows provided with (c) When it is necessary to periodically check or adjust openable portions shall be arranged to prevent inadver. An audible signal device should be provided with the 4-1. pickup points on the ground.16. Forward visibility should ders.. or insulated to prevent contact by personnel when per- forming normal duties. --`. Windows shall be provided in items requiring inspection or routine maintenance.16. and tower shall be provided. and fittings.`. 4-1. platforms with skid- include a vertical range to cover the hook block and resistant surfaces and with railings shall be provided.7 Fuel Filler Pipes handrails or holding lines should be provided. and a visible or audible alarm should be triggered in 4-1. and railings shall from inside the cab unless exterior platforms are be capable of supporting the weight of a 200-lb (90-kg) provided.5 Signal Device where necessary to compensate for wear.15. limiting devices. consideration should be given reasonable to expect a person to step during operation to providing a powered means of access in addition to or maintenance.16.4 Exhaust Gases A metal receptacle should be provided for the storage Engine exhaust gases shall be piped and discharged of small hand tools and lubricating equipment.. with a basic minimum 4-1. machinery plat. tent closure during operation. a footwalk with skid-resistant surface and with 4-1. exhaust. Other Fuel tank filler pipes shall be located or protected so means for access should be provided on booms too small as not to allow spillage or overflow to run onto the for footwalks.5 Clutch Protection and Adjustment extinguisher rating of 10 BC.6 Wind Velocity Device control located within reach of the operator. Footwalks. ladders. person without permanent distortion.4 Fire Extinguisher A portable fire extinguisher.16.1. or electrical equipment of the machine 18 in. handrails. when provided. reciprocating or rotating parts. unless equipped for centralized lubrication.2 Guards for Moving Parts (a) Stairs or access ladders to the cab. and.4-2010 (e) All cab glazing shall be safety glazing material as (b) When top towers or A-frame gantries include defined in ANSI Z26. where needed. should be installed so as not to deflect laterally more vide a level of illumination that enables the operator to than 6 in. 4-1.1.. the tension of slewing ring-bearing attachment bolts. platforms. and shall conform to ANSI A1264. (b) Each guard shall be capable of supporting the (c) When it is necessary to climb more than 120 ft weight of a 200-lb (90-kg) person without permanent (37 m) of vertical ladder in the crane tower to reach the distortion. including work platforms with should be provided on the front window. if necessary. should be engine.3 Tool Box 4-1. Exhaust pipes shall be guarded be secured in the cab or on the machinery platform. unless the guard is located where it is not cab or machinery deck. is applied.````-`-`. shall be installed in the (a) Dry friction clutches shall be protected against cab or at the machinery housing.16: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS readout should be at the operator’s station in the cab. 4-1. (f) Means shall be provided for cleaning windows (d) Footwalks. shall be a skid-resistant type. 4-1. It should //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ away from the operator. such as connections. and form to ANSI A14. drive chains and sprockets. (450 mm) or more in width. such as gears. being fueled.. set screws and keys.2 Access 4-1. rope.15. 14 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale .1 Footwalks and Ladders the cab and at remote-control stations when a preset (a) To provide access to the boom and its attachments wind velocity has been exceeded.```.16. shall pro. which might constitute (b) Outside platforms shall have walking surfaces of a hazard under normal operating conditions. ASME B30.. either natural or artificial. (b) Clutches shall be arranged to permit adjustments 4-1.15.15. Holding lines (g) Cab lighting. rain and other liquids.`.. (150 mm) when a 200-lb (900-N) lateral force observe the operating controls.3 or to ANSI/SAE J185.16. A wind velocity-indicating device should be provided and mounted at or near the top of the crane. The velocity SECTION 4-1. sanitary facilities should be necessity of removing guards or other parts with tools provided. lad- the front and on both sides. Ladders shall con. A windshield wiper access shall be provided. shall be provided with standard guarded. projecting forms.`. such as oil and lubricants.16. handgrips.

(b) Means shall be provided for checking manufactur- er’s specified pressure settings in each circuit.4-2010 4-1..`.````-`-`.```. --`..`--- 15 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ .16.8 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pressures (a) Relief valves shall be provided in hydraulic and pneumatic circuits carrying fluid pressurized by a power driven pump in order to limit the maximum pressure in the circuit. and means shall be provided to prevent unauthorized adjust- ment or tampering..`. ASME B30. The magnitude of the relief settings shall permit operation under rated load conditions...`...

such as pins.3 and. (7) power plants for performance and compliance //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ ponents and contamination by lubricants or other for.1. ASME B30.4-2010 Chapter 4-2 Inspection.. linings. master switches. items such as the be kept of apparent external conditions to provide a following: basis for continuing evaluation. deteriora- tion. altered. including observation during operation for bearing.1.1.`. as generally defined in operator or other designated person with records not para.. Visual inspection by an (3) heavy service — quarterly appointed person at 1. or corroded members and welds in the crane structure and boom 4-2. cracks. particularly (a) Initial Inspection. (3) cracked or worn sheaves and drums vals defined in para. cracked.. with safety requirements eign matter (8) electrical apparatus for signs of deterioration in (c) all crane function-operating mechanisms for mal. Records shall of para. chemical dam- (b) Regular Inspection. Such conditions shall be examined and determina.1: INSPECTION (d) motion-limiting devices for proper operation with the crane unloaded.1 General its limiting device or run in at slow speed with care The manufacturer shall furnish operation and mainte.. 4-2.```.2(b)(1) or as specifically indi. locking and clamping impairments that might appear between regular inspec. and moisture accumulation with the applicable provisions of this Volume. signs of be inspected by a qualified person to verify compliance excessive deterioration. or distorted parts. dirt.3. and other indicators for inaccuracies (a) all control mechanisms for maladjustment outside the tolerances recommended by the interfering with proper operation — daily. and wear (refer to ASME B30. exercised nance information (paras. or malfunction. sprockets. controllers. and environment or as specifically indicated below. of service.1.`..````-`-`. severity required.. pawls. cracked. (a) light service — monthly (1) light service — annually (b) normal service — weekly to monthly (2) normal service — semiannually to annually (c) heavy service — daily to weekly (2) Periodic Inspection. and drive chains or belts tions.1.4 Periodic Inspection designated as frequent and periodic with respective intervals between inspection as defined below.. gears. wind.10 --`. limiting devices. cated. (6) load.6). Prior to initial use.1. adjustment interfering with proper operation and exces. The intervals in turn are depen.`--- 16 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . or extensively repaired cranes shall (g) electrical apparatus for malfunctioning. Visual examination by the formed at intervals.3.2(b)(2) depending upon its activity. (b) These inspections shall include the requirements cally recommended by the manufacturer. rollers. contacts. Testing.10) cranes in regular service are divided into two general (i) braces supporting crane masts (towers) and anchor classifications based on the intervals at which inspection bolt base connections for looseness or loss of preload should be performed. in addition. 4-1.3 through 12-mo intervals or as specifi. those that flex in normal operation reinstalled. all new. each motion should be inched into 4-2. and ratchets constitute a hazard.`. (e) indicators and load-limiting devices for proper operation and accuracy of setting 4-2. (5) excessive wear on brake and clutch system tion made by a designated person as to whether they parts. (a) Complete inspections of the crane shall be per- (1) Frequent Inspection. when in use manufacturer (b) all control mechanisms for excessive wear of com. (4) worn. 4-2. Inspection procedures for age. (h) hooks and latches for deformation. The two general classifications are 4-2.1. shafts.2 Inspection Classification (f) all hydraulic and pneumatic hoses. (j) hydraulic system for proper fluid level — daily dent upon the nature of the critical components of the when in use crane and the degree of the exposure to wear. devices.3 Frequent Inspection (2) loose bolts or rivets Items such as the following shall be inspected at inter. 4-2. and Maintenance SECTION 4-2. and controls sive wear of components (9) crane hooks inspected per ASME B30. (1) deformed.

the following precautions shall be taken: idle for a period of 1 mo or more. Bolts that loosen person(s) making the determinations and directing should be checked for permanent deformation or other the tests.4 and (3) The main or emergency switch shall be open 4-2.3 and be moved to a location where it will cause the least 4-2.2. fittings.4. lished. to verify compliance in accordance with damage paras.5 Cranes Not in Regular Use 4-2.1 Operational Tests (11) travel mechanisms for malfunction.2.2. 4-2. newly erected cranes shall be wear. When such cranes are exposed to (5) Where other cranes are in operation on the same adverse environments.3.5(a) or (b). the records should describe the test(s) (e) High-strength (traction) bolts used in connections performed.`.. SECTION 4-2. motors. or observable necking are SECTION 4-2.2. Observed signs of possible dam- Prior to initial use.1.4) shall be performed at intervals 4-2. under the direction of a qualified person. and locked in the OPEN position. but less than 12 mo.. than visual nondestructive examination techniques to with 125% of rated load. under the direction of a quali- valves. Visible cracks. 4-1. 4-1. (b) A crane that has been idle for more than 12 mo (2) All controllers shall be at the OFF position. and azimuths of the tests and at the slewing bearing shall be checked for proper as applicable. in place of an inspection vant crane parts.4-2010 (10) load blocks for cracks. (b) Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the original manufacturer’s specifications. 4-2. fied cranes shall be tested. procedures adopted.2.1. rail stops or other suitable means shall be pro- frequently.1... 4-2. that has been (a) Before major adjustments or repairs are started. Dated records should be kept available. altered. damage. Altered or modi- (12) hydraulic and pneumatic pumps. with para. a rated load test is required. Testing may be son as to whether they constitute a hazard and whether limited to the function(s) affected by the repair. other than a standby crane.2(b) before being placed in service. depending on the interval since placed by appointed personnel. For mends otherwise.1 and 4-2.```.3(d) through (f). except for test (c) Standby cranes. 4-2. 4-1. hoses. such as listed above.3.1 Preventive Maintenance (f ) Sheaves used in the hoisting system shall be checked for cracks in the flanges and spokes. the rationale for testing conditions and tension (torque) at intervals recommended by the manu. as determined by a qualified person. 4-2. The additional purpose 4-2.`.2. (1) A traveling-type crane to be repaired should shall be inspected in accordance with paras.2(a) before being placed in service. 17 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ .1.`. When (a) A preventive maintenance program based on the external evidence of defects exists.3: MAINTENANCE reason for replacement. before being used.2 Rated Load Test specified in (a) above. they were last used. repaired cranes shall be tested examined and determination made by a designated per. (c) Any deficiencies. and exces. At a minimum. should be performed by a quali- fied person at annual intervals. and tubing for excessive wear or fied person. interference with other cranes and operations in the area. or modi- examination techniques. the loads..3 Test Records of this inspection is to consider whether the observed Signed and dated test records should be made and condition of the crane calls for the use of more stringent kept available for all tests of repaired. specified in (a) above. manufacturer in this regard shall be considered. and the name(s) of the qualified facturer or as suggested in (a) above. Test radii and boom azimuths shall cranes with 10 yr or more of service other than light be chosen so as to place maximum loading on the rele- service.. tions (see para. excessive (a) Prior to initial use. The recommendations of the fied cranes required under paras. 4-2. shall be purposes. vided to prevent interference with the idle crane.2 Maintenance Procedure (a) A crane. ASME B30.````-`-`. or damage tested in accordance with para. When disassembly is required for additional inspection. 4-2. unless the manufacturer recom- permit determination as to whether a hazard exists. it may be necessary crane manufacturer’s recommendations would be estab- to remove the sheave from its mounting for this purpose.3. deformation.3.. radii.2: TESTING sive wear 4-2. shall be inspected in accordance with paras.2. it shall be in accordance (d) Visual inspection of members and their connec. they should be inspected more runway. shall be (b) Prior to initial use. inspected in accordance with the requirements of (4) Warning or OUT OF ORDER signs shall be para. a visual inspection.`--- unthreading a nut by hand. altered or modified cranes shall age may indicate the need to remove paint or use other be load tested. difficulty in threading or --`.

design factors are limited.```. The following are examples: the day’s operations. such damage is discovered.. which may be an immediate hazard. 4-1.3. (b) general corrosion 4-2.3.. sheave diameters.4. and (7) for further tions for use in repair or alteration of load-sustaining guidance] members shall be in accordance with ANSI/AWS D14.. inspection in accordance with --`. reactivated.4. (5) power plants A visual inspection shall consist of observation of all (c) Repairs or replacements shall be provided as rope that can reasonably be expected to be in use during needed for operation.1. if provided.4: ROPE INSPECTION. deterioration. used.3 Adjustments and Repairs ments.3(h) shall be taken out of service. such as kinking. 4-2.2 to detect deterioration and timely replace- and repairs shall be performed only by designated ment in accordance with para. and repetitive pickup points on drums.`.3. (3) control systems (2) Counterweight movement ropes.2 Inspection functioning of components. 4-2. Because of these limited tion requirements of Section 4-2.4.`. Lubri. and rope (a) Any hazardous condition disclosed by the inspec. 4-2. the crane shall not be returned to service until all guards have been reinstalled. ASME B30. repairs by listed below. Warning MAINTENANCE or OUT OF ORDER signs shall be removed by appointed 4-2. or practical.````-`-`. and type of visible bro- Welding procedures and welding operator qualifica- ken wires [see paras.4.. Internal deterioration of rotation-resistant ropes may nance of lubricant levels. 4-2.`--- before operation of the crane is resumed.4. distribution. mainte. such as para. and types of lubricant to be not be readily observable. for which lubrica. Care should be taken to follow manufacturer’s design parameters.2(a)(1) through (6). rotation-resistant ropes because of their susceptibility to tion is specified. (b) Periodic Inspection 18 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . The following are examples: (a) Frequent Inspection (1) functional operating mechanisms (1) All running ropes should be visually inspected (2) limiting devices once each working day. such as flange points.5 Lubrication (4) Particular care shall be taken when inspecting (a) All moving parts of the crane.. drum diameters.4. (3) pitted or burned electrical contacts should be (a) distortion of the rope. should be regularly lubricated. Due to practical crane design configuration require- 4-2. or core protrusion. (3) Particular care shall be taken when inspecting sustaining members shall be identified by the manufac. bent.1. unless equipped for auto- active crane and warning its operator. limiting and protective devices SECTION 4-2. AND tems. and maintenance equipment removed. recommendations as to points of lubrication. damage from handling and misuse and potential for cating systems should be checked for delivery of deterioration when used on equipment with limited lubricant.3(b)(1). loss of rope diameter in a short rope ufacturer or a qualified person.3. birdcaging. the rope shall either be (2) critical parts that are cracked. length or unevenness of outer strands provide evidence (d) Remote-control stations shall be kept clean with that rope replacement should be considered function identification labels legible. Adjustments para.5). crush- corrected only by replacement and in sets. main strand displacement.2(b). //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ (4) braking systems should be visually inspected at least once a month. crossover points. or removed from service or inspected as outlined in excessively worn or corroded.1 shall be corrected design parameters.`. parts should be lubricated as recommended by the man. These visual observations should (1) crane hooks showing defects described in be concerned with discovering gross damage. unstranding.4-2010 (6) Where temporary protective rail stops are not (b) Machinery shall be stationary while lubricants are available. 4-2.3 are essential. trapped air removed from hydraulic sys. matic lubrication.4 Welded Construction (c) broken or cut strands (d) number. Controller ing.2-1) rials are used.1 General personnel only. the manufacturer shall provide welding procedure instructions.. When welding or reshaping are not recommended. Where special steels or other mate- Fig. 4-2.3 (e) core failure in rotation-resistant ropes (see or ANSI/AWS D1. REPLACEMENT. boom hoist ropes and sections of rope subject to rapid turer (see para. para.3. (b) After adjustments or repairs have been made. a signalperson shall be placed at being applied and protection provided as called for in a visual vantage point for observing the approach of an paras.. 4-2. (2). The type of metal used for load. 4-2.4. broken. personnel. (b) Adjustments shall be maintained to ensure correct 4-2.

.`. the rope shall be sheaves. and exposure to shock (2) in rotation-resistant ropes.. severity ken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand of environment. (7) reductions from nominal rope diameter greater (a) points listed in para.2(a) than those shown below (b) reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of core support. such as the (8) Attention shall be given to end connections. four randomly dis- loads. (0. in one lay frequency rates of operation. (c) sections subject to reverse bends (c) Broken wire removal criteria cited in this volume (d) sections of rope that are normally hidden dur. (8 mm) 1 ⁄64 in. (2. six randomly distributed bro- particular installation or similar installations. to 1⁄2 in. The rope shall be replaced after that work shift turer.8 mm) (d) severely corroded. or Over 1⁄2 in. (a) No precise rules can be given for determination of (d) Replacement rope and connections shall have a the exact time for rope replacement.. or crane manu- sheaves facturer or a qualified person for broken wire removal criteria for wire ropes operating on sheaves and drums 4-2. the core of the rope indicated by an externally protrud- (2) Periodic inspections shall be performed by an ing wire or loop of loose wire appointed or authorized person.4-2010 //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ Fig. However.3 Rope Replacement made of material other than steel. (38 mm) 3 ⁄32 in. equalizer cent to a socketed end connection. such as parts passing over The user shall contact the sheave.6 mm) Over 11⁄8 in.```. or other sheaves where rope travel is limited resocketed or replaced. idle for a period of 1 mo or more due to shutdown or 19 --`. or construction shall of the work shift. internal or external Maximum Allowable Reduction corrosion. These inspections shall (4) wear of one-third the original diameter of out- cover the entire length of the rope. ASME B30. apply to wire rope operating on steel sheaves and drums. to 3⁄4 in.4.4 mm) (3) Care shall be taken when inspecting rope sec- tions subject to rapid deterioration.. All rope that has been by the next work shift. to 11⁄8 in. this inspection shall (3) one outer wire broken at the contact point with be made at least annually. such (5) kinking.4. ing routine visual inspection. Once rope reaches any one of the connections furnished by the manufacturer. since many variable strength rating at least as great as the original rope and factors are involved.`. it may be allowed to operate to the end tion from the original size. (0. Resocketing shall not be (b) sections of the rope at or near terminal ends attempted if the resulting rope length will be insufficient where corroded or broken wires may protrude for proper operation. (1) Inspection frequency shall be determined by a (b) Removal criteria for rope replacement shall be as qualified person and shall be based on such factors as follows: expected rope life as determined by experience on the (1) in running ropes. the hoist manufac- person.2 mm) improperly applied end connections Over 3⁄4 in. cracked.````-`-`.2-1 Core Failure in 19 ⴛ 7 Rotation-Resistant Rope Reduction of rope diameter GENERAL NOTE: Note the lengthening of lay and reduction of diameter. (29 mm) 1 ⁄16 in. Any deterioration side individual wires resulting in appreciable loss of original strength. or any other as described below. worn. (1.`. bent. following: Upon development of more than two broken wires adja- (a) sections in contact with saddles. or a qualified person. (13 mm) 1 ⁄32 in. to 11⁄2 in. drum. or wear of outside wire Nominal Rope Diameter From Nominal Rope Diameter (c) severely corroded or broken wires at end Up to 5⁄16 in. percentage of lifts at maximum rating. Any devia- specified criteria. (6) evidence of heat damage from any cause tute a hazard.. based on the judgment of a qualified be specified by a rope manufacturer.4. shall be noted and determination damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure made as to whether further use of the rope would consti. birdcaging. 4-2. (1. (19 mm) 3 ⁄64 in. grade.. 4-2. crushing. or at the latest time prior to the equipment being used (e) Ropes Not in Regular Use.. Inspections need not be at equal calendar intervals tributed broken wires in one lay or two broken wires and should be more frequent as the rope approaches in one strand in one lay the end of its useful life.`--- Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale .4 mm) connections Over 5⁄16 in.

The object of rope lubrication is to reduce internal visual observation and actual condition of the internal friction and to inhibit corrosion.. This report shall cover points of deterioration listed in and. Inspections under para. care should be exercised to avoid dragging the rope in dirt or around objects that (1) Frequent inspection — no records required. 4-2. or induce sharp bends in it.1. will scrape. visual inspection. Lubricant applied as part of a maintenance a dated report of rope condition shall be kept on file. 4-2. condition.5(b) shall (c) Before cutting rope.4 Rope Maintenance the rope. 20 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale .`--- well-defined localized areas than on the remainder of 4-2. structure.4-2010 storage of the crane on which it is installed shall be (b) Rope shall be unreeled or uncoiled in such a man- inspected in accordance with para. program shall be compatible with the original lubricant. 4-2. nick. (2) Periodic inspection — in order to establish data (e) Rope should be maintained in a well-lubricated as a basis for judging the proper time for replacement.````-`-`.2(b)(2). only that fact sulted. to this end. over sheaves or otherwise hidden during inspection and lished to include records on examination of ropes maintenance require special attention during lubrica- removed from service to establish a relationship between tion.`.5 before it is ner as to avoid kinking of or inducing a twist in the rope..`.. //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ (f) Inspection Records (d) During installation.`.1. prevent unlaying of the strands.. rope life can be extended. the rope manufacturer should be con- para. Those sections of rope that are located (g) A long range inspection program should be estab. placed in service... ASME B30. in cases where a reduced rope length is adequate. (f) When an operating rope shows greater wear at --`. by cutting off a section (a) Rope should be stored in such a manner as to at the worn end and thus shifting the wear to different minimize damage or deterioration..```.4. seizings shall be placed on be for all types of deterioration and shall be performed each side of the place where the rope is to be cut to by an appointed or authorized person. areas of the rope.4. If the rope is replaced. lubricant shall be of a type that does not hinder need be recorded. crush.

4-2010 Chapter 4-3 Operation SECTION 4-3.3 Conduct of Operators may be sufficient reason for disqualification. (4) satisfactory completion of a combination writ- (b) Operators and operator trainees shall meet the ten and verbal test on load/capacity chart usage that following physical qualifications unless it can be shown covers a selection of the configurations the crane may that failure to meet the qualifications will not affect the be equipped to handle. or. (2) trainees under the direct supervision of a desig.1. and the test results shall be confirmed by a recognized laboratory service. when it is nec.. (4) inspectors (crane) (c) Operator requirements shall include. standard practice for the industry where the crane is essary in the performance of their duties employed. nated person The level of testing will be determined by the current (3) maintenance and test personnel. and no tendencies to (1) designated persons dizziness or similar undesirable characteristics.. operating the crane. the following: para. requirements coordination. or emotional cation shall include. shall enter a crane cab with the exception (1) evidence of successfully passing a physical of persons such as oilers. includ- (2) Be able to distinguish colors. securing procedures (3) Hearing. and speed of reaction to meet the demands (d) Operators who have successfully qualified to of equipment operation. agility. supervisors. operate a specific crane type shall be required to be requalified if supervision deems it necessary.2(c)(1) through (5). requirements instability that could pose a hazard to the operator or in paras.1: QUALIFICATIONS FOR AND (6) No evidence of being subject to seizures or loss CONDUCT OF OPERATORS AND of physical control. Such evidence 4-3. controls. and duties and with the knowledge of the operator or other emergency control skills.`. other than personnel specified in limited to. compre- pass a practical operating examination.1 Operators (7) Operators and operator trainees should have (a) Cranes shall be operated only by the following normal depth perception. but not be limited to.2 Qualifications for Operators which qualification is being sought (a) Operators shall be required by the employer to (3) demonstrated ability to read.`. sections of the B30 Standard and federal. with or without corrective lenses. (5) satisfactory completion of testing by appro- --`.1(a). 4-3. In such cases. ASME B30.```.2(b) persons authorized by supervisors whose duties require (2) satisfactory completion of a written examina- them to do so and then only in the performance of their tion covering operational characteristics. but not be (b) No one. Requalifi- (5) No evidence of physical defects. such as response to fire or appointed person. write. control malfunction.... specialized clinical qualification is being sought and/or medical judgments and tests may be required. or practical methods demonstrating and 20/50 in the other. Examination hend. state.`. and those specific examination as defined in para. field of vision.1.1. //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~ 21 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . with or without hearing aid.1. and local (4) Have sufficient strength. coordination. shutdown. ing prestart and poststart inspections. Such evidence shall be sufficient OPERATING PRACTICES reason for disqualification.1. and tion. qualified personnel: manual dexterity. In such (a) The operator shall not engage in any practice that cases.. for the crane type for which operation of the crane. as well as characteristic and per- formance questions appropriate to the crane type for (10) 4-3.`--- (1) Have vision of at least 20/30 Snellen in one eye priate written. oral.. shall be (6) demonstrated understanding of the applicable adequate to meet operational demands.1. which in the opinion of the examiner could interfere with the operator’s performance. and use arithmetic and a load/capacity chart in shall be limited to the specific type of crane that will be the English language operated. specialized clinical or medical judgments and tests might divert attention while actually engaged in may be required. proficiency in operating the specific crane type. others. (8) A negative result on a substance abuse test.````-`-`. reaction time. 4-3. 4-3. if color differentiation is required for operation. Specialized medical tests may be required to determine these conditions. regardless of posi. 4-3. endurance.

4-1. and such prior (h) If power fails during operation..2. known.1. operator. (7) leave the upper structure free to weathervane. An exception to design factor of less than 5 as permitted under --`.. apply: cumstances. (1) land any load. (3) For lifts where the load weight is not accurately unless provisions for nonweathervaning have been spec. the operator shall obey a stop signal manufacturer. (1) an appointed person shall direct each lift. 4-2. the operator shall uses shall be considered before permitting another (1) set brakes and locking devices.`. the operator shall see that all (3) operations shall be conducted in such man- controls are in the OFF or NEUTRAL position and that ner and at such speeds as to minimize dynamic effects. the operator shall consult with speeds and with signaling means appropriate to the situation. load of the crane in its existing configuration. all personnel are in the clear. 4-3. sary.2.1. the opera- to illuminate the working areas while not interfering tor shall with the operator’s vision. the operator is then responsible for exceed the maximum velocity recommended by the the lifts.4-2010 (b) When physically or mentally unfit. when (2) The load to be lifted is to be within the rated provided. given in the rating chart except for test purposes as (5) secure the crane against inadvertent travel. (l) Operations undertaken during weather conditions (d) Each operator shall be responsible for those opera..`. When a signalperson is not required as part of (k) Cranes shall not be operated when wind speeds the crane operation. provided in paras. they shall be adjusted or repaired before operations person who is directing the lift or an appointed signal.`. (b) Each lift under these provisions shall be recorded in the crane inspection record. SECTION 4-3. but more than warning sign has been removed by an appointed person. lifting magnet.. no matter who gives it. ratings at the radius at which the load is to be lifted. (2) an appointed person shall ascertain that the necting means or starting controls. the suspended load should be para.````-`-`. that the weight of the load does not exceed the crane (8) restrain the crane from travel with rail clamps. the person responsible for the lift shall ascertain ified by the manufacturer or a qualified person. However. at all times.5(b) with design factors of less than 5. as applicable such lift. the crane may remain running while the (a) For each such lifting assignment operator remains on the crane superstructure. If any controls do not operate prop- (c) The operator shall respond to signals from the erly. start of a new shift. ASME B30. or other means provided.2: OPERATING PRACTICES (3) disconnect power or disengage the master 4-3. when a wind alarm is given (4) When rotation-resistant ropes are used with a or on leaving the crane overnight.4.4. Under these cir. the operator shall report the condition promptly (2) The load shall be attached to the hook by means to the appointed person and shall also notify the next of slings or other devices of adequate capacity. (2) move all clutch or other power controls to the (c) These provisions are not intended to permit OFF or NEUTRAL position duty cycle or repetitive lifts to be made under (3) if practical. the operator shall rope is in satisfactory condition [paras. person.`--- para.5(b). as applicable. (m) For night operations. one broken wire in any one lay shall be reason not to (g) Before closing the power-disconnecting means or use the rope for such lifts.4. 4-1. (a) Size of Load (4) place all controls in the OFF or NEUTRAL (1) No crane shall be loaded beyond the rated loads positions. the load. that produce icing of the crane structure or reduced tions under the operator’s direct control.3(e)(6) may exist when crane operation is para... landed under brake control (b) Attaching the Load (i) The operator shall be familiar with the equipment (1) The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around and its proper care.1 Handling the Load clutch. are begun. (f) If there is a warning sign on the power-discon. or other device.```.2(a)(2)(a) not close the circuit or start the equipment until the through (e)] both before and after lifting. the special provisions that follow shall frequently interrupted during a shift. 4-1. If adjustments or repairs are neces. an operator (j) All controls shall be tested by the operator at the shall not engage in the operation of the equipment.3 and 4-2. (6) stop the internal combustion engine. lighting shall be adequate (e) Before leaving the crane unattended. starting the equipment..2. (2) set trolley brakes and other locking devices and bring the hook to the highest position. Whenever there visibility should be performed at reduced function is any doubt as to safety. the supervisor before handling the loads. (c) Holding the Load 22 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ .

3 and 4-2. the sheaves.```. load does not swing out beyond the radius at which it (2) No person should be permitted to stand or pass can be controlled. and he shall authorize (b) the load is well secured and balanced in the its usage..2.````-`-`. or tected from contact with metal components of the plat- //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^ traveling the crane. and a warning device shall load approaching the rated load is handled by lifting it be provided on lattice boom cranes. (9) Consideration should be given to the effects of siderable length of time. for entering and leaving the personnel platform or bas- (3) During lifting. the electrode holders shall be pro- (8) When swinging the boom. as the slack is removed.4-2010 (1) The operator shall not leave the controls while avoided. boom.1.4. and person(s) being lifted shall be ging loads. the crane shall around each other. the operator shall keep the wind on loads with a large sail area. (4) The lifting and supporting shall be made under (d) If there is a slack rope condition. ASME B30. requirements in (a)(3) through (20) below has been met. (c) the lift and swing path is clear of obstructions shall be retained. other objects. be inspected daily in accordance with the requirements (c) The hook shall be brought over the load in of paras. nor attached to. signalperson. the operator may leave the requirements. including procedures on.. such a manner as to minimize swinging. (b) Multiple part lines shall not be twisted (3) When used for lifting personnel. it shall be controlled conditions and the direction of an appointed determined that the rope is seated on the drum and in signalperson. following requirements are met: be necessary. (4) Side loading of booms shall be limited to freely (7) Communication between the crane operator. a few inches and applying the brakes.. sudden starts and stops shall be form or basket. no crane function shall be per- controls. unless each of the provide barricades. special. and to identify the location(s) persons will enter (a) there is no sudden acceleration or decelera. Swing and travel speeds shall be such that the the load is suspended. derricking load. when swinging of the load is hazardous. maintained. where a load cranes are designed and intended for handling materi- is to be held suspended for a period of time exceeding als. tion of the moving load (6) The operator and signalperson shall conduct a (b) the load does not contact any obstructions test lift with the empty platform or basket. the following conditions (2) For each instance of personnel lifting. 4-2. person(s) to be lifted and supported. manlift individual and operator shall establish the requirements platform. the appointed formed while a person is on the hook. (5) A planning meeting attended by the crane oper- (e) The effect of wind on the load and on the ator.`. (2) Before starting to lift. (a) The following special procedures shall be followed (d) Moving the Load when personnel are to be lifted: (1) The person directing the lift shall see that (1) The person specifically responsible for the over- (a) proper slings or other lifting attachments are all work function to be performed shall determine that being used there is no practical alternate way to perform the needed work or gain access to the area.2 Personnel Lifting (10) ing the drum-holding device. 23 --`. provided that prior to that time. suspended loads. inches The statement. Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . Cranes should not be used for drag.. a people. swing. The person responsible for the task shall issue sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few a statement describing the operation and its time frame. platform or basket. (3) If the load must remain suspended for any con. after being approved by the authorizer. crane should be noted. where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the (10) When welding is done by personnel from the drum. (5) The operator should avoid carrying loads over (8) When hook-supported platforms are lifted. They do not meet personnel lifting or elevator normal lifting operations. load. A tag or restraint line shall be used under a suspended load.. drum from rotating in the lowering direction by activat- 4-3.2(a). and supervisor responsible for the task shall be held to (f) The load is free to be lifted. Therefore. and leave. two-block damage prevention feature shall be provided (6) The operator shall test the brakes each time a on telescopic boom cranes. the person should be noted: responsible for the task shall determine that each of the (a) Hoist rope shall not be kinked. and travel functions. it is not caught review procedures to be followed. (9) The crane shall be operated so that lowering (7) The load shall not be lowered below the point motion will be power-controlled lowering (no freefall). and attached to the crane load or boom. signalperson. if a separate nonautomatic device has been provided. or whatever other precautions may specific. or other personnel-lifting device for restraining the load. care shall be taken that ket. This Volume recognizes that portal and pedestal (4) As an exception to (c)(1) above.

(10) The platform shall be easily identifiable by (12) The operator shall remain at the controls when high visibility color or marking.4 Instructions to the Operator (3) The platform and attaching devices shall have If it is desired to give instructions to the operator. other than those provided by the established signal sys- (4) The platform shall have a plate specifying the tem. A wedge ner with no sudden movements of the crane or work and socket attachment shall have a clip on the free end platform.1. (8) If access doors are installed. (11) The platform shall be attached by means such (13) Movement of the work platform carrying per. point(s). Rail clamps shall not be used as a means of (7) The sides of the platform shall be enclosed from restraining tipping of a crane. 24 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . all For operations not covered by para. hook (latched or sonnel shall be done in a slow. cautious man.3. 4-3. 4-3. should have slack between the (6) A grab rail shall be provided inside the sus. The lifting or lowering speed shall not exceed of the load line (see Fig. 4-3. or toeboard equivalent) is utilized. or stand on or work from the top rail.3. 4-3. SECTION 4-3. the planned conditions of use. (12) The suspension system shall minimize inclina- (14) The personnel being lifted or positioned shall tion of the platform due to the movement of personnel remain in continuous sight or in communication with on the platform.2-1 in excess of 15 mph (25 km/h). the operator or signalperson.2. Fig.4-2010 (11) Personnel being lifted or supported shall wear (9) The platform shall have overhead protection safety belts with lanyards attached to designated anchor when there is an overhead hazard.. crane motions shall be stopped.3. they shall open 4-3.2 Hand Signals (19) Work platforms should not be used in winds Hand signals shall be in accordance with Fig. but not limited to. ASME B30. In such cases. 4-3. and with the standards prescribed in para. moused). tied to the structure before personnel get off or on. and sufficient materials SECTION 4-3.`. sleet. a shackle. tions to or modifications of the standard signals may be (b) A platform that is designed and constructed in required. (15) The total weight of the lifted load (including (14) All welds shall be inspected by a qualified personnel) shall not exceed 50% of the crane rating under person. or other adverse weather conditions that could affect the safety of personnel. point of attachment to the rail and the end fastened to pended work platform to minimize hand exposure. the platform is occupied. //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ a minimum design factor of 5.`... radio.````-`-`.4.2 Operating Near Electric Power Lines only to the interior of the platform. Personnel shall not voice communication equipment (telephone.`.1 Standard Signals (17) Personnel shall keep all parts of the body inside Standard signals to the operator shall be in accordance the suspended platform during raising.1 Rail Clamps defined in ANSI A1264. 100 ft/min (0. addi- personnel perform any work. controlled.`--- Rail clamps.3 Special Signals (20) After positioning of the work platform. They shall not be used for transporting bulk materials. Access doors shall (a) Cranes shall be operated so that no part of the be equipped with a device to restrain the door from crane or load enters into the Danger Zone shown in inadvertent opening. unless positioning to avoid pinch points.3.3. snow. No crane motion shall be made (18) If the platform cannot be landed. these special signals shall be accordance with the following shall be used: agreed upon in advance by the operator and the sig- (1) The platform shall be designed by a qualified nalperson and should not be in conflict with standard person. or for brakes and locks on the lift crane shall be set before special conditions that occur from time to time. as. midrail. the crane. electric storms. audible at all times.. and shall be posted at the work site. 4-3.4. their tools. (13) All rough edges shall be ground smooth.11. or wedge and socket attachment. 4-3.. (15) All welding shall be performed by a certified (16) Suspended personnel platforms shall be used welder.4-1).2. 4-1. signals. lowering. it should be unless signals are clearly understood..```. Signals shall be discernible or of the suspended platform. only for personnel.51 m/s). if used.4. floor to midrail. ice.4: MISCELLANEOUS (5) The platform shall have standard railing as 4-3. (2) The platform shall be limited to a capacity of six persons.3. 4-3.3. --`..2-1. weight of the empty platform and the maximum number of persons and weight for which the platform is rated.3: SIGNALS to do their work.

. Use one hand to RAISE THE BOOM AND LOWER THE LOWER THE BOOM AND RAISE THE give any motion signal and place LOAD. With arm extended. With forearm vertical. LOWER. thumb pointing regular signals. as long as load movement is desired. RAISE BOOM. --`. flex fingers in and hand giving the motion signal. downward... move hand in ward. Arm extended.3. flex fingers in and out pointing down. finger pointing up. then use fingers closed. 4-3. 25 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ . ASME B30. USE MAIN HOIST.. USE WHIPLINE (Auxiliary Hoist). Tap fist on head..2-1 Standard Hand Signals for Controlling Portal and Pedestal Cranes (10) HOIST.) desired. then use regular signals. thumb other hand motionless in front of pointing up.`.`. out as long as load movement is (Hoist slowly shown as example.. thumb LOAD. move hand in small horizontal circle..```. thumb pointing fingers closed.`--- MOVE SLOWLY. Arm extended Tap elbow with one hand.`. small horizontal circle. upward. With arm extended down.4-2010 Fig. forefinger pointing down. fore.````-`-`. LOWER BOOM. With arm extended.

.`. palms down. 4-3.`.. One fist in front of chest with thumb tapping chest. One Hand Signal.`. One Hand Signal. EXTEND BOOM (Telescoping Boom).4-2010 (10) Fig.. thumb pointing outward and heel of fist tapping chest.````-`-`. move arm back and forth.```. point with STOP. One fist in front of front of body.. chest. EMERGENCY STOP. extended. Arm extended. palm down..2-1 Standard Hand Signals for Controlling Portal and Pedestal Cranes (Cont’d) SWING. Clasp hands in RETRACT BOOM (Telescoping Boom).. move arms //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ back and forth. Arm extended.3.`--- 26 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale . Both arms finger in direction of swing of boom.. --`. DOG EVERYTHING. ASME B30.

````-`-`.4.4-2010 Fig. see para. Danger zone area [Note (1)] //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ --`.```..2-1 Danger Zone for Cranes and Lifted Loads Operating Near Electrical Transmission Lines This area should be avoided.`.. 27 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale ... ASME B30.2. 4-3..`...`. 4-3.`--- NOTE: (1) For minimum radial distance of danger zone.4.

2-1. including load and load or operation. (e) Exceptions to this procedure. may be granted by the refueling area.4. line or the electrical utility authorities verify that it is (b) Machines shall not be refueled with the engine not an energized line.4. and to voltage. because they can move horizontally or Over 750 to 1 000 45 (13.2-1 limits. even if such devices are required by law crane or the load being handled and energized power or regulation.2(a). is not in the best position to judge distance between the (f) When a crane is installed in proximity to power power line and the crane or its protuberances.````-`-`. Over 350 to 500 25 (7. 4-3.. Greater clearances are required because of higher lethal nature of the electrical hazard involved. such cution or serious bodily injury may occur unless a mini- devices shall not be a substitute for the requirements of mum clearance of 10 ft (3 m) is maintained between the para.`.3 Cabs scribed by the manufacturer of the device.4. 4-3.6) Over 200 to 350 20 (6. sonnel and tested in the manner and in intervals pre- 4-3. running. lines.`...2(a) is the recommended practice of this (a) Necessary clothing and personal belongings shall Standard in determining permissible proximity of the be stored in such a manner as to not interfere with access crane and its protuberances. clearances. 28 Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ .06) (including handling appendages) shall be 10 ft (3 m). (a) When refueling with gasoline using a portable (d) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an container.4.```.1) For higher voltages. kV barriers (not a part of nor attachment to the crane) have (Phase to Phase) ft (m) been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines.2(a)(2). invisible. and lines. insulating links. warning that electro- proximity warning devices are used on cranes. it shall be a safety-type can equipped with energized line unless and until the person owning such automatic closing cap and flame arrester.4. minimum clear. shall be understood by operating per.`. (b) Tools.. if used. ASME B30.. if approved by the (c) Smoking or open flames shall be prohibited in the owner of the electrical lines..67) overhead lines.4 Refueling requesting their cooperation. as stated in para. (4) A qualified signalperson shall be assigned to observe the clearance when the crane moves to within administrative or regulatory authority if the alternate a boom’s length of the Table 4-3. Operation near high voltage ance between the lines and any part of the crane or load power lines to 50 10 (3. oilcans. providing them with all pertinent information and 4-3. In view of the complex.62) (3) Caution shall be exercised when working near Over 500 to 750 35 (10. limitations of such be revised when local jurisdiction requires greater devices. moving the Danger Zone to new positions. (2) For lines rated 50 KV or below.4-2010 (1) Exceptions Table 4-3. see Table 4-3. Compliance with para. 4-3. and other necessary articles (c) Before the commencement of operations near elec. the owners of the lines or their authorized representa- tives.4. Over 50 to 200 15 (4. The operator procedure provides protection and is set forth in writing. durable signs shall be installed at the operator’s (b) If cage-type boom guards. The person responsible for the job shall notify to lay loose in or about the cab.2-1 Required Clearance for (a) The Danger Zone may be entered if the electri.. --`. shall be stored in the toolbox and shall not be permitted trical lines. or station and on the base of the crane.4.4. These signs shall lessen the potential of false security.`--- lines to electrical power lines. Normal Voltage in Operation Near High cal distribution and transmission lines have been de. waste.72) vertically due to wind. Voltage Power Lines energized and visibly grounded at the point of work or Minimum Required (b) The Danger Zone may be entered if insulating Clearance Normal Voltage.

Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ ..`.. or E-mail us and an Information Central representative will handle your 22 Law Drive.```. phone. Information as to whether or not technical inquiries are issued to this code or standard is shown on the copyright page. Mail Call Toll Free Fax—24 hours E-Mail—24 hours ASME US & Canada: 800-THE-ASME 973-882-1717 Infocentral@asme. Box 2900 (800-843-2763) 973-882-5155 Fairfield.````-`-`.. fax.`. we make every effort to answer your questions and expedite your orders. ASME Services ASME is committed to developing and delivering technical information. At ASME’s Information Central. All technical inquiries must be submitted in writing to the staff secretary. Simply mail.`.. Additional procedures for inquiries may be listed within. Our representatives are ready to assist you in the following areas: ASME Press Member Services & Benefits Public Information Codes & Standards Other ASME Programs Self-Study Courses Credit Card Orders Payment Inquiries Shipping Information IMechE Publications Professional Development Subscriptions/Journals/Magazines Meetings & Conferences Short Courses Symposia Volumes Member Dues Status Publications Technical Papers How can you reach us? It’s easier than ever! There are four options for making inquiries* or placing orders. New Jersey Mexico: 95-800-THE-ASME 07007-2900 (95-800-843-2763) Universal: 973-882-1167 --`....`--- * Information Central staff are not permitted to answer inquiries about the technical content of this code or standard.

`..`--- //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ Copyright ASME International Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale ..`.````-`-`.... INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK --`.```.`...

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`...```.````-`-`. ASME B30....`..4-2010 //^:^^#^~^^":~::"^$$^~@""#:$@"~::#$""*~~$"^^:@^^^~~":\\ --`.`..`--- Copyright ASME International J10310 Provided by IHS under license with ASME No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale .