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6 Pneumatic and Flash Drying

Article · November 2006
DOI: 10.1201/9781420017618.ch16


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Avi Levy
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev


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............... biotechnology......2..................................................5. 401 16.......1 INTRODUCTION and are also known as convective dryers........ ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group......... Well-designed modern drying eq................................................... Pneumatic or flash dryers may be classified as gas–solid transport Drying is a separation process that converts a wet solid................ 405 16.............................1 Hydrodynamic Models........2 Basic Operation Principle and Applications of Flash Dryers .................... food......................... high drying capacity..... 404 16..................5. or liquid feedstock into a solid product by ive heat and mass transfer processes...4 Materials Dried in Flash Dryers ............. In direct process are phase change and production of a solid..... The carbon dioxide.5 Modeling and Simulations of Pneumatic and Flash Dryers .. Drying is extremely energy-intensive The large surface area for heat and mass transfer and in many cases has important implications as and the high convective heat and mass transfer coef- the thermal energy needed for drying is obtained by ficients...........................4 Heat and Mass Transfer . dryers is the relatively short contact time between One of the most widely used drying systems is the hot air and the particulate materials (0............5–10 s) flash drying and is also known as pneumatic drying.................... 407 16.....................1 Rocha Models......... 399 16... and wood process.................. result in high combustion of fossil fuels.......5............................5..........................................................................................5.... Because of this the material Flash dryers are most commonly direct drying units temperature stays always low in the drying process.... Super- Drying is an essential operation in the chemical...5........... leading to emission of drying rates and as a result........................ 409 References ..... ing industries..2...................................................1...... size of particulates to be dried is usually in the range uipment with high thermal efficiencies is becoming of 10–500 mm............... flash dryers............................................................2.....5....................... ............ One of the features of these types of increasingly important........... 405 16......................................................... and carries away the evaporated moisture... systems that are characterized by continuous convect- semisolid............................. 397 16.........................................................5........................................................ 406 16..........5...................... This gas stream (drying hard to find a product in daily use that has not medium) also supplies the heat required for drying undergone drying as a stage of its manufacture.. heated steam can also be used as drying medium agricultural.. 409 16......................... 402 16...................... it is with the material to be dried....................... Essential features of the drying common drying medium in these systems..2.......6 Expected New Developments in Flash Dryers.............................. Pneumatic and Flash Drying 16 Irene Borde and Avi Levy CONTENTS 16......................3 The Energy Equations ............. 403 16........... 398 16....................................2 DryPak Model ..................3 Design of Flash Dryers ........ LLC.... the gas stream transports the solid par- Thermal drying is one of the most important unit ticles through the system............................... pulp and paper.....................2 Two-Fluid Model Balance Equations .......................................... higher product quality.....................................................1.... which take place at these units................3 Case Study............ Hot air pro- evaporation of the liquid into a vapor phase with the duced by indirect heating or direct firing is the most application of heat................................................................ 404 16.....1 Introduction ........................ 405 16...... at the drying section....... polymer...................... yielding sometimes to higher efficiencies and often to pharmaceutical................... 406 16................ Indeed................................. and makes direct contact operations in most industrial sectors..........................................2 The Momentum Equations ........1 The Continuity Equations .................. ceramic..........

recirculation The gas velocity must be greater than the free fall of the material is used. Flash dryers are used in various branches tenance cost is low. not all material particles have the same Wet material inlet residence time in the dryer [1]. . result the residence time of the particles will not be the Thermal contact between the conveying air and the same. The capital costs are low in comparison with other types of dryers. pasty. . In some cases this disadvantage can be avoided using superheated steam as a drying agent. and mining industries. . which facilitates in- transport in a hot gas stream (usually air or combus. There is a risk of fire and explosion. system in which particulate solids are dried during Vertical type of construction. However. In general. pharmaceutical. gypsum. the drying duct. especially when recirculation is ap- plied. For this purpose cyclone dust sep.1 shows a simple pneumatic flash drying almost trouble free. The low mate- ing to low temperatures of the dried material and rial content in the dryer enables equilibrium indicate that flash dryers are particularly useful for conditions to be reached very quickly. and powdery prod. the wet material circular and uniform cross section. electrostatic precipitators. The tube may be heated fed into the hot gas stream sometimes with special through the wall to keep up the temperature of the gas. the dryer cannot be used for toxic materials. Short contact time and parallel flow make able for removal of internal moisture. .16. Feeder In order to achieve efficient pneumatic drying pro- Air inlet cess. and fabric filters are used. drying Dry is impossible to carry out in this apparatus. the gas pollution control. Due to small number of moving parts the main- ucts. deposition. . It must comply with the regulations for be installed outside a building. the feeder. etc. The gas cycles of different particles may be different and as a velocity in relation to the particle velocity is high. In conclusion the advantages of flash dryers are solids as mentioned above is usually very short and the following: therefore flash dryers are most suitable for removal of external moisture (surface moisture) and are less suit. cleaning system should be located inside the arators. High efficiency of gas cleaning system is required. . Bag filter Air outlet . drying granular.2 BASIC OPERATION PRINCIPLE AND of the chemical. tube may diverge and converge and may have sudden and a dried product collector. Simultaneous drying and transportation is useful for materials handling process. wet building in order to avoid moisture and dust scrubbers.1 Simple flash drying system. The dryer needs only a very small area and can installed. gas should be the minimum necessary to achieve the ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the drying process a dust separation arrangement is . The dryer is easy to control. APPLICATIONS OF FLASH DRYERS wood. . The simple flash drying system includes flash drying systems. so care must be taken to avoid flammability limits in the dryer. . The wet particles are expansions and contractions. fabric filters. High rates of evaporation in flash dryers are lead. The tube of most flash dryers is of six basic components: the gas heater. LLC. The stream flows up the drying tube. exhaust fan. the air velocity should be as low as possible to Heater achieve materials transport. In order to shorten the drying time. Because of powder emission. the separator. the mass flow rate of the FIGURE 16. For lumped materials difficult to disperse. ceramic. crystalline. The disadvantages of flash dryers are as follows: . In this case the number of velocity of the largest particle to be dried. mixing devices. is advantageous for the tion gases). Flash dryers are simple in construction and have low capital cost and they are Figure 16. stallation in existing buildings. . product . In some cases. At the end of possible to dry thermolabile materials.

the design consists of execution of the fol. rotating disperser [4]. stage by a special feeding system. a screw feeder or a rotary valve may be used effectively. sling. Mass balance the drying time. fabric fil- . dryer should allow to achieve thermal equilibrium sometimes with mixing devices arranged upstream between the gas and the solid [2]. and cost.specified drying rate. flash dryer tube. Wet product bin. 7. . Wet material is supplied to the first taken of the gas-heating unit. Pasty or sticky mater- 16. are separated in the upper part of the dryer. each product to mainly on the material characteristics. content of solids. LLC. and the construction of the shown in Figure 16. after passing through the first stage. different types of cyclones with different efficiencies. With permission. . concentration of solids. Metering and feed elements.3 DESIGN OF FLASH DRYERS ials need to be preconditioned by blending them with dried product using single.or twin-shaft paddle The materials dried in flash dryers have different blender and then dispersed mechanically using a properties and each product requires specific design kicker mill or one of the several other designs of solutions. fall down. the material is recirculated. moisture dryer a rapid decrease of drying force along the tube content. 1998.2 [3]. It depends on the initial and final re. The solid .) takes place. The design of a dryer with internal pipe through which hot drying agent is flowing leads to an Basically. Requirement of energy supply There are different possibilities of modifications of . etc. Momentum balance ure 16. For instance in a simple flash and material to be dried (temperature. velocity.3 a two-stage system is presented [3]. Usually a combination of . etc. 4. 3. and are directed to By design of the whole drying system. 6. Choose the type and amount of drying agent separation units is applied. quired moisture. Another possibility to lowing steps: increase the drying force is to heat up the tube of the dryer through the wall. the particle separation section. temperature sensitivity. 2. the temperature of the hot gas The feed system has to be carefully chosen and should be as high as possible without exceeding limits designed in order to supply the wet material into the imposed by the thermal sensitivity of the solids or dryer at the required rate.2 Typical feed systems for pneumatic flash dryers. Determination of heat and mass transfer co. metering. Each drying stage in tion. The drying agent from the second drying stage is fed 1 6 1 6 1 6 3 2 7 2 4 5 (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 16. the material feed sec. Dimensions of flash dryer ters. disc feeder. In Fig- . which efficients has the form of a vertical tube. For free- flowing powdery solids. recirculated product. required de- be dried requires an optimum solution of the problems gree of separation. mixer. Typical feed systems are safety considerations. (From Flash Dryer. increase of the driving force. Inlet and outlet parameters for the drying agent simple flash dryers. collection system. and the product the system is equipped with its own heat generator. Heat balance In order to decrease the dryer height and increase . particles. Finally. environmental regulations. and wet scrubbers. Design procedure of dryers has to find: In utilization are mainly: gravity separators. size and The selection of gas–solid separators is based shape of the particles. 1. . care must be the second stage. Babcock-BSH GMBH. Deutsche Babcock. moisture involved (efficiency and product quality). lead the wet product into the flash dryer. 5.) ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10.) ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conventional drying rates [5]. 4. (From Devahastin. (From Flash Dryer. 7. e.4 Spin-flash dryer.g. short-time ring dryers are used in the food industry A second drying stage can also be used as a cool. Mujumdar’s Practical Guide To Industrial Drying—Principles. Montreal. which enhances products difficult to dry. fan. Canada. 1998. Two-stage flash dryers can be used for carrots to give a rigid porous structure. heat generator. dryer tube.3 Two-stage pneumatic dryer with vapor utilization. cyclones. S. Wet product. Ref. For instance high-temperature Separation is by means of cyclone separators. 9. Deutsche Babcock. This system is particu.4 presents a spin-flash dryer that can be stage systems may be different and as a result the utilized for some special applications. predried product discharge. . 2. 2000. 1. Hence it is targeted for surface moisture Exhaust air Fan Bag filter Drying chamber Wet feed Orifice Feed hopper and agitator Dried solids Solids feeder Inlet air Air heater Rotor Hot air plenum Annular air inlet FIGURE 16. Equipment And New Developments. vapor return line. dried product discharge. Exergex Corporation. LLC. 11. waste gas stack. for methylcellulose. As described in resistance time of the particles will not be the same. 6. With permission. primary air inlet.. 3. (Ed. 5. 8. Figure 16. [4] the spin-flash dryer is basically a mechanically For longer resistance times the duct can be formed agitated fluidized bed device for very short resi- into a continuous loop (ring dryers). With permission. In these systems dence times. Babcock-BSH GMBH. to expand the starch cell structure in potatoes or ing stage. required humidity.). 11 4 4 5 6 7 10 9 1 8 3 3 2 2 4 FIGURE 16.) back to the first drying stage. cyclone separator. The number of cycles of different particles in two. the material is recirculated until it is dried to the larly efficient if the drying agent is superheated steam.

Care must be taken to FIGURE 16. cyclones. pastes. 6. mining. pharmaceutical. which separates the powder from the exhaust air. 2 3 Heavier wet particles remain within the drying cham- ber for a longer time and are broken up by the rotor. the powder from the slurry is produced. fabric filter. filter cakes. Deutsche Babcock. Leaks are pro. etc. and wood industries. stage in a complex system with a rotary calcining The limitations of using superheated steam as drying unit [3]. Babcock-BSH Flash dryers using superheated steam as drying GMBH. As can be seen in Figure 16. Sometimes the potato granules [5]. 1. flash dryer.5 Flash dryer as a drying stage. for catalyst compounds energy recovery by condensation or compression of and other products. The particles are containing surface moisture can be dried in flash coated thinly by the slurry and dried rapidly as a thin dryers. The feeding and discharge pro- cess must not allow infiltration of air and start-up 16. ceramic. 1 sive because of the need for an atomizer). food. drum dryer. Antibiotics. Flash dryers are successfully collisions. Drying of heat-sensitive products in this type film. pow- As mentioned by Devahastin [4] more recently dery. In the food phosphate. the exhaust steam. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. ammonium sulfate and bed cooler. high viscosity liquids.) medium instead of air have some advantages such as no fire or explosion risk and higher efficiency (if exhaust steam is utilized elsewhere in the process). Flash dryers are suitable for drying granular. indirectly heated rotary calciner. salt. As mentioned flash dryers consisting of inert media have been above the residence time of the particles in the dryer is employed at pilot scales to dry slurries and suspen. With permission. 4. 3. a rotor. very short that leads to the fact that only products sions. and crystalline products. LLC. Due to particle–particle interactions. cooler. which falls into the agitated fluidized 4 bed by gravity. and industry flash dryers are often used after spray drying boric and adipic acids are common examples of chem- to produce foods that have a lower moisture content icals and by-products. provides sufficient heat utilization and is used by hibited as noncondensables cause problems with Babcock BSH for instance. This type of dryer can be a re- placement for the more expensive spray dryer (which needs more thermal energy because the feed is wetter due to the pumpability requirements and also expen. 6 merous materials have been dried successfully in such 7 units at capacities up to 10 tons/h.4. Hot drying air enters the chamber tangentially and spirals upward. (From Flash Dryer. particle of dryers is very useful. Nu. which are sprayed onto them. placed at the bottom of the chamber. 1998. dicalcium phosphate. carrying and drying the dispersed particles. The spin-flash dryer units are more expensive than the conventional flash or fluidized bed dryers. on the walls due to stickiness. copper fluidized bed dryer (batch or continuous) or fluidized sulfate. process. . final product discharge. It is well known that in air-drying units the latent heat than normal like special milk or egg powders and in exhaust gases is difficult to recover. Some of the materials Flash dryers can be used as a drying stage in more dried in flash dryers as described by Kisaku¨rek [6] are: complex systems for instance as a predrying stage to a Magnesium sulfate. is used to dis- perse the feed. without the use of an atomizer. 5. calcium carbonate and phosphate. pulps. Such arrangement of the system are more complex. spray dryer. magnesium carbonate.removal. blood clot. Wet product ensure that there is no danger of product accumulation feed. pasty. Thus only dried fine powder can escape to the gas 5 separation system.5 a flash dryer is used as a drying dryers is superior in comparison to air-drying units. and shrinkage of the film in the drying used in the chemical. The exhaust air containing the dried powder is entering into a separation device. The drying agent in the flash dryer is indir- medium are that the system itself and the operation ectly heated in the calcining unit.4 MATERIALS DRIED IN FLASH DRYERS and shutdown processes are more complex than for air dryers. 2. It is suited for drying sludge. quality of the dried product in superheated steam In Figure 16.

and energy for both the gas and the eling the flow through pneumatic and flash dryers.21]. gypsum. velocity is sufficient to ensure that the majority of The second approach is based on theoretical and the particles are suspended in the conveying gas. were extended to model the flow in pneu. copper oxide. z) of the computational tions for specific dryer and dried products. models. multiplied by the solid loading ratio and a corrected Cement. port systems. Both the two- matic and flash dryers by including heat and mass fluid theory and the Eulerian granular theory are transfer between the particles and the conveying gas. com. coal dust. spent tea.bonemeal. two additional common mathematical modeling for conveying of various assumptions are needed. corn gluten. [13] suitable operating conditions for the chosen method and Bradley et al. Pan and Wypych [12]. two approaches can be used for mod. namely two-fluid theory [18]. In order to estimate the moisture content of the ated in order to use it as a design tool. mathematical model should be experimentally valid. Based on these assumptions. L1 Dpg ¼ 4f r U2 (16:3) D2 g g 16. It should be noted that traditionally. a variety of semiempirical correlations is considered as a pseudofluid. aniline dyes. vegetable pro. chlorinated friction factor as follows: rubber. meat pressure drop as a function of the gas pressure drop residue. Reliable particle at the dryer outlet. Pan and Wypych [12] employed a modified casein. soup powder.5 MODELING AND SIMULATIONS OF ls m _s PNEUMATIC AND FLASH DRYERS a¼ (16:4) 4f m _g Mathematical modeling is a very important aspect in drying technology. Eulerian granular [19]. [15] for estimating the pressure of drying and if necessary apply scale-up procedures drop caused by bends in the pneumatic transport [7]. Frequently method employs the kinetic theory of rarify gases to these models consider the total pressure drop as the model the granular phase properties. solid phases. viscosity. the various eling the gas–particle flows in the pneumatic dryer. gravy powder. Flash dryers are widely used in the plastic and polymer industries. particle’s exit temperature similar to the gas tempera- tems was developed and validated during the last ture. LLC. such as pressure. which were developed for pneumatic trans. the transport solved [16. whereas the two-fluid the- ory uses macroscopic correlations to model similar Dp ¼ Dpg þ Dps (16:1) properties for the solid phase. cornstarch. y. and the solid particles are occupying and Wojahn [9]. [13]. et al.1 by expressing the solids tein. In a dilute phase flow. occupying any point (x. and flour are examples of food products. Unlike these theories. As a ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A correlation may then be derived which the gas phase is assumed as the continuous for the solids pressure drop component. in flowing in the pipe.17]. granular was used to simulate both dense and dilute sure drop is measured and the gas pressure drop phase flows. The solid phase approach. . and silica gel catalyst are typical by-products and Dp ¼ (1 þ a)Dpg (16:2) minerals that can be dried in a very efficient way in flash dryers. bread crumbs. sum of gas and solids pressure drop components: temperature. allowing the engineer to choose A similar approach was adopted by Mason et al. etc. where the total pres. and Mason discrete points in the computational domain. iron oxide. wheat starch. and discrete element method [20.. mathematical modeling for gas–particle flows. Examples of phase. blowing agents. version of Equation 16. The main difference [12–14] for estimating the pressure drop have been between these theories is that the Eulerian granular proposed for gas–solids flow in pipes. In general. In this domain with its own volume fraction. It should be kept in mind that the developed system. namely isothermal flow and powders in a dilute phase pneumatic conveying sys. soybean protein. various macro- three decades [8–11]. It is assumed that both phases are The first approach is based on empirical correla. scopic mass and energy balance equations can be monly referred as a suspension flow. Three Since the particles in pneumatic and flash dryers are types of theoretical approaches can be used for mod- conveying in a suspension mode of flow. the discrete elem- component is evaluated by assuming that only gas is ent method is an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. the two-fluid theory was widely This type of relationship is usually employed in the used to model dilute phase flow whereas the Eulerian analysis of experimental data. which occupies every point in the computa- this type of approach are the work of Muschelknautz tional domain. based on macroscopic balance equations of mass. momentum.

Kemp and was then solved numerically and satisfactory agree. equilibrium humid. [30] and Levy and Borde [31]. and both solid and fluid temperatures. ity. . proach and gas–particle interactions from the basic Blasco and Alvarez [26] and Alvarez and Blasco hydrodynamic models for the flow of a single particle [27] considered the application of flash drying to through a conveying phase. during which condensation takes place. This modeling needs large amount of appropriate coefficients of convective heat and mass memory and CPU time in order to solve real prob.and countercurrent dispersion-type Similar model was presented by Tanthapanichakoon dryers. the drying of sand in a pneumatic dryer. heat and mass balance. experimental data. Using the film theory [28]. The results dictions were compared with the experimental results ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS was neglected. one-dimensional model was solved. heat and mass transfer. In order to simplify their model.. Equations for particle motion. Their model was solved numeric. Andrieu and Bressat postcritical drying period. Similar observations were obtained content were failed. Using a pulse technique [16] presented a simple model for pneumatic drying of under isothermal conditions. and mass balance equations were formu- port of heat and mass from the solid phase to the lated. water occurs in a constant rate period. the rela. the empirical param- PVC particles. Since Mindziul and Kmiec [23–25] investigated the aero. the moisture content of the particles was comparisons for the solid temperature and the water underestimated. and energy balance of the numerical calculations were partially compared equation should be solved for each particle within the with experimental data and the influence of the fric- computational domain. heat and mass and Srivotanai [22]. by Baeyens et al. namely relative velocity. fully developed flow. and drying evaporation temperature and that evaporation of free rates in vertical tubular pneumatic conveying dryers. their relations. no full-scale three-dimensional problem has been The conveying superheated steam was assumed to solved yet by using the discrete element method.consequence. the effect of the mass transfer on the heat transfer coefficient Many researches adopted one of the above-mentioned was considered. As a result. In order to phase and momentum equations for the solid phase overcome this problem. Their pre- wall friction factor has been investigated. it is not therefore surprising that the dryer.e. mo- develop or to use macroscopic modeling for the trans. The model was neglected. Heat. gas and particle velocities. Hence. and the effect of particle shape on the drag humidity. Dilute phase transport of homogeneous ra- lems. there is no need to moisture removal of fish and soya meals. Their mathematical model was based on the proximity of other particles in the conveying system continuity equation for both the gas and the solid reduces the heat and mass transfer rates. feed agglomeration written for six unknowns. and good agreement was presented. However. Although the drying apparatus was ments between their numerical simulations and the composed of three elements with varying cross. This method is able to take tion factor on the pressure. solid temperature is uniform and equal to the particle motion. The predictions of the model and the particles. were then compared with their experimental data they assumed that the flow is unidirectional. i.5. dial monosize particle distribution was considered. near the feed point. heat. simulating co. The model was solved numerically with conveying gas. Their tions were solved simultaneously over a small one- comparison between the experimental data and their dimensional increment along the dryer. factor. transfer. of the apparatus have been presented. into account various types of particle–particle and voidage and residence time of particle along the axis wall–particle interactions from the basic dynamic ap. solid moisture content. transfer. LLC. be an ideal gas. the heat transfer correlations were obtained for a dynamics of the gas–solid flow in a pneumatic flash single particle. air effects. and local gas condi- ally and compared to their experimental data. Using the model predictions showed large scattering for the gas Ranz–Marshal and modified Weber heat transfer cor- temperature and absolute humidity. Based on their The model was one dimensional and it took into simplifying assumptions. Oakley [17] extended this model and employed it for ment with their experimental results was obtained. momentum. A variable diffusivity model was util- approaches and modified it to include various aspects ized for the prediction of the drying rate during the of the pneumatic drying process. Their model was based on elementary eters of the variable diffusivity model were experi- momentum. 16. Kemp and Oakley [17] ap- and the solid–gas mixture. sectional area. Heat and mass transfer plied a fitting mode procedure to achieve good agree- were neglected. The flow pattern at the inlet. which include millions of particles. mentum. mass. tive velocity is a function of the buoyancy and drag Kemp et al. six balance equations were account particle–wall interaction. The initial period for heating the particles. Silva and Correa [32] used DryPak for simulating The effect of various empirical correlations for solid. [29] presented a theoretical model for forces. and mass transfer between the fluid mentally determined.

with the prediction of our and energy balance equations were formulated for numerical simulation revealed better agreements the mixture and the solid phase. The drying process was solved. heat transfer controls evaporation models and their assumptions are given below. and particles shrinkage the influence of mass transfer on the heat transfer were considered. . although it was not used in the a layer of uniform concentration on the cyclone wall study of Silva and Correa [32]. temperatures. Comparison be- erties and geometry at a pipe cross section.and the two models of Rocha [33]. Based on the Rocha and DryPak [34]. mass. phase to the ambient. water content. pared the predictions of their numerical simulations Levy and Borde [35] adopted the two-fluid theory with experimental results and claimed that the most for modeling the flow of particulate materials through influencing parameters on the predictions are the par- pneumatic dryer. transfer coefficients. wall temperature. The model was solved for a one. turbulent gas–solids flow. which were considered by Rocha for gas and solid velocity. whereas in the second model (Model b). Although Rocha with experimental results of Baeyens et al.5. oped model was solved numerically and two operat- nonhygroscopic spherical particles. The main differ. Silva and Nerba [37] com- numerical results of Rocha [33]. internal resistance to heat and mass trans. with the exception that in DryPak adiabatic were solved numerically using a finite difference flow conditions were assumed. The devel- were considered: steady-state one-dimensional flow. The mathematical model considered coefficient. The correlation of with DryPak than with the models of Rocha. the evaporation process of the liquid from a The basic difference between both models is related to particle assumed to be governed by diffusion through conservation equation of momentum. momentum. the following assumptions reaches the exit of the pneumatic dryer. The Ranz and Marshall was used for calculating the heat results of the developed model were also compared and the mass transfer coefficients. DryPak can take into account particles symmetric. plug flow for both phases. force effect on the particles was neglected. sented and Ackermann correction was used to include particle–wall heat transfer. from the saturated outer surface of the particle to the surrounding gas.5. no shrinkage dur. The gravity shrinkage. adiabatic and given pneumatic dryer ing drying. Rocha and Paixa˜o [36] presented a pseudo two- dimensional mathematical model for a vertical pneu- 16. to the drying process of wet PVC particles in a large. DryPak used the Frossling equa. work done tween the prediction of the numerical models of between the phases was neglected. A two-stage drying process was implemented. the particles 16. axi- models. medium. is assumed to stop when the moisture content of a conservation of momentum for each phase was particle falls to a predefined value or when the particle solved. LLC. and pressure. This model was not validated mass transfer and modification of the heat and mass with experimental results. At the second stage. Fyhr and scale pneumatic dryer and to the drying process of Rasmuson [39.1 Rocha [33] Models were assumed to have a wet core and a dry outer crust. ticle slip conditions and the material shrinkage during dimensional steady-state condition and was applied the drying process. no specific model was presented.1. incompressible. [33].2 DryPak Model [34] matic dryer. were simulated.40] and Cartaxo and Rocha [41] used wet sand in a laboratory-scale pneumatic dryer. Silva and Correa [32] and a very small concentration in the central flow. It should be noted that unlike Rocha [33] a steady state. two-dimensional. As evaporation proceeds. ing conditions. an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. Silva and Correa [32]. uniform prop. Axial and radial profiles were considered All the assumptions. the wet core tion for the fluid as a mixture of fluid and particles shrinks whereas the particle dries. which were presented by above-mentioned assumptions. Other differences method and the distributions of the flow field charac- were in the way of calculating the area for heat and teristics were presented. Their model was based on the two-fluid approach. Slip condition of particles on the wall. The par- fer. in which the gas ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Silva and Nerba [37] also used the two-fluid ap- tion for calculating the Nusselt number. In the ences between the DryPak and Rocha mathematical first drying stage. The balance equations tions. Different proach and presented a mathematical model of drying types of heat and mass transfer analogies were pre. the momentum conservation equa. Unlike the above-mentioned models. were also considered in DryPak balance equa. [30] and [33] introduced a heat transfer term from the fluid Rocha [33]. concluded that predictions of DryPak produced The discretized balance equations were solved by the better agreements with experimental data than the SIMPLE algorithm [38]. In the first the particle crust and by convection into the gas model (Model a). For both models.1. in cyclone. and moisture content profile inside the particle ticles were assumed to be spherical and distributed in could be obtained. porosity.

Another common as- Another two-dimensional. heat and mass transfer between the phases were not considered).2. described by gated (i. and the Patel and Cross [44] for modeling gas–solid fluidized ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. a parametric study was conducted.1 The Continuity Equations Mkj ¼ K(Vk  Vj ) þ Pk r«k (16:10) The continuity equation for the k-phase is given by The interphase momentum transfer term can be de- @ rived from correlation developed to model fluidi- («k rk ) þ r  («k rk Vk ) ¼ Sk (16:5) zation processes. @ gle particle flow and drying models were solved inter. the heat transfer rate de. mass. written as a sum of the sheared gas pressure and the ject-oriented numerical model was developed to simu. An ob. These equations are based [42.phase is assumed as the continuous phase and the velocity vector of the k-phase. mo. Steady-state sin..5. is less than few percent.14 m vertical tube with 7. «k. As with experimental results.e. Thus the effective normal stress late the conveying of large spherical particles (3 mm) of the solid phase is described by through 9. desired final moisture content. As the 1 j 1j ¼ þ (16:7) particle size was increased. constant solid density may be as- ation. Thus the gas pressure–density relation is work. This form has been employed by and Vk are the volume fraction. Ps ¼ rg R Tg þ sn0 («s =«s0 )1=b (16:9) 16. they concluded that less permeable wood species or larger where j is the liquid mass ratio in the particle and rw chips size leads to longer dryer in order to obtain the and rsi are the densities of the liquid and the solid. The internal re. sumed to simplify the model. One- dimensional plug flow was assumed. a consequence. Particle–particle interactions were neglected. The mass source term solid particles are occupying discrete points in the of the k-phase is Sk and to maintain the conservation computational domain. since the range of solids @t concentrations experienced in pneumatic transport where k-phase can be the gas or the solid phase.5.2. («k rk Vk ) þ r  [«k rk Vk Vk ] @t actively. The calcu. the Eulerian governing equations for stress for solid volume fraction «s0 and b is a constant the pneumatic drying process are presented in their coefficient over a given range of contact pressure three-dimensional form. The predictions of the temperature and the pressure profiles as well as Generally. only the dynamic phenomenon was investi. 16. Thus the influence of the mo. ¼ r  [«k  k ]r(«k Pk ) þ «k rk g þ Mkj þ Sk Vs The irregular movement and the nonsphericity shape of the wood chips were accounted by measuring (16:6) drag and heat transfer coefficients. the variation of the solid’s density. discrete element model sumption is that the conveying air behaves as an was presented by Cartaxo and Rocha [41]. The interphase momentum transfer is represented by 16. In this ideal gas. solids contact stress.43].40] presented a two- dimensional model for superheated steam drying of The momentum equation for the k-phase is given by wood chips in a pneumatic conveying dryer.2 TWO-FLUID MODEL BALANCE EQUATIONS where sn0 is a particular value of the solids contact In the following. of mass Sg ¼  Ss.5. . on the two-fluid approach [18]. which the final moisture content of bark chips agreed well composes the wet particle. Hence. systems is similar. mentum. Based on the model valid. rs rw rsi creases and the residence time increases. expressed as sistance to mass transfer becomes a dominant factor in the drying of less permeable wood chips.62 cm bore size. and energy balance equations were solved for each particle within the computational domain. rk. LLC. Thus by using the mix- lation showed that the drying rate varies in a very ture theory the density of the dispersed phase can be complex manner through the dryer.2 The Momentum Equations Fyhr and Rasmuson [39. Pg ¼ rg R Tg (16:8) mentum coupling between the discrete particles and the conveying air on the air radial velocity and the The effective normal stress of the solids phase may be mass concentration profiles were presented. As a consequence. the density. which compose the particle.

Hence. which are The particle Reynolds number is given by defined as follows: rg ds («g jVg  Vs j) Re ¼ (16:14) rg jur jds mg cpg mg Re ¼ .1 presents common empirical phases or by applying a model of a Newtonian fluid correlations that have been used in the literature to for the gas phase and a granular shear stress for the calculate the heat transfer coefficient in gas–particle solid phase [19]. difference between that of the conveying gas and phase friction coefficient is usually based upon the that of the particle surface (i. by using the Ergun [45] equation 16. qk is the heat flux.3 The Energy Equations 6« Sg ¼ m _s (16:19) The conservation of energy in multiphase application pds3 can be written as an enthalpy equation for each phase: The drying model for a single wet particle and slurry droplet is based upon a two-stage drying process @ [48. may be computed the temperature of the solid particles). in the momentum equa- Note that kg. hgs. where hm is the convective mass transfer coefficient. tions for the k-phase might be calculated by using the viscosity. is given The convective heat transfer coefficient. m volumes adjacent to the pipe wall [11. this resistance is between the gas and the ¼ «k þ  k : rVk  r  qk þ Qk þ Qkj þ Sk hkj wet envelope of the particle. Tg – Tss). R Tss R Tg phase. The friction forces between each phase and the The mass transfer source term per unit volume can pipe wall can be modeled by adding a source term be obtained by multiplying the evaporation rate from to the phase momentum equation for those control _ s. 0:44 (16:13) hgs ds Re Nu ¼ ¼ F (Re. mg. and heat capacity of the gas phase. This may be expressed by @t (16:15)   Mw pvo Mw pvg _s¼ m hm pds2  (16:20) In this equation. which is defined as   24 CD ¼ max (1 þ 0:15Re0:687 ).49]. the enthalpy of the vapor at interphase friction coefficient. flows. .2. and cpg are the thermal conductivity. CD.. Qk is a heat source term (due to chemical reaction or radiation). phase heat exchange between the phases.23.e. by the total number of particles a single particle.2. Pr ¼ (16:18) mg kg The turbulent stresses. Nu. the interphase enthalpy (i. Table 16. and hkj is the Mw is the molecular weight of the water. the gas phase resist- ( «k r k h k ) þ r  [ « k r k V k h k ] ance controls the evaporation rate. the Boussinesq turbulent-viscosity model [8] for both respectively.39]. Similar to heat @t @ pk transfer. hk is the specific enthalpy of the k. the inter. the aerodynamic force on particle as follows: interphase heat exchange between the phases can be calculated by   3«s 1 K¼ (CD «g2:65 ) «g rg jVg  Vs j (16:12) 6«s 2ds 2 Qgs ¼ hgs (Tg  Tss ) (16:16) ds where the single particle drag coefficient. In the first drying period.2. For solids concentrations greater than 0.2. LLC.. Qkj is the inter.beds.5. Pr) (16:17) kg and is modified to take account of multiparticle ef- and is often expressed as a function of the Reynolds fects using the method of Richardson and Zaki [47].4 Heat and Mass Transfer «2 m 1 K ¼ 150 s 2 þ 1:75«s rg jVg  Vs j (16:11) The rate of energy transfer between the phases is «g ds ds usually expressed as a function of the temperature For solids concentrations less than 0. R is the ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. K.e. tk. is calcu- by [46] lated from the Nusselt number.5. in the control volume: 16. number (Re) and Prandtl number (Pr).

1) can be used to calculate the Sherwood number. and Tave is the d 2 average temperature of the particle. Nu 16. Sc) (16:22) flow of particulate materials through pneumatic Dn dryer. ing the second period of the drying process. which is to the drying process of wet sand in a pneumatic equivalent to Prandtl number. it _s¼ m ‘nB C dso dsi R Tave @ RTss pvg Tss A was assumed that the particle’s outer diameter re- p 2 M m_s hm pdso w Tg mains constant during the second drying period. This the wet particle can be calculated by resistance is governed by a diffusion process. The correlations for the Nusselt number (see Table to-liquid mass ratio. the wet particle surface to the surrounding gas.05 and 0.. which causes a second resistance particle. and the Schmidt number. both 0 1 the particle outer diameter and the wet core diameter can be shrinked. and the mass transfer coefficient hm by replacing ticles. dsi. with the Schmidt number. In general. A two-stage drying process was implemented. Thus the diameter of consists of a dry crust surrounding a wet core.5. minimum void fraction. cpv denotes B¼ the heat capacity of the liquid vapors in the gas phase Hfg and Hfg is the latent heat of evaporation for the fluid Modified Ranz–Marshall Nu ¼ 2 þ (0. i.3Pr0. The equation for the evaporation rate diffusion through the particle crust and convection from a single particle is expressed as a Stephan-type into the gas medium. B. As evaporation proceeds. the diffusion rule [50] wet core shrinks as the particle dries. Thus. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.59Pr0.5 þ 0.5 Re0.8)Pr0. Pr. and pvo and pvg are the partial Sc ¼ (16:23) pressures of the water vapor at the particle crust and r g Dn the gas phase. The second drying period starts at a critical solid. Assuming dx rw us pds2 that the particle is not shrinking during the second drying period. Sc. a dry During the first drying stage the diameter of the crust starts to form. dsi. (16:21) Thus. and is defined by dryer. Sh.TABLE 16. ds. Pr.25). d 2 ds ¼ m _s (16:24) dso. was considered: where Dv is the diffusion coefficient. psat is the satur- ation pressure inside the wet core. « (typically varied between 0.06Re0. Sc. and the diameter of the wet core. respectively. [30] correlation Nu ¼ 0. which occurs between the outside diameter of the particle.16Re1. dsi ¼ m _s (16:25) In analogy to the heat transfer coefficient. which is obtained from a 16. Sh. which may deform the particle’s dsi  dso 2p«Dv p B p  psat C shape and size. The model was solved numerically for a one- and is often expressed as a function of the Reynolds dimensional steady-state condition and was applied number.67 Developed for a pneumatic dryer Baeyens et al. shrinks due to evaporation from the outer to mass and heat transfer.33 Developed for a fluidized bed dryer De Brandt correlation [30] Nu ¼ 0. the Prandtl number. only the change of the wet core diameter.15Re Developed for a large-scale pneumatic dryer mg universal gas constant. the porosity of the par. . Re. taking into account Nu ¼ correlation [48] (1 þ B)0:7 the resistance of the liquid vapors around the particle cpv (Tg  Td ) to the heat transfer by Spalding number. Dur. LLC. In order to simplify the model.3 CASE STUDY hm ds The two-fluid model has been used for modeling the Sh ¼ ¼ F (Re.1 Empirical Correlations for Heat Transfer Coefficient in Gas–Particle Flows Modified Ranz–Marshall 2 þ 0:6Re0:5 Pr0:333 Developed for a single wet particle. which is equivalent to Nusselt number.333 Takes into account turbulent boundary layer around correlation [29] the particle Gamson correlation [30] Nu ¼ 1. the evaporation process remains constant and the diameter of the wet core of liquid from a particle is assumed to be governed by decreases. jcr.e. the outside diameter of the particle At the second drying stage. the mass dx «rw us pdsi2 transfer coefficient hm is calculated from the Sher- wood number.06 Re0.

The tions of the numerical simulations and the experi.03%. with In these figures the circle symbols represent the ex. .The predictions of the numerical simulations were relative error was 0. When compared with the experimental results of Rocha adiabatic flow condition was simulated. data Rocha (1988) exp. Section 120 60 110 Solid temperature (8C) Gas temperature (⬚C) 100 50 90 40 80 70 30 60 Abiabatic flow model Conducting wall model 50 Conducting wall model 20 Abiabatic flow model Rocha (1988) exp. it is only one operating conditions were simulated. The predictions of the numerical of 5.2 Rocha (1988) b 5. The maximum relative ure 16. data 5. solid ticle moisture content (Figure 16. respectively. when ture operating conditions were simulated. perimental data were given. proach.70%. dictions of the numerical simulations for the adiabatic It should be pointed out that the two-fluid ap- and known wall temperature operating conditions.6 Abiabatic flow model 6 Moisture content % (kg/kg) Conducting wall model 5. respectively.e.74103 kg/s were dried with 3. data 5 Rocha (1988) exp. LLC. it was the particles moisture contents were approxima- assumed that in average the pipe wall temperature is tely zero).4 DryPak DryPak 5. which were presented by Silva and Correa [32]. data 40 DryPak DryPak Rocha (1988) a 10 Rocha (1988) a 30 Rocha (1988) b Rocha (1988) b 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 (a) Dryer length [m] (b) Dryer length (m) 5. The maximum of various approaches that can be adopted..6a and b) very well when known wall temperature pneumatic flash dryers. relative errors were 1. and (d) particle’s moisture content with length under adiabatic and known wall temperature operating conditions.6a–d.. errors were about 20% at the pipe outlet (i. Rocha [33] models and the experimental data for changes of (a) gas temperature. adia- 4.947  102 kg/s air batic and known wall temperature. although only two ex- temperature operating conditions is presented in Fig. predictions of the numerical simulations for the par- mental data for changes of gas temperature. and it is falling the numerical models of Rocha and DryPak [34]. of Rocha. 380-mm sand particles hav. i.1 3 5 4. The maximum mass flow rate.6 Comparison between the predictions of the pneumatic drying model. ous sections.7 4. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. adiabatic content with length under adiabatic and known wall and known wall temperature. gas humidity. the gas tem- [33] (presented by Silva and Correa [32]) that were perature was overestimated and the maximum rela- obtained in a 4-m high pneumatic dryer with diameter tive error was 5%.e..e. as described and demonstrated in the previ- It is clearly seen that the numerical model pre. (b) solid temperature. was widely used and validated for dicted the gas and the solid temperature profiles (Figure various types of pneumatic conveying systems and 16.6d) were also very temperature. and particle’s moisture good for both simulation conditions.5 Conducting wall model Abiabatic flow model Gas humidity % (kg/kg) Rocha (1988) exp. the prediction of the numerical simulation revealed perimental data that were published by Silva and better agreements with DryPak than with the models Correa [32] and the two solid lines represent the pre.25 cm. In this study. Nevertheless. linearly from 360 K at the inlet to 354 K at the outlet. The comparison between the predic. When known wall tempera.35 and 0. DryPak model [35].9 2 4.8 1 4. i.2 and 0. respectively. simulations for the gas humidity (Figure 16.6 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 (c) Dryer length (m) (d) Dryer length (m) FIGURE 16. A comparison between the prediction of just about the outlet air temperature. (c) gas humidity.6c) were ing density of 2622 kg/m3 and mass flow rate of very good for both simulation conditions.3 Rocha (1988) a Rocha (1988) a 4 Rocha (1988) b 5.

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