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10/09/2016 chemistryatdulwichIGCSEEdexcelglossary

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acid=anysubstancethatproduceshydrogenions,H+,whendissolvedinwater
acidicsolution=asolutionwithapHlessthan7
acidrain=rainwithapHlessthan5.6acidrainhasbeenmademoreacidicthannormalrain
becausesulfuroxidesandnitrogenoxideshavedissolvedinitacidraincausesdamageto
buildingsmadefromlimestone,damagesmetalstructures,killsfish,damagesleavesintreesso
theyphotosynthesiseless
acidicsoil=soilwithapHlessthan7
activationenergy=minimumamountofenergyneededtostartthereaction/forasuccessful
collision.
actualyield=theamountofproductobtainedwhencarryingoutareaction
additionreaction=areactioninwhichatomsareaddedtoanunsaturatedcarboncompoundthe
atomsareaddedusingthedoublebondasoneofthedoublebondsbreaksandisusedtomake
twonewbonds,e.g.alkenesandhalogens
additionpolymer=polymerformedbyadditionpolymerizationaddingmanyunsaturated
monomersusingdoublebonds
additionpolymerization=thejoiningtogetherofmanyunsaturatedmonomermolecules(double
bonds)toformalongmoleculenewmonomersareaddedtothechainatthedoublebonds
alcohol=ahomologousseriesoforganiccompoundswhichhasOHasitsfunctionalgroup
ethanolisamemberofthishomologousseries
alkanes=ahomologousseriesofhydrocarbonswhicharesaturatedastheyhaveonlysingle
bondsbetweenthecarbonatoms
alkenes=ahomologousseriesofhydrocarbonswhichareunsaturatedastheyhaveatleast1
doublebondsomewhereinthechain
allotrope=differentformsofthesameelemente.g.diamond,graphiteandthefullerenesare
allotropesofcarbon
alloys=mixtureofametalandsmallamountsofothermetalsandnonmetals,madetohave
certainimprovedpropertiesegharder,stronger,increasedresistancetocorrosion,increasedheat
orelectricalresistance
alkali=anybasewhichissolubleinwater
alkalimetal=anymetalingroup1ofthePeriodicTable,mostreactivemetals
alkalisolution=asolutionwithapHlargerthan7
anions=negativeionsattractedtoanode
anode=positiveelectrodeinelectrolysis
arrangement=howparticlesarepositionedcomparedtoeachothere.g.closetogether,farapart,
infixedpositions
atom=thesmallestparticlethatcanexitsofanelement
atomicnumber=numberofprotonsinthenucleusofanatom,determinestheorderandplaceof
eachelementinthePeriodicTable
avogadrosconstant=6.02x1023
balancedequation=numbersofatomsarethesameoneithersideoftheequation(anyequation
shouldbebalancedasinanychemicalreactionparticlesareonlyrearrangedandarenot
destroyedorcreated)alsoshowstheratioinwhichreactantsreactandproductsareproduced
duringachemicalreaction
base=asubstancewhichcanneutraliseanacidtomakeasaltandwaterexamples:metal
oxides,metalhydroxides,

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bauxite=orecontainingaluminiumoxidefromwhichaluminiumisextracted
blastfurnace=afurnaceusedforgettingironfromironoxidewiththehelpofcarbon
boiling=aprocessduringwhichaliquidchangesintoagasasitsparticlesgainmoreenergyand
movealotfasterandalsomuchfartherapartfromeachother.furtherfromgastoliquidonly
happensattheboilingtemperatureasopposedtoevaporation
brine=concentratedsodiumchloridesolution
catalyst=asubstancewhichspeedsupareactionbutwhichremainsunchangedattheendofthe
reaction
catalyticconverter=apieceofequipmentwhichispartoftheexhaustofacarandwhich
changesnitrogenoxidesintonitrogenbeforetheyarereleasedintotheatmosphere
cathode=negativeelectrodeinelectrolysis
cation=positiveionattractedtocathode
chainlength=numberofcarbonatomsoneaftertheotherinanorganiccompound
chemicalbond=electrostaticattractionbetweenatomsorions
chemicalproperty=howitreacts
chromatogram=theresultofachromatography
chromatography=aseparatingtechniquewhichusesthedifferenceinsolubilityinagiven
solventbetweenthedifferentpartsofamixturetoseparatethem
combustion=burning,thereactingofasubstancewithoxygen,exothermic
completecombustion=combustioninsufficientoxygenwhichinthecaseofhydrocarbons
producescarbondioxideandwater
compound=apuresubstancemadefromtwoormoredifferentatomsjoinedtogetherchemically
concentration=thenumberofmolesofperliterofsolutiontellsushowmuchsoluteisdissolved
innasolvent
condensation=aprocessduringwhichagaschangesintoaliquidbecauseitsparticlesare
havinglessenergy,slowdownandcomemuchclosertogether
condensationpolymer=alongmoleculeformedbycondensationpolymerizatione.g.nylon
condensationpolymerization=thejoiningtogetherofmanyoftwodifferentmonomermolecules
toformonesinglelongmoleculeduringwhichasmallmoleculeisremovedforeachlinkbetween
themonomers.
covalentbond=forceofattractionbetweenapairofsharedelectronsandthenucleiiofboth
atoms
cracking=thebreakingdownoflongchainalkanesintosmalleralkanesandalkenesusinga
catalystandheat(500C)
crudeoil(orpetroleum)=amixtureoforganiccompoundsformed,asaresultofhightemperatures
andpressures,fromtheremainsoflivingplantsandanimalswhichdiedmillionsofyearsagoa
fossilfuel
crystallisation=theformingofcrystalsfromasaturatedsolution
decomposition=breakingdownacompoundintosimplersubstances
delocalisedelectrons=electronsthatcanmovebetweenatomstheyarenotpartof1atom
diamine
diatomic=2atomsonly
dicarboxylicacid
diffusion=themovementofparticlesbywhichdifferentsubstancesmixasaresultoftherandom
motionofeachoftheirparticles
displacementreaction=areactioninwhichamorereactivemetalorhalogentakestheplaceofa
lessreactivemetalorhalogeninitscompound
distillate=theliquidobtainedfromdistillationtheliquidwhichhasevaporatedandcondensed
distillation=aseparatingtechniqueinwhichamixtureisheated,thesubstancewiththelowest
boilingpointevaporatesandiscondensedbacktoliquidform
ductile=caneasilybedrawnintowires,whatmetalsare
endothermic=absorbsenergy
electricalconductivity=conductselectricityforwhichitneedsmobilechargedparticles
electrodes=rodsofususallycarbonwhichareusedtomakeelctricalcontactwiththeelectrolyte
electrolysis=areactionwhichuseselectricitytodecomposeacompound
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electrolyte=anioniccompoundoracidwhichconductselectricity(moltenorinsolution)and
whichisdecomposedasitconducts
electrolyticcell=abeakerwithanelectrolyte,2electrodes,apowersupplyandleadswhich
changeselectricalenergyintochemicalenergy
electron=asubatomicparticlewhichhasanegativechargeandnorelativemass
electronicconfiguration=thenumberofelectronsoneachenergylevelinanatom
element=apuresubstancethatconsistsof1typeofatomonly
empiricalformula=theformulawhichgivesthemostsimpleratioofatoms/ionsina
molecule/formulaunit
equilibrium=isreachedwhentheforwardreactionandreversereactionaregoingonatthesame
timeatthispointtheamountofreactantorproductdoesnotchange.
evaporation=aprocessduringwhichaliquidchangesintoagasassomeofitsparticlesatthe
surfacegainmoreenergy,movealotfasterandfartherapartfromeachotherandeventually
escapefromtheliquidhappensatanytemperaturebetweenmeltingandboilingpoint.
e=changingofparticlesatthesurfacefromaliquidintoagasstateatanytemperaturebetween
themeltingandboilingpointofaliquid.
exothermic=releases/givesoutenergy
fermentation=thechangingofsugarsdissolvedinwaterintoalcoholandcarbondioxidebythe
enzymesinyeastatatemperatureofbetween30Cto40C.
filtrate=theliquid/solutionthatgoesthroughthefilterpaper
fixedpositions=particlesinasolidcannotmovefromtheirpositionsbecauseofthestrongforces
ofattraction
forcesofattraction=forceswhichhold/pullparticlestogether
forwardreaction=thereactionwhichproducestheproducts
fraction=agroupofsubstanceswhichhasaspecificboilingpoint/range/condensesatsimilar
temperature(becausetheyhaveasimilarnumberofcarbonatomsinthem)
fractionaldistillation=crudeoilisheatedtoevaporatemostcomponentswhichthencondense
backatdifferentlevelsinthefractionatingcolumnbecausetheyhavedifferingboilingpoints
freezing=processduringwhichaliquidchangesintoasolidasitsparticlesloseenergy,slow
downandcomeclosertogetheragain
fuel=asubstancethatcanreleasealotofenergye.g.byburning
gas=astateofmatterinwhichparticlesarefarapart,havealotofenergyandmovefastand
randomly
galvanising=thecoatingofsteelorironbyzinctoprotectitfromrusting
giantstructure=astructureinwhichaverylargenumberofatomsorionsarejoinedtogether
stronglyandcontinuouslyinall3directionsalargenetworkofparticles
group=verticalcolumninPeriodicTable
halfequation=equationshowingwhatgoesonateachelectrodeinelectrolysis
halogen=anyelementfromgroup7inthePeriodictable
homologousseries=agroupoforganiccompoundswhichallhavethesamegeneralformula,
similarchemicalpropertiesbecausetheyhavethesamefunctionalgroup,haveagradualtrendin
physicalproperties,anddifferbyoneCH2unit.
hydrocarbon=acompoundwhichhascarbonandhydrogenonly
incompletecombustion=burninginnotenoughoxygen
indicator=anychemicalwhichcanchangecolourwhenaddedtodifferentchemicals,usually
acidsandbases
inert=veryunreactive
inertgases=gasesingroup0
intermolecularforces=weakforcesofattractionbetweenmolecules
ion=achargedatomorgroupofatoms(whichhasbecomechargedbecauseithaseitherlostor
gainedanelectron(s))
ionicbond=strongelectrostaticattractionbetweentwooppositelychargedions,formedbetween
metalsandnonmetals
isomers=compoundswiththesamemolecularformulabutdifferentstructuresordisplayed
formulaandthereforedifferentproperties
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isotopes=atomswiththesamenumberofprotonsandelectronsbutdifferentnumberofneutrons
samemassnumberbutdifferentmassnumber
lattice=regular3dimensionalarrangementoftheparticles(atoms,ionsormolecules)
limestone=calciumcarbonate
liquid=astateofmatterinwhichparticlesareclosetogetherbutinadisorderlyarrangement,they
canmovepastoneanotherandhaveenergytomovefromtheirpositions
lubricant=anoilybutsoftsubstanceusedtoreducefrictionbetweentwomovingsurfaces
malleable=easilyshapedwithoutbreaking,whatmetalsare
massnumber=thetotalnumberofprotonsandneutronsinthenucleusofanatom
melting=aprocessduringwhichasolidchangesintoaliquidasitsparticleshavegainedmore
energyandmovefromtheirpositionsandpastoneanotherintoanirregulararrangment
metallicbond=attractionbetweenpositivemetalionsanddelocalised(mobileseaofelectrons
electrons
metalliccharacter=behaveslikeametal,givesawayelectron(s)whenitreactstoformapositive
ion,conducts,shiny,malleable
mixture=2ormoresubstancesmixedtogetherwhichhavenotreactedandwhicharetherefore
easilyseparatedbyphysicalprocesseslikeevaporation/distillation/filtration
molarmass=theactualmassof1moleor6.02x1023particles(atoms,ions,moleculesor
formulaunits)ofthatsubstance
molarvolume=thevolumeof1moleofagas=24Latrtp
mole=thenamegiventoacertainnumberandthatnumberis6.02x1023.
molecularformula=showsthetypeofatoms/ionsandtheirnumber/molarratioina
molecule/formulaunit
molecule=aparticlemadeupof2ormoreatomsheldtogetherbycovalentbonds
monomer=asmallmoleculewhichcanbejoinedtogethertomakealongmoleculecalleda
polymeramonomermusthaveadoublebondorafunctionalgroupateitherend
movement=howparticlesmovee.g.fast,vibrate
neutron=asubatomicparticlewithnochargeandwhichisinthenucleusandhasarelative
massof1
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neutralisation=areactionbetweenanacidandabasetoproducewaterandasaltandsometimes
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noblegas=anyelementformthelastgroupinthePeriodicTable
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noblegaselectronicconfiguration=thewayinwhichelectronsarearrangedinthenoblegas
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atomswhichisthattheyhavetheiroutershellfull!This2electronsintheheliumatomand8in
theothernoblegases
ore=amixtureofrockwhichcontainsausefulchemical
organiccompounds=compoundsthathavetheelementCARBONinit
oxidation=areactionduringwhichasubstancegainsoxygenoxygenisaddedtotheelementor
compoundincreasingitsmassalsoareactionduringwhichasubstancelosesanelectron
oxide=acompoundwhichendswithoxygen
oxidizingagent=achemicalwhichoxidisesanotherchemicalitlosesoxygen/gainselectronsand
becomesreduced
oxidelayer=layerofanoxygencompound
%yield=theactualyieldexpressedaspercentageofthetheoreticalyield
period=horizontalrowinthePeriodicTable
periodictrends=gradualchangesinpropertiesoftheelementsinthesameperiod
petroleum=amixtureoforganiccompoundsformed,asaresultofhightemperaturesand
pressures,fromtheremainsoflivingplantsandanimalswhichdiedmillionsofyearsagocontains
fossilfuels.
pH=anumberbetween1and14whichtellsushowstrongorhowweakanacidoralkaliis
pHscale=ascalerunningfrom114usedtoshowhowacidoralkalineasubstanceis
physicalproperty=propertieslikemeltingandboilingpoint,volatility,conductivity,appearance,
colour
poly(ethene)=polymermadefrompolymerisingethenemoleculesadditionpolymer

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polymer=alargemoleculemadefrommanysmallmoleculesthathavebeenjoinedtogether
eachpolymerismadeupofmanyrepeatedunits
polymerisation=achemicalreactioninwhichmanysmallmoleculesormonomersarejoined
togethertoformalongmoleculecalledapolymer
positionofequilibrium=givesanideaofhowmuchreactantorproductthereisatequilibrium
precipitation=areactionbetween2saltsolutionswhichproducesaninsolublesaltwhichsinks
tothebottomofthetesttube
precipitate=insolublesolidformedduringareaction
product=substanceonrighthandofequation
puresubstance=asinglechemicalelementorcompoundwhichmeltsandboilsatfixed
temperatures
rateofareaction=amountofchangeinareactantorproductoveraperiodoftimetellsushow
fastareactionisgoing
reactant=substanceonleftsideofequation
reactivity=referstotheeasewithwhichasubstancereactswithothersubstances
reactivityseries=alistofmetalswiththemostreactivemetalfirstbasedonresultsfrom
experiments
redox=areactionduringwhichbothachemicalisoxidisedandanotherisreduced
reducingagent=achemcialwhichreducesanotherchemicalitgainsoxygen/loseselectronsand
becomesoxidised
reduction=areactionduringwhichasusbstancelosesoxygenandhasitsmassdecreasesalso
areactionduringwhichasubstancegainselectrons
relativeatomicmass=themassofanatomascomparedto1/12thofthemassofacarbon12
atomitisalsotheaveragemassofallisotopes
relativemolecularmass=thesumoftherelativeatomicmasses(multipliedbythenumberof
timestheyareinthemolecule)oftheatomsinthemolecule
relativeformulamass=thesumoftherelativeatomicmasses(multipliedbythenumberoftimes
theyareintheformula)oftheatomsorionsinthegiantstructure
residue=theinsolublepartthatremainsbehindinthefilterpaperduringafiltrationorwhatisleft
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reversiblereaction=areactionduringwhichproductsaremadebutarealsochangedbackagain
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rust=alooseorangebrownflakylayerofhydratedironoxide
sacrificialprotection=methodofrustprotectioninwhichblocksofmorereactivemetalare
attachedtoirnthemorereactivemetalreactwiththeairandwaterinsteadoftheiron
saturatedsolution=asolutionwhichcontainsasmuchsoluteaspossible
saturatedorganiccompound=eachcarbonatomintheorganiccompoundhasmade4single
covalentbonds
simplemolecularsubstance=substancemadeupofindividualmoleculesheldtogetherby
covalentbondsandhasweakintermolecularforcesbetweenthesemolecules
solid=astateofmatterinwhichparticlesareclosetogetherandinaregulararrangement,can
onlyvibrateinfixedpositionsandhavelittleenergy
solvent=aliquidthatdoesthedissolving
solventfront=theheightthesolventgoesuptoonthechromatographypaper
solute=asolidwhichdissolves
solution=amixturemadebydissolvingasoluteinasolvent
steel=analloyofironwithotherelements
subatomicparticle=verysmallparticlesfromwhichatomsaremade:electrons,protonsand
neutrons
sublimation=aprocessduringwhichasolidchangesdirectlyintoagasbecauseitsparticles
havealotmoreenergy,movearoundveryfastandareveryfarapart.
system=thereactantsandproductsofareaction
theoreticalyield=theamountofproductyoushouldobtainaccordingtothebalancedequationand
calculations
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thermaldecomposition=breakingdownofacompoundbyhetaingit
transitionelement=metalinthetransitionblockofthePeriodicTable
universalindicator=amixtureofindicatorsusedtomeasurethepHbecauseitgoesdifferent
colours
unsaturatedorganiccompound=hasatleastonedoublebonddecolourizesbrownbrominewater
valency=thecombiningpowerofanatomorgroupofatomsinanioniccompoundthevalencyof
anionisitschargeinamoleculethevalencyofanatomisthenumberofbondsitmakes
valencyelectrons=theelectronsonthemostoutershell
vapourise=changefromliquidintogas
vibrate=moveforwardsandbackwardsbutinthesamefixedposition
volatile=vapouriseseasily,lowboilingpoint
wordequation=anequationinwhichthenamesofthechemicalsareused

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