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Czesmarie Baysa BIO140 V

Camille Louren Go

Evidences of Evolution:
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

The fossil record helped to establish evolutionary relationships and estimate
divergence times of the primate branch leading to humans, but not until the advent of
genome sequencing technology has it been possible to learn more detail about speciation
times, genetic and phenotypic divergence times, and the genetic variation present in
common ancestor species.

Orangutans are the only primarily arboreal great apes, characterized by
strong sexual dimorphism and delayed development of mature male features, a long
lifespan and the longest interbirth interval among mammals (8 years on average). The
orangutan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most
phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative
perspective on hominid evolution (Locke et al, 2011).

In the Comparative and demographic analysis of Orangutan genome, the
methods used is the whole genome shot- gun sequencing. Shotgun sequencing involves
randomly breaking up DNA sequences into lots of small pieces and then reassembling the
sequence by looking for regions of overlap. DNA information from one Asian male
human (Homo sapiens), one chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), one gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)
and one orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) were used in this study. Homologous introns,
pseudogenes, and coding regions of hominoids were retrieved from GenBank.

For the analysis of data, the DAMBE package (Xia 2000) was used for
sequence alignment, calculation of genetic distance, and phylogenic reconstruction.

An atom set from the Ensembl Enredo pipeline16 provided by Ewan Birney’s group.. and diversity of diets and life history strategies. The enrichment for glycolipid metabolism is particularly intriguing owing to medium-to strong evidence for positive selection (nominal P . The Divergence Times was explained and determined through partitioning the genomes of human. chimp and orangutan into 137 atoms in 100 kb resolution (atom covers 94% of the human genome). Devin P. chimp and orangutan. was used as they performed a further analysis to reconstruct more detailed evolutionary operations further partition the genome at a higher resolution (5 kb minimum atom size). In explaining the evidences of evolution through molecular biology. et al. Variation in lipid metabolism may have affected neurological evolution among primates.05) from six genes expressed in nervous tissue that cluster in the cerebroside-sulphatid region of the sphingolipid metabolism pathway. 0. they used rhesus as the sole outgroup with 6552 atoms at this level of resolution (smaller atoms cover 91% of the human genome sequence). (2011). Cerebroside Sulphatid Metabolic Pathway was used and analyzed.7331 pages 529-533 . Using the genome reconstruction algorithm CARs15. using rhesus. they reconstructed the karyotype of the common ancestor of human. In the analysis. Reference: Locke. Nature 469.. as apes— especially orangutans—have slower rates of reproduction and dramatically lower energy usage than other primates and mammals. mouse and dog as out groups by recovering the ancestral order and orientation of these atoms using the genome. Comparative and demographic analysis of Orangutan genomes. Lastly they ran their Reverse Evolution reconstruction algorithm17 to reconstruct the evolutionary operations.