Chapter 1: DECLINE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Introduction

The proud Mughal Empire which had ruled the north for two centuries was declining and soon
the emperor of Delhi became a pensioner for the British. The process of disintegration began
with Aurangzeb and his policies yet at the time of his death 1707 the Empire was still strong.
After his death his sons quarreled amongst themselves and Bahadur Shah won. He had a more
tolerant and secular policy. Under him the Rana's of Mewar and Marathas were appeased and
earlier policy of aggression was withdrawn. Sikhs too were conciliated by giving Guru Gobind
Singh a Mansab rank. However due to grant of Mansabs and posts the royal treasury was
exhausted. His death in 1712 plunged Delhi into civil war.

Jahandar shah followed him to the throne as he was supported by the most powerful noble
Zulfiqar khan. Zulfiqar khan controlled the administration and adopted a policy of tolerance
towards chief of Mewar and Marathas. However against the Sikhs he continued the old policy of
aggression. Soon the other nobles poisoned the emperor’s ears against Zulfiqar khan. He began
secretly plotting against Zulfiqar khan. Finally Jahandar khan was killed by the next successor
Farrukh Siyar.

Farrukh Siyar was undependable and worthless successor. The Sayyid brothers were
instrumental in helping him win. They got important posts in the administration. The emperor
wanted to rule personally but the Sayyid brothers believed that the he should be a puppet and
they should handle administration to reverse the decay of the Empire. This led to conflicts
between the emperor and the Sayyid brothers and finally the emperor was killed. In his place
three successor princes were nominated. Two died quickly and the last Muhammad shah took
the throne.

Under the Sayyid brothers the Mughal ties with Rajputs, Marathas and Jats were strengthened.
But corruption had increased. The Sayyid's couldn’t rule properly due to continuous quarrels
with other nobles. The death of the emperor had created public revulsion against them. The other
nobles called the anti Islamic and anti Mughal due to their tolerant policy. The emperor too
wanted to rule freely. Hence soon rebellion started against the Sayyid’s and they were killed.

Muhammad shah reigned for 30 years. An emperor who had sound knowledge of administration
was needed to save the Empire but Muhammad shah wasn’t that. He led a life of luxury and

The agriculture produce declined which couldn’t sustain the mighty state. In fact after 1759 Mughals remained only because they symbolized political unity of the country in the minds of the people. He was attracted by the vast wealth. The absence of fixed rule of succession led to civil war among the princes this led to loss of life and weakened the administrative fabric of the Empire. 7. It was in this period the afghan king nadir shah descended in the north. Aurangzeb’s policy of expansion put pressure on men and material. This led to their heavy defeat. When Delhi was captured by Marathas in 1803 till 1857 the Mughals were only political front of the British. This drained the resources of the Empire and ruined trade and industry. He invaded the North West frontier but met with no resistance. The corruption too had increased under his reign. The Mughal emperor had been taken prisoner and released after he gave up all provinces west of Indus. A bloodbath was seen in Delhi and Nadir Shah captured the Mughal treasury. He remained as a pensioner in the Allahabad fort till 1772 and returned to Delhi under protective arm of the Marathas. Revenue policy of Aurangzeb too was harsh and affected the peasant. After nadir shah the Mughals saw repeated attacks from Ahmed Shah Abdali. Weak successors who focused on personal pleasure were responsible for the decline. He defeated the Marathas in 1761 at Panipat.pleasure. 6. His inability to subdue the Marathas undermined prestige of the Empire and local chief too dreamed of independence. Causes of the decline of the Mughals: 1. When Aurangzeb tried to re extend the imperial sway over Rajputs and earned the ire of Rajputs it further led to confrontation. 5. Kohinoor diamond and the peacock throne. Abdali was nadir shahs ablest general and became the ruler of Afghanistan. The jagirdars harassed the . He joined Shuja ud dawla and Mir Qasim in battle of Buxar against the English East India Company but was defeated. The North West front was exposed as Aurangzeb concentrated on Deccan for 25 years. 4. 3. His intolerant policy on Hindu chief Shivaji in Deccan and Sikhs put additional strain on the Empire. The Mughal Empire had shrunk to just kingdom of Delhi but the Mughal never participated in the affairs of the state. The nobles of Mughal court quarreled and wouldn’t unite even when the enemy was insight. This disgusted his nobles and they left to carve semi independent states. Shah Alam II who ascended throne in 1759 spent the initial years wandering away from his kingdom as he was in mortal fear from his Wazir. One such Wazir Nizam ul Mulk founded the south state of Hyderabad. 2.

He introduced agrarian reform but collected revenue cruelly. They failed also in two more aspects building a strong army and checking corruption amongst local officials. He formed an efficient administration. He however sent tributes to the Mughals. He was a noble of the Muhammad shah the Mughal emperor. Introduction 12. They forced it to obey laws of the land but didn’t take these trading companies as threats to the kingdom. He successfully resisted Maratha's from his land. 15. Weakness of the army as the mansabdars couldn’t maintain their full quota of the soldiers. He promoted trade and industry. After him the Hyderabad state too was in a state of turmoil. . The Nawabs however were short sighted with regards to English east India Company. 9. 10. Foreign invasions by nadir shah and Abdali. 13. Murshid quli khan too declared independence from the central authority after it grew weak. 8. Absence of political nationalism meant that people were loyal to their respective kingdoms not the country. Chapter 2: INDIAN STATES AND SOCIETY IN 18TH CENTURY 11.Hyderabad: 14. peasants for revenue. However he failed to rid the revenue system of corruption due to his untimely death. Also rise of the British. He suppressed the powerful zamindars and organized an efficient administration. The decline in trade and industry compared to Europe led to India lagging behind it economically and politically. He followed a tolerant policy against all religions. He was tolerant and secular. Hyderabad was founded by Nizam ul Mulk Asaf Jah in 1724. His repeated attempts of reforming the administration were rejected by the emperor and so he moved back to south to form his state. Both these factors led to the defeat of Nawab Siraj ud dawlah at the hands of English east India Company in 1857. this wasn’t passed on to the treasury. He forced the powerful zamindar lobby to respect him.Bengal: 16. After the decline of the Mughal Empire many kingdoms declared independence and newer states emerged in India.

His son Tipu sultan succeeded him after his death in the second Anglo Mysore war. The minister Nanaraj and Devraj captured power and the king Krishna Raj became a mere puppet. Saadat khan burhan ul Mulk was the founder of Awadh. He took advantage of the opportunities that came his way and rose in rank. He had to wage continuous wars against the big zamindars who had fortified their areas. Hastings also diverted the army from the Maratha war against Haider Ali and finally defeated him. Second Anglo Mysore War 25. Soon he defeated Nanaraj and became king. He too was disillusioned by the central government and chose to fortify his feudal area.Haider Ali and British 22. Though he was illiterate he was an efficient administrator.Tipu Sultan vs British . 24.Mysore: 20. Haider Ali was an ordinary soldier in the Mysore army. First Anglo Mysore War 23. 21.17. The English east India Company allied with Nizam of Hyderabad in 1766 to attack Haider Ali. 19. Finally as the war was a stalemate peace treaty was signed in 1784. He was secular towards all religions. Haider Ali inflicted defeats on them and forced them to surrender in large numbers. He fought the Nizam of Hyderabad. But when the Marathas attacked Haider Ali the British didn’t help hence he mistrusted them. So a treaty was signed where conquered territories were handed back and mutual cooperation against each other’s enemies was assured.Awadh: 18. But he fought back and threatened to attack madras. He was far sighted and able ruler. British had secured support of Marathas after the first Anglo Maratha in 1782. He extended his power in Mysore and soon made it into a powerful kingdom. 26. Marathas and British repeatedly and defeated them. The British under Hastings bribed the Nizam and he withdrew from the alliance with Haider Ali. This was the second Anglo Mysore war. 27. He successfully suppressed them and brought relief to the farmers. He learned western military tactics from French experts and applied them in battles. The end of Vijaynagar Empire gave a new lease of lie to Mysore kingdom.

29.Rajputs: 36. The treaty of 1784 had only postponed hostilities to the future. When Tipu was finally defeated in 1799 even the British were amazed at his revenue administration. He had planted a tree of liberty in his kingdom and was a member of Jacobin club. He was an able administrator. The Rajputs took advantage of the weakness of the Mughals and freed themselves from central control. 30. 32. It destroyed Tipu's dominant position in south and established British supremacy there. In return the king should disband his army. 37. Raja Sawai Jai Singh of Amber was an outstanding ruler. The third Anglo Mysore war resulted in Tipu defeat in 1792. He was also an astronomer and constructed observatories at Delhi. 35. This ensured that the protectorate kingdom became a puppet in their hands. He was a reformer and a law maker. He had to pay a huge indemnity and surrender his sons to the British as hostages. His army was trained in western tactics and armed with muskets and bayonets with French help. Third Anglo Mysore War 31. relinquish all deals with other foreign powers and pay a tribute to British for the army or cede a territory to them. Fourth Anglo Mysore War 34. accept a British resident and govern on his advice. Tipu had attempted to establish contact with turkey and France by sending envoys there. The British regarded him as their deadliest enemy. In 1798 the new governor general Wellesley took charge and brought his scheme of subsidiary alliance. He founded Jaipur and made it a seat of science and arts. However they were divided and always in civil war or quarrels with each other. He was accused of being orthodox but he had given large donations to building of temples too. Tipu sultan was a complex character.Sikhs: . He also was building a navy and had constructed ports. He took interest in French revolution. By this the British would station an army in the allying kingdom and protect it from internal and external threats. Wellesley knew Tipu would never accept this treaty and fourth the fourth Anglo Mysore war in 1799 and defeated Tipu. He was deeply interested in literature and had a library. Ujjain.28. 33. Jaipur. Mathura and Varanasi.

Initially they cooperated with each other but soon this unity faded. 41. After his death his follower Banda bahadur rallied the Sikhs and carried warfare against the Mughal army till he was killed in 1715. Under Guru Gobind Singh they became a political and military force. Nizam or British if the central authority was too strict. Balaji vishwanath helped the Mughal heads ascend to throne like Zulfiqar khan. Guru Nanak in 15th century founded Sikhism which spread amongst lower classes of Punjab and Jat peasants. They could collect the chauth and sardeshmukhi and keep a large part of it to themselves. Amritsar. He built an army of skilled soldiers of different religions and started manufacturing cannons. Balaji vishwanath was an able administrator and won many Maratha chiefs to Shahu's cause. After Aurangzeb’s death Shahu was released and a civil war broke out between him and his aunt Tarabai who had continued the fight against the Mughals under her son Shivaji II.Maratha Power: 42. However he gave too much freedom to the Maratha sardars. They could also expand the Maratha Empire. Shahu’s Empire now extended to all Maharashtra except Kolhapur where Tarabai ruled. Shahu won this war with the help of Balaji vishwanath who became the Peshwa.Peshwa Power 44. Shahu grandson of Shivaji Maharaj was a prisoner of Aurangzeb. 43. . But he didn’t fight the foreign threat and left it to his successors who weren’t as skilled and who were conquered by the British. The Sikh organized themselves as misls and ruled different parts of Punjab and Kashmir. He was a skilled administrator and a soldier. Balaji vishwanath and his son made Peshwa the functional head of Marathas. At this time Ranjit Singh rose to prominence. He soon formed a kingdom in Punjab and captured Kashmir. The Sikhs then rose gain after the foreigners invaded India and created a political vacuum. In return he got chauth and sardeshmukhi for the Marathas. They didn’t hesitate to join the Mughals. When the English forbade him to expand east of Sutlej he kept quite. Balaji Vishwanath 45. 40.38. He also increased ambition of Maratha chiefs to increase rule to the north by showing them the weakness of the Mughals. His army was second only to east India Company. He was tolerant and secular. 39. Hence the Empire became huge but the autonomous sardars were in control. Multan and Peshawar. He was a realist and saved his Empire. He fought constant wars against Aurangzeb but became a noble under Bahadur shah. Lahore. Farrukh Siyar and Sayyid’s.

The next Peshwa Madhav rao restored the Maratha prestige too some extends. They meddled in the internal affairs of Rajputs and imposed fines on Jats and Sikhs who mistrusted them and refused to support them.Maratha Power 1761 . Scindia. Baji rao I 47. He forced Mughal officials to grant them chauth and sardeshmukhi over new areas and conceded them to Maratha Empire. 48. They disposed the chief appointed by Ahmed Shah Abdali and this brought in direct conflict with the afghan warrior. Jats and Mysore were once again brought under control and forced to pay tribute.1818 56. Siddis of janjira and Portuguese. Baji rao I was the next Peshwa and a skilled guerilla warrior comparable to Shivaji maharaja. By now powerful Maratha families had emerged those were totally autonomous and not under the Peshwa's control like Gaikwad at Baroda. state of Mysore. They failed to find any allies in the north as all mighty powers were incensed at their behavior. King Shahu had before dying made the Peshwa the official head of the Marathas. Gujarat and Bundelkhand too. Jats and Sikhs too pay tribute to them.Reasons for the defeat of Maratha's at Panipat: 51. 55. 3. Holkar. The Mughal Wazir was now their puppet. Rajputs. 1. The new Peshwa took Maratha power over entire India. The Mughals and Rajputs. 57. In the battle of Panipat the Marathas were routed. Balaji Baji rao 49. The defeat of the Marathas gave a chance to the east India Company to increase its power over Bengal and south India. 2. He also defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad. His main fault was that he failed in establishing an administration over new areas. Sawai . Mughals.46. He expanded the Maratha Empire to even Malwa. 52. 54. 53. He forced Bengal Nawab. Senior commanders of Marathas quarreled with each other. The son of Madhav rao. This tragic news reached the Peshwa and he died due to the shock. His death made his son Balaji Baji rao the heir. 50. After Madhav rao his brother Raghunath rao the brother of Balaji Baji rao and Narayan rao brother of Madhav rao fought for Peshwa post. and Bhosle.

The Marathas again made an effort to regain lost pride in 1817 but they failed to unite forces and draft a comprehensive strategy. The other Maratha houses remained as subsidiary power but Peshwa power was extinguished. British and Marathas was the first Anglo Maratha war. Peshwa was pensioned off and a province of Bombay was created by marquis of Hastings. The fight between Raghunath rao. 60. This led to their defeats. The Turkish lands were captured by . The British sided with Raghunath rao in hopes of making territorial gains in event of victory but they were defeated. through red sea and then Egypt and Europe via Mediterranean sea and Persian gulf by sea and then through Iraq and turkey and again by sea through Venice and Genoa. The strong Maratha families now refused to participate in the Maratha affairs and remained autonomous. When Sawai Madhav rao died Baji rao II son of Raghunath rao succeeded him. The three prominent trade routes till the 15th century were through central Asia. Madhav rao was appointed head and Raghunath rao went to the British. The peace treaty was signed with Holkar. Chapter 3: ENTRY OF EUROPEANS IN INDIA Introduction Trade routes to India India was famous for spices which were in high demand in European cuisine. The supporters of Sawai Madhav rao led by Nana Phadnis and supporters of Raghunath rao clashed constantly. 59. The British got 20 year of peace with the Marathas. After these wars the British controlled all of India except Sind and Punjab. The Holkar and Scindia remained unconquered. The British power had now increased and they decided to end the Marathas by dividing and ending each of the Maratha sardars separately. The British then fought Mahadji Scindia but he too was an able soldier and their war [first Anglo Maratha war] was a stalemate. He was a worthless ruler. He signed a subsidiary alliance with the British and became their puppet. 58. The expansionist policy of Wellesley had created a huge debt and he was recalled. They now could expand beyond the frontiers of India.

The opening of trade routes to India and America were hailed as very important. friendship with the English is important. In the naval battle the Portuguese were defeated and so the Mughal emperor thought that in order to counter the supremacy of Portuguese in sea. The American islands were rich in precious minerals and soon they became consumers of European manufactured goods. Marathas and Dutch except Daman Diu and Goa. But Dutch too couldn’t match the English might in India. Soon the Portuguese lost all their Indian possession to English. The British realized that Portuguese influence had to be reduced in order to convince the Mughals. Finally the Mughals relented and gave them permission to open factories throughout the Mughal territory. The Atlantic became a zone of high trade activity. A Mughal Farman gave them permission to open factories on the west coast. And similarly the Dutch too left the Indian trade except for a few factories in the east coast. This triangular trade was dominated by Portuguese along with the eastern trade with India. The English Company was led by Captain Hawkins and received by Emperor Jahangir. Thomas roe wasn’t satisfied with this and bargained for more concessions. The Portuguese were angered by this and in the naval battles the English won. Dutch and French. Though the Portuguese were ruthless and religious intolerant they lost their monopoly in later part of 16th century to the English. Dutch Conflict: The conflict between Dutch and English too was intense but resulted in a stale mate. Hostilities were ended by giving the island of Bombay to British for marrying a Portuguese princess in 1662. Finally English decided to leave the Indonesian trade and focus on India only. Though initially they were well received by due to Portuguese influence they were expelled. The English due to their naval power and industrial revolution became the superpower of the world and had colonies in Africa. English East India Company: The English East Indian Company was formed and given a charter to trade in the east by Queen Elizabeth. The slaves were bought for manufactured European goods and sold in West Indies and American lands for sugar and cotton which were exchanged for manufactured goods in Europe. These too were lost to the English by 1795. The English though initially weak were by the end of the 16 th century dominant in naval powers. The Portuguese to were the first to enter into Africa and they became the pioneers of slave trade. The British also started harassing hajj pilgrims and Indian merchants taking advantage of its naval power. Finally Vasco da Gama found an all sea route to India via Cape of Good Hope. The English couldn’t remove the Dutch from their stronghold in Indonesia and the spice trade. .Ottomans and the trade routes were affected. America and East Asia. The renaissance had led to the quest for discovery of newer routes through sea to India.

The British now fortified the few villages on the east coast in Bengal and it became Calcutta. Similarly when the Company’s rivals attacked the Mughal shipping the Mughal forces arrested the Company officials till the ransom was paid. The raja gave them permission to fortify the madras factory and the Englishman Francis day built there fort George. In absence of modern nationalism in India they could be setup against each other easily. They had now become ambitious and wanted to capture India and turn it into a British colony. The English now moved their sights on the east coast and opened factories in Orissa and Hugli. Aurangzeb permitted this as he felt that foreign traders couldn’t harm him. Thus the British went on to rule India with an army officer-ed by British but with Indian Sepoy's.1818 Introduction . But due to strong Nawabs in Bengal the east India Company was merely a zamindar. They were permitted to keep Pondicherry with condition that no fortification be allowed. Chapter 4: British Conquest Of India From 1756 . After madras the island of Bombay came under British occupation. The first factory in the south was opened in Masullipatinam and then in madras. But the revenue they brought from trade increased the state treasury. The Anglo French conflicts in the south and east lasted for a period of 20 years and ended with English supremacy. Job carnock built the fort William there. The French now lived under English protection in India. The western trained Indian soldiers were as good as Europeans. When the tried to fortify their factory in Surat they were arrested by the local authorities working for the Mughals. The English were now the mightiest power in India. They wanted an independent fortified factory for Bengal. The French east India Company was government controlled but had caught up with the English company in terms of trade and had factories in Bengal and Pondicherry. The war had taught them a few lessons. The south India was more favorable to them as no strong government existed there. It too was fortified as the Surat area was under threat from the increasing Maratha power. The absence of nationalism and respect of salt in the Indian mind made him a good and loyal soldier. For this they challenged the mighty Aurangzeb but his force was great and the British lost all factories on the east coast and even their fort in Bombay was besieged. Also the British naval might was great enough to ruin Indian trade with west. The British had high hopes in south India as no strong kingdom existed there but it had to face competition from the French.English east India Company: After Surat the English power grew in India. They gave up hope and resorted to flattery and forgiveness and asked for return to trade.

The province of Bengal was the most fertile and suitable for trade and commerce. Bihar and Orissa. On the other hand the British wanted a titular Nawab. The Farman issued by the Mughal emperor allowed free trade in Bengal but the Farman didn’t apply to private trade by Company officials. Nawab of Bengal was now Siraj ud dawlah. In effect this system meant no responsibility for both sides. The governor of Bengal Robert Clive started a dual system of government where the British were in charge of collecting revenue and the army but Nawab and his officials were in charge of administration. Meanwhile they managed to lure Mir Jafar and other nobles of Nawabs court to their side. In this battle of Buxar they were defeated. The Company officials waited there for reinforcements from madras. This led to untold oppression in Bengal. He did this by his doctrine of lapse method. He ordered them to cease from this but the British continued. The British saw its importance and established a factory in Calcutta. But in haste he allowed them to escape to an island guarded by British navy. CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS GOVERNORs AND GOVERNOR GENERALS . This led to confrontation between them and soon the Nawab with the help of Shuja ud dawlah. Yet the Company officials continued to break rules whenever given a chance. Mir Jafar replaced him. Policy of annexation from 1848 to 1856 Lord Dalhousie came to India as the governor general and he wanted to extend the rule to all parts of India. The British got diwani rights of Bengal. The Nawabs of Bengal had forced the British to pay heavy taxes due to wrong interpretation of the Farman. This had to be prevented and hence British had to increase their influence in both these countries. To do this Sind had to be brought under control. This he felt as he believed the British rule was better than the corrupt and oppressive native rulers. For this he wanted to build a strong army and good administration. This meant that if the ruler of a protectorate state died without a natural heir then the state would be annexed by the British. The right of inheritance of the adopted child wasn’t recognized. The diwani rights gave the British full and legitimate control over Bengal. Nawab of Awadh and shah alam II. Mir Qasim proved to be a threat to the British power in Bengal. The Nawab was entrusted with the responsibility of collecting revenue on behalf of British so they plundered the peasants for as much as they could and passed on a share to the British. The Nawab waged a battle and defeated the British. All conquerors of odissa wanted domination over the Puri temple as it gave legitimacy to their rule in minds of local. Sind: The British feared that Russia might try to attack India through Persia or Afghanistan. He was captured and executed. Mir Jafar paid tributes to the Company but soon even he couldn’t meet their demands and the British felt that he wasn’t able to fulfill their expectations and soon he too was replaced by his son in law Mir Qasim. the fugitive Mughal emperor waged a war against British. He wanted to free Bengal from British control. In the battle between the English army led by Robert Clive and Admiral Watson and Nawab at Plessey the Nawab was defeated. The battle of Buxar established British supremacy in India. he learnt of fortification by British and French.

Calcutta soon became the capital of Bengal and then India. The board of control was responsible to the parliament and controlled political affairs. I. Highest court of appeal for civil cases was sadar diwani adalat and criminal cases were sadar Nizamat adalat. The court of directors was elected annually and managed the affairs of the Company. The court of directors was in control of commercial affairs. Abolished dual government system and the now the Company servants collected revenue on their own. So a system of dual government was created. Governor of Bengal became the governor general of Bengal with an executive council of four to assist him. Regulating Act. 5. The number of members in the governor’s council was reduced to 3. 4. The mismanagement of Indian territories led to bankruptcy of the Company and the directors asked for a loan. Pre paid postal system was introduced. It established a supreme court of justice at Calcutta. It prohibited the servants of EIC from accepting gifts and engaging in private trade. 1773: The controller of east India Company was the court of proprietors and court of directors. A bank was established in Calcutta. Decisions would be taken by majority and governor general could only vote in case of tie. Pitts Act. To remove the highly corrupt judicial system. Civil courts were created presided by the collectors and criminal courts by an Indian judge. He followed Robert Clive as the governor of fort William. Appellate courts for civil and criminal cases were there in Calcutta. He was a reformist and the steps he took were: 1. He was a person of oriental tastes. Board of revenue was created and collectors were established to collect revenue. 3. The treasury was moved to a safer location of Calcutta from murshidabad. 2. 1784: Board of control was established to control political affairs in India. The government passed this act as a precondition for the loan It laid the foundations for a centralized administration in India. The three presidencies were independent and managed by governor and his council. Warren Hastings. He was a patron of Indian languages and arts. . Presidencies of Madras and Bombay lost their independence and became subordinate to Bengal. Police too were created to stop dacoits.

1. Pindaris rose during his regime as the thousands of soldiers who became unemployed as they were dismissed due to the subsidiary alliance. Salient features of his administration: 1. He removed collectors from the post of judges of the civil courts. He was the father of the Indian civil service. Indians judges were appointed at the lowest judicial levels. 7. Richard Wellesley He was famous for introducing the subsidiary alliance system. 2. He was the maker of madras presidency and creator of Agra province. The Gurkha’s were aggressive and this led to confrontation. Provincial court of appeals had European judges. District and city courts had European judges. 5. III. . He started the covenanted civil service with only Europeans and un-covenanted civil service for others. The Nepal and British territories were bordering each other. II. He appointed darogas in every thanas for policing. He was responsible for implementing permanent settlement in Bengal and Bihar. Lord Hastings. Lord Cornwallis He was a respected aristocrat. He was responsible for reformation. modernization. He increased the salaries of the Company servants and prohibited their private trade. He led the British army in the war against America. rationalization of civil service. Salient points of his rule were: 1. Highest court of appeal at civil and criminal courts was governor general in council. Separated judiciary and administration. 3. Although he had to surrender he still commanded deep respect amongst his fellow countrymen.An amendment to this act in 1786 allowed the governor general to overrule the majority of his council. 4. These soldiers became dacoits. 6. 2. Lord Hastings declared war on Nepal and defeated them. IV.

It also allocated an amount of Rs. Responsible for abolition of sati. He followed a policy of non intervention and non aggression with Indian princely states. His doctrine of lapse was the reason many kingdoms were added to the British Empire. He was the maker of the Bombay province. 2. 1 lakh for promotion of Indian education. 3. 2. 4. But it kept monopoly for trade with china. 3. Introduction of local languages in lower courts and English in higher courts. lower Burma. English became the official language of India. He annexed the princely states if the rulers died without natural heirs. This policy was one of the reasons for princes joining the 1857 mutiny. Governor General of Bengal became the governor general of India. William Bentinck He was the first governor general to believe in serving the Indian people. Charter Act. V. 1813: It reduced monopoly of EIC to trade with India. 6. 2. Salient features of his administration: 1. 5. Salient features of his administration: 1. Oudh and central provinces to the British Empire. female infanticide and suppression of thugs. Defeated the Marathas. He abolished the provincial court of appeals. Calcutta medical college was established. 4. Charter Act. It laid the foundation of Indianisation of public services. VI. . Introduction of English education. Ended the menace of the Pindaris. Lord Dalhousie He was the youngest governor general. 1833: Ended all monopolies of EIC with respect to trade. He followed the policy of annexation by annexing Punjab.

5. Father of local self government. Appointed hunter commission for expansion and improvement in elementary education for the masses. The universities of Calcutta. Madras and Mumbai were founded in 1857. He molded the new provinces into a centralized state. 4. He introduced the process of modernization in India and is hailed as The Maker of Modern India. Arms act was passed to prevent Indians from keeping arms without license. 2. John Wilson was first chancellor of Mumbai university and KT Telang was first Indian chancellor. Railways were started in India by him. 7. Telegraph line was laid from Calcutta to diamond harbor. 4. 3. 6. Passed the factory act to improve working conditions in factory. Lord Ripon 1. 2. Post stamps were introduced. The reasons were commercial. Telegraph and railways were very useful for crushing the 1857 mutiny. administrative and defense. This too became a reason for 1857 mutiny. Started telephone in Kolkata in 1881. . 3. He modernized the public works department and laid foundation for engineering service in India. The annexation of Oudh affected the sepoy’s of the British army as many came from Oudh. He shifted the Bengal artillery to Meerut and shiplap became the permanent headquarters of the army. The vernacular press act was passed to muzzle periodicals in Indian languages and curtail freedom of the press. VIII. VII. They had privileged positions in the army but after the annexation they became same as the remaining population. Uniform rate of half Anna was charged on post throughout the country. 8. Repealed the vernacular press act. Lord Lytton Salient features of his administration: 1. 9.

4. 2. But the bill was rejected due to the popular protest against it. Tied to pass the Illbert bill which would have allowed Indian magistrates to try Europeans. Lord Curzon 1. 3. Police training schools were started for officers and constables. Partition of Bengal was done by him. 5. Passed the universities act that brought all universities under government control. . IX. Passed the legislation making it mandatory for government to protect archaeological monuments.