Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2016. All rights reserved.

Contents

1 Optical-Related
1.1 Colored light & Grey Light /1
1.2 Fiber & Optical Module
1.2.1 Optical Module (eSFP SFP+ XFP CFP) /2
1.2.2 Fiber Connectors /3
1.2.3 MM Fiber & SM Fiber /4
1.2.4 Single-fiber Unidirectional & Single-fiber Bidirectional /5
1.3 Optical Module Specifications
1.3.1 Mean Launched Optical Power and Extinction Ratio /6
1.3.2 SMSR and Transmit Eye Pattern /7
1.3.3 Receiver Sensitivity /8
1.3.4 Overload Point /9
1.4 OSNR, BER and Q Value / 10
1.5 Disersion / 11
1.6 Optical Power Conversion / 12
2 OTN Basics
2.1 Encapsulation/Mapping
2.1.1 AMP, BMP, GMP / 13
2.1.2 ODUflex / 15
2.2 Protection
2.2.1 1+1 Protection and 1:1 Protection / 16
2.2.2 Unidirectional Switching and Bidirectional Switching / 17
3 MS-OTN Series
3.1 VPWS / 18
3.2 VPLS / 19

957. WDM-side grey light Huawei WDM device A Huawei WDM device is interconnected OTU Line board Line board OTU with a third-party WDM device. Wavelength stability of grey optical modules: about 30 nm -1- .694.04 nm/DWDM 100G. the wavelengths in WDM systems are called colored light whereas the wavelengths in common optical systems are called grey light. services GE do not need to be processed on the universal line board. which can be directly connected to GE board the multiplexer board. How to Distinguish Colored and Grey Optical Modules? The transmit and receive wavelengths of colored optical modules have a nominal center frequency and center wavelength. 0. The transmit and receive wavelengths of grey optical modules have a wide range and do not have a center wavelength. Avoid direct eye exposure to the optical ports. In this situation. depending on wavelength division standards. They can be distinguished by whether their specifications contain center wavelengths.3 Application Scenario Typical scenario Client-side optical modules provide grey optical ports while WDM-side optical modules provide colored optical ports. WDM Basics Colored Light & Grey Light About Light Sunlight Invisible light Visible light Invisible light Red Yellow/Orange/ Purple/Blue/ Cyan/Green/ Intermediate Near infrared Microwave infrared Industrial Extreme infrared beam X-ray γ-ray UV WDM The light in WDM systems is in the near-infrared region and is invisible. Colored light is divided into CWDM and DWDM light. implementing service adding/dropping or grooming on Huawei WDM device. Colored Light & Grey Light The light in WDM systems is carried over different wavelengths compliant with specific standards. 1.2 (CWDM) Grey light: ITU-T G.1. the Tributary board Tributary board Tributary board Third-party Third-party WDM device WDM device line boards (grey light on the WDM side) of Huawei WDM device can be used to receive GE GE FC services. for example. does OTU Line board Line board OTU not support the tributary/line separation OTU GELine board Line board FC OTU mode. Packet 2. Colored light is WDM-side optical signals of the OTN or line boards in a WDM system. To distinguish wavelengths in different systems. preventing the laser fromhurting your eyes. λ2 Line board The major application scenarios are as follows: . Grey light is within a certain wavelength range and does not have a standard wavelength. Wavelength stability of colored optical modules: ±6. The OTU Line board Line board OTU third-party WDM device. and IEEE 802. Therefore. which can be used to λ1 Line board connect to a multiplexer board. If service grooming is required. The client-side device interconnected with the 10GE WDM device has colored optical ports.5 nm/CWDM. light at client-side optical ports of WDM devices. ITU-T G. See the figure on the right. Standards compliance Colored light: ITU-T G.. The 10GE ports of the packet board are colored GE tributary optical ports.959. λ1 OTU OTU λ1-λN λ2 MUX/ MUX/ OTU DMUX OA OA DMUX OTU Client-side device Client-side device λN OTU OTU Grey Colored Colored Grey optical port optical port optical port optical port Client-side colored light The client-side optical module of the tributary board provides colored optical ports.1 (DWDM) and ITU-T G694.. The signals can be directly transmitted to multiplexer devices and have standard wavelengths. however. The wavelengths range from 1260 nm to 1611 nm.

These modules are generally used to interconnect WDM equipment with Ethernet switches. for example. The modules are mainly used for interconnecting WDM equipment or interconnecting WDM equipment with supercomputers. To resolve XFP光模块 the density issue. ER4/10: E indicates extra-long wavelength. The supervisory function refers to the supervisory of transmit and receive optical power. The rate of such modules is generally less than 5 Gbit/s. Nevertheless. SR10: S indicates short wavelength. low power consumption. and high port density. SFP+/XFP In most cases. which are classified by module encapsulation types. R indicates the Ethernet 64B/66B codec format.5G and 10G Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP+) modules are developed. 10 indicates 10 optical channels. CFP The Centum Form Factor Pluggable (CFP) module is a type of 40G/100G pluggable optical module that features high-rate and multi-wavelength transmission. 10 G Small Form Factor Pluggable (XFP) modules are preferentially used to receive 10G services. LR4/10: L indicates long wavelength. Enhanced 8. and feature short-distance CXP transmission. and large size. 4 or 10 indicates 4 or 10 optical channels. -2- . The commonly used interface types are 100GBASE-LR4/ER4/SR10. which is generally 850 nm. the size of XFP modules is large. WDM Basics Optical Module Types The following are the major optical module types used by WDM equipment. Such modules use MPO interfaces and parallel cables (each containing multiple fibers). CFP modules are currently driven to feature small size. CFP2 and CFP4 modules that are being developed in the industry. R indicates the Ethernet 64B/66B codec format. which can be used to transmit SFP+ XFP 8G-10G 8G-10G 8G fiber channel (FC) services and 10G Ethernet services. The commonly used interface type is 100GBASE-SR10. eSFP The Enhanced Small Form Factor Pluggable (eSFP) module is a type of low-speed optical module that provides the supervisory function. which is generally 1550 nm. CFP CFP2 CFP4 40G/100G 100G 100G CXP The 120 Gb/s eXtended-capability Form Factor Pluggable (CXP) module is a type of 12-channel pluggable optical module. eSFP Most SFP optical modules do not 125M-5G support the supervisory function. R indicates the Ethernet 64B/66B codec format. which is generally 1310 nm. 4 or 10 indicates 4 or 10 optical channels.

Such a connector SC Square Connector is made of engineering plastic. Common Fiber Connectors in WDM Systems • LC/PC connector (plug-in square fiber connector/protruding polished) • FC/PC connector (round fiber connector/protruding polished) • SC/PC connector (square fiber connector/protruding polished) • LSH/APC connector (connector with a dust-proof cover/protruding polished at an 8-degree angle) • MPO/PC connector (multi-core multi-channel pluggable connector) -3- . Using the FC/PC connector as an example. It is a multi-core square fiber connector that adopts the Multi Transmit- MT-RJ transceiver structure. Types of Fiber Connectors Optical fiber connectors are classified into FC. The model of an optical fiber connector is determined by structure type and endface type. It is an LSH connector with a dust-proof cover. ST. automatically closed after the fiber is removed. Type Full Spelling Description It is a commonly-used round threaded fiber connector. WDM Basics Optical Fiber Connectors Optical fiber connectors are required when fibers need to be connected to optical modules. ST Straight Connector It is a plug-in round fiber connector that is fixed using a screw. and is heat-resisting and oxidation-resisting. It is a protruding fiber connector that is polished at an 8-degree Angled Physical angle. The cover is E2000 . SC. Such a connector has higher plug-resistance than plastic connectors. LC Lucent Connector It is a small-sized rectangular fiber connector. FC indicates the outer structure type of the optical fiber connector and PC indicates the endface type of the pin inside the optical fiber connector. Type Full Spelling Description PC Physical Contact It is a protruding polished fiber connector. Such a connector can house two fibers at Receive Joint one end. It is a standard square fiber connector that uses a push-pull latching mechanism and requires no rotation. the return loss APC in APC connector application scenarios is obviously higher than Contact that in PC connector application scenarios. Optical fiber connectors can also be classified into PC and APC connectors by inside pin endface type. It is a multi-core square fiber connector that adopts the MPO Multi-fiber Push On transceiver structure. Because of the angle grinding technology. and LC connectors by structure. Such a connector can house two fibers at one end. The outer reinforcement part of the connector is a ferrule and the FC Ferrule Connector connector is fixed using a screw.

Do not connect SM and MM optical modules. and SM optical modules are marked as SLM. and constitute the majority of fibers in the WDM system. broadened spectrums.and enlarged dispersion may happen. The working bands are 850 nm for MM optical modules and 1310 nm and 1550 nm for SM optical modules. Fibers are classified into single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) fibers based on the number of supported transmission modes. SM Fiber A fiber that has a core diameter in the same order 5~10um of magnitude as optical wavelengths and permits only one transmission mode (basic mode) is called SM fiber. MM fibers suit only low-rate and short-distance transmission. after long-distance transmission. How are SM and MM optical modules distinguished? MM optical modules are marked as MLM. SM and MM Optical Modules SM and MM optical modules must be used together with SM and MM fibers respectively. MM Fiber about 50um A fiber that has a core diameter greatly exceeding optical wavelengths and permits tens and even hundreds of transmission modes is called MM fiber. How are SM and MM fibers distinguished? • MM fibers are orange and marked as MM. SM fibers suit large-capacity and long-distance transmission. Therefore. • SM fibers are yellow and marked as SM. WDM Basics Fiber Basics Mode indicates the transmission path of optical signals that enter a fiber at a certain angular velocity. A fiber supports as many transmission modes as its diameter allows. issues such as time delays. -4- . Because optical signals transmitted in different modes have different rates and phases.

Single-fiber Unidirectional In this mode. easy fault isolation and performance monitoring. which wastes spectrums. Protection ranges must be configured for separating wavelengths to prevent signal interference in two directions. the WDM system transmits multi-wavelength optical signals in receive and transmit directions through separate fibers. Single-fiber Bidirectional In this mode. and flexible networking that facilitating upgrading and capacity expansion. imple- mented through the filtering function of a single-fiber bidirectional optical module. Different center wave- lengths are used for the two directions. multi-wavelength optical signals are transmitted through only one fiber in both receive and transmit directions. -5- . its design and O&M of the WDM system are more complicated. However. This mode is mainly used on the client side. WDM Basics Fiber Basics The WDM system supports signal transmission in two modes: single-fiber unidirectional and single-fiber bidirectional. conve- nient O&M. Feature This mode is characterized by its simple design and low require- ments. Feature This mode is characterized by a 50% savings in fiber resources compared with the single-fiber unidirectional mode.

Test point Unit: dBm TX Optical power meter Transmitter RX Extinction Ratio Eye pattern Ratio of the average optical power level at the centre of the logical "1" to the average optical power level at the centre of the logical "0" under A the worst reflection conditions. -6- . B Extinction ratio (dB) = 10lg A B A: average optical power level at the centre of the logical "1" B: average optical power level at the centre of the logical "0" Unit: dB This means The larger the extinction ratio. WDM Basics Optical Module Specifications Mean Launched Optical Power Average optical power at a point tested during transmission of pseudo-random sequence signal. the greater the possibility of signal interference and increased BER. The smaller the extinction ratio. the better the logical discrimination at the receive end.

Transmit Eye Pattern Performance evaluation of a baseband transmission system is generally done with a lab oscilloscope to observe the waveform of received signals. 0.20 A large eye aperture and regular eye STM-4 0. Degree SDH/SONET Eye Pattern An eye pattern is a visual representation 1+Y1 of the impact of inter-bit crosstalk and Mean level of 1 centre of noise.40 0. WDM Basics Optical Module Specifications Minimum Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR) Ratio of the average optical power of the main mode to the optical power of the most prominent side mode under the worst reflection condition. -7- . Side mode interferes with the main mode The larger the SMSR.25 0. Such signals are called the side mode.15 0. However. The impact that inter-bit crosstalk and noise have on system performance is then studied in a process called eye pattern analysis. 1-Y1 logic “1” The size of the eye aperture corresponds directly to the degree of inter-bit crosstalk.20 pattern indicate less inter-bit crosstalk. optical signals in practice are not only carried on this wavelength. Unit: dBm What is the side mode? Under ideal conditions. all signals transmitted by optical modules are optical signals of a specified wavelength. Some signals are carried on other wavelengths.5 Y1 Mean level of centre of 0 logic “0” -Y1 Time(UI) 0 X1 X2 1-X2 1-X1 Rates X1 X2 Y1 This means STM-1 0.35 0. the better the laser performance. and vice versa.

The larger the transmission rate. the poorer the receiver performance. Unit: dBm What is BER? The bit error rate (BER) measures the data transmission precision within a specified time period. • Signal waveform. which is determined by the transmit-end extinction ratio and fiber dispersion. Factors affecting receiver sensitivity: • OSNR. Number of errors in transmitted bits BER = x 100% Total number of transmitted bits -10 The expected BER of a system is generally less than 10 . the larger the OSNR. -8- . the poorer the receiver sensitivity and the shorter the regeneration distance. • Signal transmission rate. The larger the receiver sensitivity. the less the noise on the receive circuit and the less the impact on receiver sensitivity. WDM Basics Optical Module Specifications Receiver Sensitivity The minimum input optical power a receiver requires to achieve the expected BER performance.

Overload point and receiver sensitivity are both critical facets of optical power. Therefore. A certain margin will be left for devices in actual applications. If the practical optical power of a device is greater than the maximum input optical power. Receiver sensitivity and overload point • If the input optical power is less than the receiver sensitivity. Minimum receiver overload. the measured overload point will be slightly greater than the value specified for the minimum overload point in optical module specifications. All the overload points specified in the optical module specifications of WDM devices currently mean the minimum overload points. Maximum input optical power indicates the maximum receive optical power of the receiver. WDM Basics Optical Module Specifications Overload Point The overload point is the overload optical power. -9- . Maximum input optical power The overload point defined in the standards means the minimum receiver overload point. and even the device will be damaged. • If the input optical power exceeds the overload point. it may be impossible to achieve the expected BER performance. the optical components on the device may be damaged. Unit: dBm Overload. it is too weak to ensure that equipment receives signals. the maximum average input optical power at the receive end that achieves the expected BER performance. It is a BER-related concept and indicates the maximum mean receive optical power of the receiver to achieve the expected BER performance.

Due to the impact of factors such as noise. I and σ are the mean value σ1 + σ 0 0 0 and variance output by Gaussian pulse 0. A smaller pre-FEC BER indicates a larger Q value and better link performance. BER. Mapping between Q value and BER: 1 Q 1 exp  −   2 BER = [erfc( )] ≈ Q 2 2 2π Q  2 Q (dB): Q (dB) = 10log10 (Q2 ) = 20log10 (Q) The Q value and BER have a one-to-one mapping. The OSNR threshold in this case is called B2B OSNR tolerance. which is usually 0. the pre-FEC BER will be excessively large and uncorrectable bit errors will be generated. Bit errors are therefore present when the receiver converts the optical signals into electrical signals. and Q Value OSNR Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is used to quantify the degree of optical noise interference on optical signals. 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 OSNR and BER OSNR indirectly reflects BER and can provide a warning of potential BER deterioration. the waveforms of optical signals coupled into fibers will be distorted when the optical signals arrive at the end of fiber links. The Q value can represent the system tolerance in dB.1 nm BER Bit error rate (BER) is the ultimate indicator for measuring transmission quality. It is the ratio of service signal power to noise power within a valid bandwidth. In an experimental environment where factors Maximum correctable BER such as loss. . if the OSNR is less than the specified threshold. non-linear effects. and dispersion (PMD/CD). dispersion. OSNR(dB)= 10lg Pi/Ni+10lgBm/Br Bm In the formula: Pi: signal power on the i channel Bm: equivalent noise bandwidth Br Ni: noise power introduced within the Bm Br: reference optical bandwidth. and non-linear effects BER are excluded.10 - . WDM Basics OSNR. OSNR(dB) B2B OSNR tolerance Q Value Q value: I 1 and σ 1 are the mean value and variance output I −I Q= 1 0 by Gaussian pulse 1. just like dBm substitutes for mW to represent optical power.

and the impact of dispersion on the system also increases. the transmission distance is limited. the coherent technology and optical signal processing technology must be used to reduce the impact of dispersion on the system and improve the dispersion tolerance of the equipment. The dispersion is accumulated as the transmission distance is prolonged. . WDM Basics Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion Chromatic Dispersion (CD) A form of dispersion where optical pulses are spread because different wavelengths are Distance L(km) transmitted at different speeds in optical fibers and the periods for different wavelengths to λ1 λ1 traverse the same distance are different. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Delay difference A form of dispersion where optical pulsesare Fast axis spread because optical signals in different phase status are transmitted at different Distance L(km) speeds due to the random birefringence of optical fibers.11 - . CD (ps/nm) = Transmission distance (km) x CD coefficient (ps / nm ⋅ km) PMD (ps) = Transmission distance (km) x PMD coefficient (ps / km ) As the transmission speed increases. .. As a result. the pulse width is reduced.. the impact of dispersion on the system becomes more serious.. for 100G and higher rate systems. Therefore. Slow axis Impact of Dispersion on the System The spreading of optical pulses in the time domain caused by CD and PMD will lead to distortion of signals and inter-code crosstalk. thereby causing bit errors. λ2 λ2 λ3 λ3 ... Distance L(km) Distance 2L(km) ..

That is. dB is the unit of optical power difference. in mW.12 - . P2 and P1 and P2 indicate the optical power of a single wavelength separately. both P1 and P2 indicate optical power. mW. dB=10xlgP1-10xlgP2=dBm1-dBm2. Ptotal (mW)=P1(mW)+P2(mW) Assume that P1 = P2 = Psingle Ptotal (dBm)=P single (dBm)+10lg2(dB) N wavelengths Ptotal (dBm)=Psingle(dBm)+10lgN(dB) Fixed Network Information Dept. WDM Basics Relationship Between dBm. They can be converted as follows: dBm=10xlgP (P indicates optical power. . you only need to subtract the output optical power from the input optical power. When optical power is expressed in dBm. in mW. and dB is the unit of an optical power gain or attenuation. They can be converted as follows: dB=10xlg(P1/P2), Here.) For example. dBm and dB dBm is the unit of optical power. and dB dBm and mW Both dBm (decibel-milliwatts) and mW (milliwatts) are units of optical power. 1 mW can be converted into 0 dBm. For example P1 Ptotal indicates the optical power of P total multiplexed wavelengths. When calculating the insertion loss of an optical component.

Both modes feature simple mapping with a 2. values of the NJO. Example TN52TOM: STM-1 <—> OPU1 (AMP) <—> ODU1 15 16 17 18 3824 1 RES JC 2 RES JC 3 RES JC 4 RES NJO PJO JC: justification control NJO: negative justification opportunity PJO: positive justification opportunity Signal Rate Comparison JC NJO PJO Client-side signal = Server-side signal 00 Justification byte Data byte Client-side signal > Server-side signal 01 Data byte Data byte Client-side signal < Server-side signal 11 Justification byte Justification byte Note The two signals are distinguished as client-side and server-side by encapsulation direction. For example.5 Gbit/s tributary timeslots. GMP maps ODU0. • At the transmit end. • At the receive end. PJO. ODU4. and various other client-side signals. when STM-16 is encapsulated into OPU1. ODU2e.5 Gbit/s tributary timeslot. and JC bytes are determined by the client-side signal rate. This mode features more flexible mapping with 1.13 - . WDM Basics: AMP. When A is encapsulated into B. . justification bytes are classified as stuff bytes or client-side signals depending on the value of the JC bytes. Key modes are: • Asynchronous Mapping Procedure (AMP) • Bit-synchronous Mapping Procedure (BMP) • Generic Mapping Procedure (GMP) AMP and BMP map ODU1 signals to ODU2/ODU3 and ODU2 signals to ODU3.25 Gbit/s and 2. AMP This mode adjusts NJO and PJO bytes so that the signal rates match on both server and client sides. and GMP Overview Different board types support various encapsulation modes. A would be the client-side signal and B the server-side signal. BMP. ODUflex. STM-16 is the client-side and OPU1 the server-side signal respectively.

• NJO bytes are used as justification bytes and their values are 0.. In this mode: • The value of JC bytes is 00. BMP This mode is used when the server-side signal rate matches the client-side signal rate and the signal frequencies of both sides do not deviate. the Sigma/Delta algorithm is used to stuff client-side signals with bytes so that the two signal rates match. The receive end can then separate client-side signals using the Sigma/Delta algorithm.14 - . For example. Bit sequence number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Multiplied by Cn(6) 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 Remainder from mode Pserver(8) 6 4 2 0 6 4 2 0 Final result S C C C S C C C . server-side signals can provide 3808 x 4 x 8 bits in one OTU frame. Payload Area The number of bits provided by the server layer is a fixed value 3808 x 4 x 8. Example TN11LOA: CPRI Option3 <—> GMP <—> OPU1 <—> ODU1 In the GMP mode. Pserver: the number of bits server-side signals can provide in one frame. Client data Therefore. • PJO bytes are used as data bytes. the transmit-end equipment OH only needs to send a Cn(t)-specified Stuff number of bits to the receive-end equipment.Pserver]. Assume that server-side signals provide eight bits and client-side signals require six bits. Service frame or multi-frame Sigma/Delta Algorithm • Client data (C) if ( j*Cn(t)) mod Pserver < Cn(t) • Stuff (S) if ( j*Cn(t)) mod Pserver ≥ Cn(t) j: a bit sequence number within the range of [1. Cn(t): the number of bits for client-side signals in one frame. Example TN52TDX: 10GE LAN <—> BMP <—> OPU2e <—> ODU2e GMP This mode only allows signal transmission when the server-side signal rate exceeds the client-side signal rate.

the two types of ODUflex as defined by ITU-T G. Good compatibility: ODUflex applies to various types of services.15 - . At present.25G to 100G and two main features: 1. ODUflex(GFP) signals should fill an integer number of tributary timeslots in the smallest HO ODUk channel carrying the signals.709 are ODUflex(CBR) based on constant bit rate services. The remaining timeslots can carry other service signals.ts (k=2. Packet service signals are encapsulated into ODUFlex signals in GFP-F mode. FC4G Bandwidth use is now more efficient. ODUflex (CBR) Bit rate = 239/238 × client signal bit rate Only client signals with a bit rate greater FC400/FC800… Pipe FC400/FC800… than 2.3. Application Example Four timeslots Four timeslots (discontinuous slots allowed) (discontinuous slots allowed) 1 1 2 2 3 3 BMP 4 OTN OTU2 4 FC4G ODUflex ODUflex FC4G 5 network 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 ODU2 ODU2 Encapsulation path: FC4G->ODUflex->ODU2 ODUflex signals are encapsulated into the four ODU2 timeslots. and ODUflex(GFP) based on packet services. with reduced transmission cost per bit.488 Gbit/s can be encapsulated into ODUflex signals in BMP mode. where n is the number of tributary timeslots occupied by ODUflex(GFP).25G. The bit rate is equal to n×ODUk. Efficient transmission: Flexible rate adaptation mechanisms ODU2 enable users to configure capacities for containers based on service traffic volume. and works with transmission requirements of future IP services. ODUflex FC4G including video. storage. It has a bandwidth range of 1. To maximize efficiency. VS 2. .4), approximately n×1. achieving 100% bandwidth usage. ODUflex (GFP) Any bit rate works for an ODUflex(GFP) signal. and data services. WDM Basics ODUflex ODUflex is a flexible optical channel data unit.

the Protected Working channel transmit end sends primary services to service the protection channel and the receive Protection channel end receives primary services from the Extra service protection channel. Site A Site B When the working channel is faulty. services are transmit. Site A Site B If the working channel becomes Working channel abnormal. however. are not concurrently Working channel transmitted to both the working and pro- Protected service tection channels. M:N protection: M protection channels provide protection for N working channels. service Protection channel tion channel based on channel status and external commands. . At the Working channel transmit end. the transmit Protection channel end sends primary services to the work- Extra service ing channel and extra services (low-level Before services) to the protection channel. Then. the Dual feeding Before receive end receives services from at the source switching Selective receiving at the sink the working channel. Instead. Dual feeding After Selective receiving at the source switching at the sink 1:1 Protection 1:1 protection: Each working channel corresponds to a protection channel.16 - . and they protect each other. WDM Basics 1+1 Protection and 1:1 Protection 1+1 Protection Site A Site B Each working channel has a dedi- cated protection channel. M is equal to or less than N. the receive end selective- Protected ly receives services from the protec. In normal cases. At this time. Generally. Protected service Protection channel ted to both the working and protec- tion channels. Site A Site B Services. switching the receive end receives primary services from the working channel and extra ser- vices from the protection channel. the extra After services are terminated to ensure normal switching transmission of the primary services.

WDM Basics Unidirectional Switching and Bidirectional Switching Unidirectional switching When the channel in one direction is faulty. only services in this direction are switched and services in the other direction are still received from the original channel. services in both directions pass through the same devices and services are easy to manage. and service switching is quick. Site A Site B If a fault occurs on the network.17 - . Advantage: In bidirectional switching mode. Advantage: Site A Site B Working channel The implementation mechanism of unidirectional switching is simple and Protection channel does not require any protocols. Service switching in each direction is independent and has no impact on service switching in the other direction. Protection channel The latencies in both directions are the same. Unidirectional Switching Bidirectional switching When the channel in one direction is faulty. services Working channel will not be transmitted in the fault area and the fault can be rectified without triggering excessive service switching. Bidirectional Switching . services in both directions are switched regardless of whether the channel in the other direction is faulty.

WDM Basics VPWS Basics Overview Virtual private wire service (VPWS) is a point-to-point Ethernet service model defined by the IETF. On the network side. When this model is used. Service Typical Networking Service1 Port1 CVLAN100 Service1 NE2 Branch1 Port1 PW1 Service2 CVLAN100 Port2 PW2 CVLAN200 Tunnel HQ NE3 Branch2 Service2 NE1 PW3 Port2 CVLAN200 NE4 Service3 Service3 Port3 Port3 Branch3 CVLAN300 CVLAN300 P2MP transmission is adopted between the HQ and its branches: On the user side.18 - . In MS-OTN. port+CVLAN differentiates three services configured for the HQ. the VPWS is used to transmit VBR services. . service streams on the client side can be divided by VLAN and carried using MPLS. • VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) Service Model Carrying both single-VLAN PW1 and multi-VLAN services Tunnel ODUk λ means powerful service PW2 bearing and convenient access. the services enter three separate PWs and are transmitted to three branches over different tunnels.

the LAN networks that are geographically isolated are connected through the MPLS-TP network to provide multipoint-to-multipoint and point-to-multipoint services.19 - . . a V-UNI interface is also created for each VSI on the client side. A virtual switching instance (VSI) is separately created on PE1 and PE2 and a bidirectional PW is created between them. flood. Such a group prevents packet forwarding between PWs to avoid the occurrence of a network loop or broadcast storm. • VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) VPLS implements the isolation of transmission tunnels using the MPLS technology. so that packets are sent to the correct PEs and finally forwarded to the correct users. and forward MAC addresses. In addition. The networks that are geographically isolated are connected through the network and users share band- widths based on isolated PWs. MAC Address Learning and Flooding Each VSI maintains a MAC address table to learn. The bidirectional PW is used as the virtual Ethernet interface of the VSIs. Typical Networking PE1 to PE5 form a multipoint-to-multipoint network where the VPLS technology is used to implement multipoint-to-multipoint communication. Basic Concepts Split Horizon Here. a split horizon group is created on NE1 with all PWs as group members. WDM Basics VPLS Basics Overview VPLS is a multipoint-to-multipoint Ethernet service model defined by the IETF. When this model is used.