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and were esteemed more than court portraits. 1995. 95-105. and Maria uan Hongarije. Gazette des Beaux-Arts. «Marie de Hongrie.For tapestries commissioned and collected by Philip II of Spain. because of the extensive use of silver New Documentation». «The tapestries acquired by Philip II in the Netherlands in 1549-50 and 1555-59. tapestries functioned äs princely decora. She dominated and presided over the tapestry industry with numerous ! T. Art Bulletin. but also their residences and palaces-. FRANKE. CXXXIV and gold thread. duction. pp. WELZEL (eds. espedally p. Tapis- series Flamandes de la Couronne d'Espagne. collectors. 425. belonged to a tradition long established at the Burgundian court. and G. at the Palais de Sauoie in Malines VAN ROYEN. BLICHANAN. In Flemish Tapestry. pp. BUCHANAN. L'inventaire de them. Een politieke analyse op basis van haar re- (¥echelen)°. For Habsburg patrons in the Renaissance. Koningin tussen keizers en kunstenaars. commissions for the Habsburg court for over twenty-four years. 121-139. She contracted Barend van Orley (c. GORTF. In cost and pro. 3 B. DELMARCEL. Kare/ V. investing large sums of money and time in the acquisition and commission of signif. paintings or sculptures. Claims and political aspirations4. Maria van Hongarije regentes der Nederlan- den. preciation for tapestry. 424-450. Art and Magnificence. Utrecht. DAVIDSON. 131-152. Budapest. the sketches and Actes du xxif congres internationale d'histoire de l'arl.). For Habsburg collectors. «Introduction». espedally p. New York. CAMPBELL. 1997. 125. 10-16. Many members of the family (male and female) were discerning connoisseurs and Patrimonio National». 1505-1558. in B. Tapestry in the Renaissance. Cfr. Also J. «Designers. Eine Einführung. who governed äs regent of Berlin. pp. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND 91 . Gazette des Beaux-Arts. «The Furti dt Gioue Tapestries Designed by Pcrino del Vaga for Andrea Doria».LMARCEL. Flemish tapestries constituted an essential component of Habsburg collecting in the sixteenth 1993. emperor. niany extant today in the Patrimonio Nacional tion. THE MANUFACTURE AND MARKETING OF FLEMISH TAPESTRIES IN MID-SIXTEENTH CENTURY BRÜSSELS TWO HABSBURG PATRONS AND COLLECTORS: MARY OF HUNGARY AND CATHERINE OF AUSTRIA* Annemarie Jordan Gschwend USBON-BRUSSELS: BRIDGING FAMILY T1ES 1 G. (September 1988). London. Margaret of Austria (1480-1530). DUVERGER. 715-726. symboli. underscoring her connoisseurship of and ap. they were more valuable than the latter media. pp. «Le roi Philippe II d'Espagne et la tapisserie. pp. (Madrid).R- raised by her aunt. 134 (1992). pp. in ecke van Aelst (1502-1550) to work on tapestry designs she commissioned. VVhen Mary assumed the regency. Madrid de 1598». Die Kun- One of the most dynamic and engaged patrons of tapestry was the younger sister of the st der Burgundischen Niederlande. 1999. pp. 1993. Mary of Hungary (1505-1558). pp. I. she continued to engage artists who had gentschapsordonnanties en haar correspondentie rnel once vvorked for her aunt. where Mary had been J The most authoritative biography remains L. 2002. 153-178. pp. DF. Hilversum. DF. 380-384. consult I. Tissus d'Or. At the height of tapestry production and manufacture in Brüs. . ing the most significant sets woven in Brüssels in the Renaissance. weavers and en- trepreneurs: sixteenth-century Flemish tapestries in the Century 1 . LXX sels in the second half of the sixteenth Century. As prime examples of conspicuous consumption. B. Her passion for tapestries 267-270. «Tapisserie-'portable grandeur' und Medium der Erzählknnst». Governante des Pays-Bas et la Renaissance». 1969. Malines. CXXXIXV (Oc- cal exponents of royal and imperial splendor. «The Habsburgs and Ta- pestry». 1491-1559) and Pieter Co. which not only enhanced their collections. Habsburg patrons were ordering and purchas. the Netherlands 3 .LMARCEL. FRANKE and B. Tapestries provided a measure with which to judge the Status of a great house3. and G. icant cycles and series. Burlington Magazine. 18-19. äs well äs pp. Cartoons of which she kept for her collection. Charles V (1500-1558). few people could afford (October 1999). they mirrored dynastic tober 1999).

Mary's total freedom in the domain of collecting for numerous sets during this residency. l. Juana of Austria. and not seen tapes- where he lived until 1557. in M. the fate of his «petitz patrons de und Inventare aus dem Archivo General de Simancas». and despite the constraints and limitations he imposed. Turnhout. himself a passionate collector of tapestry15.). 1999. working there äs a pattern and Cartoon painter for tapestry-makers. la victoire de Saxe» remained unknown9. «Acten. According to Brantöme. Brantöme thought Mary to be a sagacious Amazon. Mary demonstrated a need for self-identification in the male-dominated milieu 11 CAMPBELL. The cultural sphere was the one area in which she could exercise significant Campbell points out that patrons displayed tapestries which demonstrated role models and concepts with influence16. pp. Mary often shared Charles's world on equal 12 P. He produced models try commissions brought to their completion. Revue Uni. and the enormous obligations placed upon Mary by Charles V's dynastic policies. sition of power and authority. DE SMEDT (ed. Seigneur de Brantöme (c. Paris. in R. a female soldier that ruled like a man. paintings. The sections of Mary's inventory unknown to Beer esteemed them and her painter Coxcie10. and recounts how he placed been woven. 120bis-121. was otherwise engaged in his wars against Italy. 27. 2002. As a result. but also two small patrons with Spanish inscriptions intended for each individual tion. Commissioning paintings and tapestries that celebrated the pinna- dura. 1497-1592). describes Charles V's complete trust in Mary. de-camp for the emperor. 3 (1856). trons for panels with mille-fleurs (foliage and animals) and 254 tapestries the regent took with 7 See Archivo General de Simancas (AGS). As regent. and if the inventory can be trusted then this sei has since been lost. In 1550. fol. freedom not seen at other contemporary courts17. pp. Internationa/ Co/loquium. pp. a 3v: «dos papeles en que estan los letreros en espahol de los dichos lienzos que heran para poner en la tapizeria military feat Mary must have greatly appreciated. imprisonment of John Frederick of Saxony was a symbolic triumph for the Habsburg court. VANDERJAGT (eds. fol. Leben mit Kunst. the government of Flanders entirely in her hands when she took up the regency of the Nether- lands in 153l12. which pergamino en questa la prison del duque de saxa: dos papeles grandes que son patrones para tapizeria de ver. it can be inferred that Coxcie initially executed nine oil paintings äs and foremost a medium manipulated to glorify Habsburg power11. 1530-1614). also went with her to Spain. 3. äs the emperor " CMC. for inventories and payments (cuentas) of Mary's collec. France and Germany13. ed. DE BOOM in «Le tournant Beige de la destinee de family. When it came to questions of collecting. pictor regis (1499-1592). DUVF. 1017. A. earning the repu. Philip II. Museo del Prado). Princes and Princely Cul. 1017 and 1093. Flem- ish Tapestry. Mechelen 5-6 and music. legs. For Charles and Mary tapestry was first una caxa blanca». panel. Charles V created a unique Situation for Mary. From the first entry. preparatory models. veinte embultorios de papeles para tapizeria e otras cosas grandes y pequehos». by allowing her to operate with a which he or she wished to be allied. Some sections from leg. EICHBERGER. DELMARCEL. which apparently were never woven. 239-258. D. She took Charge. and patronage allowed her to develop a sensibility and discriminating taste matched by no oth- tation of the «Flemish Raphael». perhaps in Flanders. Cited by G. According to the inventory scribe. See G. «Tableaux et sculptures de Marie d'Autriche. leg. patterns and drawings for tapestry in her baggage to Spain. sonally rode out to battle against the French armies on her horse. deferring whenever possible to regent of Spain. In 1571. äs she also owned the renowned equestrian que se acaba de hazer de los dichos lienzos con otro portrait of her brother by Titian (Charles Vat the Battle of Mühlberg. EICHBF. 1017 were published by R. Wirken durch Kun. 2003. Whenever Charles did These tapestry entries cite in detail those panels and sets manage to visit Flanders. leg.J. She equally possessed immense knowledge of the processes of tapestry manufacture and st. n.RGER. in his book on contemporary il- contained in Spanish the inscriptions for these tapestries. Despite political restrictions verselle des Ms. quently extended beyond domestic spheres into the political arena18.). BEER." D. 132-133. E. 12 (1891). 17 folios in length. Coxcie executed not only nine. l d epoca. 1017. The fact that Mary bothered to take such preliminary Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Aller- höchsten Kaiserhauses. DE BOURDEILLE (BRANTÖME). 18 and 24. and 10 Coxcie moved from Malines to Brüssels in 1547. Mechelen. Registen . op. petits patrons after 1558 is not known. admiring the way she per- '' A. and E. her fascination for hunting. especially tapestry. (note 4). Leiden-Boston. p. Belgiuin. p. Charles promoted her to a po- poesies et tombeaux.RGER. vol. the royal counsel continued to preside under his sister. some executed by another of Österreich Regentin der Niederlande. she was able «De Brusselse stadspatroonschilder voor de tapijtkunst Michiel van Cocxyen (ca. The emperor's victory over the Protestants and the indude the following entries recorded under portraits and paintings in her collection: CMC. äs dopa- ture 1450-1650. footing. Recueil des Domes. while at the same time define her official role at court20. and fol. without her direct Intervention. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . 1991. London. household and estate in 1558. XC1-CCIV (reg. Mary was a most suitable candidate. appear in Mary's 1558 unpublished inventory7. Mary acted äs an aide- June 1992. 5v: «muchas cles of Charles V's military career and the most significant victories of the Habsburg house. papeles y patrones de doseles y otras cosas metidos en formed an essential component of Mary's collection. Michiel Coxcie (1499-1592). these had recentiy lustrious women. l a epoca. music and the arts fre- p. «A Culturc Centre in the Southern Mary's court painters and a pupil of Van Orley. l' epoca. Contaduria her to Cigales (Spain)8. Een inleidende to fulfill her intellectual curiosity and express her personal views through patronage of the arts Studie». indicates how much she 8436). Michel Coxcie. then absences. äs models. MACDON- depicting Charles V's victories over the Duke of Saxony and the German Protestants in 1547. small oil paintings that served Mayor de Cuentas (CMC). dt. la reine douairiere de Hongrie». The fate of Coxde's er in her immediate family. and during his (the majority of Mary's tapestry collection) which were bequeathed to her niece. his wishes: «äs her only desire was to serve and obey the emperor»14. for nine tapestries Netherlands: the Court of Archduchess Margaret of Aus- tria (1480-1530) in Mcchelen». The two paper Cartoons cited here Pierre de Bourdeille.511. 1993. 167. some but not all sets Juana had inherited were passed on to her brother. GOSMAN. pp. Mary. where she circulated in. Petits and grands patrons. Mary kept the emperor well-informed of his affairs. Sammelwesen und Hofkunst unter Margarete von its various stages of production. 130. U m 'a semble impossibie Through tapestry commissions and the collecting of art works. was able to promote herseif. ALD and A. 1' This opinion was voiced by Charles V personally in a letter written from Cologne to Mary on 3 January 1531: Mary always sought to enhance the imperial dignity and reputation of the Habsburg house19. Until the recent reading of this unpublished inventory. Vaucheret. «vu mes continuelles absences. like most women of her de trouver une personne plus qualifiee que vous». records lists of tapestries not published by Beer. Charles would probably have bought less. Through her patronage. PINCIIART. in 1558.

Goleta and Tunis in 1535. Carolianus.). ruler and intercessor for her people. The Sixteenth Century Journal. 2002 (unpublished paper). 25-29. Mons. where she retired in 1556. in 1497. vol. especially p. in particular p. 196-197. «Mujeres mecenas de la fact that Mary later brought a number of Margaret's tapestries. 401-418. EICHBERGER. L. Collecting. Historisch Tijdschrift KU Nijmegen. pp. Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien. Their political Status äs of Van Eyck. David. JORDAN. when Margaret married Isabel's son. «Karl V als Mäzen der Niederlandischen vre. Mary displayed tapestries in her residences in Brüssels (Coudenberg.. Heritage of Burgundy». provided a model for oth- ra Carolas. Ex Tempore. regente de los Paises Bajos. in Alte und Moderne Kunst. Calisto. Ghent. 9. and Music Patronage». his Time. Juana of Austria (1535-1573). Sixteenth Century nificant tapestry cycles of her brother's reign: the Labors of Hercules. is well docu. and even Charles himself treated Mary äs his ruling queenship in the Renaissance which stressed a queen's role äs virtuous consort. The Mediterranean World and Early Nether- landish Painting 1430-1530. A. op. regent and queen was characterized by their patronage and the acquisition of art works. the Conquest of Tunis. Cupid and Psyche. Margaret's mother-in-Iaw. Binche and Mariemont. Marie family hierarchy and network21. Queen of Portugal and France (1498-1558)» and heritance. The development of family portrait pp. A. pp. and D. Carlos V/Kar! V 1500-2000. 1999. mented25. 87. celebrating 18 For various aspects of Mary's patronage and collec- tion consult the following: G. 10. Madrid. for instance. 2001. Is. Women and Art in Early Modem former palace of the Burgundian dukes). Flemish tapestries. Mary was Tapisserie Kunst». 87-95. Renaissance Society of and manner of display. DOYI. 349-360. the Seuen Deadly Sins. «The Habsburgs and the Cultural 152529. Penn. Moses. paintings by Titian. Mary's lsabel Clara Eugenia (1598-1633).J. LAWRENCE (ed. dated 29 twelve tapestries of the Hunts of Maximilian for Charles V (Louvre. GLÜCK. 27-111. of politics and rule. and the way these were exhibited in Mary's residences in Flanders to America Annual Meeting. The Age sources.. D. and idem. XI. paintings and objects she had casa de Austria y la infanta lsabel Clara Eugenia». äs Symbols of princely glorifi. Catherine of Austria. one of the most potent Images of ter ego.D. pp. 2002.Patronage provided her and other female relations with a platform upon which they could ad- vance their interests and tastes. such äs Netherlandish tapestries. pp. Hahsburg Governance in the Sixteenth Century: Mary of Hungary and Political Patronage». paint- gary with Iberia. Antwerp. G. pp. Prince Juan.N. Coxcie lectors: The Patronage and Collecting of Habsburg and Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen (1500-1559). Vertumnus and Pomona. and from 1531 to 1555 was involved in the commission and purchase of the most sig. Mary saw herseif becorning Charles's al- Paul. 1598) and his sister. promote her own political agenda and that of the Habsburg dynasty. ruled äs queen since her marriage to John III in tioned äs a platform for an international cultural ex- change. «Verdadero padre y senor. model equal. See also idem. er Habsburg courts. «Charles V and dowager queen of Hungary most identified with24. Mary and Catherine. Acteon. At Mary's instigation. «Maria de Hungria. in Royal Inuentories of of the collections of tapestry. luxury Wonnen in the Renaissance».2 (2000). became a fundamental cornerstone idem. 1500-1558. 198-199. Flem. This family network equally func- sister. 23-33. «Mary of Hungary monial event and state occasion at Mary of Hungary's and Charles V's courts26. and theßoW/e ofPavia (Lou- 15 D. where she had introduced Renaissance styles and ideas. exerting enormous influence upon the direc- tion royal collecting and palace decoration in Spain would take after Mary's death in 155828. Jacques Du Broeucq. Scottsdale. Asian exotica and curiosities. Cahiers Historiques. SOLY (ed. Queen of Portugal (1507-1578)». books. ed. Patrons. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND 93 . the History of Scipio. She HOFF. patterned after her aunt Margaret's mode of collecting Sixteenth-Century Royal Women. Paris). «/V/a Meilleur Soeur: Leonor of Aus- Hungary's impetus and the example she set in the Brüssels palace27. 8 (1934). -1 Dagrnar Eichberger points out how the Habsburg network of dynastic relationships functioned äs an effi- This essay will examine in greater detail precisely those links established by Mary of Hun.. 87. 31. «Het hof van lished between the courts of her aunt. Collectors and Connoisseurs. pp. (note 13. Tobias. HEINTZ. 4 (1984). pp. 1999.R. 1997. Her close involvement with the single. Margaret of Austria's in. and Esther: the latter. Ph. Brüssels. 173-196. would not have been possible without Mary of -" Cfr. 1985. Cited in DE BOOM. Venus. in El arte en la corte de los Archiduques Alberto de Austria e inherited in 1530 to Spain. Mary of Hungary served äs a vital link between the Iberian peninsula and the Netherlands 15. p. sculpteur et architecte de la Renaissance. veuve royale». Barend van Orley designed between 1528 and 1533 the series of " Letter from Mary of Hungary to Charles V. 1971). «Bildnisse aus dem Charles V äs defender of the Catholic faith and glorifying his victory over Turkish forces at La Hause Habsburg II: Königin Maria von Ungarn». financial re. Charles V's sisters. 1999. an image the regent Mary. 1956. They became the flagship of the dynasty. sculptures. This series promoted the fame and repute of the Habsburg dynasty. tria.). Catherine of Portugal (1507-1578). RODRI'GUEZ-SALGADO. Diss. As regent. first estab- versity of Nijmegen. in Female Dynasties: The Patronage. DE KERKHOFF. äs Habsburg princess and KOHLER (ed. 3 (1971). Aspecten uit leu- en uan Maria uan Hongari/e 1505-1558. 187. 6. decorative arts and paintings later assembled by Philip II (1527. pp. 28 abella of Castile (1451-1504). de Hongrie. with Portugal and the Lisbon court. in particular those of female relations. musical instruments. and Bequeathing of Portraits by goods. depicted enjoying the pleasures of hunting (her favorite pastime). a la luz de su correspondencia». BORCIIERT (ed. Margaret of Austria. in T. Paris)22. GOSS THOMPSON. 1989. where Mary's youngest ings and manuscripts. most the Dynasty». Un reino imaginado. GORTER-VAN ROYF.). F. «A Dynasty of Col- own collection of exceptional court portraits. p. 44. in which Mary is January 1531: «Je viens seulement le sewir et lui obeir». which celebrate the emperor's victory over Frangois I in 152523. Charles Quint. and äs visual metaphors 1958. 185-194. more importantly. in A. «The Sinews of cation. Uni- equally bridged cultural and artistic relations between Spain and the Netherlands. The (1991). bridged these lies even more. Journal. Checa (forth- coming). pp. and M. University Park. beside underscoring their role and Status with the Habsburg Marie de Hongrie. C. April 11-13. independence and social connections played a decisive role.F. 17 Over time.-H. J. dent System of distribution of luxury goods and gifts among relatives. pp. Charles V 1500-1558 and important tapestry commission of her brother's reign. DE KERK- in the mid-sixteenth Century. dt.). cat. used to mark every cere. Madrid. extremely conscious of the use of tapestries äs a form of Propaganda. Tot plichtsbetrachting uitüerkoren. galleries in Spain and Portugal. the ". were elite women whose wealth. landvoogdes Maria van Hongarije in de Jaren 1531-1555». Arizona. and. in H. J. 118-137. Europe. the backbone of Mary's outstanding collection. JORDAN. London. Charles V and the Imperial Family.

BAUS. itemizes in detail numerous purchases made there on her behalf (appendix: doc- 252. a table made of Manierista em Portugal. Cambridge. «Las dos äguilas del emperador Car- los V Las colecciones y el mecenazgo de Juana y Maria de Austria en la corte de Felipe II». Berlin. from Brüs- naissance Studies. a coconut. EARLE and K. K. pp. let alone buy objects she would like and find acceptable. «States of independence: women regents äs patrons of the visual arts in Renaissance France». op. Catherine's collection and patronage reflect patterns of collecting and modes of patronage established by Mary in Flanders33. court portraits and exotica from Portuguese Asia were reciprocated. 147: «if rs que no dito dia despemdeo para se vestir huä escraoa que ha sawy in artistic. 53-58. traveling by post through Spain and France. underscoring once Brüssel 1548-1554. Catherine had exquisite taste and was familiär with high-quality objects :il It is possible future archival research will yield more letters which can elucidate more on their friendship and and merchandise from Flanders. ter exerted upon her and the rest of the family34. The Development of Catherine of Aus- tria's Collection in the Queen's Household: Its Character At the beginning of the 1550s. in idem. «The 'Battle of Pavia' and the tapestry Mary and Catherine belonged to a «particular tradition of patronage. 154-164. Vlll Jornadas de Arte. Through cultural sponsorship. order to be capable of successfully accomplishing his assignment39. were able to promote themselves and carve out their official position at their respective courts. R. patron and collector relied immensely upon the incen- thisvolume. CXLIV (June 2002). Kartons und Tapisserien.). 1995. 2 (1996). took him four months to conclude pp. 2000. Macht und Ohmacht Europas. cat. in Der Kriegszug Kaiser Karls V. Mary of Hungary's 1558 inventory reveals a fascination for exotica. 0. idem. they Les C'hasses de Maximalen. ment38. Seipel. idem. Re. task to fulfill the Shopping needs of a demanding queen. Vienna. Nücleo Antigo (NA) 792. Carneiro knew well his queen's tastes. 1994. coord. confided in him and in his abilities. W. Vienna. Indian pillows. pp. Catherine increased cultural ties with Mary. dt. Thesis. a nautilus Shell. 385-391 and 428-434. Assuerns und Esther am Burgunderhof. 118. 417-431. pp.J. Madrid. GARCI'A SANZ and K. 429-472. Black Africans in Renaissance Europe. tortoiseshell. The Indian. Catherine evidently knew ages of Empire: Slaves in the household and court of Catherine of Austria». For Habsburg portrait galleries and collections in the Netherlands and at the Par- her relationship and exchange with Catherine. «The Image of a King: Court Portraits in the Collection of Philip 11». ed. 1994. written by Catherine's servant. Carneiro had been entrusted with a delicate and difficult mission: it is not an easy en el Arte Espanol. portraits. collecting cultural exchange. FRANKE. Mary and Catherine never met one another and despite distance. 23 I. Gifts. Cultural Links between Portugal and Italy in 16 days (awaiting his travel papers41). JORDAN. Therefore. 10. n. 27 A. on behalf of his queen. Their artistic relationship and exchange. op.stries consult the recent exhibition catalogucs: Kaiser queen's preference for Flemish art works and craftsmen underscore the influence her eider sis- Karl V. JORDAN. 1993. Brown University. til her sister's retirement from government in 1556. again her close links with the Lisbon court: a piece of unicorn hörn.22 A. time and space. gegen Tu. and the Portuguese 2(1 For the most up-to-date bibliography of the Tunis tape. 196-205. 2000. Francisco Carneiro. where he stayed in Fontainebleau 1521: the choice between Flanders and Italy». in T. before continuing on to Brüssels. Ph. Catherine's self-imaging äs queen. 1998. und weitere Tapisserien Willem de Pannemaker». Retrato de Corte ein Portugal. 345-351. 155-180. A thirty-four page report. a tortoiseshell fan from India. «Portuguese Royal Collecting after difficult journey. A Pintara tables:ii. two Chinese or Japanese lacquer caskets. pp. tending»30. 114-121. has come to light in an extraordinary docu- 2(1 T. Zur Rezeption des Buches Esther in den Niederlanden maintained a close relationship. 2000. habits and collection. Lisbon archive have disclosed these sisters exchanged ideas on artistic and political matters. He equally crisscrossed ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . particularly in the acquisition of Flemish tapestries. LÖWE (ed. JORDAN. Burling- ton Maqazine. 237-258. Documents in the (1450-1530). 2S Cfr. tive and Stimulation she received from Brüssels. Also A.I.. äs fontes. in dita senora mamdou a sua Irmäa».L. 143-154. pp. this courtier well. L. his Shopping spree. «O a silver incense burner from India. DELMARCEL and A. a coconut uenera from India and a rhinoceros bon.P. Madrid. (note 4). äs some surviving letters can corroborate31. Seipcl. Mary even received from Catherine a female slave in 154l32. Ku- GLER and R. «Im. 1998. Mary's prestige and Status at the impeiial court in Brüssels was augmented by II Rex. DE Jo\riE. p. cats. in Philipp/is hörn vessel3'. 50. A. TOLLEY.. Paris. 383-436. G. in La Mujer ument 1). a Ceylonese ivory cas- ket that contained a piece of jasper to staunch the flow of blood. cit. pp. «Mujeres coiec- cionistas de la Casa de Austria en el siglo xvi». As a gen- 32 Instituto dos Arquivos Nacionais/Torre do Tombo tleman of her household (moco da camara). Lisbon. LÖWE (eds. RUDOLF. and brought him into close contact with the regent Mary. exotica and animals. «Die editio princeps für Kaiser Karl V. her courtiers (espedally the con- 33 A. several Gujarati mother-of-pearl caskets and Manierismo e o retrato da corte em Portugal. in K. 154. JORDAN. in La Monarquia de Fe/ipe II a debate. A QUEEN'S SHOPPING LIST: BRÜSSELS. enough so äs to undertake this task with such self-assurance. a lacquer table from China. ed. versed in several languages. sels in 1551. Ribot Garcia. CSIC. upon whom shc played an influential role. In any case. Also A. 1551 2i) A.D. Carneiro undertook a 29). which continued un- and Cos/. a wooden casket filled with ground unicorn hörn and coral branches35. JORDAN. O Legado de Antonio Moro (1552-1572). In re- ma court see the essay by Almudena Perez de Tudela in turn. BAI >ER. Carneiro undoubtedly was well-educated and (IAN/TT). Centro de Estu- dios Histöricos. and idem. Lis. pp. ish tapestries. pp. which they set about ex- collection of Don Carlos: new documentation».). (note trolleur of her household40) and artisans in Brüssels who worked for her. Madrid. Ceylonese pp. probably French. pp. a painted ivory gaming board. luxury goods. Arie no Tempo de Camöes. fol. and CAMPBEI. W. (1500-1558). court and diplomatic matters. 1997. nis. 2005. Regents and Princesses». LEFEBURE. Bi CHANAN. they -' B. «Patterns of Patronage among Habsburg Queens. and Asian objects were gifts from her sister Catherine: medicinal stones. espedally p. Providencc. äs inovacöes e a importagäo de um estilo».

Mary bon (Cfr. 46. leg. fol. in was primarily responsible in obtaining the best precious stones. Angelo di Marini?. later in 1537. CC l. even giving no Italian or ancient art works: antiquities. pp. 3 (2000). Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales. e nos moldes e agulhas que sua Alleza mandou a Roiz and the queen were further assisted by two Portuguese in Antwerp: Ruy Mendes46 and framdes a Rainha sua Irmäa por mandado em xxbj de agosto de 1542». SEN. Oxford University Press. 1998. the transactions of which. maco 92. pp. maco 44. ÄLVAREZ. where and from whom. Cochin and Malacca were recruited to aid the queen in her search for exclu. silks (appendix: document 2)48. cameos. Medina. Agostino Gentili44 and Bento Salvago45. and keep her regularly informed of goods for sale in these markets. 29 March 1554). for goods (not specified) him. served äs the regent's treasurer. were handled through contacts in Spain at Medina del Campo42. at Consult J. date. As can be seen from document l (appendix). letters of exchange and credit. where he was paid a salary to «serve •!:i Perhaps a relation of Silvestre Cattaneo in Antwerp. sculpture or portrait busts are recorded her sister tapestry commissions she no longer wanted or needed. Cited in Mary's unpublished inventory entries in AGS. 617. Her court goldsmith. «Artistic Enterprise and Spanish Patronage: The Art Mar- sive items. pp. and. äs she did in 1564 when he supplied her with high-quality Florentine and Venetian Parma (1538-1577)». doc. transport and other expenses. who acted äs intermediaries between Lisbon and Brüssels. p. PEKEZ PASTOR. carefully advised Catherine in her choice of what to buy. op. The Italian (Genoese) merchants active % IAN/TT. that some purchases and (note 291. the «Inventario de los bienos de la reina de Hnngrfa. finally boarding the ship Santiago in Zeeland for the trip home. lAN-'TT. ing out the insurance policy which covered for the eventual damage or loss of her expensive tapestries19. helping her settle financial questions. bronzes. system to obtain rarities. tapestry weaver. expenses in Flanders. Carneiro did not operate alone in this enterprise. Portuguese viceroys and household officials Castile. he could not have carried out 1558. is the earliest Asian hörn vessel of its kind recorded in a ders. Mary's rhinoceros cup. Aldershot. drapier 14. cmzados. Palos also organ. pp. agents. At this and captain (Antonio Afonso) to Charter. JORDAN. fol. JORDAN. The latter payment for silver suggests Antonio Palos47. 203-252. A. He was Catherine's main Informant in Flanders. Palos acted äs the queen's official agent and negotiator in Flan. cated a valet of her bedchamber.1 epoca. pp. for which Services he was paid 2681/. doc. Antonio Correa. 2000. Brüssels and else- where in Northern Europe. Catherine first recruited a reliable resource based in Lisbon. Diogo Vaz. As the queen's agent. Carneiro was helped immensely during the Portuguese factor in Flanders sent Catherine in 1538. Equally. coins. Louvain. animals. 161: «10. Nicolao Cattaneo43. the queen in India»50. who gave Catherine ordered new European mounts and decoration Carneiro the necessary monies to pay the bills. 1017. to be added to this Gujarati casket. merchant Lazarus (Lazaro) Duquar was paid in two installments. 169: «prata fina que pos no cofre Company. Catherine Merldionales (Portugals.T. and fol. 48-58. NA 792. Juana. ORMROD (eds. Manuel Botelho was commanded by John III to sail in the Far tria also maintained direct contact with merchants in East for three years. Indian and Cey. diamonds. and was the largest international fair of late Me- dieval and Renaissance Spain. lived permanently in Goa for over twenty years. exotica and luxury goods was organized from the onset of ™ Medina was the location for the annual fair held in her reign: factors. his entire stay in Brüssels by Mary and her courtiers. frequented by merchants stationed in Goa. VAN DER ES- evolved into a merchant queen with a great deal of business acumen. Catherine relo. European collection. in particular p. «A Masterpiece of Indo-Portuguese Art: The Rhinoceros Cup of Maria of Portugal. in ures. Cornelis de Ronde. A Danaao to arrange his «passport».800 rs cm compra de hun cofre de madre perolo guarnecido de prala forrada there and in Antwerp were directly involved: Giovanni Spinola (Joam Jacome Espindola) and de c^etlm carmesim que fo\ em maos da Rainha nosa senora». to Goa. without the Intervention of several key fig- '•"' These u-crc later inhcrited by her niece. CMC. 10 (1914). Besides arranging Carneiro's trip. 61 (2003). Art Markets in Europe. During bis four the Renaissance. 95v. who cooked his meals and helped dress 31 IAN/TT. to arrange credit in the amount of 5000 cruzados to pay for Carneiro's tnana de Carlos V». Oriental Art. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND 95 . keep. NORTH and D.A. probably Chinese in manufacture. Catherine main. Lucas Giraldi and Benedetto Gachone in Lis- commissions may have been worked out between the two sisters prior to his arrival. and in C. Cfr. L. äs she did when she sold merce d'exportation des Pays-Bas uers l'Espagne et le Portugal ä l'epoque de Charles-Quint (1553-1554). 37 Cfr. Correa was to buy from direct sources in Asia. even tak. LABRADOR ARROYO. even undertaking over. pay for the goods Carneiro came to buy. 38 (15 Decem- ber 1529) for payments made to Afonso d'Avila. 1925. goldsmiths. 1921. CC I. Italy and France. in four. n. often recruiting him over the years to buy her luxu. ing her frequently updated äs to what merchandise was for sale in Antwerp. 45-59. äs she did in Portuguese Asia. the queen's Orders in Flanders. 289-314. äs will be discussed below. Italiens) a Anuers de 1488 ä 1567. NA 792. 265-293. Palos and Mendes often accompa- 39 F. 238. Consult M. M.). Contribuition ä l'histoire du port d'Anoers du com- seas ventures to finance her Shopping expenses and costly tastes. month sojourn. 238. with three ships on the queen's behalf. p. and it appears from correspondence Other documents confirm her long and close rclations with Portuguese agents in Flanders. localizing which ship (the Santiago) !(1 This person was not named by Carneiro. medals. ized the shipment of the queen's goods back to Lisbon. or not yet been found in the Lisbon archive. «La casa de la reina Catalina de nied Carneiro on his Shopping excursions and arranged for various modes of payments: the Portugal: estructura y facciones politicas (1550-1560)». from Flanders. Antwerp. her- merchant Bento Roiz. 41 The French court was in Paris during this Interim and Carneiro engaged the Service of an agent he named Catherine depended on this sort of networking in Europe. which has not survived. cit. l. Etüde sur les Colonies Marchandes cheaper prices. Carneiro hired a male servant boy. the Portuguese factor from 1549 to 1556 and consul in 1554. in Catherine's inventories. and ket during the Reign of lsabel of Castile (1471-1504)». 51. Despite excellent lies with the Italian merchants. Oxford. merchants. and the second dealer and Miscelanea Comillas. 383. tained long and close contact with Mendes. Memorias de la Real Academia Es- panola. the musician. As early äs 1531.Flanders. Princess of ry goods. Catherine of Aus- lonese jewelry. See IAN/TT. GORIS. Espagno/s. Rogier Pathie. traveling two times to Oudenaarde and thirteen times between Brüssels and Antwerp. Portuguese wine in Goa and imported a surplus of Indian textiles and clothes to seil in Lisbon. 1400-1800.

fol. and executed un- Joäo Periera Dantas. gold plate. who assumed diplomatic functions at the Habsburg named artisans (obreiros) who assisted the goldsmith in making silver models («que fezeräo court. ''" IAN/TT. These Antwerp to Brüssels. JORDAN. maco 92. Palos and gently: «f isto ha deligemqia que pos em nos fazer he ofeaais que para isto tomou». or rather her faithful servant.A. made for Catherine. IAN/TT. which he received a salary. ployed to obtain everything on her wish list. Jean Embre supplied pera e podem me loguo enoiar o ouro e prata conteudos no dyto Rol ou alguma parta dele faloeys osy enoyra a Carneiro with twenty-four chests to störe and transport these goods. 619). Jaques. Silver bas- dyto Rol e a seda em que se ouuer de fazer sera suriana kets commissioned from Mary of Hungary's goldsmith. asco me dyzem que foy feyta cm Miläo mas tenho en- Francisca da Cruz (a woman of Portuguese origin). Textiles and cloth of various sizes. Ms 85. Her controlleur was involved in the financial transactions of this order made according to Mary's specifications. cat. Gerard Baques. dt. often em. besides the construction of special perches and cages Mendes EU a Rainha. amostras douro e damasco da Sorte que quella que me enuieys o ouro prata damasco e borlas e telas con. queen's apartments in the royal palace. so were the diplomatic and family lies Catherine de- seu irmäo». Luis Carler (Carlet?). apparent in an undated letter addressed to Ruy Mendes. 369. Cfr. Carneiro Mendes appear to have been quite knowledgeable about tapestries. etc. Derrick van der Mauruen and Caspar Roiz tendido que se fara muyto milhor em Veneza pelo que o mandareys loguo alj fazer ao milhor mestre que ahy ou. which in June of 1552 muyto breue Recado e de tal maneyra que se narrt took ten seamen to carry from the ship Santiago docked at the Lisbon waterfront to the dane/o quäl sera da Sorte y calydade que se contem no dyto Rol». p.: Palos never failed to assist the queen with her affairs with financial means. op. Pewter vessels of assorted shapes and sizes were obtained from the ver ao quäl emcomendareys que tenha o dyto damasco muito seda para questa corpulente como se contem no pewtersmith Laurence (Lourenqo estanheiro) and the merchant Lazarus Duquar. each of which decorated with a steel escutcheon in saryo o quäl faco fundamento deuy mandar em pymen- ta trazem os Noso nellas naos da India por que se es. whom Carneiro subsequently visited to make all the pur- ki Mendes worked äs secretary of the Portuguese feito. . (another Portuguese). chases itemized for him before his departure from the Lisbon court. commissioned to procure the best damask on the market Mary's expertise was mobilized on all levels. äs one entry describes: «ao ouriuez da Rainha dom- 'D The Portuguese factors in Flanders were invariably well educated men. some described äs lauor de theudas no dyto Rol e tudo queria que fose muyto per- feyto por que he para cousas de muyto gosto e conlenta- damasco de flores. His report reads like a tele- ria in Antwerp. textiles. their subject matter and the quality of their supervised everything done to the last detail and fortunately for us was just äs meticulous in his manufacture. such äs the merchant/dealer Lazarus Duquar. silver-gilt in 1556 (GoRis. They were multi-lingual and because of their gen. dt. the middle. op. who was not named by Carneiro. fols. See Biblioteca Püblica Munici- pal do Porto. doc. (note 43). had been especially sioned in Paris with the assistance of her ambassador. high-quality tapestries were marketed. 81 (where Palos was mis-identified by the author äs a mer. Finally. em uerga a mostra») and the Courier who brought the required silver for the latter men from erous salaries could engage in artistic patronage. C. mm hos cinquo caixöes que mandou ao emperador ferred from reading between the lines. She relied entirely upon the goodwill of a sister. More on Mendes and Palos in GORIS. In- struments and other luxury goods for sale. op. up of Mary's household officials because the commission had been expedited quickly and dili- to date about paintings. Each basket had its own leather storage case. and who dominated the artistic milieu at this K Catherine's appreciation of Italian luxury textiles is date. äs did Joäo Brandäo with Albrecht Dürer in 1521-1522. operated. 1066. p. whom she did not know but admired greatly. through the Shopping streets of Brüssels. tapestries. Hungary recommended to Catherine. This document offers a unique description of five chests (with gifts from Lisbon) she sent Charles V. even the regent's hunting skills and know-how in in Milan and Venice for the queen. perhaps this commission arranged before his departure. and later was appointed consul in Flan- ders from 1562 to 1565. who also sent him a this domain were tapped. dt. Jean Dingas.865. 102. 95: «paguei por hun scrito of how expensive. written report to his queen. (note 29). quality and manufacture. besides understanding the economic channels and resources in Flanders. (note 29). doc. who worked in Brüssels for the regent's court31. were acquired from the following dealers or merchants: Adri- muyto de sobre mäo e em tanta perfeicarri como se cus- tuma quando se laz para paragone/a amostra do dam. may e näo despanha por que me dyzen que numqua se faz amarela/Avisa meys loguo do que estas cousas podera have been executed by Christoffel Radnecker.'" Gentili was appointed Genovese consul in Antwerp The items Carneiro bought for Catherine ranged from expensive cloth to pewter. 217-218 and 623. craftsmen and Workshops Mary of CGoRis. Even more extraordinary are the names of dealers. usually of noble birth. and äs can be in- tos e nouenta rs que fez de despesa por mandado de V. dt. which required the paid detailed list with samples. NA 792.C l. chant). [note 43]. custar para uos mandar prouer com o dinheiro nece- The latter were made of the finest silver. CG l. More importantly. äs in 1553 when he supervised the shipment available to her to buy luxury goods from abroad. pp. 109. IAN/TT. 1564-1565): «tfuy assistance of three falconers for 19 days. an Borlamaque. Payments were made to several un- ployed äs gentlemen in Portuguese royal households. The list follows on fol. Euerarte de Ovelar.472 '•' Perhaps a relation of Antonio Salovago Piccanoto reais. p. op. dt. Extra monies were paid out by Carneiro to the goldsmith and to several men were very familiär with the markets in Flanders. and others embroidered with Old Tes- mento meu e o que se ouvese de mandar fazer fose por tament scenes (Cain and Abel). many of whom remain to be iden- man (morador) in the household of King John III. plate to Flemish tapestries (28 panels and 3 portieres in all). der Mary's watchful eye. 131 cited in JORDAN. strumental in shipping from Flanders to Lisbon an elabo- rate mule-drawn litter or carriage the queen had commis- Carneiro's report confirms that certain items. it provides a behind-the-scenes look of how a royal collector of Catherine's Status and position. like the silver baskets. spending a total of 1. 617 and p. [note 43]. The mechanics behind such a business deal are minutely outlined. bought and transported to a royal de Antonio Palos que esta em frandes tres mit e sei's cen- customer. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . maco 106. from tified in the future by scholars. op. gria aquem ela mandou fazer hos ditos seis acafates». in 1564. 624). 1065-1066 (ca. uos enoyo huä Rol e certas for the ship journey back to Lisbon. to guide her. others äs lauor de ueneza or pavia. p. phone directory of artisans working in Brüssels at this date. He is also recorded äs a gentle. Carneiro bought twenty-two young falcons. Mendes was in.

NA by Perino del Vaga.0237717. once in the photo archive of French & Co. or even by De Ronde himself. 546. These are avail- have De Ronde confidently taken on the financial risk of investing in such an expensive cycle able for study and consultation on the internet: without a specific buyer in mind. 1995. cut) in December 193257. French & Co. pp. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND 97 . Also B. a set he had for sale of seven panels of the History ofAeneas. cit. depict episodes of the First Book of Kings (l Kings 22: 1-40): King Jehoshaphat ofJudah uisits and CAMPBELL. The surviving Ahab panels. (note 53). beo a camareira dona me^ia dandmde do thesoureiro aluai'o lopez seis azafates de uerga de prata fina de were woven in silk and gold and called the Nauigatione d'Enea54. she purchased nine panels of the Story of King Ahab (figures l and 2) and eleven of the Histo- ry of Solomon. pp. 136. King Ahab (figure 1). Delmarcel and Dumortier compare the conception and figures 37 Until 1967 these three panels were still in the collec- of the Ahab panels with those of another famous tapestry cycle at the Lisbon court. 1551 (appendix: The borders of all three are identical: flowers and strapwork are interspersed with various ani. with inscrip. op. (note 52). these were in his collection in Washington. cit.. VAN DEN BOOGERT. (note 5). 290-291. «The Nauigatione d'Enea Tapestries De- signed by Perino del Vaga for Andrea Doria». 0237715.CORNELIS DE RONDE AND THE HISTORY OF AENEAS TAPESTRIES At this juncture.getty. 64-65. Het mecenaat van Maria van Hongari- je». developed from Perino's original conception for a commercial festivities can confirm. female figures in Swings and couples. What connection. pp.. cit. DUMORTIER. 0237722. market35. Scholars generally agree that meyo oyfenta seis marcos huä OT?CG e tres oytavas.. cit. Maria oan Hongarije. The Portuguese queen. have been purchased by the Getty Foundation. These tapestries. tion of French and Co. FFOULKE. Vente publique. and Ronde or from her Portuguese agents. record nos. Mary. In particular. he found it had already been sold. Later. Seattle-London. tapadoura de barnheico cubertas de coyro preto e forra- no's models. BROWN and G. maco 87. cannot. The Ffoulke Collection of Tapestries. From the weaver-entrepreneur. Two preparatory drawings frandes os quoaes truxo frandsco carneiro moco da ca- by Perino have survived and were identified by Bernice Davidson. woven in Brüssels after cartoons in Michiel Coxcie's style. 5ti IAN/TT. «Macht cn Pracht. doc. C. DELMARCEL. for whom a set had been woven in Flan- 794. DAVIDSON. 79-80. numbering twenty-eight panels. 353. C. pp. be defined.. äs her invento- tries. See Catalogue des tapisseries. in all probability. pp. identified by Delmarcel and Dumortier. op. appears to have been well-informed by her Portuguese intermediaries. 61-63. 72(March 1990). but whether Catherine was satisfied with this replacement is not recorded. Cornelis de Ronde (t 1569)52. dos de pano por dentro-». keen in acquiring the best. completed and woven? Was Catherine in any way directly involved with this commission. E cada hun destes aqafates tem huä caixa con sua these \aterAeneas tapestries executed in Brüssels. Photos of Ffoulke's tapes- initiative äs a speculative venture. nos. putti. 209v: «En lixboa a xbij de Julhn de 1552 Rece- ders between 1531 and 153653. (note 4). fol. or 30 The ten tapestries devoted to the victories of the Por- was she merely buying de Ronde's existing stock? She must have known about the number of tuguese Vice-roy in India are dated by Delmarcel around panels and their size before Carneiro's departure from some informant. pp. From the merchant/dealer Lazarus Duquar. and may be related to Catherine's lost set. the Portuguese queen bought nine panels of the biblical History of Queen Esther. dt. 34. «Cornelis de Ronde. Mary of Hungary's own collec- tion of goid and silver plate was extensive. pp. specifically pp. document 11: «he em lugar da de Eneas que era uemdi- da leua outra da Estorea de! Rey Acab nas ditas tres ca- mals. provided ry and one of the surviving drawings of the Binche by a Netherlandish painter. Brüssels. 41-67. are flanked by festoons. 55 (1986). mara da Rainha nosa senora de frandes todos Junta- mente con hun escudo dat^o que cada hun deles ten no er weavings of Aeneas sets executed in the 1540s and 1550s. whose present whereabouts are unknown. and Ferrante Gonzaga. DELMARCEL and C. Three pan. cit. upon his arrival. 1996. or did he already have someone waiting for the set to be http:/Iuna. See DELMARCEL. d'archeologie et d'histoire de l'art. to Catherine's sister. if any between the faisant partie de la collection de Somzee. New York. 269- Carneiro had been dispatched from Lisbon to specifically buy this Aeneas cycle. 73-78. based on designs 51 These silver baskets are recorded in Catherine's 1550-1553 unpublished inventory. Another cycle Catherine intended to buy from De Ronde is mentioned and dis- cussed in some length in Carneiro's report. these extant Aeneas tapestries derive from second-generation cartoons. pp. 35-50. of tapestries available from his Workshop and störe.. CC I. Rather. op. 357-359. or was he instructed by a particular patron to do so? Would tries. which belonged to Andrea Doria. and DELMARCEL and DUMORTIER. recorded in Doria's inventories until 1825. Revue Beige place56. Joäo de Castro. 64-65. formerly in collection of Monsieur de Somzee in Brüssels. 1913. pp. purchased after his death by 5:i B. since Carneiro had express orders to buy the Aeneas Tapecarias de D. and C. 312-313.. pp. Art Bulletin. Cfr. are based upon cartoons deriving from Peri. Lisbon. modeled after the editio princeps.. were purchased by Charles Ffoulke in 1901. enna.. 544- two commissions. 52 G. but which may not faithfully reproduce Andrea Doria's original designs and tapes.. 214. Courts of Ercole II. However. A History of Ahab and the Kings of Israel (figures 1-3)' was purchased from De Ronde in its Wandtapijtwever Te Brüssel (t!569)». either from Mary. p. in Maria van Hongarije. 1522- 63. Tapestries for the els of the Life of Ahab. now in Vi. äs yet. the Third War against Syria: Ahab prepares for battle (figure 2) and the Third War against Syria: death of Ahab (figure 3). Lisbon. tions. Many questions remain unanswered: did De Ronde weave this later Aeneas set on his own op. who related them to the lat. De 1557. op. in New York around 1926 and exhibited at the Wadsworth Atheneum (Connecti. maras de tapecaria». Catherine purchased three large tapestry sets. D. two woven by De Ronde. while the cartouches above. op. 20-25 May 1901. (note 5).. IAN/TT. Joäo de Castro. which Catherine knew well58. Ercole. "'' BROWN and DELMARCEL. D. (note 52).

Juana of Austria. knowing füll well Carneiro was on his way. (note 29). op. maco 244. Whether Carneiro was successful in settling upon a price satisfactory to both the households of Catherine of Austria and John III: Cata- rina Lopez and her husband. pp. arrival at court in 1554. CC I. were cited for the first time panels dubbed uiejo and the other set she obtained from De Ronde in 1551. Catälogo de Tapices del Patrimonio Nacional. doc. and also own the appropriate residence with enough space to hang them. 119-141. and where they were later inherited by her niece. or that her servant would not come / Workshop of Cornelis de Ronde. cit. See JORDAN. tapestry panel. present whereabouts unknown. especially. Mary bought De Ronde's Ae- neas set only few years before she retired to Spain. Catarina Lopez62. and equipped with 300 copper rings procured from HEFFORD. where she took them in 155659. In 1557. DELMARCEL. See the unpublished entries in AGS. Antonio Fernandes. CC II. Carneiro. An dosjuntos tubieron dozientos e treynta e seis anas e dos quartas». 17-28. was too large. Daniel (IAN/TT. with many contacts in Antwerp. Life ofAhab and with the promised payment? Perhaps. w. a center specialized in the production of heraldic tapestries. Una serie de la Historia de Dido y Eneas». Bernice Davidson has shown in her study of Andrea Doria's original commission. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . 39 and 57. Daniel Gris. Brüssels. Upon the re- mately one yard. who later declined the order for unspecified reasons and tapiceria uieja de la ystoria de heneas que son nueue panos y cada uno dellos tiene de cayda c. and superimpose this at the Avis court for her own political purposes. after their (1974). measuring a total of 715 anas. 160. doc. 171.. E. and her nephew. Was Mary of Hungary in any way involved in the Aeneas commission? The regent must have known De Ronde well and appreciated his talents. There is little reason to doubt similar contacts with the Portuguese factors. The latter commis- juntas tubieron dozentos e ochenta e tres anas: otra sion was first initiated by Mary. However. XI (1986). Ex.58 cm) or 45 inch- es. sist. her objective was to manipulate. parties is not known. (note2). h. Charles V. 24 March 1555). Cfr. Both sets were inherited by Juana of Austria in unnamed painter (perhaps Michiel Coxcie) in Brüssels had to be paid by Carneiro to execute a 1558 and later recorded in 1598 in the tapestry collection new cartoon to accurately fit the size of these armorial hangings. leg. Philip II6". Mateos Gomez. P. in order 62 A number of tapestry weavers. STOLS. 1991. 1017. an arrangement perhaps worked out before Carneiro's departure. the sets she acquired from Duquar and De Ronde 60 Two sets of Aeneas tapestries were recorded in Mary's unpublished inventory. Another surviving document (a payment mandate) in Lisbon confirms M P. Madrid. 325-332. Carneiro went twice to Oudenaarde from Brüssels with her controlleur. is even more illuminating. would have had the finances to pay for a set of large-scale Aeneas tapestries. cit- ed in JORDAN. or the imperial court. maco 41. just snatched \heAeneas set from Catherine. Brü As with a 63 IAN/TT. fol. and New York. first- the Israelite Kings (King Jehoshaphat of Judah visits King Ahab). pp. Was De Ronde nervous about having expensive sets in stock? Was he worried Catherine would not buy them. according to of Philip II. and that the two sisters evidently competed to buy it. (note29). doc. who repaired and to bargain with the weavers. «La Nation flamande ä Lisbonne». CMC. Reales Sitios. 48 (2 January 1554). the matter operated more simply. cit. JUNQUERA DE VEGA and C. Au confluent de deux cultures. the copper smith. De Ronde must have had a good reputation. worked in cheaper price. 4. Esther and Solomon. one older set with nine of King Ahab. French & Co.40. 120bis (unfoliated): «una Carneiro's report further informs Catherine of armorial tapestries: fifty hangings made in tapiceria de seda y lana fina de la ystoria de Heneas en siete pie^as y cada una tiene de cayda seis anas y todas Oudenaarde. and W. 124. coll.p. Daniel was intense exchange. 1550-1570. JUNQUERA DE VcoA. cit. ceira (tapestry weaver). 3. op. p. set of Romulus and Remus Catherine purchased almost twenty years earlier in Brüssels. Anes textiles. vol. ordering. Cfr. on a first-come. Habsburg court. Mary obviously could not re- Wool and silk. in an inventory taken of her wardrobe at this date64. Mary for assistance and advice. 21 July 1528). Carneiro's report reveals Catherine's connoisseurship and probably the Flemish tapissier resident in Lisbon. pp. set. pp. this document confirms their Lourenco Prego and Mattheus Fernandes. l a epoca. c. «Another Aeneas Tapestry». in buying such a beautiful and superbly executed tapes- De Somzee. because. sewn on by her tapi- Volumen I: Siglo x\'i. Pedro Lopes (IAN/TT. 182-183. passed it on to her sister. 59. The Carneiro report proves for the first time that Mary. without any embarrassment or consideration. maco 4. He sold tap- estries there. 83.p. More importantly. in discriminating tastes at the height of her collecting. 1986.72 m. serve basis. with the first buyer on the scene being the lucky one. and is documented in connection with the Italian firm of the Affaitadi in 1555- 1556. with leather bands made for these rings by the leather maker. despite her loyalties to Catherine.inco anas y to. with tapestry. Antonio Palos and Ruy Mendes. The fact she sought to obtain at great expense the Aeneas cy- Antwerp. 9 that Catherine was aware of the size and dimensions of her new tapestries. try cycle so ideologically related to her dear brother. «Tapices del Patrimonio Nacional. pp. the first cartoon ordered by Mary of Hungary's servant from the same. in Lisbon63. and see if they would agree to complete the commission for a maintained tapestries in the royal wardrobes.nos. 75-87. 341. or another 61 A uara is a Spanish measurement equal to approxi- painter. op. that 28 panels be lined with 595 varas of cloth61. cle. mythological imagery closely associated with the fi4 An ana equals a Flemish eil (68. Although few letters between the two sisters have survived. gent's order. that only a member of Charles V's family. CC l. why she took tapestries ob- viously reserved for Catherine is unclear. HERRERO CARRETERO. underscoring how much she relied upon Flandre et Portugal. Diogo Fernandez. Who this painter may have been remains speculation.

Perino del Vaga's original conception and subject for Andrea Doria's tapestries derive from the first book of the Aeneid. no. inv. 4. 4. cit. 10005791. inv. 1550-1570. and New York. present whereabouts unknown. upon the city of Carthage (figure 5)72. this can only remain a hypotheti. Catherine shared with Mary a cult of the emperor. French & Co. or someone close to her. have been directly influenced by the patron. w. that she. 81. by a patron who disapproved of nudity. may have been the person responsible for this commission. (note 4). more space than Andrea Doria had for his original Aeneas tapes. Brüssels. Vegetation. Hcrrero Carretero is incorrect. Charles V66. 67 DELMARCEL and DUMORTIER. In the fourth Aeneas and Achates climb a hill. which they placed last. 357. (note 52). TANNER. Wool measuring 12 feet in height and in width approximately 12 3/4 to 16 feet (roughly 385 by 500 and silk. and New York. The fifth tapestry depicts the Trojan delegation appearing before queen Dido. c. survive today in the Patrimonio Nacional in Madrid. Wool and silk. association and ties with the imperial court in Flanders. They are large. dt. 10005795. the storm subsides äs Aeneas Stands at the prow of his ship. no. Until further documentation or letters can be found. The sequence and reading provided by P. As a quasi-divine an- cestor of the Romans. and in the expectation of acquiring the Ae- neas cycle. no. Few patrons in Europe at this date owned palaces with enough space for such large and expensive hangings.40. suggest- 72 Patrimonio Nacional. h. with its antique and Habsburg associations. 395 x 443 who commissioned the Patrimonio Nacional Aeneas set must have resided in a palace with a cm. he hunts for stags71. proaching Italy. op. the subject of the first panel. in which the hero is destined to found a kingdom in Italy and father a new line that would produce a Roman Caesar and a new empire governed by everlasting peace and law. and the Cartoons have been attributed to a Flemish Romanist. French & Co. Cather- ine hoped to reconfirm her genealogical and political lies to the Habsburg house. 3. inv. eil. figures and cartouches with inscriptions similar to bor- ders of other tapestries attributed to De Ronde's atelier67. 390 x 1551 is still not clear. w. comprising of strapwork. The Habsburgs and the Mythic Image of the Emperor. (note 59). Ex. 385 x 489 cm. ordered 71 Patrimonio Nacional. 10076060. his destiny called him to Italy and Rome (figure 6)74. and 443 cm. p. and with these tapestries. c. Life of Ahab and his Workshop68. h. no. 10022665. 1993. In this light. Six panels illustrate Book I of the Aeneid and the last panel a passage from Book IV All have identical borders. 100076057. She could not resist such a splendid set with such explicit Roman and Christian concepts. 386 x 390cm. Life of Ahab and the Israelite Kings (Third War Against Syria: Ahab prepares for Christ. who loved his country and his family. it understandable why Mary snapped them up before Carneiro's ar- rival. tapestry panel. Brüssels. Brüssels.. 100023448. cm. Thomas Camp- Somzee. op. becoming the exemplar of a hero and later an exemplar of a Christian soldier. shows Jupiter sending Mercury to rebuke Aeneas for idling in Libya when 68 DELMARCEL. This proposition is tempting and provocative. Somzee.72 m. The Habsburgs claimed their descent from Aeneas65. äs Aeneas's descendant. Catherine hoped to visualize her pow- er. 375 x ing that Catherine. Above Jupiter promises Venus that her son's empire will be restored to him and she is reassured of Rome's 65 M. no. 575 cm. The third tapestry shows Aeneas landing at the coast of Libya. In the second. She equally proposes that digressions from Perino del Vaga's designs may 70 Patrimonio Nacional. The tapestries thus make an allusion to Charles V. tapestry panel. who would battle). op. Junquera and C. p. A N N E M A R I E J O R D A N G S C H W E N D 99 . who mis-identified great amount of wall space. De fulfill the prophecy of a future Caesar. respectively. HEFFORD. This vision of Rome's future supremacy is the central theme of the opening book of the Aeneid. supervised the execution of the cartoons De Ronde used äs 7:1 Patrimonio Nacional.40. 3. and inv. The seven panels of Aeneas Mary of Hungary literally «stole» from Catherine and De Ronde's Workshop. cal Suggestion. äs Catherine's direct involvement with the tapestries she bought in Brüssels in 71 Patrimonio Nacional. and in the late Middle Ages was often understood äs a prophecy of the coming of 2 Cornelis de Ronde. op.72 m. no. and the sixth represents the banquet of Dido and Aeneas73. taken from Book IV. no. from where they look down GG CAMPBELL. coll. Two panels bear the CR monogram of 3 Workshop of Corneiis de Ronde. Bernice Davidson posits that the patron 69 Patrimonio Nacionai. 382 x 472 cm. the Ismelite Kings (Third War Against Syria: Death of Ahab). Ex. The Last Descendant of Aeneas. In the Renaissance.. Cfr. tries. p. where Haven. 1550-1570. Aeneas personified pietas. The first tapestry of the set depicts Trojan ships ap. inv. crowned emperor in Bologna in 1530. 10005698. after all. Brüssels. present bell reads the Aeneas tapestries äs a metaphor of the triumph of the Catholic Church under whereabouts unknown. he was cherished äs the founder of a noble lineage. rewarded with immortality. who must have had some input with the cartoon designer and was responsible for these changes: äs in the draped Venus in Panel Two. 369. The last panel. De cm depending upon the individual panel). coll. while Juno above pleads with Aeolus for a tempest that will destroy the fleet69. (note 52). New future glory (figure 4)70. inv. inv. 382 x 490 models. cit. p. 54.

Brüssels.75 m.I.43 m. Madrid. c. . h. Wool and silk.43 m. w. c. 1550-1552.- 6 Workshop of Cornelis de Ronde. tapestry panel. 4. Mary of Hungary (Cigales. Mary of Hungary (Cigales. 1550-1552. w 5. 10005795). coll.-^: .. 1558). ^ yj?*. 1558). coll. Patrimonio Nacional (inv. h. Jupiter and Venus). w. 10005698). .':•SÜÄBr*"''. >'-/.£i#j&''•.M!. 3. Wool and silk. Madrid.90. Ex. •. . 4 Workshop of Cornelis de Ronde. < . Brüssels. .. 7'|i^T|! Patrimonio Nacional (inv.75. Ex. 100 ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . h 3. Wool and silk.'s . 4. Mary of Hungary (Cigales. Patrimonio Nacional (inv. 1558). Öi^-^^fe^'^i^ :'&M 5 Workshop of Cornelis de Ronde.^-" • 4^. 10023448). Ex. Aeneas (Panel Seven: Jupiter sends Mercury to rebuke Aeneas). Aeneas (Panel Two: Aeneas prays for salvation. -:« i_. . c. 3. Aeneas (Panel Four: Aeneas and Achates view Carthage). 1550-1552. tapestry panel. tapestry panel. coll.75. Brüssels. Madrid.

for the projected room or location in one's palace. As a feminine space reserved only for public entertainment 75 pires de Tavora had returned to the Ibenan peninsu - la by December of 1551. . Lourengo Pires de Tavora.. The complexities of maneuvering through the Brüssels tapestry market in the mid-six- teenth Century could not have been better described by a contemporary observer. We now from Carneiro himself.Jhn celebrated at Toro tailored to meet her needs. to accept the post of ambassa- and fetes. the proxy wedding of Juana of Austria to Catherine's son. . built for her by John III after 1534.. He explains in detail the difficulties of purchasing expensive.. calculating the time needed for travel to and from Portugal. in January 1552 he presided at . r • ^ u • . An unpublished letter in the Lisbon archive may provide a small. A buyer must have patience. three years. Washington. the Sala da Raynha. 6-46. Elite shop- pers. in the Lisbon palace in 1565. . because he was sure there were few buyers in Brüssels at this date. «Portuguese Royal Residences (1495- An eyewitness. . In this light. discusses at length a chamber of tapestries the secretary was either negotiating for himself or for a royal patron. Pero de Alcägova Carneiro.. Pires de Tavora reveals both his knowledge of and personal experience with the tapestry market in Brüssels in 1551. like Catherine of Austria. To avoid problems. Carneiro. Insider help. His report and dossier for the queen was completed upon his return to Lisbon on June 29. the queen's hall. \n Portuguese Royal Co/ieaions (1505-1580): A niece. . JORDAN. dor at the Spanish court. it is possible to suggest that the arrangement of space in Catr m Catherine s quarters was Prjnj.. without the Cartoons (patroyns) commissioned in ad- vance.C. 1985. Bibuogmphic and Documentary Suwey. . both in function. The informative missive written by the Portuguese ambassador at the imperial court.. a few months before Carneiro must have arrived in Brüssels. more often than not. . Even though these may not correspond to the secretary's original request. had to settle for second best. . FLEMISH TAPESTRIES IN THE PA£0 DA RIBEIRA Catherine of Austria's collection of mythological and religious tapestries hung together both in the private rooms she occupied. 76 A. of the mechanics involved with Shopping for tapestries in Flanders. scribed tapestries displayed in one spacious hall: «rieh and fine panels with diverse ancient and pp. that he was in Antwerp until 21 May 1553 and must have departed from Flanders not long afterwards (appendix: document l.» In any case. It is not clear whether the letter could actually imply tapestries Catherine was trying to acquire in Flanders at this time. . Master Thesis. evidently did not always get what they had ordered or bargained for. decoration and iconography. with the ideal story one want- ed. de. . in August of 1551. objectives and aims of the queen. it was safer to have models that conformed both to the size and subject matter (estoryas) of the tapestries. he would look out for and buy him suitable panels. who attended the wedding festivities of Catherine's 16W)». and buyers. Tavora's letter dates from August 155l73. in particular. Pires de Tavora promised the secretary he would do his best and search for diverse tapestries made in Brüssels and sold in Antwerp: «me deterey todo o en que posa ver toda a tapeqaria diversa formacoys da de bruqelas que he a que vay a enuers». the decoration of this hall reflected the principles. äs Mary of Hungary could offer. . p. Thus.. he was sure there would be more tapestries to chose from. and in the public ones she used for entertainment in the Lis- bon royal palace (the fbfo da Ribeira)1&. if not. who probably left Lisbon in December 1551 and stayed in Brüssels until May 1552. large-scale tapestries of diverse subject matter.e . Angelo Carrissmo. to the royal secretary. 34). D. George Washington University. but significant clue (ap- pendix: document 3). !. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND 101 . was of the essence in buying the right set. 1552. «Everyone who has been to Flanders to shop for tapestries will say the same. . äs he himself says: «dysto sey muito pela pratyca do tempo que estyve em frandes». order his tapestries well in advance and wait at least two. In any case. It is possible that Pires de Tavora personally advised Catherine and her servant. and complains of the same problems and complications.. Maria of Portugal (1538-1577) to Alexander Farnese.

and purity. modern stories were hung along the walls from top to bottom. Cfr. exotica and court portraits) were appropriated by Philip II after the conquest of Portugal in 1580 and incor. however many choice pieces (tapes. The Solomon cycle. they were mainly marketed and sold in Antwerp. from the documents published below in the Appendix.. and the Esther series.. Le Nozze di Alessandro Farnese.. «Tapestries in Portuguese Royal Collections a global empire that stretched from Lisbon to Goa80. Far. p. A. while the Trojan myth of Aeneas Catherine hoped to porated into the Spanish royal collection. would have allegorically shown Catherine's ancient and Habsburg well-known Spheres tapestries. dt. di argento e di seta». it appears. quired at the beginning of Catherine's reign) represented the dispensing of wise justice. 768-773: «andarono a discaual- care d'una parte del detto palazzo doue staua in una containing her guardaroba (wardrobe) and treasury of exotica and curiosities. JORDAN. Feste alle corti di Lisbona e Bruxelles. op. 47-74. compared the prudent rulership of Catherine and John to that of the Old n. 79: royal houses promoted: Romulus and Remus emphasized the founding of a new empire and a «L'appartamento era ricchissimamente addobato di new Rome. I am indebted to Bernardo Garcia Garcia for the opportunity to publish these new findings on Cornelis de Ronde and his female patrons here. Lastly. Delmarcel has pointed out elsewhere that while Renaissance tapestries were produced in Brüssels. Maria of Portugal [1521- tapezzaria d'oro. See also A. Parma. dt.» in Portuguese Royal. pp. who attended the same wedding. and Spherical) imaged Catherine and John äs joint rulers of a celestial and terrestrial kingdom. the Conquest of Tunis (owned by Catherine's niece. panels from Catherine's early collection81. New York. The Ahab set from De Ronde's workshop. It is not known whether Catherine was personally Testament king. whose own court was renowned for its magnifi- 81 Catherine bequeathed these to her lady-in-waiting. described Catherine's hall in her apartments. However. Francesco di Marchi.. while the Spheres (Terrestrial. cence and luxury. 22. Her tapestry col- lection advanced the concept of imperial and cosmic rule.» (note 20). been attribuled role äs intercessor for her people: a highly charged and potent image of queenship. The series to Cornelis de Ronde and his workshop. stressed the queen's involved in the concept and design of these Solornon tap- estries. «Ma Meilleur Soeur. and no extant panels have. were political spatiosissirna e ricchissimamente ornata di finissimi and dynastic. BERT™. p. ::. JORDAN. 6-8 June 2002 (unpublished paper). in Tapestry in the Renaissance: Art arid Magnificence. 1997.. cc. I am grateful for his insights and observations here and in other articies concerning Flernish tapestry collections at the Portuguese court in the Renaissance. today in the Patrimonio Nacional in Madrid. Archivio Farnesiano. 114. sized the history of the Israelite kings. bought in Brüssels. (note 76). 1577]) symbolized the Habsburg victory over Islam79. «Verändern padre y senor« (note 20). silver and silk»78. empha- tries.. Three panels of the History of Trojan (ac- (1495-1580). in 1578. purchased from Lazarus Duquar. The 77 Archivio di Stato di Napoli. lineage. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . Catherine was brought into uedeua».. such äs the hang in the Lisbon palace. Ana de Aragon. Delmarcel's Identifica- tion of the merchant-weaver Cornelis de Ronde has allowed scholars of tapestry patronage to gain new insights into the commer- dalization of tapestries in Brüssels during the 1550s. I should also like to thank Thomas P. dt. op. dt. by John III) the control over nature and the seasons. äs «richly decorated with tapestries made of gold. «Metaphors of Power and Rule: Flernish Tapestries in the Collections of Habsburg Queens and Princesses of Portugal in the Renaissance». The Metropolitan Museum of Art. and through the means of her kunstkammer. so that not one bit of the wall could be seen»77. Celestial 80 This commission discussed at length in JORDAN. international Sym- posium. and the adjoining rooms nesiana fascio 262. the Months of the Years (commissioned 79 See JORDAN. op. JORDAN. Camp- bell for his invitation to speak at the international Conference organized at the Metropolitan Museum of Art where many ideas for this present work were solidified. Her collection became a visible symbol of her political position and magnificence panni di diverse istorie antiche e moderne dal alro in sino al piano a! modo ehe punto del muro non si at the Lisbon court. motive behind Catherine's extensive decoration of the queen's hall. (note 29). that royal and elite buyers often chose to buy directly from particular Workshops and dealers in Brüssels in Order to avoid competitive buyers from all over Europe and acquire the best on the market. which replaced the Aeneas set. I am grateful to Giuseppe Bertini for this refer- ence. closer contact with other worlds separated from her by geographical distance. This essay has profited immensely from years of exchange with Guy Delmarcel. The täte of Catherine's süperb tapestry collection after her death in of Susanna. which both the Habsburg and Avis 78 G. op. äs yet. symbolized the triumph of female virtue 1578 in not clear.

que pagou a bemto Roiz mercador dos mercadorias que francisco carneiro trouxe de p.441.000* reais a francisco carneyro [lower right (signature of)]: Nun'Alvares Pereira [Overseer of Catherine of 9 de Janeiro Austria's household] p. [reais] pagos / a bento Roiz 83. Appendix DOCUMENT l Instituto dos Arquiuos Nadonais l Tone do Tornbo (IAN/TT). 8 p.175* rs. 3 p.000 p. 34 (Portuguese and Italian) 18 December 1551. Pero fernandes o fez em Almeirim a 18* de dezembro tria's secretary] 1551 [signature of]: Raynha verbal 1552 [lower left]: per bento roiz 80. maqo 87.000 cruzados pela Rain- p. e per este meu asinado com äs letras e conhecimentos que ele la der outra parte conteuda em almeyrym a 9* de Janeiro de 1552 do dinheiro que Ihe foi emtrege volo mandarey qua pagar corn todos seus [Signatures of]: Francisco Carneiro Diogo martins [Catherine of Aus- cambios e Intereses. 5 l3'8marco26graos 1551 de francisco carneiro como rrecebeo o credito de 5.775" rs. para esto contenido e gertidäo [?] 2. Genovese merchant in Antwerp] em almeirim a 18* de dezembro de 1551 [cross] Em 1553 [signature of]: Franciso Carneiro 2. doc.720. 18 folios (unfoliated) p. 6 frandes por seu pedido dado para seus gemses [cambios?] e imteresses e [text crossed out below] seguros [cross] Senor Thesoureiro Mamday daar a ffrancisco carneiro que ora a Rainha nosa senora mamda a Cousas que vieron de framdes que trouxe francisco carneiro e que pagou framdes duzemtos cruzados pera sua despesa e asemtaio em vossos Roes bemto Roiz por letras que o dito francisco carneiro para eile passou para em almeirim a ix de Janeiro de 1552 annos hun credito que dele levara [Nun'Alvares Pereira p.775* rs. Lisbon Corpo Chronolögico l.547. Flandes se darem 5.000 cruzados a Francisco Carneiro seu moco da camara Genovese merchant in Antwerp] agostim esteväo gentil [Agostino Stefano para certas couzas de seu Real servico Gentili. 7 [cross] Bento Roiz Agradeccernos ey quererdes me dar hum credito Vosso [text crossed out below] por äse darem em framdes a francisco carneiro meu moco da camara atee Recebeo francisco carneiro rnogo da camara da Rainha nosa senora do the- cimquo mil cruzados para certas cousas do meu servico que Ihe la mando zoureiro alvaro lopez os duzentos cruzados conteudos nesta porterya desta fazer. 4 Janeiro 1552 [text crossed out below] Da Rainha nosa senora sobre o credito dos 5.547. l nosa senora de que Ihe asinou hun alvara em quäl a poder os quaes cinquo Asignado da Rainha para Bento Roiz Ihe dar hun credito seu para [que] em mil cruzados me a de dar em framdes amtonio espimdola [Antonio Spinola.000 cruzados que Ihe dey para [cross] diguo eu francisco carrneiro que he verdade que Recebeu do Senor framdes bemto Roiz hun credito de cinquo mil cruzados por mandado da Rainha 5.000 cruzados " All figures marked with this symbol [*] are written in Roman numerals in the original manuscripts. 2 ha nosa senora 2. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND 103 .

camara [Right margin]: 21. p. pega em que momta doze mil setegemtos Reis gemtos he oitemta Reis [Left margin]: 6* pegas dolam coadrado [Left margin]: camara [Right margin]: 12. right margin]: 148. [Total on this page.800* rs.720* rs. E duas pecas do dito olam quadrado que custaräo a Rezäo de seis mil Reis a zemtos he quoremta Reis peca em que momta doze mil Reis [Left margin]: toalhas 4* pecas. he custou a Rezäo de trezerntos he novemta Reis ana momta dozoito mil he [Left margin]: 2* pegas dolam coadrado setegemtos he vimta Reis [Right margin]: 16. [Right margin]: 12. E huä pega cortada de doze quartos lavor de veneza que tem trimta he oito E seis pegas do dito olam quadrado que custaräo ha dous mil he gern Reis a anas e custou a Rezäo de duzemtos he dez Reis ana momta sete mil nove. E huä pega de toalhas de dezaseis quartos da estorea de caim que tem vim- zäo de quinhemtos he novemta Reis ana em que monta vinta quatro mil tasete anas que custou a Rezäo de oitogemtos Reis ana momta vimta hum gemto he novemta Reis mil seisgemtos Reis [Left margin]: toalhas 3* pegas. E huä pega e mea do dito olam quadrado que custaräo a Rezäo de sete mil e duzemtos Reis a pega imteira em que momta dez mil oitogemtos Reis Se compraräo de y° [Joäo] dimgas quatro pegas de toalhas a pagar per todo [Left margin]: l * pega mea dolam coadrado mes de Yunho que vem nas quaes ay alguäs pegas que säo partidas// huä [Right margin]: 10. 10 Memoria do que custaräo has cousas que se compraräo em framdes para ha E a outra peca cortada de doze quartos lavor de pavia que tem vimte anas Rainha nosa senora que francisco carneiro leva comsiguo he custou a Rezäo de duzemtos he dez Reis ana momta quatro mil duzem- tos Reis primeramente se compraräo dadriam borlamaque tres pegas de toalhas a [Right margin]: 4. pagar per todo rnes de Yunho primeiro que vem/7 huä pega fma de dezaseis quartos lavor de damasquo que tem quoremta he huä ana he custou a Re. cemtos he oitemta Reis ana momta quoremta he sete mil he quinhemtos he [Left margin]: olam e olamdilha 15* pecas em que contam äs 4* mais abai- vimte Reis xo [Left marginl: toalhas 4* pegas.660 rs. hemtos Reis. E duas pegas dolam quadrado que custaräo a Rezäo de oito mil he quatro- E a huä pega de doze quartos lavor de pavia que tem quoremta he oito anas cemtos Reis a pega momta dezaseis mil oitocemtos rs. camara [Right margin]: 31.700* rs. [Left rnargin]: camara [Right margin]: 18. olamdilha rrolada que custaräo huäs per outras a Rezäo de nove mil Reis ha vor de damasquo de flores gramdes que tem cimquoemta he quatro anas he pega ymteira em que momtou nestas quatro he mea trimta he hun mil quin- quoremta he gimquo que fazem novemta he nove anas a Rezäo de quatro.200* rs. pega de doze quartos lavor de veneza que tem quoremta he oito anas he custou a Rezäo de trezemtas he oitemta Reis ana momta dozoito mil he du.980* rs.190* rs. [Right margin]: 32. [Right margin]: 7.800* rs. [Right margin]: 47.500* rs. Se comprou de Luis carler a pagar em quimze do mes de novembro que Se compraräo de Euerarte de ovelar tres pegas de toalhas a pagar per todo vem quinze pegas dolam he olamdilha que custaräo// tres pecas he mea de mes de setembro que vem he custaram// duas pegas de dezaseis quartos la. Se comprou de yaques [Jacques] a pagar de comtado huä peca de toalhas E äs duas pegas de doze quartos lavor de veneza que tem quoremta he oito de doze quartos lavor de veneza que tem gimquoemta anas he custou a Re- he quoremta he nove anas que fazem novemta he sete anas he custaräo a zäo de duzemtos he gimquoemta Reis ana momta doze mil quinhemtos Rezäo de trezerntos he trimta Reis ana em que monta trimta he dous mil he Reis dez Reis [Left margin]: toalhas l * pega [Left margin]: camara [Right margin]: 12.000* rs. camara [Left margin]: 2* pegas dolam coadrado [Right margin]: 18.240* rs.600* rs. [Right margin]: 24.520* rs.010* rs.500* rs. Se compraräo de gerar [gerard] baques quimze pegas dolamda que tem to- das setegemtos he oitemta he quatro anas he custaräo a Rezäo de gemto he vimtacimquo Reis ha ana huas per outras em que momta novemta he oito l 04 ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND .

/ räo a Rezäo de dous mil Reis a pega em que momta oito mil Reis 52/61 . ight margin]: 160*rs./ 52V. zemtos he quoremta Reis seis pecas de lemgos de barbamtem em que emträo alguäs que näo säo [Left margin]: 24* cofres ymteiras que tem todas oitogemtos quoremta anas he custaräo a Rezäo de [Right margin]: 18.000 rs./5l / 53 / 52 /52V. / 27V. merchant-dealer] de ley de omze dinheiros he dozoito gräos que fa- Left margin]: 38* pecas de Ruam de cofre zem de fino setemta e oito marquos oyto dinheiros he cimquo grossos que Right margin]: 73. 52/52 / 54/52/52V. / 26 / zoito esterlis de prata/ hos quaes se comparäo de Lazaro duquar [Lazarus 29 / 29/43 Duquar. / 36 / 31 Reis de que ametade se Ihe pagou no mes de margo quamdo lhas com. remta Reis tecemtas he oitemta he huä ana e mea que custaräo a Rezäo de novemta he [Right margin]: 540* rs. Je seis saleiros he vimtaquatro telhores de servir que tudo pesou sesemta he tmquo livras he custou a Rezäo de quoaremta Reis a livra em que momtou Se pagou pelo feito em dinheiro de comtado ao ourivez [Christoffel Radnec- jous mil he seisgemtos Reis ker?] da Rainha domgria [Mary of Hungary] aquem ela mandou fazer hos Right margin]: 2. / 53V.000* rs. dous saleiros que custaräo cemto he vimte Reis praräo he a outra ametade se Ihe a de pagar per todo mes de yunho que [Right margin]: 120* rs. Ihe Julgaräo hos mestres do oficio A mil he duzemtos Reis por marco Visto pmtos Reis ha deligemgia que pos em nos fazer he ofegiais que para isto tomou em que tight margin]: 300* rs. right margin]: 220. Seis escudelas que custaräo duzemtos he quoaremta Reis [Total on this page./41/53V 2 /30/41/54V 2 /58 [Right margin]: 8. 12 [Right margin]: 98. / 29 / 44V. gimquoemta he gimquo Reis ana hus per outros em que momta quoremta he seis mil he duzemtos Reis a pagar per todo do mes de yunho que vem e E quatro cofres da mesma grandor dos da gima e doutros lavores que custa- äs aneages säo has seguimtes: 62 / 54V. cimquo Reis ana em que momtou setemta he quatro mil he duzemtos e quoremta e dous Reis a pagar todos em quimze do mes dagosto que vem e quatro castigäes que custaräo quatrocemtos he oitemta Reis äs aneages das olamdas säo äs seguimtes: 52 / SO1// 521// 52 / 54'/2 / 52 V2 / [Right margin]: 480* rs.000* rs. custaräo a Rezäo de dous mil he setegentos he sesemta Reis ho marquo em que momtou duzemtos he dezasete mil he cemto he oitemta Reis a pagar je comprou de Louremco [Lourengo.560 rs.000* rs. pr duas vinagreiras que custaräo gemto he sesemta Reis [Total on this page.880* rs. / 42V. / 43 / 30V.200* rs. / 29 / 44'/2 / 31 / 27 / pessäo hos seis acafates que se fezeram oitemta marquos duas omgas e de- 39V. [Left margin]: 16* pecas de barbamtes [Right margin]: 46.422 rs.180* rs. ditos seis acafates a Rezäo de mil he cem Reis por cada marquo posto que er hum pichel de mea canada e outro de hun quartilho que custaräo tre. Laurence] estanheiro ho estanho aba- em quinze do mes dagosto que vem to decrarado a dinheiro de comtado// vimte bagios destanho de toda asorte [Right margin]: 217./52/52/51/51 1 / 2 /52/51/54 1 / 2 /51 [Left margin]: 15* pegas dolamda Se compraräo de y° [Joäo] embres [Embres] cofreiro vimtaquatro cofres// [Rightmargin]: 74. / 26 / 29 / 43V2 / 28 / 35V. / 25V.800* rs./ 51'/. / 62V2 / 471/. hum bagio daguas mäos com seu gomil que custou quinhemtos he quoa- Se compraräo de francisca da cruz quimze pegas dolamda em que ouve se. E os doze cofres tumbados de treze ferros de lavores de damasquo que cus- taräo a Rezäo de mil setegemtos quoaremta Reis a pega em que momtou Se comprou de gaspar roiz trimta he oito pecas de Ruam de cofre que tem vimte mil oitogemtos he oitemta Reis he tudo se pagou de comtado ao dito todas mil he duzemtas he trimta anas e custaräo a Rezäo de sesemta Reis cofreiro ana em que momtou setemta he tres mil oitogemtos Reis hos quaes se pa- [Right margin]: 20. 'ar ao de comtado he äs aneages säo has seguimtes: 35V. 52 l /. right margin]: 197. oito cofres platas de dezanove ferros adamascados que custaräo a Rezäo de dous mil duzemtos oitemta Reis a pega em que momtou dezoito mil he du- Se compraräo de derique van der mauruen [Derrick van der Mauren] deza.600* rs. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND l 05 . / 30 / 32 / 23 / 33 / 34 / 32V2 / 20 / 34'/2 / 26V2 / 35 / 17 / 34V. momtou oitemta he oito mil Reis [Right margin]: 88. vem he äs aneages das olamdas säo äs seguimtes: 52 anas / 52 V2 / 52 / 52V. [Right margin]: 240* rs.240* rs. / [Total on this page.242* rs. / 62V2 / 53 / 53V. [Left margin]: 15* pegas dolamda p. right margin]: 353.

15 hum pano de trimta he cjmquo anas 35 anas fazer hos Reposteiros ho quäl fez muito gramde pelo que foi negessario tres panos de trimta anas cada hum 90 anas mandar fazer outro que francisco carneiro pagou que vay por outra partida dous panos de vimtagimquo anas cada hum 50 anas aparte he os dous mil he setecemtos he oitemta Reis pagou pelas costodeas hum pano de vimta anas 20 anas em que väo has agafates metidos que tudo yumtamente fazem hos ditos huä porta de doze anas 12 anas nove mill e quatrogemtos rs. [Total on this page. de brugelas a esta Vila demves [Antwerp] mil he duzemtos Reis [Right margin]: 1. Hungary] nove mil quatrocemtos Reis que deu por comta a verdades peso radas que tem todos duzemtas he oitemta he sete anas he custou a Rezäo nas cousas abaxo decraradas// dous mil gemto vimte Reis que pagou aos de novegemtos he trimta Reis ana em que momtou duzemtos sesemta he obreiros que fezeräo em verga a mostra pera se fazerem hos agafates de pra- seis mil novegemtos he dez Reis a pagar// hum quarto da dita Somma em ta e a hum omem que levou ha prata para eles demves [Antwerp] a bruge- quimze de Junho he houtro quarto em quimze de setembro he outro quarto las [Brüssels] em quimze de dezembro he ho outro quarto em quimze de margo do ano que vem de 1553 E quatro mil quinhemtos Reis que pagou a hum pimtor [unnamed painter in [Left margin]: 11* panos e l* porta/ 287 anas Brüssels: Michiel Coxie?] por fazer hum padräo para por ele se mandarem [Right margin]: 266. sura gerta pera por ele se mandar fazer hos Reposteiros por que ho que lomon] em que ha nove panos todos de quatro anas daltura e das lomguras mandou fazer ho criado da Rainha domgria [Mary of Hungary] saio muito abaxo decraradas em que ha gemto he oitemta anas que custaräo a Rezäo gramde he fora da mesura de que aviam de ser dous mil oito gemtos Reis de seisgemtos Reis ana em que momtou gemto he oito mil Reis a pagar [Right margin]: 2. hum pano de doze anas 12 anas mara de tapegaria da estorea da Rainha ester [History of Esther] em que ha tres panos de vimte anas cada hum 60 anas omze panos he huä porta todas de gimquo anas daltura he das lomguras hum pano de vimtoito anas 28 anas abaxo decraradas em que ha trezemtas he tres anas 3/4 he custou a Rezäo dous panos de vimtaquatro anas cada hum 48 anas de novegemtos Reis ana em que momtou duzemtos setemta he tres mil he [Total] 180 anas trezemtos he setemta he cimquo Reis ha pagar// ametade em quinze dias do mes dagosto primeiro que vem he a outra ametade per fim de fevereiro do Se compraräo dez pedras de linho [linen to pack and transport the above ta- ano que vem de 1553 pestries] de seis livras ha pedra por que näo säo qua de mais e custaräo a [Left margin]: 11* panos l * porta / 3033/4 anas Rezäo de gemto quoremta Reis a pedra em que momtou mil he quatrogem- [Right margin]: 273.p. merchant-dealerj hua ca. Se comprou de corneles do Romde [Cornelis de Ronde] huä camara de ta- pecaria da Estorea del Rey acab [History ofKingAhab] em que ha nove pa. 13 dous panos de dezaseis anas cada hum 32 anas Se comprou de Lazaro duquar [Lazarus Duquar.780 rs. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . right margin]: 540. E hum pano de quoremta anas 40 anas E huä porta de oito anas e 3/4 83/4 anas mais seis tochas que custaräo ha gemto vimte Reis a tocha que fazem sete- [Total] 3033/.285 rs. right margin]: 110. dous panos de quoremta anas cada hum que fazem 80 anas p.910* rs.400*rs. [Total on this page.375* rs. ametade em dez dagosto he aoutra ametade em dez de de novembro [Left margin]: 9* panos/ 180 anas mais se pagou pelo carreto das agafates de prata he do camdieiro de latäo [Right margin]: 108. anas gemtos he vimte Reis [Right margin]: 720* rs. [Total] 287 anas [Left margin]: costodyas / 2. tos Reis pagar de comtado [Right margin]: 1. p.800* rs. E sam tres panos de vimte anas cada hum fazem 60 anas E quatro panos de vimtecimquo anas cada hum fazem 100 anas mais tres Rodas de fiar que custaräo ha gemto he oitemta Reis a Roda que E dous panos de trimta anas cada hum que fazem 60 anas fazem quinhemtos he quoremta Reis E hum pano de trimta he gimquo anas 35 anas [Right margin]: 540* rs. 14 mais pagou francisco carneiro a hun pimtor por hurn paträo que fez na me- Se comprou outra camara de tapegaria da Estoria de Salamäo [History ofSo.000* rs. [Right margin]: 9.400* rs. Se pagaräo a contralor [Regent's controlleur] da Rainha domgria [Mary of nos e huä porta todos de gimquo anas daltura e das lomguras abaxo decra.200*rs.660 rs.

zäo de sesemta he hum grossos por cruzado no quäl cambio se fez avamta- cemtos e vimte e dous Reaes dos quaes pagaram Ruy mendez e amtonio pa. corremdo que he ho decimo do que custou tudo com ho dito seguro por que asy he a ley da terra p. 16 quoemta he cimquo Reis em que enträo hos tres mil he seisgemtos Reis que mais se pagaräo pelo seguro do hum quomto quinhemtos he novemta he se pagaräo de ymteresse de cemto he vimte mil Reis que se tomaräo pera oito mil Reis que le fezeräo asigurar sobre esta emcomenda a Rezäo de dez seyrem pagamdo has meudessas he asy ho que custou ho seguro que se fez hum quatro por cemto de que ho quarto se pagou ao corretor pelo fazer como na dita comta se decrara ha quäl partida se ajumtou mais hos duzem- cemto he sesemta he tres mil setecemtos novemta he cimquo Reis e o custo tos setemta mil he gemto he quoremta he oito Reis que vinhäo a pagar do seguro fica Sua A. em quimze dias do tras sobre bemto Roiz pera por elas pagar na dita feira de maio dous mil he mes de Junho primeiro que vem. 66. 18 [Rightmargin]: 163. cruzados dozoito soldos de cruzado de que ho dito francisco carneiro tam- to e vimte mil rs.795* rs. em quimze dias cambio ay° [Joäo] Jacome espimdola [Gian Giacome Spinola].940* rs.340 rs. se comtaräo pera ha feira doutubro de castela a Rezäo de sesemta he hum grosso por cruzado em que momtou dous mil seisgemtos oitemta he seis mais tres livras por tres mill e seiscemtos rs que custou ho Imterese de gem. se aviam de pagar has ditas coussas he no que por elas se pagou de comta- do que foram quatrogemtos setemta he dous mil he duzemtos he cim- p.728* rs. en quimze dias do mes de agosto. jado prego do que amdava na praga pelo dinheiro que nele se meteo que los os 468. que se tomaram a cambio athe esta feira de pascoa pera bem pasou suas letras sobre bemto Roiz apagar na dita feira doutubro a y° ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND l 07 .000* rs [Left below (signature of)]: Antonio Palos [Right below (signature of)]: Ruy Mendez mais se pagaräo pelas despessas abaxo decraradas nove mil novecemtos quoremta Reis// mil he duzemtos Reis por dez duzias desteiras com que se p.700* tanho [Nicolao Cattaneo] he agemlo de marim [Angelo di Marin] e do din- rs. captain] que trazia por memoria leva has duas he em lugar da de Eneas [History of mlcl [mestre ] da nao para ha em levar e aparelhar por que ho mais que nis.Se pagou aos oficaes que tinhäo comecado hos cimquoemta Reposteiros pagarem äs meudemcias por que o mais pera comprimento dos quatrogem- que ha Rainha domgria [Mary of Hungary] näo quis que se fezesem pelo tos sesemta e oyto mill Reis gemtos cimquoemta e gimquo rs.597.727* rs.927* rs. em fim que vem deste ano que em soma fazem oitogemtos dezanove mil he quin- do mes de fevereiro do ano que vem de 1553. cimquo mil trezemtos he vimtedous Reis como tudo vay decrarado no Rol [Right margin]: 9. novembro he dezembro presente ano de mill quinhemtos cimquoemta e dous. Aeneas] que era vemdida leva outra da Estorea del Rey acab [History of so gastou pagou a outra mercadoria KingAhab]/ nas ditas tres camaras de tapegaria he nas coussas que mais se [Left margin]: Valse athe quy o precjo e compras de rnercadorias: compraram se despemderäo hum comto setegemtos he cimquoemta he 1. 137. em soma oitogemtos quoremta he dous mil he quinhemtos he gimquoemta rece por las coremta e duas adicöes escritas nesta comta em que houtra a he tres Reis que se cambiaräo pera a primeira feira de maio de castela a Re- acima do custo dos seguro hum comto setegemtos sesemta e hum mill sete. em quimze de hemtos he gimquo Reis como tambem se vera pelas partidas da dita comta marco do dito ano de 1553. 17 empacaräo hos cofres/ e dous mil setegemtos trimta Reis por seis pecas de Senora canavaco groso com que väo forrados hos ditos cofres/ e mil he trezemtos trimta Reis por gemto e vimtasete livras de corda coni que väo liados/ e mil [Right margin]: carta que trouxo francisco carneiro do amtonio palos que duzemtos he oitemta Reis pela empacacäo dos cofres e pelos levarem ate em framdes Ihe ajudou a fazer o negocio por mandado da Rainha nosa se- ho caez e quatrogemtos Reis por acarreto dos cofres de casa do cofreiro a nora cassa e acarreto doutras cousas e mil he duzemtos Reis pelos dous custu- mes que se pagaräo do dito fato e mil cemto quoremta Reis pelo frete da por framcisquo carneiro sabera Vossa alteza particularmente ho que qua se charrua que hos levou ate gelamda [Zeeland] abordo da nao/ e os seiscem. que ho dito francisco carneiro leva e asy hos tempos em que se pagaräo he [Total on this page. fez na compra das coussas que veio buscar/ E das tres camaras de tapegaria tos sesemta Reis que se deräo ha Amtonio afonso [Antonio Afonso. setembro. por todo o dito mes de Junho.240* rs. em quimze de novembro. 203. 136. no mes de yunho que vem e asy gern mil he gemto he gimquoemta Reis que francisco carneiro tomou pera sua despessa que tudo yumtamente fazem Somam nas cousas que se compraram pera A Rainha nosa senora como pa. niculao ca- do mes de setembro. [Right margin]: 4.600* rs. 66.em quimze de dezembro tudo deste heiro que vinha a pagar no mes dagosto.727* rs.110* rs.687* rs.655* rs. que se paga- dano que nisso ouveräo oito cruzados e por yr hun homem desta Vila a em.420* rs. setegemtos sesenta he dous cruzados he meo com gimquo al milhar do 482. em dinheiro de comtado e pelo Resto fiquaram äs pesoas vinha ha pagar no mes de yunho he pasou o dito francisco carneiro suas le- de quem se compraram pera Ihos pagarem: 66. por todo o dito mes de setembro. os 66. right margin]: 27.728* rs. 66. ram de comtado desembolsaram Ruy mendez e amtonio palos athe gora giem [Enghien] pelos pratöes se Ihe deu dous cruzados que faz tudo quatro que os cobraram de agostinho gemtil mil reis [Right margin]: 3.

polla posta a gemte como deseja demves [Antwerp] Aos vimtagimquo de maio de 1552 ffrandes e polla corte do principe de castela e polla corte del Rey de ffranga que estava em fontenibleo [Fontainebleau] omde estuve 16* dias esperando [text below crossed out] pollo pasaporte e pera ho caminho da posta me mandou dar duzentos cru- Carregäo mais senor francisco carneiro huä letra que da bemto Roiz que pa.000 em despessas com os falcöes 2. com 5. A. 22 cemtos quatorze Reis se devia para fim de fevereiro he quimze de marco do Magnifico d[omi]no. [Left margin.000* ao milhar que mon.014 mais 80. written face down]: [cross] aceito que apagarey no tempo / en trogemtos he quatorze Reis que aymda qua ficäo ha pagar fazem em soma Medina a 12 de Julho 1552 / [signature of]: Bento Roys hun comto oitogemtos he sessemta he gimquo mil quatrogemtos he setem- ta he dous Reis dos quaes abatidos o hum comto setegemtos he sesemta he p.* cruzados tempos em que se devia para que asi como hos fossem pagamdo hos toma. [Signature of]: Francisco carneiro zesem pasar letras pera has feiras de castela de maniera que com ho trabal- ho que niso fez näo pode mais acabar que hos duzemtos tres mil he quatro.472 [Antwerp] ate 22* de maio que nelle estive duzentos gimquoenta e hum 2. 21 nove mil he quinhemtos he gimquo Reis hos quaes se qua avia de pagar aos Jh[es]us ern emveres [Amberes] a 21* de maio de 1552: 2.014 Despesas [Right below (signature of)]: Antonio Palos Dos quaes tomey hum homem que fosse a corte de ffranga que estava em paris com ho nome da naao do mestre e pilloto [Antonio Afonso] em que p. 20 avia de vyr esta ffazenda de SS.800* rs. zados gou em framdes de 39.000* do freie e dez que ficou devendo a Ruy mendez [Right margin]: 251cruzados 5. 19 todos credito em que dezia que ao ar que desem ao dito francisco carneiro Ihe fe. p. he nove cruzados oito soldos de cruzado com hos duzemtos he tres mil qua.408. agostinho esteväo gentil [Agostino Stefano Gentili] e ponhaos por comta da rainha nossa senora se pom com p. pera espanha comforme aos precps que am tarn maio primeiro a Joam Jacome espimdola [Gian Giacome Spinola].383.000 mais 25. niculao amdasem hos ditos dinheiros e posto quele nisso trabalhou quando nele foy catanho [Nicolao Cattaneo] e a amgelo de marim [Angelo di Marin] dous he eu ho ajudei no que pude todavia näo podemos acabar com hos sobre mill e setegemtos e sesemta e dous cruzados e meo douro ou sua Justa valia que vinha ho credito pera Ihe darem ho dinheiro he se escussaväo com ho fora de cambio ou nele com gimco al milhar pola valor aquy regebida de tenor do dito amtonio espimdola [Antonio Spinola].000* quando partio cruzados 0517. näo nos mandamdo pagar per outra via asi que yumtas äs [Left rnargin]: [cross] 1552 a 23 de settembre / somos contentos en feria de duas partidas de que passou letras de gimquo mil quatrogemtos quoremta Medina/ [signature of]: Juan Jacome Spinola. [illegible word] ofigio de parte avamtajado todavia francisco carneiro näo quisera fazer mais que deixar hum conceito em que confessava Receber hos sobreditos oitogemtos deza. AA. [Right margin]: 200 cruzados tou 14. comta das despesas que francisco carneiro fez na yda e vinda de framdes neiro tomou pera suas despessas de que a de dar comta como tudo se vera com sua pessoa pela comta que leva como diguo e por que demais ele dara larga Relagäo a V. bemto Roiz em sua ausencia a ioam Jacome espimdo- anno que vem se näo tomasem agora a cambio he deu sua obrigagäo deles la e companhia com poder para que nos tempos hos tomassem a cambio pera castela por em medina del campo quomta de V A.865.827 maravedis/ esta letra foy pagado nuno alvares e näo fez por ne- huä conta da Rainha nosa senora e se descarregou na conta de bemto Roiz Mais me deran desde este dias do mes de ffevereiro que cheguey a ernveres 1. 23 gimquo mil trezemtos he vimtadous Reis que momtou no emprego das [cross[ coussas Restam hos cem mil gemto he gimquoemta Reis que francisco car. ho näo fago eu/ Noso Senor vida he Real Estado de Vosa Alteza acre. pagara vosa merce por esta primeira de cambio nos pagamentos da feira de sem por comta de V. [Joäo] Jacome [Gian Giacome Spinola] he aos outros com hos gimquo al o dinheiro mais no asentado [?] manuel caldeira enbio e athe [illegible milhar de cambio he posto que ho prego do cambio pera ho tempo foi acas word] do vto. com o Roll de tudo ho que avia de trazer Antonio Paallez e custou ho caminho que ban setenta legoas trinta cruzados A Rainha nossa senora [Right margin]: 30 cruzados l 08 ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND .7621/. A Rainha nosa senora me mandou a 10* de Janeiro de 1552. p.000* cruzados e '/. A. [Total on this page]: 451 cruzados 0080.

800 rs que Rui mendez pagou a minha p. cinco rs. Agostino estefano gentis [Agostino Stefano Gentili] denves [Antwerp] me sa- werp] e hum moco que nie servia com comer vestir e calgar que barn os cao por comta de v. 27 Das algandaras que se fezeräo na naao e do pano para ellas e madeira e ffei. vinho./ e os oytenta mil rs. [Right margin]: 78# p. que vieräo vimte e quatro cofres de sua alteza e vimte falcois e cotes 25. 25 frandes por francisco carneiro meu moco da carnara o anno passado de mil [text crossed out below] e quinhentos e cimquoenta e dous contheudas nas quatro folhas atras escri- [cross] tas asinadas por antonio palos e Ruy mendez e que ha quarenta e tres adigö- Diguo eu francisco carneiro moco da camara da rainha nosa senora que he es: hum conto e setegentos e sesenta e gimquo mil e trezemtos e vimte e ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND l 09 . que pagey logo ao mestre e senhorio da nao Saotiaguo em os tapiceiros para ffazer os Reposteiros mais baratos que poder ser/ e custa. Senor E nos quatro meses que estive em brugelas [Brüssels] e em emveres [Ant.800* rs. galinha e scte carneiros que custaron symquo cruzados soma nas a francisco carneyro aves/ sete mil rs.800* räo os dous caminhos que bam 18* legoas vinte cruzados rs. carne e mezinhas paras aves per ahomaar/ e comer da terra 37 cruzados [cross] [Right margin]: 54V. de medina ta ao thesoureiro alvaro lopez que Ihes deu e a Rainha nosa senora outra por a servigo de v. mandou polla presa que levava allynas com an- tonio palos e com Ruy mendez seis cruzados para caminho de hir e vir que a dez homens da mär polla que trouxeräo os cofres ao pago [the Lisbon ro- bam 78 cruzados yal palace: Paco da Ribeira] levaräo onde S. rine of Austria] que ey de fazer que rogo a N. S.000* rs. A. m. 716 cruzados 14 sueldos com salir para feira de vilha- gastos muito differentes de caa/ e a posta läo como manuel caldeira Ihe dira laa a quem o escrevo e por que en näo ey [Left margin]: 268V. 30 rs.] que se momtäo na compra e despesas e imteresses de dinheiro da tapegaria olandas cofres e outras cousas que mandei vir de p. cruzados de estar en ista dyta feira detrimine de Ihe escrever esta para que os mande poner a dita quanthia com a provisäo para que äs letras dos ditos gentis destas despesas de todo este Rol de francisco carneiro väo Jaa atras na [Gentili] näo padegäo poder que v. Remeter para comprir a dita letra Re- quonta das letras leväo que em quonta a bento roiz os cem mil rs.775 rs. biscouto. m. bem que se levarem em quonta a francisco carneiro todas estas despesas [signature of]: Bento Roiz deste Rol/ pela dita maniera/ e todo o que montar na custa e despesas de toda esta fazemda que vejo de framdes ate se entregar na Recamara ha de p. serveja. que fran. pombo e 120 galinhas a 25. cruzados a francisco quarneiro moso da quamara p. [2. m. a meu filho fernäo Roiz porque ele fica ali em meu lugar e do cisco carneiro despendeo em framdes digo seis mil e cemto e cinquoenta que disto detreminar me mande avisar com deligemcja para Rainha [Cathe- rs. cruzados 25. metera v.800* rs.546. [Total on this page]: 152V. por dias de v. que recebeo para caminho se häo de levar em quon. e do comta dos ffallcondtos. 26 Mais gastey com 22* ffalcoees e tres cagadores 19* dias que esteveram antes Verbal 1552 do partir com 140 pombos que custaram a dez rs.ffuy con ho contralor [Regent's Controllern] da Rainha Regente [Mary of verdade que Recebeo do senor Alvaro Lopez thesoureiro vimte e cymco myll Hungary] a ordinarda [Oudenaarde] duas vezes por su mandado ffalar com e oytocemtos rs. A mi senor francisco carneiro en Lisbona tio com quatro carneiros que se despois mais tomaräo por senäo sobre o tempo que aviam dandar no maar 5. 29 fazer pelo thesoureiro que ha de pagar a bento Roiz e arregadar äs letras e Contadores mando vos o que levareis em conta a alvaro lopez meu thesou- escrituras em forma corno no mandado se declararam/ reiro dous contos e quinhentos e coarenta e seis mil e setegentos e setenta [Rightmargin]: 80. por mandado do senor nuno alvarez [Nuno Alvarez Pereira] e por que [Right margin]: 20 cruzados pasa na verdadde Ihe dey este por mi formado e asinado aos 29* de Junho de 1552anos ffuy de brugelas [Brüssels] a emveres [Antwerp] 13* vezes polla posta pera [Signatura of]: Francisco carneiro mais brevidade como S. Alteza os viräo oitocentos rs.800 rs. 28 partida Ihe fican devendo que depois mandou ao senor don nuno alvarez [cross] [Nuno Alvarez Pereira]/ a senor francisco carneiro en medina a 21 de abrill 1552 isto sera devida para se pagar a Ruy mendez [Right margin]: 5. m. m.

[1.080. [203. [203.000 rs.441.865. [47.175 rs.000 rs. nas ditas quatro folhas näo a da ver Receita nem outro nehum conhecimen- des accreditados por o dito bemto Roiz do que a de vir letra dagostinho gen.] e outra de dous mil e seis centos e oitenta e seis cruza. [250. megia [de Andrade] honze pegas e mea dolam coadrado contheudas em sas a yda para framdes e vimte cinqo mil e oito centos rs. [25. [203. gas de lengos de barbante conteudos no segundo Iten da dita segunda folha. e omze pegas e mea da desta provisam atras escrita se decraram sem dizer o em que se despemde- olao quadrado conteudas em quatro Itens da dita primeira folha.441. gunda folha. [1. e os seis agafates de prata conteudos nos derradeiros dous Itens da feiras de castela// huä de dous mil e setegentos e sesenta e dous cruzados e dita segunda folha com äs caixas forradas de couro em que vem metidas. e do estanho e outras meudezas conteudas rs. os meio [2.] que fazem Juntamente dous tros nove panos de tapegaria da estoria de salomäo [History of Solomon] contos e cento e noventa mil e seiscentos e setemta e cinqo rs. [1. [100. e dezaseis pe- despendio em framdes e suas despesas e outras fora da dita compra que fa.] e dozentos e tres mil rs.472 rs. [2. [1. tem e quantas varas e contados da medida portuguesa säo e o prego que resse deles quarenta e sete mil e quinhentos rs. to por que se despemderäo como eu ouve por meu servico. nas ditas Receitas e nelas fiquäo postas verbas domde a dita fazemda veio e heiro e com äs duas letras que o dito francisco carneiro pasou de frandes como foi pagua pela dita maniera pelo dito thesoureiro e soma tudo o que para o dito bento Roiz em castela hasta comprir e com o conhecjmento que por estas contas se a de levar em despesa ao dito thesoureiro os ditos dous o dito francisco carneiro deixou em framdes aos ditos antonio espindola contos e quinhentos e quarenta e sete mil e setecemtos e setenta e cimqo rs [Antonio Spinola] e agostinho gentil [Agostino Gentili] dos ditos como pareger por esta provisäo e comtas e folhas atras escritas ffeita em lix- boa a vimte e cimqo dabril bastiäo da fonsequa o fiz de mil e quinhentos e p.] que se fiquaräo a dever em fram.686 cruzados] e dezoito soldos de cruzado que tomou a dita Rezäo ra folha e nove panos e huä guardaporta de tapegaria da estoria del Rey de sesenta e hum soldos a pagar em outubro que momtou hum conto e oi.] que äs ditas cousas custaräo ao primeiro dinheiro e pegas dolanda conteudas no derradeira Iten da dita primeira folha.322 rs. custou ao primeiro dinheiro lem dozentos e cimquoemta mil e quinhentos rs. dous contos e quatro cen- tos e quarenta e hum mil ecemto e setenta e cinqo rs. e do que saio por cemto de despesas e Imteresses de modo que se posa sa- vareis em conta ao dito tesoureiro com a minha provisäo para omde bento ber todo o que cada huä das ditas cousas custou e o dito conhecimento em Roiz pasou a credito que levou francisco carneiro para a antonio espindola fforma sera com certidäo de como fiquäo feitas todas äs ditas declaragöes [Antonio Spinola] e agostinho gentil [Agostino Gentili] Ihe darem o dito din. [2.] e oitenta mil rs. e ou- tenta mil e cento e quarenta rs.800 rs. Posto que atras neste mandado diz que se carregou em Receita sobre dona [80.110.] dos quaes dinheiros o dito francis. e quinze ey por bem que os duzemtos e tres myll rs.150 rs.] que a dito francisco carneiro pecas dolanda conteudas no primeiro Iten da segunda folha.000 rs.] que despendeo francisco carneiro nas postas e ern suas despe.dous rs.] e soma tudo Juntamente o que faz por comta de bemto Roiz. zem Juntamente hum conto e oito centos e sesemta e cinco mil e quatro e trynta e oito pegas de Ruäo de cofre conteudos no terceiro Iten da dita se- centos e setenta e dous rs.500 rs. ha trezemtos e tres anas e tres quartos conteudas na primeiro Iten da tercei- dos [2.765.675 em que ha gemto e oitenta anas.762'/2 cruzadosj que tomou a Rezäo de sesenta e hum soldos por quais agafates seräo carregados em Receita com declaracäo do peso e lei e cruzado com cimco ao milhar feita a vimte e hum de maio do dito anno pas. e vimte e quatro cofres conteudos em tres Itens da dita segun- co carneiro pasou duas letras por credito que levou de bento Roiz pera äs da folha.] de modo que va. 30 cimquoenta e tres duzemtos e tres mil rs.500 rs.] que o qoatro itens da primeira folha porque äs ditas honze pegas e meas seram dito francisco carneiro Recebeo do dito tesoureiro para pagar o freie ao dos quinze pegas dolam e olamdilha que se declaram loguo antes dos ditos mestre do navio Santiago que trouxe a dita mercadoria e oito centos rs que coatro itens se näo carregaräo mais que äs ditas quinze pegas com äs decla- o dito tesoureiro despendeo no desembarquar e carreto ate se meter no ragöes contheudas no ditos quoatro itens e no dito item logo atras dellos paco [the Paco da Ribeira palace] e todos os ditos dinheiros levareis em mais chegado que todos os cinquo itens seräo äs ditas quinze pegas como conta com mais äs ditas quatro folhas de conta e carta de antonio palos que por elles paregem em lixboa a 25* dias de dabril aleixo de moraes o fez de escreveo de framdes atras conteudas em conhecimento em forma de dona 1553 megia dandrade [Megia de Andrade] minha camareira feita pelo escriväo de [signature of]: Raynha sua carguo em que declare que Ihes säo carregadas em receita äs cousas se- guimtes: äs omze pegas de toalhas conteudas nos nove primeiros Itens da primeira folha das ditas quatro folhas de conta que veio de fraudes. e nas Receitas til [Agostino Gentili] e sua companhia para äs ditas feiras de castilla sobre o de todas äs ditas cousas em cada huä dellas se fara declaragäo das anas que dito bemto Roiz pollos quais se fez congeito com eile que ouviese de Inte.175 rs. e quinze räo e os Imteresses delies se levem em quonta a alvaro lopez sem embarguo ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . daporta de tapegaria da estoria da Rainha Ester [History of Esther] em que qo rs.[ que na destinaram pegas dolam e olamdilha aos dez Itens da dita folha.] ou com äs letras que do dito dinheiro Aleixo de Moraes o fez escrever pasarem e com conhegimentos do dito bento Roiz de como foi paguo ao [signature of]: Raynha dito thesoureiro toda a dita comtia de dous contos e quatro centos e quaren- ta e hum mil e cento e setenta e gimquo rs.535 rs. acab [History ofKingAhab] em que ha dozentas e oitenta e sete anas.140 rs.190.] que le.000 rs. e onze panos e huä guar- sado que momtou hum conto e cento e dez mil e quinhentos e trimta e cin. [2. e quinze cem mil e cento e cinquenta rs. feitio e custos dos Imtereses e despesas que tem.

. 35 de toalhas äs 258 ff.. 32 [signature of]: Framcisco carneiro Recebeo a dona mecia dandrade Camareira da Rainha nosa senora do the- soureiro alvaro lopez äs ditas cousas conteudas neste alvara: äs tapecarias p. em lixboa a 6* de dezembro de 1553* lo Agostino estefano gentili & bento salvago [signature of]: Raynha p.. prata äs 209 ff.686* cruzados 18 [Lower right (signature of)]: Antonio de Sampayo soldos Pagara nossa merce por esta primeira de cambio nos pagamentos da feira [Lowerright (signature of)]: Don Nuno [Alvares Pereira] doutubro de medina del campo primeira a Joam Jacome espindola [Gian Giacome Spinola].547. Dele. dese nom fazer a dita decraracam por quamto eu fou lembrada que quam. de cambio a voi medesmi ducati sete cento y desyse y soldi quatordeci fuora ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND l l l . e äs 38* pecas la e companhia de Ruäo äs 219 ff. niculao catanho [Nicolao Cattaneol e a amgelo de maryn [Lower leftt (signature of)]: Recebido Aleixo de Moraes [Angelo de Marin] dous mil seis gemtos oitemta e seis cruzados e dozoito para levar em comta ao thesoureiro 2. 33 AI Molto Magnifico senor Bento Roiz/ o a chi fara per ele dito y ausencia a mi [cross] Jn°[Joan] Jac° [Jacome] espa [Espinola] conpa [compahnia] yn adi20demarzo 1553. A.. das cousas que vieräo de soldos douro Largos fora de cambio ou nele com cimquo al milhar por a va- framdes pela maniera e declaracäo contheudas neste caderno lor aqui recebidos de arntonio espimdola. / 716 ducati Hsoldi Villalone Nei pagamenti de feria prossima de villalone piacivi pagar per questa prima Pa.775* rs. Ynanver.. do livro da sua Receita.. 34 Recebida apostilha [cross] Jh[es[us em emveres a 21* de maio de 1552 / 2. atras conteudas em pagamentos das letras que se pagaräo por seu credyto e despesa que se fizeräo em framdes para p. agostinho esteväo gemtil e pon- haos por comta da rainha nosa senora. e äs tres pecas mea dolandilhas äs 185 ff. äs quaes ditas cousas ficam carregadas em Receita so- bre a dita camareira por mi dioguo martins escriväo do seu carreguo nas di- [Left margin]: 1553 anos 20* de abril tas folhas como se declara e con todas äs verbas e partes que o dito alvara Somos contentos en el cambio de feria de Medina / [signature of]: Juan Ja- conteudas e por verda de Ihe pasey o presente conhecimento em forma em come Spinola que asynou em lixboa a 29* dabril de 1553* [signatures of]: dona mecia dandrade dioguo martins [Left margin. mete a conto de francisco carnero del ordfne del senor Manoel Calldeira que teudo que se despemdeo por meu mamdado Amtonio de Sampayo o fez dyo vi guardi. written face down]: 1553 / aceito que a pagarey a o tempo en Recebeo bento Roiz mercador do thesoureiro alvaro lopez todo dinheiro Medina a 12 de Julho 1552 anos / [signature of]: Bento Roys. de banquo /a loro Valuta yn esso con cinque por mille per la Valuta de noy y do asyney a dita provigam se me deu Rezäo e quomta de tudo e nella com. e äs 11 * pecas e mea dolam äs [cross] 186 ff. A. e os 24*j cofres äs 24 ff. e os 29 panos e duas goardapor- em medina del campo tas de tapigeria äs 13 ff.. Christo com todos p. e äs 30* pecas dolanda äs Magnifico d[omi]no bemto roiz em sua ausemcia a Joam Jacome espimdo- 181 e 182 ff. 36 que seus Respondentes deräo dinheiro em lixboa 20* de marco 1553 [cross] 1553 [signatures of] :dioguo martins bento Roiz Sou pago do Conteudo nesta Letra [signature of]: bento Roiz | a 30 dabril [cross] p. conteudo nas provisöes de S. e äs 16* pecas de liengos de barbante äs 220 ff. e os seis acafates de prata no Livro da Receita da pr.

La Monarquia de Felipe II a debate.s. te äs mandar ellas säo virndas a deus gracas e na ma. folge! em estremo por que cova Carneiro] para que advirta a V. cäo que avia em acabrem de vir estas cedas de florenca. Pego a Y A. se lha contäo a garding business transactions and the sale of pepper in Flanders and the rne. re. forme ao custume e leis da terra näo estava täo fundado em clireito como eu aver regebido äs unhas de gram vestia que emviey a V A. maco 106. e väo seguras. o que toca A tain] que ja partio com outras e tornaräo a emtrar por se Ihe mudar o tenpo/ navegagäo de Imgraterra para A mina. doc. E por que por aque escrevo a el Rey N. ouver De Ruj Mendes de / dez de Julho por mais seu servico me faga prover e näo premita me deixar cair na falta em que estou por äs Respomdemcias que tenho feito e fiquey nesta feira de Senora pascoa passada por näo me proverem das quinhentas livras que escrevy a el De doze dabril a esta parte näo ey escrito a V A. Madrid. S. Also of interest. pedimdo de novo a V A. 141 IQ My 1564 Cited but notpublished in füll in A. A. A. a V A. to Catherine of pago por ellas. p. me mandou ho servi- que väo na urqua [a type of ship] de tomas de grave [Thomas de Grave. seen in Flanders. Lisbon Corpo Chronolögico l. se. Das outras cedas que se tormaräo en terra de suicaros [Switzerland] coreo o preito em floren. e me faga fazer a este Afonso de sunhiga [Afonso de Züniga. S. Ruy Mendez. que ou seja na pimenta ou no que S. Spa- ga [Florence] te gora a omde posto que la tivesse o douttor fernäo mendez nish merchant in Antwerp] hua carta da Rainha de boemia [Maria of Austria. e a todo o mais que me pasou por äs mäos de servigo de S. at the sarne time guilherme Amtonio [Guilherme Antonio. Catherine's niece] em que Ihe escreve saiba de my se tenho Recado de V A. ca V. A. Jordan. S. coord.. pode mandar ver tiramdo ho que la se abate por a estiba. ardo de ora em ora. me fara merge de Iho escrever e man- se detreminase ca acausa. Luis Ribot Garcia. S. Rey N. De maniera que no que a my toc. e a Pedro dalcagova [Pero de Alcä- jor perfeicäo que dizem vieräo nunca a esta terra. Por me escrever que com. 446. recebido que foräo na näo de Austria. trabalharia o que fose nele para fazer com aparte que frescas de V. 2000. A. A. V. cap. [Fernäo Mendes] que ho tratava como cousa sua. S. sem Ihe falar niso. V cuja vida N. [Letter from the Portuguese consul in Antwerp. 85. A. Mendes informs the queen that the Floren. captain] e segumdo o tempo Ihe outlining their costs and on which ships. pareger que mereco para com mais pose poder servir A. naming their captains. A. por que tem cartas Ihe escrevia o seria ca. de aquy me dar täo boa manha com que se torne a cobrar o que tenho [signature of]: Ruy Mendes l l2 ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND . S. mas de mil e du- A Rainha Nosa Senora / zentos cruzados. pode estar certa que sera Imteiramente servida. acrecemte e aumente o Real Estado del Rey Noso Serior. Depois desta escrita me mostrou Pedro de ysunga [Pedro de Ysunsa. [Sebastian of Portugal] se- ria muyto mais seu servico mandar o provimento do custo das munigoes [cross] nela que äse fazer se escusara de dano a fazenda de S.. to dinheiro e por esta rezäo escrevy a el Rey N. As dez livras douro tera ja V A. lha daa aos comtadores ganha V A. E com esta emvio Afonso de sunhiga [Afon- tine silk ordered for her was of the «greatest perfection» and the best ever so de Züniga. discussing the luxury goods he procured for her. porque semtia tanto ha dila. nela muj- ans by which she can save money. os mandarey carregar. quäo Imteiro compri- ja que tardaräo tanto seräo a contentamento de V A. Demves A dez e Julho de 1564. DOCUMENT 2 Instituto dos Arquiuos Nacionais l Tone do Tombo (IAN/TT). o näo resumirey nesta. e ao Baräo avia tomado para comesar a comprar o fio. E ora mescreve o aver acabado e espero em deus darme a carta para lha enviar. merchant?] a do remdimento da pimenta que como por ela V. [?] vera V./ Carregouse a caixa em mento ey dado ao negocio das moedas ern que S. Las colecciones y el mecenazgo de Juana y Maria de Austria en la corte de Felipe II». A. merchant?] pera que advirta a V merge que a V A. «Las dos dguilas de/ emperador Carlos V. que näo era em min- ha mäo escrever a V A. Como forem vimdos e carregados os tabis these were transported to Lisbon. mandarey toda a conta ao justo.V A. is the advice Mendes offers the queen. tanto que vierem os tabis de veneza [Venice] por que ago. upon which fez deve ja de ser la [in Lisbon]. A. 0 conhecimento da caixa e conta do custo e a neagem dellas embio com me faga merge de apresemtar meus servigos a el Rey N. E a importamcia dele e os termos em que tenho posto. n. A. ao preso que el Rey N.

bed cur.oys da de brucelas [Brüssels] que he aqui Senor vay a anvers [Antwerp] e se achar cousa que syrva ynda que em pouca va diferente do que se pede comprarey aparte que achar porque em cousa que Escrevendo esoutra carta com tanta presa como v. estyve em frandes e vy o de que todos se queixaväo e asy o dyräo todos ese yal secretary. or whether he may haue acting on behalf of Catherine va emtrades e do que me parecya se podya fazer e conforme a yso se pasera ofAustria who was purchasing tapestries in late 1551 and early 1552. escolhera por melhor mas como dyguo näo avera tempo poys poco pela posta e com tudo eu me deterey todo o en que posa ver toda a tapec. escolher do que Ihe eu escrever en pecarya feita a aquele modo nem por aquelas medydas diguo pelos quebra.. em obra se v. DOCUMENT 3 Instituto dos Arquivos Nadonals l Tone do Tombo (IAN/TTJ.]. m. back cloth (headboard). v. Pero de Alcäqova Carneiro (1515-1568). e dos que pede nem a comformydade nos panos de quada camera nem a di. confye que o que se deixar para fazer näo foy posyvel [. arid often wea. m. concerning a set (a que qua estyveräo e por tanto para isto ser como se pede era negesaryo camara) oftapestries the latter wanted to purchase in Brüssels with the as. ANNEMARIE JORDAN GSCHWEND l 13 . t[amb]em eu verey o que se pode fazer e porque neste tempo näo deve aver tos caxeiros e verdadeiramente foys senor muito de culpar poys en cousa muitos compradores podera esperar a mercadarya que eu vyr ate recado de em que quereis gastar tanto dynheiro days tal ordern por que äs casas mere. m. m. e a enformagäo de como quer a tapegaria dytada por aqueles profe. m. maqo 17. It is not clear whether the secretary was negotiating ta. para esperar por esta obra porque a näo daryäo acabada em dous anos e vings for the bed were included: a canopy. esta parte e em todas äs de seu servyijo que a my m tocase descanse v. consisted of yas a a tudo isto me atreverya fazer mas serya negesarya muita pacyencya a series of at least six to eight panels for the walls of a room. m. A camara or chamber oftapestries. Lisbon Corpo Chronolögico l. Portuguese ambassador versydade das estoryas porque dysto sey muito pela pratyca do tempo que to the imperial court. se concluyr e por em efeito o que v. mandar os fazer e fazerse os patroyns conformes aos Itens e pedyr äs estor- sistance ofthe ambassador.. m. nela vera näo basta se näo ha de comprar cada dya e custara tanto näo me devo determynar esa dilygencya se foy o correo pelo quäl tyve tempo para tornar a ver a carta nem he rezäo que esta seya senäo para contentar e näo dar de posto e de v. doc. do que acha- pestries for himself.aria de vere äs enformac. 27 l August 1551 Extract of a letter from Lourengo Pires de Tävora. merecyas: se o muita tempo para a reposta podera avysar v. que sera o mays seguro camynho de todos porque subitas determyna- cem tudo o que no iteys se pede e todas äs calydades e condy^oyns do que goyns näo valem para nada e asy deixarey recado en anvers [Antwerp] para ordenäo mas em nenhu modo do mundo se deve cuydar que se achara ta. dyguo dous anos porque meteryäo tres mas todo tanto dynheiro e os casas tains and bed cover. written from Augsburg during the Reichstag to the ro.