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ROYAL CONSERVATOIRE OF SCOTLAND

How music was used as
political tool for
denazification of
Western German
society
Luiz Mello
4/22/2016

Abstract: This paper aims to explain how music can be used as way to instil certain
values in society, encouraging some desirable behaviour and discouraging what is
considered unacceptable. It takes as an example the denazification of Western
German society in the American-occupied area, through music summer courses and
festivals, as well as the less planned but no less important impact of jazz and blues . In
order to put this theme in perspective, this paper will also approach how traditional
German composers were used to reinforce the sentiment of Arian supremacy by the
Nazi propaganda.

2

Table of Contexts

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………….. 2

The Weimar Republic’s
years…………………………………………………………………………………………………
……. 3

The Nazi
years…………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………. 4

Charlie and His Orchestra: Jiving with
Goebbels……………………………………………………………………………. 6

Post-war Germany: A pre-modern

society…………………................................................................................ 9

Turning the page: the first moments of the American occupation in
Germany………………………………………… 10

Jazz during the occupation:
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………
13

Jazz in West Germany,
1950's…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………….15

German Jazz in the 60's: first effects of the denazification

effort………………………………………………………………..17

Darmstadt's Internationale Freikurse fur Neue Musik and Donaueschingen
Festival…………………………...20

The Freiekurse and its role on the political

stage………………………………………………………………………………………..22

Music meets technology: Post-War Electronic Music and its

contribution………………………………………………….25

3

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………….27

Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………30

The aim of this work is to analyse how music can be used as medium for social transformation and ideological disseminator. More importantly. In such indoctrination. More than that. . It comes smartly disguised as entertainment forms. The second part approaches the first moments of the post-war period and the reconstruction effort. due in part to the massive anti-American propaganda laid by the Nazis. It is not enough to emphasize certain aspects of a given culture. it also has to come with censorship of anything that has to do with this “enemy”.4 Introduction Cultural indoctrination can be one of the most silent and dangerous weapons of any group or movement seeking power. via institutional control. encouraging behavioural changes in society. The first part of this research deals with the high status that musicians enjoyed in Germany until the end of WWI and how the crisis during interwar period degraded their financial and professional situation. with no operational transport and communication. it deals with the fierce resistance by German society to anything American-related. as well as how Nazi propaganda incorporated some of the musical class' demands in their policies. dressing utopias as attainable realities. through cultural indoctrination. massive homelessness and cities with virtually no standing buildings. It also deals with the challenges faced by the Allied Army in governing a devastated land. certain groups can convince the people that such changes are the only way to achieve a better society. The Nazi regime also offers a great example of artistic control for political purposes and how a central power can use countercultural music for its own purpose. diversity is surely not taken into account. usually – and most sadly – uniting the people against an invented or hyperbolised common enemy.

pdf . Germany also had to deal with the Great Depression. some of them would present verifiable effects only from the 60's on. as well as the challenges they met in the first moment. History of the Information Control Division – OMGUS. and “every city with a population of 100. jazz and blues promoted creative. Page 106. In Dusseldorf the city orchestra laid off 42 of its 105 musicians before 1932-1933 1Warkentin. intellectual and behavioural changes that would be inconceivable during the Nazi years. While still debilitated by the outcome of the First World War.000 to 60. 1944 to June 30. Alan Steinweis describes the crisis in numbers: The city of Cologne reduced its orchestra appropriation by 38% between 1931-1932 and 1932-1933 seasons.com/Files/History%20I. even extinguished – due to the austerity measures that followed the Depression. Erwin.000 would have one legitimate theatre. Towns with population as little as 50. The previous privileged status that musicians have enjoyed in German society gave place to the deep financial hardship in the Weimar years. The Weimar Republic's years During the years before the First World War.5 The final part analyses how post-war modernism. a symphony orchestra and an opera house playing throughout the year. Even though the first denazification initiatives took place between 1945 and 1955. Deep budget cuts were imposed by the government on the artistic sector and the dwindling purchasing power of the population put the musicians in a very vulnerable position. 1946.erwinslist. Between 1929 and 1933.”1 All of it would be subsidised by the city council or the German government. http://www. German orchestras were severely diminished – some.000 or more gad at least one opera house performing daily. the German government substantially supported the artistic community.

1993. the idea that art could exist in a separate instance of social life . According to Steinweis. in order to press the government for better conditions and opportunities. In Aachen the city orchestra was reduced cut from 60 to 52. It reflected directly onto the Central Party’s image and its liberal policies. The Nazi years Together with the Weimar Republic. (…) the minority that did become politically active helped shape and define the larger struggle. by then enduring massive public rejection. Steinweis. Artists were to starve in the land of Kultur. the crippling unemployment rates and unprecedented hardship faced by musicians and other artists were an icon of Chancellor Brunning’s failed administration.had collapsed.” 3 The artistic unions previously mentioned provided the bases for the Chamber of Culture . University of North Carolina Press. Art.something that had been long aspired by the artists – in the Nazi period. 3Idem. and those musicians who were kept on lost permanent employment status and instead were hired on six-month contract. . Page 20.disconnected from the political and ideological realities of the time . Page 14. The crisis led the musicians and artists in general to unionize. Joseph Goebbels saw those artists unions as a powerful medium to 2Alan E. The creation of the Chamber of Culture meant the abolition of all the other artists’ guilds. The city orchestra in Dortmund was slashed from 92 to 56 musicians. Ideology and Economics in Nazi Germany. 2 More than a social problem.6 concert season. In Koblenz the city orchestra was simply dissolved. “even if the majority of German artists remained beside (or above) the political tumult.

5Idem. Art and Theater” in Thuringia. Journal of Contemporary History Vol. 80% of sculptors and painters were free professionals. Nietzsche’s philosophy was used to endorse Aryan supremacy. The Nazi Musicologists as Myth Makers of the Third Reich. Steinweis. but also musicologists. The artists could be allocated in four categories of professionals: wage earners (Arbeiter). By attending to some of the artistic community demands. critics.7 4Idem. Art. salaried employees (Angestellte). and educators were 6 to support and endorse the regime via manifestos.7 diffuse Nazi propaganda. were now in force in the whole Nazi Germany. seen as result of racial degeneration and foreign influences. No. civil servants (Beamte). Composers like Richard Strauss and artistic medallions such as Karajan. Page 24.appointed to the position of “Culture. 7Alan E. With the exaltation of German art. or members of free professional (freie Berufe). Page 8. 4. 6Michael Mayer. lent their art and reputation to Nazi events. due to the importance that the German society traditionally gives to arts. not only performers and composers were co-opted by the Nazi propaganda. The policies put into practice by the prominent National Socialist Hans Severus Ziegler . 10. in comparison with other artists. the regime could make strategic allies. Villains of Wagner’s operas were used to caricaturize the Jews. 5 On the rise of the Nazi regime. October. 1975. articles and books.4 The musicians enjoyed a privileged situation in the first years of the Nazi regime. Ideology and Economics in Nazi Germany. While 79% of the musicians were in one of the first three categories. came the censorship of modern art. University of North Carolina Press. still in 1931. . to protect the “moral forces” against foreign influence and “glorification of Negroidism” . 1993.

Jewish artists. due to its Afro-American roots. 1944 to June 30. Opus cit. homosexuals. In fact. http://www. those who were against it. but anyone opposing the Nazi government or producing works that did not fit to the regime’s ideas were cast out of the German artistic life. they were not free at all. 1946. all the theatres 9 were closed. Eight months before Germany's capitulation. the Reich went on state of total war and for the first time in its history. Composers like Paul Hindemith.erwinslist.com/Files/History%20I. Page 106 . Page 108. Erwin. It was a fear among the more conservative Nazis that such music 8Warkentin. History of the Information Control Division – OMGUS. Not only Jewish artists lost their positions. Erwin. jazz suffered severe censorship from the Reichsmusikkammer (following orders of Joseph Goebbels himself). Charlie and His Orchestra: Jiving with Goebbels During the first years of the Nazi period. socialists and any other artists that did not fit in the Reich standards were ousted from German cultural life. Those artists whose work would praise the regime were warmly welcomed. would be mercilessly ruled out. Ernst Toch and Arnold Schoenberg had to flee from Nazi Germany and “those who remained in Germany found themselves isolated from international development and most were engaged in writing music that was ‘psychologically effective’ to the Nazi cause rather than producing something creative and of free expression”8.8 If a considerable portion of the artistic community welcomed the changes brought by the Nazi regime – consider their situation during the Weimar Republic years – soon it became clear that the Chamber of Culture was not a gift given by the Nazi government to sponsor free spirited artists.pdf 9Warkentin.

since it was impossible to completely ban it from Reich's musical scene. Some of them were smartly disguised as German music and often succeeded in cheating on the censorship or receiving benevolent evaluation from a censor more open to American music. Source: http://holocaustmusic. May 17. The changes would include limits for the syncopations (it should not be more than 10% of the composition) of the music. as recollects the Czech dissident Josef Skvorecky in his book The Bass Saxophone. the double-bass should always be played with a bow." Although jazz was considered improper for German ears.com. who had to prohibit several new jazz compositions from being broadcasted.smithsonianmag. Smithsonian. In his speeches. trying to make jazz meet the regime's moral standard.ort. Joseph Goebbels was adamant on his opinion about jazz: it was nothing but "jungle music. he could use for the regime's purpose.11 The paranoia about the effects of jazz on the Aryan moral led to some bizarre decrees.com/history/hitlers-very-own-hot-jazz-band-98745129/?no-ist 11Guido Fackler.9 could corrupt the "purity and discipline" of the Aryan youth. Opus cit. Source: http://www.org/politics-and- propaganda/third-reich/jazz-under-the-nazis/ 12 Mike Dash." 10 The fact that jazz was the most popular music at time in the Western world and a taste inherited from the Weimar years posed a problem for the censors of the regime. 2012. "since it is damaging to the instrument and 12 detrimental to Aryan musicality. Hitler's very own hot jazz band. The paragraph above demonstrated how Goebbels tried 10Mike Dash. prohibition of the use of mutes "which turns the noble sound of wind and brass instruments into a Jewish-Freemasonic yowl" as well as prohibition of the use of plucked strings. Goebbels realised that. to make it more legato and to avoid the "hysterical rhythmic reverses characteristic of the barbarian races and conductive to dark instincts alien to the German people". . rather than Jewish gloomy music. Jazz under the Nazis. preference for "composition in major keys and lyrics expressing joy in life.

Mark Dash quotes the story where Templin . Goebbels conceived the creation of a jazz band with an English speaker singer singing "parodies" of the latest jazz hits. trying to use its acceptance in the Allied countries to spread his propaganda in enemy territory. 15Mark Dash. Ibid.culture. not a victory came through 14 According to Mark Dash.15 Despite his personal war on jazz. Swinging for Goebbels. . 13Deutsche Welle . Templin's connections with Nazi officials and his reputation as jazz musician brought him to Goebbel's attention. For band leader." Templin was also recommended for the position for his quick adoption to Nazi society..com/en/swinging-for- goebbels/a-1124275 14Idem.10 to reframe jazz for German consumption.dw. he chose Lutz Templin. a renowned tenor saxophonist who "led one of the best swing bands before the war. Around 1940. Source: http://www. 13 The recordings were mostly broadcasted to UK and US and the song Little Sir Echo. You're always licked. The band was called "Charlie and His Orchestra" and the parodies were full of Nazi propaganda and mockery of Winston Churchill. after all they were fighting jazz in radios or on stage and losing. but he went further. for example. the American Army and Jews. although not being a Nazi himself. Churchill. the fact that German listeners were not interested in National Socialist music for entertainment and the Allied bombs were corroding people's morale. in order to make a contract with Deutsche Grammophon. ousted the Jewish leader of his orchestra. how do you do? Hello. went back to them like this: Poor Mr. Goebbels had to turn to jazz specialists to create his Nazi big band. made the Ministry of Propaganda compromise on subjects that were unnegotiable before 1939. in 1939.. hello Your famous convoy are not coming through Hello German U boats are making you sore.

uk/1/hi/uk/4131696. four saxes. Treason in Uk: recent cases. I went to the huge broadcasting centre on the Masurenalle. 16 17 Dash stresses though. who also played in the band.."18 By the end of the war. many of the band members had to join the army and were replaced by musicians from Belgium. In charge of broadcasting the show called Political Cabaret. inside Germany) until a month before the end of the war. 17BBC News. Here was this big dance orchestra with three trumpets. Movie themes from Hollywood musical numbers from Broadway were also common. three trombones. Next morning. the band's repertoire was largely based on dance standards. to play for German radios. a full rhythm group. The musicians now had to make one session in the morning.11 Karl Schwedler (Charlie). France and Italy. . Charlie and His Orchestra recorded as much as 270 tracks. I felt like Alice in Wonderland. The Czech accordionist Kamil Behounek. I could make out the ruined buildings which bore witness to the devastating air raids. and in another studio in the afternoon. being jazz actually the smaller part. an employee of the Foreign Ministry with perfect English and some talent for singing was the crooner of the new enterprise. And they were swinging it! And how! They were playing up-to-date hits from America! Lutz Templin had got together the best musicians from all over Europe for his band. were the Irish-American Willian Joyce (or Lord Haw Haw) and the British Norman Baillie-Stewart. without any 16Ibid.stm 18Ibid.. for the propaganda effort.bbc. Those recordings were distributed in prisoner camps (being mostly destroyed by its prisoners) and broadcasted at home and abroad. Charlie and His Orchestra stayed on air in the Allied countries (and more discreetly. In the darkness. recollects his impression on Charlie and His Orchestra: "I got in Berlin in the evening. between 1941 and 1943. Source: http://news. who later came to be the last man hanged for treason in Britain.co.

were nothing but ruins when the Third Reich finally fell. crashed economy. led to the complete destruction of German historical cities and landmarks. About 80 percent of the historical buildings were completely destroyed. 93 percent of the houses were uninhabitable. Cologne. Hitler's policy of resisting the invasion of any cost with no negotiation and no surrender. Munich. Opus cit. Out of the Ashes: A New Look at Germany's Post-war Reconstruction.de/international/germany/out-of-the-ashes-a-new-look-at- germany-s-postwar-reconstruction-a-702856. The Allied Forces would have to come to terms with what to do with 1. risk of starvation and epidemics. in West Germany alone.19 Post-war Germany: A pre-modern society The Germany of the end of the war was hardly recognizable by anyone who knew the glory of its past. there was no government or functional bureaucratic apparatus to follow 19Mike Dash.html . civilian refugees of various nationalities.and civilians from former territories occupied by the regime were wandering around with no place to go. among many others.20 The unprecedented scale of destruction led to massive homelessness . The invasion of the Allied forces from the West and of the Soviets from East. no operational transport or communication services and of course.5 million German prisoners of war. Hamburg. Cities like Berlin.in Dusseldorf.spiegel.12 evidence of having reached their goal to weaken the enemy through psychological warfare. literally tore the country apart. http://www. About 14 million cubic meters of rubble were piled after the war. for example . 20Spiegel Online International.

it was accorded between the winning parties of the war (United States. Germany 1945-1949: a case study in post-conflict reconstruction."21 In the conference of Yalta. the three Western zones (American. the plan was that the country would be governed as "single entity by central German administrations".g. . with the fall of the Berlin Wall.. it’s purpose would be soon defeated.historyandpolicy. 29 January 2014. e. any oppositional organization could ‘adopt’ and apparently innocent piece. Further. It is above all essential that we should not give the impression of trying to regiment culture in a Nazi manner. Britain. Originally. but each zone ended up being administrated by its respective occupier with relative independence for the first two years of occupation. even if any ‘index expurgatorius’ could be compiled. Turning the page: the first moments of the American occupation in Germany The principles governing our control policy are simple. http://www. Let us now win the peace. in February 1945. Soviet Union and France) that the German territory would be divided among them in four occupation zones. While free market policies were employed in the West Germany.23 21Chris Knowles.org/policy-papers/papers/germany-1945-1949-a-case-study- in-post-conflict-reconstruction 22Idem. Such an attempt would be in any case doomed to failure. the East Germany would be loyal to the 22 Soviet Union until 1989.13 the Allied Forces commands. It is hard to decide the exact degree of harm done to our cause by particular compositions. By 1949. As Field-Marshall Montgomery said: "We have won the German war. British and French) were formally unified in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). by attaching new words to a harmless popular song.

ballet. Information Control. the recording and distribution of mechanical reproductions and control of all theatrical and music activities such as plays. Apud Erwin Warkenting. op. cit. cabaret.1”. operas. The Psychological Warfare Division's purpose cannot be explained by the literal interpretation of its name. The Nazi called it Kunstpolitik. cit. literature and philosophy were used by the Nazi propaganda to affirm the Arian Supremacy. its activities consisted in: a) to wage psychological warfare against the enemy. concerts. (SHAEF – PWD) and it summarizes the strategies for denazification of the American occupied zone. variety. United States (OMGUS) – Information Control Division. According to Erwin Warkenting. a doctrine designed "to make art serve politics and to make politics serve art". In this case. musical comedies. Apud Erwin Wartenkin. 25 23Office of Military Government. dance recitals. op. 1. strict control meant the control of: publication and distribution of music. . fairs. recitals and public music and any other kind of live entertainment employing actors or musicians. 25MGR Title 21. Operation Memorandum No. circuses. 24 One of the main targets of the PWD was to control strictly theatre and music affairs. carnivals. theatre. c) to conduct so-called Consolidation Propaganda operations in liberated friendly countries. and d) to control information services in Allied-occupied Germany.14 The above is the first paragraph of a document called “Music Control Instruction N. 24SHAEF. issued by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force – Psychological Warfare Division. 11 March 44. plays with incidental music. operettas. It was rather a division aimed to fight the Nazi ideologies that Goebbels embedded in German Kultur since great German personalities in music. b) to use the various media available to psychological warfare to sustain the morale of the people of friendly nations occupied by the enemy and to cause the people of these countries to acquiesce in the wishes of the Supreme Commander. 8. Music Control Instruction N.

15 With this policy." Although. 2003). American Music. who went to Germany as a cultural ambassador. 2003. the musicians "started a food strike 28 and at first it was thought that there could be no concerts. It clearly demonstrates how Americans were already concerned about how they would "repopulate" the German musical scenario (since many of the leading German musicians were Jewish or against the regime) even before the end of the war. 4 (Winter. it was important to recreate the artistic life in the occupied areas to give to the German people the sense that the situation was going back to normality. Theater and Music Branch. Beal. 21. making their reorganization more unlikely. University of Illinois Press. pp. a bit before the end of the war. Page 476. In fact. No. in the end of the same report. the Airwaves and the Avant-Garde: American Music in Post-War Germany. what would be the "ten composers of symphonic and chamber music whom you think are most worthy American culture to European nations"26. on behalf of the Office of War Information. sponsoring tournees of names such as Leonard Bernstein. Record Group (hereafter RG) 260. 474-513. Roy Harris asked in a letter to Elliott Carter. 4th still in May 1945. held in the OMGUS Records of Military Government. Above all. Apud Amy C. Page 474 27Amy C. The Army. National Archives and Records Administration. in 1948. Beal. . A Nazi-free artistic scene also meant that the remaining Nazi sympathizers would not have a channel to broadcast their views. Educational and Cultural Relations Division. In the morning when Bernstein was scheduled to conduct the Bavarian State Opera. Hesse. Beal. letter to Elliott Carter. the PWD intended to cast out the last members of the artistic business with Nazi inclinations. opus cit. 1946-49. In Amy C.27 The reports about how German musicians received Bernstein's visit depicts the still ongoing tension between the German and American musicians. Correspondence and other records. in a concert sponsored by OMGUS. May 4 1945. 28Undated document reporting on musical events in Bavaria in 1948. Opus cit. Vol. box 727. the writer says that the animosities were soothed and that "all press 26Roy Harris. Part of the re-orientation plan was to advertise the American culture.

such as the aforementioned letter between Roy Harris and Elliot Carter.16 reports were exceptionally enthusiastic" 29. Partially. There was no official document dealing with the concerns of what jazz composers would better represent the American culture. either in closed performances in "American clubs and the broadcasts of American Armed Forces Radio. good part of Bernstein's success was due to packs of cigarettes offered by the Bavarian Military Government office to the striking members of the orchestra. Beal. trying to convince their musicians that American composers were also worth playing. 2005. 30Idem. jazz was restricted to GI's entertainment. 31 The increasing tension between the Soviet and American occupation zones (especially in Berlin) forced the American army to fight another propaganda 29Idem. 31Elizabeth Janik. In fact. Page 123." while the Information Control Division would take care of high level orchestral ensembles. it was because the Americans wanted to show their classical musical production in order to debunk the Nazi myth that they were cultureless people and also because they knew that the American soldiers would bring jazz to Germany anyway. according to Amy C. . Brill. 30 Jazz during the occupation Introduction The careful plan of musical reorientation toiled by the Americans did not include the propagation of jazz. Recomposing German Music: Politics and Musical Tradition in Cold War Berlin.

they would often publish articles about how the Russians praised Goethe or Beethoven. since the Soviets were quick to reinforce the image of the Americans as "cultureless people".com/en/swinging-for- goebbels/a-1124275 35Toby Thacker. through their newspaper in their occupied zone called Tagliche Rundschau (Daily Journal). 35 32 The Cambridge History of the Cold War: Volume 1.ac. 34Deutsche Welle . Source: http://www. 33Idem. The American radio station in Berlin was struggling with the dwindling amount of listeners. Edited by Melvin P.html . there were still jobs for jazz musicians in cities now full of Americans. Leffler and Odd Ame Westad. the GDR's official position about jazz is that there were actually two kinds of jazz: the Ur Jazz (the early and original jazz from the Afro- American lower classes) and "perfumed hit song". If in the West it was rejected by more conservative Germans as potentially morally corruptive music. Origins. due to its jazz program. which would be a profit-aimed industrialized product. Swinging for Goebbels. Page 404.17 battle. 34 Jazz divided opinions on both sides of Berlin's Wall. 33 Notwithstanding. Periphery and centre: German musicians in the Cold War. who were broadcasting from Stuttgart in the end of the war. History in focus. 32 Public opinion polls carried by the American army between '45 and '50 showed the results of the campaign: Germans were reluctant to adopt the American democratic values at the cost of their own culture. in the East it was consider soulless and music of inexistent intellectual meaning. by the government. Source: http://www. hence depleted from artistic value. implying that they had the culture that lacked in their American counterparts.culture. In this newspaper. Even some members of Charlie and His Orchestra.history. despite OMGUS' effort to cleanse the stages from Nazi artists.uk/ihr/Focus/cold/articles/thacker. Nonetheless. were commissioned by the American soldiers after the invasion of the city and continued playing through Germany during the occupation years.dw.

18 The situation of jazz in West Germany would still take long to improve. 1 Feb 2012. he was arrested in 1957 for "slandering the Freie Deutsche Jugend (Free German Youth) and the SED for having used jazz as a cover for political crimes.press. The Return of Jazz: Joachim-Ernst Berendt and West Germany Cultural Change.edu/pdf/0472113844-ch5. 1950's Many of the jazz musicians that populated the German scene after the war were. University of Michigan Press. Although. the situation was far less favourable for jazz and it would not be until the mid-fifties that some fierce advocates of jazz would achieve a few timid victories. Page 98. Searching for Proper New Music: Jazz in Cold War Germany. 36 In East Germany. a genuine music from the oppressed Afro-American and lower classes. thanks to its mixture with German folkloric music. due to some controversial choices such as performing jazz in Protestant churches and lecturing about jazz in West Germany."37 Jazz in West Germany. Poiger. clandestinely.umich. Source: https://www. He succeeded to the extent of the amount of repertoire he made fit into the Party's policy and managed to made publicly acceptable. performing jazz during the war. in a way or another. Page 90. defended what he called "authentic jazz". totally suitable for the German working class. Through the bureaucratic leniency brought by the turmoil of the uprising of 1953.pdf. brewed by a new generation of German jazz musicians. Rudorf saw the opportunity to expand the field for jazz. the Goethe Institut. . Reginald Rudorf was the most influential of them all. Rudorf was an important member of the East Germany Socialist Unit Party (SED) and through articles and conferences. Perhaps. but he still faced strong resistance in the beginning. 37Uta A. Jazz would have to wait until the 60's (much after the end of the occupation) to be accepted and even funded by West Germany's institutional cultural symbol. Berghahn Books. The 36Andrew Wright Hurley.

Adolf Hitler's chief architect. 40Ibid. with schedules of swing shows on BBC London and Radio Stockholm. where he worked as a bookkeeper. as previously mentioned. ProQuest. the Hot Jazz Frankfurt. Buchhalter der Träume.19 musicians of Charlie and his Orchestra. Rau got to know swing and modern jazz. he moved to Berlin with his half-brother and his wife. Rau often talked about his "rebirth" through jazz."41 38Ulrich Adelt. 39Idem. Ulrich Adelt. brings two more exemplary cases: Horst Lippmann and Fritz Rau. which he saw as an "embodiment of freedom. Black. in Frankfurt. . in his book Black. ad humanity. 68. his brother Walter Rau "owned a textile factory and was consultant for the military apparel (…) and was also good friend with Albert Speer. owners of the Hotel Continental. Adelt adds."39 The young Rau. According to Adelt. White and Blue: Racial Politics of Blues music in the 1960s. In Ultrich Adelt. also joined the Hitler Youth and wanted to fight the war for the Reich.38 Fritz Rau was an orphan of both parents since young age. ibid. in his father's restaurant and got arrested by the Gestapo after the latter acknowledged Lippmann's publication of a jazz newsletter. it was the "denazification of body and soul. Page 138-139. He founded an illegal jazz club. In 1940. Horst Lippmann was the son of a wealthy Jewish family. 41Rau quoted in Brigl and Schmidt-Joos. chamaleonically adapted themselves to the new reality in a Germany full of Americans and soon after zero hour. through radio sessions and a jazz club in Heidelberg. were already performing for the GIs. the polar opposite of what the National Socialism stood for". 2007. individuality. Page 138.40 After the end of the war. White and Blue: Racial Politics of Blues Music in the 60's.

According to Uta Poiger. jazz was promoting desegregation and freedom in West Germany. Dec. Adelt identifies a deliberated effort from Lippmann and Rau to denazify both East and West Germany through jazz. questioning the current mainstream view on jazz that it was "inherently democratic. it was clear that jazz would become a powerful political asset since the first moments after the end of the war. opening space for many young German jazz musicians. considering the bibliography gathered so far. Source: https://www. according to Adelt. No 4. John Hopkins University Press. American Quarterly. John Hopkins University Press." 42 In 1957. both in USA and in the occupied zone (still struggling with the stigma of 'low culture' among many white Americans and Germans). there is one thing that unifies them: "both experienced jazz as a tool of denazification and believed in its potential to augment the liberation of Germany." 45 Despite the very little institutional attention that jazz received in the early years of post-war. Singlehandedly. In a different book. American Quarterly. 2008. jazz is described as "the sound of freedom" a "symbol of individuality and optimism" 44 (a view emphasized by the American Cold War propaganda). jazz was already widely accepted by the "white middle-class" critics. In fact. 60.20 Although Lippmann's and Rau's stories bear little resemblance. the American 42Idem. 44Goethe Institut Website. Dec. for its antiracial and democratic features. 2008.html 45 Ulrich Adelt. 60. American Quarterly. Although on Goethe Institut's website. Page 952. Vol. In the 50's.de/en/kul/mus/gen/jaz/ruc/4932331. and feeding resistance musicians on the other side of 43 the Iron Curtain. . Page 139. No 4. it had more allies than the GIs and the Army Forces' radios. Vol. Lippmann and Rau started promoting their own jazz concerts. After 1945: Jazz in Germany.goethe. 43Ulrich Adelt. composers like Dizzy Gillespie would later point that the situation was far different in an America where Joseph McCarthy and Jim Crow were influential politicians and lawmakers.

University of California Press. Horst Lippmann and Fritz Rau tried to address to both problems at once. ProQuest. jazz had much wider public acceptance. 2009.21 entertainment industry (specially the movie industry. 47Ulrich Adelt. 48Idem. it could be soothed by placing the concerts in a concert hall with its musicians "wearing tuxedos".47 Lippmann and Rau realized that despite the resistance of the higher social strata to jazz. for the first edition of the spectacle. writes about his impressions on the Modern Jazz Quartet (one of the concerts he promoted). Page 139 49Ibid. . Dizzy Gillespie and Benny Goodman 1957. 49 Rau. Black White and Blue: Racial Politics of Blues Music in the 60's. 2000. but the numbers of jazz clubs and live jazz performance still did not attend the increasing demand from part of Western German society. there was still one issue to tackle: rejection from the upper-middle class. she stresses). For those who wanted to promote jazz in West Germany. in 1955. pressed government officials for deeper and wider insertion of American entertainment in Europe. Ella Fitzgerald. in his memoir 50 Years Backstage (50 Jahre Backstage). they organized projects like Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts of American businessman Norman Granz in West Germany. 46 German Jazz in the 60's: first effects of the denazification effort By the end of the 50's.48 According to Adelt. Granz helped Lippman and Rau to bring Oscar Peterson. but it would not be until the early 50's that American movies and popular music were available to a wide German audience. in Frankfurt: 46Uta Poiger. Rock and Rebels: Cold War Politics and American Culture in a Divided Germany. Since they started promoting jazz concerts together. Jazz. Leslie Young.

by Lippman and Rau. Switzerland. (…) It was our intention to alter the cultural landscape of Germany by promoting jazz. along three weeks. 50Fritz Rau. . France and England. Page 143-144. Page 139. "This seasoned blue musicians superbly illustrated the multi- faceted ways of performing the folk music of American Negro population. Powerful expression. blues also counted on the commercial interest of the American entertainment industry (consider the collaborative work between Lippmann and Rau and American businessmen). Even judges who had previously labelled Louis Armstrong as an evil Negro promoting uninhibited sexuality could not resist this sophisticated quartet that could easily live up to the quality of European classical concerts." 51 Like jazz. Austria. the Modern Jazz Quartet was the best way of demonstrating how to become liberated. a feeling for swing and improvisation but also naïveté and tendency for showmanship. 51Ibid."50 For Adelt. and we accomplished that. The first edition of the festival took place in 1962 and consisted on a tournee through symphony halls in Germany. ibid. when Rau talks about liberation. rough humour and grotesque are second nature of these people in a unique way that there is hardly any doubt after attending the concert that this music appeal to everybody and therefore not out of place in this country but this particular kind of music can only be performed by those who are inextricably linked with it: such coloured/colourful musicians as we were introduced to. You can't imitate them but you can learn a lot from them and their blues.22 "For us. 50 Jahre Backstage. a further attempt of "liberation" of German culture. About the recipe was kept for the creation of the American Folk Blues Festival. since it was being presented in a much familiar environment and manner. In: Ulrich Adelt. but blues was even a deeper contrast against the sentiment of superiority left by the Nazis. he means liberation from Nazi ideologies through jazz and the upper classes were finally open to it.

Ibid. Blues.23 Both promoters counted on the expertise of Joachim-Ersnt Berendt." 53 If jazz promoted social changes on an intellectual level.52 He visited several blues clubs during his four months stay in Chicago and decided to bring them to Europe. although still expressing the same ideas. blues meant a change on a behavioural level. Berendt would say about blues in a later publication. and while the first was more direct in emotions and musical structure. Blues: Ein Essay. 52Ibid. as seen by Berendt. . both seem to have stricken the remainder Nazi ideologies on its core: challenging the concepts of intellectual and moral superiority still embedded in some parts of German society. was the very origin of jazz. Adelt points to irony of blues being seen as a rough and "primitivized" precursor of jazz and still being accepted as a legitimate high art form. Blues: Ein Essay (1957): "The complete absence of any awkwardness in the way blues deal with love is almost shocking in the world of our European morality cliches (…) Blues has a superior unsentimental greatness and strength of emotion and passion that in this country we only know from works of 'great literature'. 53Joachim-Ernst Berendt. from 1952. who was already respected as a jazz specialist for his Jazz Book. Page: 140. as well as his radio and TV broadcasts of jazz.In: Ulrich Adelt. the latter was more sophisticated in both senses. Anyway.

the latter was a well-established festival since 1921 which resumed its activity in 1950. The former was created one year after the end of the war. Both events counted with the presence of names like Boulez. Varese. among others. a German musicologist living in Darmstadt who suggested to the city mayor the creation of a . John Cage. both harboured musical experiments that would change the classical musical production of the 20th century and both seem to have attracted little attention from the general audience. The idea for the Freiekurse came from Wolfgang Steinecke. The new generation of composers were to avoid any aesthetic resemblance with anything possibly war related.24 Darmstadt's Internationale Freikurse fur Neue Musik and Donaueschingen Festival The classical music's front The Darmstadt's Internationale Freiekurse fur Neue Musik (henceforth referred to as Freiekurse. Stockhausen. to avoid confusion with the broader meaning of "Darmstadt School") and the Donaueschingen Festival were summer courses for composers who intended to write "new music".

oxfordwesternmusic.xml 58Idem.com/view/Volume5/actrade-9780195384857-div1-001008. The Darmstadt school's Britain Invasion.theguardian. in 1946.58 In the effort to leave the war in the past. Schoenberg. not only composers with Nazi affiliations. it used to be compared "with the Congress for Cultural Freedom. In: Oxford History of Western Music.25 summer school to introduce the young composers to the music that were outlawed during the Nazi years. 54 The course would happen in the Kranichtein Hunting Castle and was partially funded by OMGUS. 55 Darmstadt was a city severely damaged the Allied bombing. Darmstadt. Webern and the atonalist principles) was thriving in the Freiekurse since its first years. in the early days of the Freiekurse. The Rest is Noise: Listening to the 20th Century. where about 80 percent of the buildings were 56 completely destroyed just one year before the first edition of the Freiekurse. (The difference was that the source of the Summer Courses’ financial support was never a secret. Bartok and Schoenberg . Farrar. Source: http://www. According to Richard Taruskin. which was secretly funded by the United States government's Central Intelligence Agency as an instrument of American foreign policy. Article published by The Guardian on 11 February 2010. Opus cit.such as Stravinsky. 2007. 59Alex Ross. . 57Taruskin. Strauss and Giroux. Richard. Source: http://www. 56Christopher Fox. a report from an official in charge of overviewing the Freiekurse in May 54Christopher Fox. Although the so called "new music" (mostly based in Hindemith. an anti-Communist organization headed by the composer Nicolas Nabokov.as well as experimenting with any kind of music that was not related to the wartimes. such as Richard Strauss. New York. but also Jean Sibelius.) "57 The young composers attending to the course were encourage to revisit composers and styles once forbidden by the Nazi censorship .com/music/2010/feb/11/darmstadt- music-school-ferneyhough-finnissy 55Alex Ross. whose name was associated with the Communists59. Opus cit.

he notes that "the over- emphasis on twelve tone music was regretted" 61.26 1949.de/swr2/festivals/donaueschingen/englische-version/history-chronological-table- festival-for-new-music-since- 1921/-/id=3503406/did=2150600/nid=3503406/56c7qd/index. He finishes his report hoping that the "next year’s Holiday Course for New Music must follow a different. Source: http://www.swr. the Music Officer Everett Helm. 62Idem. at a very modest fee. the Colonel Ralph Burns says about the concerts of the last days of the course that "it was generally conceded that much of this music of worthless and better been left unplayed"60. 64Donaueschinger Festival .63 The public reaction to the musical production in Donauschinger. 1 in Alex Ross. 64 As a counterpoint to Colonel Burns' opinion. more catholic pattern". According to him.html . who is stationed near Darmstadt excitedly commented on the Freiekurse. shows how uncomfortable the military government was with music produced there. this remarkable enterprise gives interested students. Colonel Burns also noticed a certain rivalry between the French attendants of the course (Pierre Boulez. Music Control Instruction N. opus cit. the opportunity to study with a very selected 60Office of Military Government. Page 266. On this report. United States (OMGUS) – Information Control Division. On the same document. Leibowitz (an Austrian by birth. Rene Leibowitz and Oliver Messiaen. this report can be taken as a testimony from an audience member and his reaction to the avant-garde music. would also be of scandal. just a couple of years later.History/Chronological Table. 63Idem. in his manuscript called "Letter from Germany: "Now in its third year. he stresses) led his students to adopt an indifferent and occasionally. If the musical knowledge of Colonel Burns might be questionable. offensive attitude towards the other students. leading several other aspiring composers) and the rest of their colleagues. Leibowitz only considered worthy "the most radical kind of music and openly disdainful to any other"62. 61Idem.

"65 In another very complimentary article. Page 39. New Allies: American Experimental Music in West Germany from Zero Hour to Reunification. 68CIA's Library. University of California Press. the avant-garde composers were regularly broadcasted throughout West Germany all over the year. this time for Musical America.67 Despite the public's reaction to the new music. The Congress was born from meeting. in New York's Waldorf Astoria (March. 66Idem. R. Origins of the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Source: https://www. since the Educational Department was demanding for highly intellectualized programs. Strauss and J. 1949-1950. Helm talks about other avant garde music initiatives around West Germany: "Germany since 1945 has been very probably the most open minded and progressive country in the musical world"66. in this meeting 65Amy C. Beal. Page 39-40. Page 39. New Music. the Donauenschingen Festival and the concerts of Musica Viva society in Munich "as a few brilliant examples of truly amazing amount of avant-gardist activity". 4 Jul 2006. 1949). it is important to understand the rather dubious origins of the Congress of Cultural Freedom. of non-Communist left wing intellectuals from varied fields. The Freiekurse and its role on the political stage The comparison made between the Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Freiekurse deserves careful examination.cia.27 faculty for a three weeks period.html .gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi- studies/studies/95unclass/Warner. Sibelius do not come into consideration. According to the CIA's website. Firstly. He quotes in this article the Freiekurse. 67Idem. Contemporary music only is taught and performed – and then only the more advanced varieties. advocating for world peace and against the hostilities between USA and USSR 68.

Source: http://monthlyreview. James Petras adds that the CIA had a vital role in the Congress for Cultural Freedom 's funding which was. by clandestinely sponsoring members of the meeting that later on became the Congress for Cultural Freedom. not only involved. to name a few. since Socialist views were popular in Europe and people with Democratic leaning would more easily oppose to the Stalinism. 71James Petras. The CIA and the Cultural War Revised.28 Aaron Copland. "an independent Socialist magazine" (as it says on the website). Washington did not take it for granted that the people in Western Europe would support democratic governments and that their states would effectively oppose the Soviet Union and support the United States." 70 According to James Petras. it was strategically a very clever move. However. in his own words: "a kind of cultural NATO that grouped together all sorts of “anti-Stalinist” leftists and rightists". the CIA (they admit it on their own website) was also. they deny that the intellectuals in their payroll were anyhow manipulated. to counterpoint radically different views on this issue. 70Idem.71 As strange as it may look at the first glance.72 I deliberately chose two different sources for this chapter: the CIA's website and the Monthly Review. Monthly Review.org/1999/11/01/the-cia-and-the-cultural-cold-war-revisited/ 72Idem. 69 Ironically. To help promote democracy and to oppose the Soviet Union and 69Idem. but directly intervening in the meeting. the CIA was interested in promoting the "Democratic Left" in Europe. Arthur Miller and Dimitris Shostakovich. "joined with European and Soviet delegates to repudiate 'US warmongering'". . The paragraph the CIA dedicates to American foreign policy in Western Europe deserves to be quoted in full: "To over-simplify the historical background: In the late 1940s. that they "simply helped people to say what they would have said anyway.

and European anti-communist publications receiving direct or indirect funding included Partisan Review.html 74James Petras. Because the CIA's activities were clandestine. 75Richard Taruskin. Dwight MacDonald.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi- studies/studies/vol46no1/article08. Encounter and many others. Mary McCarthy. including many intellectuals. only a few of the beneficiaries were witting of the Agency's support. and numerous others in the United States and Europe."73 James Petras. Kenyon Review."75 Perhaps. Ibid. on the Monthly Review. Among the intellectuals who were funded and promoted by the CIA were Irving Kristol. Robert Lowell.29 West European communist parties."74 According to Taruskin. although a large number suspected Agency involvement. Hannah Arendt. The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts And Letters. says: "U. Daniel Bell. . including Ignacio Silone. the massive presence of American composers in the first years of the Freiekurse led to the comparison between it and the Congress. In Europe. 73CIA's Library. the CIA was particularly interested in and promoted the “Democratic Left” and ex-leftists.cia.S. the CIA supported members of the non-communist left. Melvin Lasky. one of the main goals of the Freiekurse was to "to propagate American political and cultural values as part of the general Allied effort to reeducate the German population in preparation for the establishment of democratic institutions. Sidney Hook. and George Orwell. Arthur Koestler. Ibid. Source: https://www. Stephen Spender. Michael Josselson. It is important to remember that Aaron Copland had his compositions often performed in the Freiekurse. Raymond Aron. Anthony Crosland. Isaiah Berlin. Stephen Spender. New Leader.

October. Source: http://news. Whether they were influenced the by technoscientific worldview in vogue in the Post-War (consider the importance of scientists in the result of the WWII.com/node/10015908 . May 2005. Music. Music meets technology: Post-War Electronic Music and its contribution Many of the main composers attending to the Freiekurse (Luigi Nono. they were not only dealing differently with the same issue. with the atomic bomb 76Bill Morelock. but also in other radio station studios through West Germany. Karl- Heinz Stockhausen ad Edgard Varese. 2007. 76 The music produced in the Freiekurse during the years studied in this research (as example of what was happening in other festivals in Germany at the moment) received enthusiastic support from openly left-wing musicians and musicologists. meaning that it was too close to Western modernism. War and Politics Intertwined.publicradio. to name a few) were also involved with the electronic music experiments in the Westdeutscher Rundfunk (West German Radio) studios mainly. Shostakovich's music was accused by Stalin's censors of being "formalist". While Adorno attacked the "fascist roots" of tonal music. Source: http://www. who saw fascism in those composers who were still writing tonal music.org/features/2005/05/03_morelockb_unamerican/. 77The Economist.economist. had to stand before Joseph McCarthy's Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations on May 25.minnesota. Minnesota Public Radio. such as Theodor Adorno.77 It is important to notice that although music was seen as a political matter.30 was also known for his left-leaning views. At the same time. Conscience vs McCarthy: the political Aaron Copland. Both sides believed to be fighting fascism in a leftist way. composers under Stalinist USSR were encouraged to embrace it. but they also had radically different views on the same thing: Western modernism.

musical telegraph and constantly developing radio technologies suggested that a new way of making music was being created: a way that would be paved by the attempts of engineers to materialize the imagination of new composers. Music and Culture. were made available in radio stations and studios. those composers not only launched the bases for modern electronic music. 81Idem."81 In fact. Rutledge. 2001. the Theremin. 80 Like Edgard Varese said: "Speed and synthesis are characteristics of our own epoch. . Strange Sounds: Music. he approached Leon Theremin still in 1933. 79 Thomas Holmes. Sound recording inventions like the Telegraphone met the much more developed German system of magnetic tape recording which. According to Thomas Holmes. Recently created electronic instruments from America were brought to Europe during the occupation years. Psichology Press.31 and increasingly complex weaponry) 78 or by the simple curiosity of trying gadgets that were almost exclusively available for military purposes until then. asking him to build a new instrument for his piece Ecuatorial. Page 18. In fact. Technology and & Culture. the Allied Forces were surprised to find numerous tape recording machines in military installations. 78Timothy Dean Taylor. providing clear specification of pitch range and dynamics. 80Idem.79 Inventions like Thadeus Cahill's Telharonium. the composer and electrician will have to labour together to get it. May 2012. having no longer any military purposes. but also developed new tools and methods that would be proven essential in pop music recording studios. Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology. there were many inventions on music technology and sound recording only made available to musicians after the end of the war.

but apparently not in the way it originally intended and it took long until it proved itself . OMGUS' effort for denazification of West German society was successful. unfortunately. Although this research focused on the period between '45 and '55. Conclusion The main challenge of this dissertation was to encapsulate in a short frame of time the depth of the social transformation of West German society as well as all the players involved in this transformation. many were left unspoken in this work.32 Technologies like the aforementioned musical telegraph and the Telharmonium were combined with tape recording (a technology almost exclusively military until the end of the war). For this reason. the title of this chapter cannot be taken literally. like the jazz festivals sponsored by Goethe Institut in the mid 60's or the impact of the blues in the 70's. I included few of them for being consequences early policies but. opened the possibility of multi-track recordings. a recording method later used in virtually all music styles. some of the most expressive results of the reorientation attempt were only verifiable from the 60's on.

The festivals of new music changed deeply the music production not only of German and American composers. as the Bernstein's case exemplifies. but of composers from all over the world. so from a strategically point of view. exploring the music technology currently available and demanding for new instruments and recording techniques that would be largely used in studios later on. by then still in the experimental phase. classical music production changed so much that it became almost impossible to revisit any music that could faintly resemble the Nazi canon. with or without audience. Both sought to control every level of German artistic production. aiming to safeguard the audience against works corrupted by subversive material. Composers from the Freiekurse were also involved with electronic music. In fact. ousting enemies and ideologically undesirable personnel and laid a strong censorship. Although some of OMGUS' officers were unsettled by the sounds coming from those cities. offering an indirect and often neglected contribution to American folk music industry (and later. . American classical composers and musicians faced harsh rejection from their German colleagues. the music from Darmstadt and Donaueschingen failed to captivate the general audience at home. world music). the endeavour was successful. showing the intriguing flexibility of the concept of subversion. to record from orchestral works to pop music.33 fruitful. Still. which was so important for the reorientation plan. the sharp contrast between the current German musical production and the music deemed as desirable by Soviet standards seemed to be enough reason for those festivals to be supported by the American military government as a whole. in the aftermath their methods were remarkably similar. Regardless OMGUS' official position of not intervening in the German cultural life in a Nazi manner. from those festivals on.

The cultural exchange between German musicians and American jazz and blues composers was made possible by a collaborative work between German promoters and American impresarios. The prohibition of public jazz performances and bizarre initiatives like Charlie and His Orchestra did not wear out jazz' significance for its lovers and resistance musicians. Goebbels seemed to fear jazz more than any other foreign music and still. from musical art forms. jazz' role in the re-education was left to chance. When the new generation of German jazz musicians fused jazz with folkloric music in the 60's. Jazz was perhaps the most important contribution from Americans to the re-education and so far. became tools for mass denazification. I could not find a source confirming that it was actually planned. One in Germany. listening to jazz and its nature "antiracial" and "democratic". who had strong commercial interest to reach this new market avid for novelties. it slowly grew and took its place as a symbol of freedom and desegregation. The CIA clandestinely sponsored non- Communist left intellectuals and artists. Jazz and blues. it secured jobs for musicians emerging from the rubbles of the war via live performances and radio broadcasts. It is important to notice that even the strong rejection and censorship that jazz faced during and immediately after the war. like Horst Lippmann. as it was seen by the German people itself.34 There was also a gap between the image that American agencies (including the CIA itself) were broadcasting to West Germany and the reality at home. while the McCarthy Hearings were taking place in the Senate. they exorcized the last ghost from the Nazi period: xenophobia. . via festivals and several publications praising its musical quality and positive impact on a recently totalitarian and moralist country. could hardly guess they came from a country where Jim Crow's segregationist laws were still in force. watching the American movies. who was arrested by Gestapo for publishing jazz newsletters. Despite its rejection by the Germans listeners in the first moments.

Dec. It means that no art form can reach a “mainstream status” without being somehow legitimated by a central power and accepted by its elite. curiously fitting into Neoliberal policies of unlimited consumption and free market. which constantly elevates consumerism to a utopic life goal. if controlled by a central power in accordance with market interests. No 4. 2008. Bibliography Adelt. 60. American Quarterly. but it does not mean that there was no jazz production or there was no demand for jazz entertainment in the Reich.35 The main conclusion I drew from this research is that entertainment can be politically driven. It means that ideological propaganda is more easily overlooked when it is in our own side. Vol. . Some similarities can be drawn between the case studied here and today’s mainstream pop music. John Hopkins University Press. it is easy to find post-war movies where sinister geniuses listened to classical composers (often Germans) before carrying out their crimes. despite our outrage when we see an enemy doing it. censorship alone cannot ban a determined art form. Ulrich . If racism led the Nazis to execrate Black music (or any non-Arian music for that matter). Jazz was ousted from main live music venues and radios. As the case of jazz in the Nazi years exemplifies.

com/en/swinging-for-goebbels/a-1124275 Donaueschinger Festival . Amy C.html .com/music/2010/feb/11/darmstadt-music-school- ferneyhough-finnissy Goethe Institut Website. Origins of the Congress for Cultural Freedom.html FACKLER.theguardian.bbc. ProQuest. The Darmstadt school's Britain Invasion. Christopher. Amy C. CIA's Library. Mike. Hitler's very own hot jazz band. After 1945: Jazz in Germany. 1949-1950. May 17.de/en/kul/mus/gen/jaz/ruc/4932331. The Army. pp. Black. Ulrich.uk/1/hi/uk/4131696.com. 2007. Source: https://www. Jazz under the Nazis. 2003). The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts And Letters. Source: https://www. BEAL. American Music. University of California Press. New Music.swr. 21. University of Illinois Press. Source: https://www. Swinging for Goebbels. Vol.org/politics-and-propaganda/third-reich/jazz-under- the-nazis/ FOX. No. Treason in Uk: recent cases.goethe. White and Blue: Racial Politics of Blues Music in the 60's. Source: http://news. 474-513.History/Chronological Table.co.stm BEAL.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi- publications/csi-studies/studies/vol46no1/article08.ort. 2003.smithsonianmag. BBC News.com/history/hitlers-very-own-hot-jazz- band-98745129/?no-ist Deutsche Welle . Source: http://holocaustmusic. Culture.cia. New Allies: American Experimental Music in West Germany from Zero Hour to Reunification. Guido. Source: http://www.cia.de/swr2/festivals/donaueschingen/englische- version/history-chronological-table-festival-for-new-music-since- 1921/-/id=3503406/did=2150600/nid=3503406/56c7qd/index. Article published by The Guardian on 11 February 2010.html CIA's Library. Source: http://www.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi- publications/csi-studies/studies/95unclass/Warner. 2012. Source: http://www.dw.html DASH. 4 (Winter. Source: http://www.36 ADELT. the Airwaves and the Avant-Garde: American Music in Post-War Germany. 4 Jul 2006. Smithsonian.

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