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Part V

TURBULENT NON-PREMIXED SPRAY FLAMES:

SELF-SIMILARITY MOMENTUM SCALING

AND REYNOLDS STRESS

ALESSANDRO GOMEZ

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES

YALE UNIVERSITY

First Brazilian School of Combustion, Florianopolis, Brazil, June 2007

YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES

Motivation

Burner design

Phenomenology Chemiluminescence

Experimental techniques Raman

**Phase Doppler Anemometry
**

Experimental results

Raman

Boundary layer formulation

Closure

Self-similarity

Modeling

Conclusions

First Brazilian School of Combustion, Florianopolis, Brazil, June 2007

YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES

OBJECTIVES

♦ Design a ‘canonical’ turbulent non-premixed spray flame

♦ Obtain a database of gas and droplet velocities, gas temperature and scalar (up to second order)

♦ Analyze the data, guided by group combustion and boundary layer theories

First Brazilian School of Combustion, Florianopolis, Brazil, June 2007

contoured passage) ♦ Minimize droplet initial conditions (“gentle” atomization) ♦ Non-premixed flame (flame holding .inert inward diffusion ) First Brazilian School of Combustion. Brazil. June 2007 .YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES z Burner design criteria: r ♦ Maximize turbulent fluctuations (perforated plate . Florianopolis.

non intensified images First Brazilian School of Combustion. June 2007 . YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES Fixed liquid flow-rate Fixed gas flow-rate z Varying gas flow-rate Varying liquid flow-rate r Length depends on Re. Florianopolis. Counter-intuitive (viz-à-viz gaseous flames) Natural chemiluminescence from flames Long exposure time . Brazil.

Florianopolis. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES x = z +2 z 15 10 r Lf / D 5 .2 0.5 0.6 ! Φ Natural chemiluminescence from flames Long exposure time . varying ml . Fixed Qg . Brazil. . June 2007 .1 0. . varying Qg 0 0 0.non intensified images First Brazilian School of Combustion.4 0.3 0. Fixed ml .

Brazil. Florianopolis. June 2007 .intensified images First Brazilian School of Combustion. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES z r CH* chemiluminescence from flames Short exposure time .

2 -0. Brazil.2 r/D r/D r/D r/D r/D CH* chemiluminescence from flames Short exposure time . June 2007 .2 0 0.2 0 0.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES z = 0.2 -0.5 D z = 0.2 -0. Florianopolis.1 D 200 100 0 -0.intensified images First Brazilian School of Combustion.2 0 0.2 0 0.2 0 0.2 -0.

Brazil.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES BOXCAR 470 nm filters (3) Trigger to A/D converter BOXCAR Slit Photodiode Photodiode A/D converter Bellows 2x Nd:YAG f1. Florianopolis.8 Slit Slit 630 nm filters (2) 610 nm filters (2) BOXCAR + OG 550 glass (2) + OG 550 glass (2) BOXCAR PM tube PM tube First Brazilian School of Combustion.2 50 cm plano-convex f1.8 A/D converter A/D converter f1. June 2007 .

YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES CALIBRATION AGAINST THERMOCOUPLE 1400 1200 Anti-Stokes signal [V] Raman T [K] 1000 800 600 400 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Thermocouple T [K] Stokes signal [V] VS VAS = α exp(hcω / kT) = a exp(3369. Brazil. June 2007 .9/ . Florianopolis. T) Rotational corrections to vibrational spectra ω → ω First Brazilian School of Combustion.

Florianopolis.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES First Brazilian School of Combustion. Brazil. June 2007 .

5 1 -1 -0. Florianopolis.5 z / D = 6. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES 5 105 10 104 104 103 103 n [1/cc] n [1/cc] z/D z/D 102 102 101 101 100 100 -1 -0.5 1 r/D r/D First Brazilian School of Combustion.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 1 -1 -0.1 z / D = 0.1 5 5 z / D = 6.5 1 r/D r/D 40 40 35 35 30 30 z/D z/D 25 25 d 10 [µm] d 10 [µm] 20 20 15 15 10 10 z / D = 0. Brazil. June 2007 .5 0 0 -1 -0.

5 1 First -1 -0.5 0 0. Florianopolis.5 1 r/D r/D 10 33 10 3 22 2 5 5 υ!' z/D υ!'’ [m/s] ’ [m/s] 11 z/D 1 [m/s] z/D υ ! [m/s] z/D υ ! [m/s] 0 00 z/D 0 0 -1 -1 -5 -5 -1 -0. Brazilian School of Combustion. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES 28 13 32 13 24 28 11 11 20 24 9 20 9 u' [m/s] u' [m/s] 16 u [m/s] u [m/s] 7 16 7 12 z/D z/D 12 8 55 55 u’ [m/s] u’ [m/s] 8 4 33 33 z/D 4 z/D z/D z/D 0 11 0 11 -1 -0.5 Brazil.5 1 -1 -0. 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 1 r/D June 2007 r/D .

5 0 0. Florianopolis.5 1 r/D r/D First Brazilian School of Combustion.5 0 0. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES 8 8 4 4 2 2 2 2 u’υ’ [m s u’υ’ [m s 0 0 ] ] -4 -4 z/D = 0. Brazil.1 z/D = 1 -8 -8 -1 -0.5 1 -1 -0. June 2007 .

5 0 0.4 0.4 0.4 0. Brazil.7 0.5 0 0.1 0.1 X’ 0.8 0.4 2 XN2N N2 N2 N2 XXN z/D X 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.8 0. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES 1800 2500 1800 2500 2250 2250 1500 1500 2000 2000 1750 1200 1750 1200 z/D 1500 z/D 1500 [K] T ' [K] T T’ TT [K] T [K] [K] T’ [K] 900 1250 ' 900 1250 [K][K] T 1000 1000 600 600 750 750 z/D z/D 500 500 300 300 z/D 250 250 0 0 0 0 -1 -0.5 1 r/D r/D 0.3 0. Florianopolis.2 z/D 0.2 0.1 0 0 0 00 -1 -0.1 0.5 0 0.5 0.7 0.5 1 First r/D Brazilian School of Combustion.7 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 z/D 0.5 0.6 z/D 0.6 0.5 1 -1 -0.5 1 -1 -0.2 0.2 X’N2 N 2 X’N2 N 2 X’ 0.2 0.5 0 0.1 0.5 X' X' z/D 2 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.1 0. r/D June 2007 .3 0.

Florianopolis. Brazil. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES BOUNDARY LAYER FORMULATION Quasi-steady 2-D equations Gas mass conservation Liquid mass conservation Gas momentum conservation Scalar conservation First Brazilian School of Combustion. June 2007 .

June 2007 . Brazil. Florianopolis. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES BOUNDARY LAYER FORMULATION Reynolds-averaged 2-D equations (implicit Favre averaging) Gas mass conservation Liquid mass conservation Gas momentum conservation Scalar conservation First Brazilian School of Combustion.

Florianopolis. Brazil. June 2007 .YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES BOUNDARY LAYER FORMULATION Howarth transform Conserves mass between compressible ( ) and compressed ( ) systems Mager transform Conserves turbulent fluxes between the two systems Turbulent fluxes an intrinsic quantity of the BL First Brazilian School of Combustion.

Florianopolis. June 2007 . Brazil. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES BOUNDARY LAYER FORMULATION Conservation laws under constant density Gas mass conservation Gas momentum conservation Scalar conservation First Brazilian School of Combustion.

Florianopolis. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES BOUNDARY LAYER FORMULATION Constitutive laws from group combustion theory Single drop vaporization rate: Collective vaporization rate: Single drop inter-phase drag: Collective inter-phase drag: = All terms can be calculated from experimental data First Brazilian School of Combustion. Brazil. June 2007 .

June 2007 . Florianopolis. Brazil. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES BOUNDARY LAYER FORMULATION Integral form of conservation laws Gas mass conservation lim ( ) Changes in gas flow-rate due to fuel vapor addition and ambient entrainment Liquid mass conservation Changes in liquid flow-rate due to fuel vapor subtraction Gas momentum conservation Changes in gas momentum flow-rate due to momentum loss to the drops and addition of fuel vapor Scalar conservation Changes in scalar-defect flow-rate due to fuel vapor addition First Brazilian School of Combustion.

Sufficient not necessary Vapor source Axial gas velocity Scalar defect flux Find exponents α. Brazil. Florianopolis. κ from experiment First Brazilian School of Combustion.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES SELF-SIMILARITY The existence of integral constraints implies the possibility of self-similarity Assume power-law centerline behavior of dependent quantities from experiment. June 2007 . δ.

β. Brazil. gas momentum. κ γ. δ. June 2007 . ε 3 equations liquid mass. scalar defect � α=2γ δ=β κ=2ε −1 Boundary layer as point source of vaporization. Florianopolis.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES Define independent Define dependent similarity variables similarity variables Substitute in integral conservation laws and verify self-similarity: 6 exponents α. momentum and scalar flux First Brazilian School of Combustion.

50 R= 0.99 R= 0.98 10-3 1 x+ 10 First Brazilian School of Combustion. 10-1 s dot I s. Brazil. s +(0) = 16 x+-3. dot II 10-2 s +(0) = 73 x+-2. June 2007 .99 . Florianopolis.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES VAPOR SOURCE ALONG THE CENTERLINE 101 100 s+(0) .

5 ! =η r=+/ rx+/ x1. June 2007 .5 5x .04 -0.06 -0.02 0 0.04 -0. Florianopolis.3.06 1.75 η=r/x + + + + for vaporization to decrease with for liquid flow-rate to be finite at First Brazilian School of Combustion.02 0.06 -0. f =f =s s3x. Brazil.5 = xs 3 xs 3. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES SELF-SIMILARITY OF VAPOR SOURCE 102 102 (a) (b) 1 1 10 10 . .75 ! = r+/ x+1.06 -0.02 0. f 11f = 1 + 10-1 10-1 f11 = 10-2 10-2 10-3 10-3 -0.02 0 0. 3. .04 0.0 x+++ +s+ 100 100 ++ ++ .04 0.5 1.

us(0) u+(0) .7 x+-0.99 + + 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x+ x + First Brazilian School of Combustion.99 s -0. Florianopolis. Brazil.83 u (0) = 7. us(0) u+(0) (gas) u (0) (gas) + us (0) (drops) u (0) (drops) u+(0) = 4. June 2007 . YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES AXIAL VELOCITY ALONG THE CENTERLINE (a) (b) 2 2 u+(0) .50 R=0.4 x R=0.

. Brazil. June 2007 . YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES MOMENTUM SOURCES ALONG THE CENTERLINE 10-2 10-2 (a) (b) -3 10-3 10 Sources of momentum eq. Sources of momentum eq. must be zero for similarity to hold < First Brazilian School of Combustion. 10-6 10-6 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x x+ + Any self-similarity of gas velocity implies zero inter-phase slip.H. R. Florianopolis.S. 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 .

5 f = u x 0. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES SELF-SIMILARITY OF AXIAL VELOCITY f = u x 0. Brazil. June 2007 .5 ξ = r / x 0.83 + + + + 2 2 ξ = r / x 0. Florianopolis.83 + + + + δ First Brazilian School of Combustion.

99 0.75 R= 0. Brazil. June 2007 . Florianopolis.99 !+u+ = 11 x+-1.5 R= 0.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES SCALAR DEFECT FLUX ALONG THE CENTERLINE 1 !+u+ = 14 x+-1.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x + First Brazilian School of Combustion.

YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES SELF-SIMILARITY OF SCALAR DEFECT f = ζ u x1. Brazil.5 + + + + 3 3 θ = r / x 1.25 θ = r / x 1.375 + + + + First Brazilian School of Combustion. June 2007 . Florianopolis.75 f = ζ u x1.

2) + + + + C 1 u =10.5) u =7. Florianopolis.3 x + + + + u =16.4 0.5 -0.9/(x -3.7/(x +19.71 -0.2 0 0 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 x+ x+ 1.9/(x -1.9/(x +2.4) 1 u =9.5 A 0.5 + + + 1/u 1/u A 1 0.5 2.5 B A 0.2 x u =4.7 x + + + + 1 u =51.4/(x -1.+ June 2007 .3/(x -2.50 u =3.5) u =27.6 B 1/u 1/u A B 0.1/(x +1.8 u =5.83 u =6. Brazil.5 B 0 0 -5 0 5 x+ 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 x First Brazilian School of Combustion.7) + + + 1. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES 1.2 1.7/(x +7.7 x C u =7.5 -0.9) 2 u =12.26 -0.5) + + + + C 0.4) C + + + + + + 0.

Florianopolis.5 z/D = 4 z/D = 4. Brazil.5 z/D = 6 z/D = 6. June 2007 .5 u’υ’ z/D = 5 z/D = 5.5 From the differential form of conservation laws First Brazilian School of Combustion. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES u’υ’ z/D = 3 z/D = 3.

YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES RELAMINARIZATION TENDENCY OF VAPORIZATION Turbulent transport Vaporization First Brazilian School of Combustion. June 2007 . Florianopolis. Brazil.

1 0. Brazil.1 0 0.04 z = 0.5 D − λ(ξ) 0.2 ! First Brazilian School of Combustion. June 2007 .08 � 0.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES MODELING OF TURBULENT TRANSPORT Turbulent part of Reynolds stress Self-similarity using local variables and (centerline velocity and growth-rate of BL): 0.2 -0.06 z = 0.04 -0.02 cannot be constant in the spray flame 0 -0.1 D 0.02 z>3D -0. Florianopolis.004 -0.

2 0 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2 ) 1/2 ξ/ (8λ/β1/2 ξ/ (8λ/β) 1/2 1/2 ξ / (8 λ) ξ / (8 λ) First Brazilian School of Combustion. June 2007 . flame II 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.6 2 0. flame I z/D =5.2 0. YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES CLOSURE OF FIRST ORDER MOMENTUM EQUATION 1 1 z/D =5.4 2 0. Florianopolis.8 f (ξ) / f (0) f (ξ) / f (0) 2 2 0. Brazil.

Gradient transport model of turbulent fluxes First Brazilian School of Combustion.YALE CENTER FOR COMBUSTION STUDIES CONCLUSIONS Spray burner design and spray flame phenomenology Raman spectroscopy applied in spray flames Large experimental data base in turbulent non-premixed spray flames Howarth-Mager transform facilitates theoretical treatment of the problem Sprays as point sources of vaporization. momentum and scalar defect flux. June 2007 . Florianopolis. Self-similarity valid in intermediate region of the spray flames. Brazil.

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