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# White/Spires 1

Gabrielle White and Caitlyn Spires

Date of Lesson: Week one of Immersion

Content area(s) addressed: Whole group and small group mathematics: Data Analysis

Concepts to be explored:
 I want the children to be able to collect data that is relevant to whom they are.
 I want the children to be able to classify and sort information in different ways.

 I want the children to understand and compare the different ways to represent information.

 I want the children to analyze and draw conclusions from given representations.

SC State Standards addressed by this lesson:
1st Grade Measurement and Data Analysis:
1.MDA.4: Collect, organize, and represent data with up to 3 categories using object graphs,
picture graphs, t-charts and tallies.
1.MDA.5: Draw conclusions from given object graphs, picture graphs, t-charts, tallies, and bar
graphs.

Objectives:
 Students will create polls and conduct interviews to collect their own data.
 Students will represent data collected in tally charts, object graphs, picture graphs and bar
graphs.
 Students will interpret and analyze different types of graphs using mathematical processes

Rationale:

 Based on my observations of the students in my classroom during class discussions and
activities, I believe they have a base knowledge about data analysis that can be built upon. They
have begun working on collecting data about themselves. They have discussed the importance of
efficiently sorting and classifying, too. We are building on this pre-existing schema by using the
themselves. In the article, Designing and Implementing Worthwhile Tasks (2008), Breyfogle and
Williams said, “the teacher must consider how well the task provides the opportunity for students
to investigate the mathematics content in an open but structured way and how well the task
connects with students’ existing knowledge while pushing them deeper” (p. 276-277). This is my
basis for this workshop-modeled lesson. I feel as though this lesson engages the students to
reason about math concepts, make connections to the real world, use problem solving strategies
and further develops their mathematical skills. Through such an interactive launch, the students
will really be able to make connections to other content areas and real-world concepts presented
when considering shoes with sorting. Not only will the rule game provide practice for sorting and

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classifying, it will provide students with the ability to take their pre-existing knowledge of
sorting and apply it to a setting that is familiar to them. During the explore and summarize
portion, there will be incorporation of many different approaches, strategies and solutions used
and complimented. Higher-level thinking will be used to collect, organize and analyze data
throughout the lesson.
 Vygotsky noted the importance of social learning and guided participation in the classroom. This
is another concept we have focused our studies on this year. Communication and peer learning is
crucial for young children. This lesson really encourages reflecting, sharing and discussing
everything that applies to data. We believe our lesson actively engages all students in this aspect.
This is important as it can provide modeling and scaffolding for students with diverse abilities
and needs. Through peer interaction during the launch, explore and summarize, students with all
ability levels will be able to work together to create meaningful learning experiences. Students
will be encouraged to use mathematical language together when trying to figure out the sorting
rule during the explore. Since this will be a whole-group setting, students with lower
language/speech abilities will be working alongside other students who may be proficient in this
sense. By hearing this language, they may be more inclined to use the same language. This entire
launch will be used as a modeling procedure for what the students could do every time they
collect data. Even though the students will be creating their own representations during the
explore, they will be sharing their ideas and thoughts about what they created. Through
meaningful partnerships, the students may learn a different way to represent the data that is more
efficient.
 In Ditch that Textbook (2015), Matt Miller discusses the importance of forming meaningful,
respectful relationships within the walls of your classroom. With this as our basis for learning,
we feel as though our children will be encouraged to want to work together and create their own
learning. The relationship bank they discuss is both applicable for teacher-student relationships,
as well as student-student relationships. We have planned a lesson based on respect and
cooperation to encourage this banking deposit idea. At the beginning of the lesson, we will
prepare the children that they will be welcomed to give many thoughts, but that there are 3 very
specific rules. The teacher kindly tells each child whether their move fits their rule or whether
they need to relook at their choice. During this time, the teacher will be open to different
perspectives and complications, like a shoe having both strings and Velcro. The teacher will be
authentic in their responses while considering the child’s needs first. The children will feel
supported by each other and the teacher knowing that this is a group effort. These children will
be reminded that mistakes are a good thing as long as you learn
 I know that this lesson is developmentally appropriate for these students at this time because they
have a base understanding of data collection and analysis. They have been introduced to these
concepts and have worked minimally with them. At this point in the year, they are working with
higher-level thinking and problem solving. This is the goal of every lesson, but obviously lower
level thinking is incorporated. These students are great thinkers and problem solvers who have a
genuine interest in solving math and real world problems. This showed in their pre-assessments
 One common misconception that this lesson will address is the idea of visual conservation.
During the pre-assessment, we really saw the students lean on the visual representations for the
answer without really analyzing it. All students struggled with understanding that the way the
picture was drawn did not have a direct correspondence with the information provided. This was
a common area of difficulty for the students. We will focus on this during the summarize portion
and show examples to model this misconception. By giving them more visual conservation tasks

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and scaffolding them through it, this lesson will help these students push through this area of
difficulty.
 Based on our class readings and discussions about creating a culturally relevant environment, I
have worked hard to create a lesson that is culturally responsive to all students’ cultural
knowledge. This lesson is centered on each child’s experience with the world around them and
gives them the freedom to explore data as it best relates to them. By each child participating in
the shoe graph, they will be graphing their personal things that they wear everyday. The shoes
will represent them as an individual. We will incorporate social studies conversation about how
different this data would look in different places or times. By comparing this procedure to other
individuals, they will be learning math through real context. During the summarize portion
where the students all come together to discuss and reflect on the activity, the teacher will ask
leading questions to get the students thinking about why different representations were used.
This will lead into thinking about how the data would be different if done with students in
another state, grade level or even country. The teacher will show the children that the lesson was
relevant to them because they created it. They were the data. This concept is so important to
children at this age because they need to see themselves represented in the curriculum for it to go
into their long-term memory. Through choice and freedom, the students will be provided with
equity throughout this lesson. Each child will have the opportunity to create a representation that
they think best suites the data they personally collected. The teacher will not validate one
representation as ‘correct’ and ‘the best’. The teacher will show many different types of
representations used by students to show that there are many correct ways to represent data. Each
child will be complimented and given one thing to work on while the teacher walks around
during the explore. This will ensure that each child receives one on one interaction with the
teacher. This lesson provides opportunity for individualized instruction and scaffolding to best
suit every individual child’s needs and abilities.

Professional Resources:

Breyfogle, M., & Williams, L. (2008). Designing and Implementing Worthwhile Tasks. Retrieved March

1, 2016.
Miller, M. (2015). Ditch that textbook: Free your teaching and revolutionize your classroom. San Diego,

CA: Dave Burgess Consulting.

Materials and resources needed:
 Shoes from the students’ feet
 Marker
 Document camera
 Paper
 Pencils
 Chart Paper

Procedures:

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1) The teacher will put three rows of tape on the carpet to make the basis for the graph as the students
are working in their desks.
2) T: Students, clean up what you’re working on and make a semi-circle around the rug without sitting
on the rug.
3) T: I need everyone to take off both shoes, but keep them beside you and please remain calm.
Hmm..I’m looking around. What do you notice about everyone’s shoes? Take a minute and quietly
observe your friends’ shoes. You’re going to need to be mathematicians and scientists for this activity.
4) The teacher will call up students with three different categories of shoes without telling the students
what or why she is doing this. Potential categories might be type, color, or feature, but this will depend
on the shoes the students are wearing that day. The students will stand on different rows depending on
the unknown category of their shoes
5) The teacher will then call up the rest of the students one by one and ask them to stand in the row
where they think they belong. If a student places their shoes in the correct row, the teacher will say,
“That fits my rule!” If a student misplaces their shoes in the incorrect row, the teacher will say, “That
does not fit my rule, try again!” When the student is done, he/she will go back to his/her place in the
semi-circle.
6) The teacher will provide scaffolds like “Is anyone beginning to notice a pattern?” or “Who thinks
they know what my rule is?”
7) Once everyone has placed himself or herself in the correct row, the teacher will then ask the class to
explain the sorting rule. Teacher will provide wait time and then ask for a unison response.
8) T: I’m so proud of y’all for figuring out my sorting rule! You guys are so good at categorizing!
9) T: Y’all I’m scared that if the principal walked in here right now and sees all these shoes everywhere
she’s going to think we’re crazy! How could we organize this information in a way that would make
sense to someone who just walked in here?
10) Teacher will take a few students’ ideas and try to steer the conversation toward graphing without
telling them explicitly to make a graph.
11) T: Your mission is to draw on paper a way that we could clearly organize all of this information up
here in a way that would make sense to anyone who saw it. Please go back to your seats, take out your
math journals, and begin creating! You may get up to get a clearer view of the display, but please stay
concentrated on the task at hand!
12) Teacher allows eight minutes for students to work on their representations and begins making
anecdotal records as she walks around the room observing students’ work. Teacher takes extra care to
ask students to explain there process and reasoning in creating their representation. Teacher prompts
students needing extra support, teacher starts by asking them how many shoes were in each category.
Then teacher will ask them to think about different ways they could show someone this information they
found. Teacher may point out different types of graphs around the room to students who need support.
13) T: One minute warning! Please finish up and prepare to move back around the carpet!
14) T: I need everyone to stop what they are doing and meet me on the carpet so we can talk about all of
15) Teacher picks 2-4 different representations to discuss. Teacher calls up examples of students who
used different strategies and representations and places their work under the document camera. She
asks students to explain their work and why they did what they did. Teacher will take extra care to point
out the differences between the students work and to provide vocabulary such as “graph,” “tally chart,”
“picture graph,” and “bar graph.”
16) T: So now that we know how to make this graph on paper, I want to work together to label this graph
that we’ve made on the floor!

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17) The teacher would assist the students in using masking tape to make x-and y-axes on the floor and
labeling them correctly.
18) T: Did you guys know that just by placing your shoes in the three different circles we made a
representation? What kind do you think we made?
19): Teacher allows wait time. Teacher calls on students until object graph is called out. If never brought
up, teacher will introduce it.
20): T: So, how does our object graph look different from the graph that you made? Was one better than
the other?
21): Teacher takes reflective comments from students and tries to get them to understand differences of
representations.
22) T: Thank you guys for being such wonderful mathematicians today! Please take your shoes and put
them back on at your desks!

Differentiated Teaching Strategies:
 In order to include and honor all students within my classroom, I have chosen to incorporate
many opportunities for peer interaction and learning. My class works best through reflecting and
sharing their thinking. All students will have choice in choosing their centers for the most part.
When I feel as though a certain group of individuals can work best with each other and support
each other, I will create meaningful pairings. This will encourage social learning and will be
helpful for students who speak different languages or dialects. They will build off of one another
and scaffold each other in their learning. Though discussion of the “so what” factor, the students
will discuss the importance of data analysis. Through comparing and contrasting, the students
will see how data can affect everyone in different, unique ways.
 I anticipate some differentiation in their ability to create a representation based on data. Some
students may be able to easily identify a type of graph they want to use, and others may need
more support thinking of graphs to use. If a child is stuck and does not know how to represent
the data, the teacher will ask the child to brainstorm any way to show the shoes-pictures, words,
etc. Also, the teacher would allow the students to brainstorm with other members in their group
to think about different graphs they could use. I also anticipate their being behavioral
differentiation. Some students may have a hard time focusing after such a fun, engaging task. In
order to curve this, the teacher will have special spots around the room where a child could work
if they are having a hard time focuses. This would be a comfortable spot like a bean bag. The
teacher would provide this student with support or might place them with a partner who is very
 I will also be walking around during the lesson to assist any students who may need extra help
and to encourage students who are excelling to use more difficult representations. For students
who need more help, they will be encouraged to explain their thoughts to me. Through
conversation, I will help them get to a place where they know what they are going to make. By
having the teacher ask meaningful questions, often students are able to think more thoroughly
about what they can do. If a student is showing proficiency and gets done early, I will give them
one compliment and one aspect to improve on. I will encourage the student to make sure their
graph is labeled, has a title, uses correct scale, etc. This will provide challenges and scaffolding
to students who need a little extra push.

Assessment:
 Anecdotal records will be taken throughout this lesson. The teacher will have a student roster
that will allow for quick and easy notetaking beside each student’s name. The teacher will be

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observing how the students use their knowledge of categorizing and sorting to create meaningful
representations of data. The teacher will be observing the student’s ability to place their shoes in
the correct column based on the rule. The teacher will also be looking for the students’ ability to
construct a representation from the data without being told which one to use. The teacher will
also observe the students’ focus and attention to detail. The process is important, not just the final
product. The teacher will also be asking the students to explain their thought processes behind
the rule and their representations. The teacher will use these discussions to understand the level
of understanding of each student, as well as look for common misconceptions and areas of
growth.
 The teacher will also analyze the students’ understanding of graphic representation of
categorized data by engaging in thoughtful reflection of the students’ work in their math journals.
The teacher will be assessing the parts of the representations used. For example: scale, title,
labels, totals, etc.

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