(cl~ + (c12 +
ell = ('12 + 2C44 case.
383
T
384 APPENDIX 3 ACOUSTIC PLANE WAVE PROI'ERTIES 385
HlXAGONAL ORTHORHOMBIC
dimensions can he easily evaluated for any material and then used to sketch
the general shape of the curves.
x
8, I rsotropic
In Section (' of Chapter 6 it was seen that the velocity IS
C~W ~(fll  ( 12 ). independent of direction and has two values,
I~
Clasx<,s ', '. 7. II the clcments of (he Christoll'cl matrix arc:
for the two shear waves. The slowness surface consists of two concentric
, + (C I :1 + ('H)/}"' + 2<'li .I" J
spheres (Fig. 3.1). Since the Lame constants A and fJ are both positive, the
 I~) + (e1:1 + ('H)I)/, + 2c 251,J,. outer sphere is for shear waves and the inner one for longitudinal waves.
TETRAGONAL
8.2 Cubic
Classcs 4/1111/, 422, 42111, Sume as hexagonal. but with arbitrary {'(;6
The case of a cubic material was treated in Examples 4 and 5 of Chapter 7.
Classes 4. 4, For propagation in a cube face the characteristic equation factors into a
linear tcrm and a quadratic term. There is a pure shear wave polarized normal
+ CUI/; + + 2cl(;I.r I" + (C 12 + (el:l + to the cuhe
+ clI/; + +
C~}
 2cl(/xl.y (c 1 :1 (3.1)
(C 1 :1 + (1'13 +
a quasishear wave,
1/2
I /:! f, / ,
x
(2p) 1(11+'11"((11 21>+(('12+
(3.2)
386 APPENDIX 3 ACOUSTIC PLANE WAVE PROPERTIES 387
kzlw (k/w h Quasishear
s/m
Pure
longitudinal
wave

(k) = (2p) 'I~( ('11
II~
2('41
+ ('11 + I  (44)~ cos~ 24> + "'" + 2</> ) Anisotropy factor A
W:/ (' 1 I ('J:!
(} I)
FIGU RE 3,2. Cubic crystal classes. Propagation in a eubeface.
where cos 4> I", Inverse velocity curves are shown in Fig, 3,2 for galliulil Curves shown are for GaAs, with the piezoelectric cITed
arsenide. Representative dimensions arc given in terms of material paralll ignored. Sket(~hes may he made ror other materials, IIsing the
elers. From these, the general shape of the curves can be deduced for allY key dimensions shown.
cubic material.
For propagalion in a plane passing Ihrough a cube face diagonal til(' and a quasilongitudinal wave,
characteristic equation again f.lctors into linear and quadratic terms. ThefT
is a pure shear mode polarized normal to the plane of propagation.
)1/"
(:1= (3.6)
e1= eli
(  cos 0
2
('1')
P
<)
+ C
44
)
SIIl ()
!
( \11 Here
B= + ('12 + 4C41 )
cos" 0
2 + (ell + sin~ 0
a quasishear wave, and
(~ _ \1/(
(J~, (\ 'II
(' 2() + e; r cos1 (J + e" sin 4 0)
rill
Ii I
388 APPENDIX 3 ACOUSTIC PJ~ANE WAVE PROPERTIES 389
with k\"/IJ.'
'11
(kIwi, Quasishear
/',\Iw
,! I 'S !! COil
A ..
( A+2
1) 1=
r
( (2 + A)cu (w:l ell
(3.9)
,.:(~;)
2("4,1
A Figure 3.4 shows curves for cadm ium sulfide, neglecting the piezoelectric
'ti' (' II ('I~
(," + effect.
The characteristic equation also factors for propagation in the XZ plane.
FIGURE 3.3. Cubic crystal classes. Propagatioll ill a ,'uh,' diagonal Since the Christoffel equation can be shown to he symmetric with respect to
plane. Curves shown arc for GaAs, with thl.' pil.'/.od('((rir dkd igllol'ld.
an arhitrary rotation ahout the Zaxis the same dispersion relation will apply
390 APPENDIX 3 ACOUSTIC PLANE WAVE PROPERTIES 391
for any meridian plane. That is, the wave vector surface is always rotationally Zaxes
symmetric. There is one pure shear mode kzlw
(~J= I
z
5in 0 + (':1:1 0+('44
1/2
J[(C II  cos"
')
OJ 2 + (en + '2
('44) 2() } .
11)
and a quasilongitudinal wave
(2,) 171
B.4 Trigonal
1 + ('33 + 2c44
1;\1
BAa Classes 32, 3m, 3trL In this case, the characteristic equation factors (4p)I/2
only for propagation in the YZ plane or for propagation along the X, r, It O{)
(
(~)I =
/'66 + C44
+ "66 + (3.131
FIGURE 3.5. IIexagonal crystal classes. Propagation in a meridian
plane. Curves shown are for CdS, with the piezoC'iectric dIed ignored.
(:J 2
= + (';;6 
;' 
\/('66 
)"
('44." + (3_14)
( ~) =
(I) :!
(Lr~
,('tit;,
( \ lid
( ~):J
(f}
(2p)1/~(C44 + ell) +  (44 )2 + 4fi:ll/~ 18)
ACOUSTIC PLANE WAVE PROPERTIES 393
392 APPENDIX 3
The quasishear wave is described by
"1lw
(W'k)
/'211/2
   vB + CI
l ( (3.20)
(klw) J Quasishear
and the quasilongitudinal wave by
+ yB2 +
l.!j
where
(::! CUI)
(~)k)k)
1 (;1: 2= ((:.1 )11''>, 0.22)
' 2 P ')l/~
Ii
( 2p )112 and the pure longitudinal wave is governed by
'I ( ;.~~+ ('.14 .;? \~'1~+ e"" 1 c;
(k) ( )1/2
:"2)
pattern in the XY plane (Fig. 3.6). Piezoelectric stiffening (Part 4 of Sectioll about the L axis. The general shape of the slowness curves for classes 3 and 3,
8.F) is usually only a small correction to the dispersion curves and has IllTlI referred to the crystal axis directions, is thus obtained by rotating the curves
neglected in calculating the curves shown for quartz. in Fig. 3.6 to 3.8 counterclockwise through the angle I; about the Z axis.t
In the YZ plane a pure shear wave. with polarization along till' .\ ;1\1.. Because there are no measured stiffness constants for materials of this kind,
is governed by the relation
t It should he noted, however, that the dimensions given in these figures cannot be
(k) = p'
,;akulaled dirediF from the stiffness constants referred to the crystal axes. The transfarmed
li2{'
C 66
.
sm 2 ('J
I + .
{H O+cllsin:'.()11 ( \ I'll '.1 ill'nc" l'""slants Illust be evaluated first.
(I) 2
kzlw
Quasishear
I
1.1'/( /"~\\
\ 'J *'
I ' . /... U+~k ./w
J /C;"I~ )
3 X 10 4 s/m
k x Iw
J
I
(2p)11Z
0) [j}'
41' )1/2
' 2p )1/2
l) (_, _
( ~~4 + ('r,r, + ('i' (
." ,I (
I 1 Gil  '44) + 41'14111.
~,<).,
('j4)" :112
(21')1/2 (3.25)
: 1 '
) ("44 + "66 + 2('14)112
4
V (ell
<, ',)
("HI)" COS 2</> + ., ."
+ ('66) sm 21>1
1 1/2
394 (3.26)
396 APPENDIX 3
ACOlJSTlC PLANE WAVE PROPERTIES 397
and the quasilongitudinal wave is The wave is described
1I:!
''') 11.,1 + CoG + /'2
(  = (2p) '"\C ll (3.29)
W;:
(k) =
hexagonal crystals, except that there is now no restriction on C66 . The con 1
sequences of this are (I) the slowness surfaces are no longer rotationally
(2p)I!~IA + V f)2 + ('II I'"
(3.30)
WI:
and (2) there is only one pure mode propagating in the X Y plane. where
In the XZ Diane there is a pure shear wave polarized along Y, It = I'll sil1~ () + Call C()S~ () + ('41
B = ((' I I  ('II) si 11 ~ (j + (C. II ca:J) ()
o+ C
44
O} li~ (3.28)
C = (C II : + C.1I)~ sil1~ 20
Curves for rutile arc shown ill Fig. 3.10.
(k/w)1 i'llre sheM,
/:.. polanzed k,';w /(kIW)2 Quasishear
"""".
_ _r2_x_1O ;'s/m QuaSlshear
(I,/(d 1 QUilsliongitudll1ai
II
~ 7IE ,/
. .' I'~~II
+rr kxlw
2x 10 4
s/m
..~!<~.
(41I!~
. I (plc;lll)!!:!
I r.1(11 l
elm + \ (e,l
:==C:==!;=;'I==;=;: \2
((}) ( ~. (pic il )1/"
\2~
1"2 \H) sin~ if> \ + F :1"1 (pIC I1 )1!2
l:n (
21' )1/2 ;" (plc 61l )'!2 H
('1)  c 12 ,
, .
~
2p )1/2 F
(ell ('44)Ic,Hl ('H)
I).
. , ( ell + 2C 66 + C I2 (I'll C(6 )2 (CI~ l l"IIY
FIGURE 3.9. Tetragonal crystal classes 4f11111, 422, .JIIIIIIIIII. 1"""1' FIGURE 3.10. Tetragonal crystal classes 4111111, 422,
agation in the X Y plane. Curves shown arc for rutile. Propagation in the XZ plane. Curves shown are for
rutilt>.
398 APPENDIX 3
ACOUSTIC PLANE WAVE PROPERTIES 399
(1,/0.')1' Pure
pomt
Zpolarized
shear pomt
\
//
(h/(ujJ,Pure
longitudinal
/ / points
Pure shear,
Zpolanzed
One material or
this crystal class (tellUrium dioxide) has the interesting For thc quasishear wave
property that C,HI> C il while ('101 satislics the usual condition (1\ < (II'
This means that the Xintercept (f)y in Fig, 3, 10 falls inside the Xintercept (~).
From this it appears that the (kll')" and (/' curves should cross each (k) =
0) 2
(2p
)1/21
1('11 + C,i!; j.(ell + '6';)., ,4(\I 1/2
other. Figure 3.11 shows that this does occur. Along the X axis, the longitu
and for the quasilongitudinal wavc
dinal wave has the unusual property of heing slower than one of the shear
waves; hut normal conditions are restored after the curves have crossed.
tI~
Figure 3.12 slwws slowness curves in the X Y plane for the same material. + 1'66 + (3.33)
In this case, the solution (klo:! changes from pure longitudinal to pure shear
where
as 1> increases from 0 to 45", and the sol ution (k 10J)~ changes from pure shear
to pure longitudinal. c C08
2
4> + ('6,; sin
2
1> + ('IIi sin 24('11 sin2 4> + ('66 cos 2 1>
B.Sb Classes 4. 4. 41m. The characteristic for  ('16 sin 21 (C16 cos 21> + (C 12 + ('66) sin 4> cos 12.
propagation in the X r plane and along the Z axis.
Along the Z axis there are two degenerate shear waves
I n the X r planc there is a pure shear wa ve
: 2 (~4'
alld a pure longitudinal wave.
ky/w ACOUSTIC PI,ANE WAVE PROPERTIES 401
(k/W)2 Quasishear
.  ky)w
(klw)j Quasishear~
(k/wh Quasllongltudlrlal
J / I : '. k).)w
(klw)3
Quasilongitudinal

II
('~_,)lf~
I'll (:12.
I/:!
Ijl + C(i(i + \ (c l
I
+ 4(';6'
I:~
ii' (2 1+ e"" +  C"6)2 1/2
i/':!.
I
,.JI I + C(il; \ (I'll J' (
.~,
;)1/2 (:l
Iii)
(( 4\
FIGURE 3.14. Telragonal classes 4, 4, Propagation in the XZ
17'
(+)1/2
(II
41'111
The stiffness matrix for materials of this kind can be converted to the
I ~'\l
tan 41>fllll = ('I J Cl~
same form as for classes 4mm, 422, 42m, 4/mmm hy performing an appro
11 priate rotation of coordinates about the 7 axis. Slowness curves therefore
In' (Pmi 4 4 J
W(1
have the same general appearance as Fig. 3.9, but arc rotated ahout the Z
= ell (cos4 + sin l <p ""') + sin:! 2</;1U1I  ('In sin 4</;1110 + c6{) sin 2 2c/'/lw axis, Curves for calcium molyhdate are shown in Figs. 3.13 to 3.15.
= ~Cll sin 2 24>11'" + CI 2 (COS4 4>",,; + sin 4 <p,;w) + CHI sin
('66 sin~ 2(/, /lHt
B.6 Orthorhombic
(ell  sin 2 2ma + c!() sin 41IIf1 + {'(iH cos:! 2(/J mfl
The characteristic equation is of the same form as for the hexagonal classes,
FIGURE 3.13. Tetragonal classes 4,4.4/111. Propagation in the \' ) 1)lml('.
hut with more general stiffness coefficients. It factors for propagation in the
Curves are for calcium molybdate.
X y, X/, and YZ planes.
400
402 APPENDIX 3 ACOUSTIC PLANE WAVE PROPERTIES 403
kz/w
and the quasilongitudinal wave is
(k/wh Quasishear
(:t= + ('11
.,
cos"
./.
(I' + C22
2)( 10 4
/
+ + ('11 cos 2 + ('22 sin 2 )2 (3.36)
(k/W)2 Quasishear
s/m where
(4) c= cos~ + {'1l11 sin z )('6G cos 2 + ('22 8inz )
 (c12 + ('66)2 cos 2 sin 2 .
The direction angle is dellned in Fig. 3.16, which shows curves for barium
sodium niobate, neglecting the piezoelectric effect.
that this
axis lies at liy/w
45" ill
~ig 3.13 (k/w)j Pure shear,
Zpolarized ~/_~
//
/~2.6)(104
I) (
,1, ( ilxlw
CLi + Cfi6 +
en
(4) (pIC~3)1/2
12; C11
+C'16;========
lril (
In the X Y plane there is a pure shear wave polarized along the Z axis, 4p
Cl) (
C ll + C22 + 2('66  \. (ell
(:}= ., J.
COS" 'f'
.
+ C.% . 2
SII1 (3.34)
(4) (pl1' 44 )1/2
(~i
4(') I'll
tfii ( ~~4
2[>
+ CS5
 .j(c6G + ell cos + 2
C 22 sin
2 1/" (I 1'[ G U R E 3.16. Orthorhombic. Propagation in the X Y plane. Curves are
for ImriulII sodium niobate, with the piezodectric effect neglected.
404 APPENDIX 3 ACOtJSTIC PLANE WAVE PROPERTIES 405
For propagation in the XZ plane the pure shear wave is polarized along and thc quasilongitudinal wave is
the Y
(k) =
 P1/2{ ('66 2"
sIn II + ('41 COS ?
(3.37) (k) (~p)

(jJ
.')
~
liz!
l"5" . ., I
+ ell SIn",J + ('n cos 2
0
(t)2
() + "a3 COS" Of
. 2 "'!;t1I:!
The quasishear wave is
+ + ell sIn <) 'J
4L I . (3.39)
where
(~)[ + C II sill~ (j + (':ta ()
C= (ell sin Z () + ('[,5 cos 2 sin 2 () + C33 cos 2
I))
 J(c"" + ell sin" () + Caa cos 2 0)2 4<')1/2 (3.38) (CIa + c..Y sin 2 fJ cos 2 0.
Curves arc shown in Fig 3.17.
kz/w In the YZ plane the pure shear wave is polarized along the X axis
(il/W)} Quasishear......
(k)
(~) ::=
+ ('22 sil1 2 {j + ('a:l cos 2 ()
ky/w k/l
+ c" + 2CH +
i:!'; x
(;l)
4p 111
cot
2
() =
;,~i
/ .,   :)
)
21_'_ )I/~ z
In;, (X)
+('(11;
(!)) (P/CS5)Ll2
FIGURE 3.18. Orthorhombic. Propagation in the YZ plane. Curves are
for barium sodium niobate, with the piezoelectric effect nl'glected.
i" After K. Brugger, "Pure Modes for Efasli..: Waves in " J. Appl. Phys. 36,
75') 7(,X (1%5).
408 APPENDIX 3 \( '( )lISTie PLANE WAVE PROPERTIES 409
(:1:1  2C 44  C I :1,
z
~,
" ""~ I k7f
" 'I~"~
" I ,r y
" I ,i.
V'f'
x
tan 3rp C
14
q = (kp)r
(j'ul(l
y
 2C41
45'
+ + 1):1
3 [lIn 2 rp I C
14
0, tan
ell ('12
z 4
(krr)x
112
tan 2
kp
\ (kp}x
\  r
~ 112
rpm" +
X
/
45' \
\
\~
\
l
, tan2
C: 13  2('11 
I (
CIa
ell C 13 + """'=''='
C.2f Orthorhombic
z
k~ 
AI
I,
\
\ ACt
\
\ At'"
y
X \ I
\ I At'"
\j
At'",
cot ('11 2('"" CI.1)'/~
( afl
(':1:,  2e 55  ('1:1 tiL'l
At C 22 2e 14 c 2 :1 B2 ('22  2e 66  C ACIHI'
l2
C1 (';ja  '::C,,"  C
I3
AC(i!l\f
Aeoll\!
f(';d,
Al:OU\l1
fl':Ii, I
llllll \,
!\C(lII\!1
ACOlhll1
I,'
Anl\I .. !
\111
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