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# Chapter 8 Second-Order Circuits

 Finding initial and final values
 Source-free series RLC circuit
 Source-free parallel RLC circuit
 Step response of series/parallel RLC circuit
 General second-order circuits

8.1 Introduction

 A second-order circuit is characterized by a second-order
differential equation. It consists of resistors and the equivalent of
two energy storage elements
 An op amp circuit with two storage elements may also be a second-
order circuit

series RLC circuit RL circuit

parallel RLC circuit RC circuit

1

Introduction

 A second-order circuit may also contain several resistors and
dependent and independent sources
 First, source-free circuits giving natural responses are
introduced; and then with independent source circuits
 Obtaining initial conditions from the circuit variables and their
derivatives are crucial for analyzing second-order circuits
 Resistors provide damping in second-order circuits, which is
somewhat different from first-order circuits

8.2 Finding Initial and Final Values

 The possible initial conditions for second-order circuit
are v(0), i(0), v(0)/dt, i(0)/dt, v(∞), and i(∞)
 Two key points in determining the initial conditions
 v and i are defined strictly according to the passive sign
convention
 The capacitor voltage is always continuous
v (0 + ) = v (0 − )
the inductor current is always continuous
i ( 0 + ) = i (0 − )
 In finding initial conditions, focus on those variables not
changing abruptly, i.e. capacitor voltage or inductor current

2

Example 8.1

 The switch in the figure has been closed for a
long time. It is open at t = 0. Find: (a) i(0+),
v(0+), (b) i(0+)/dt, v(0+)/dt, (c) i(∞), v(∞).
 Sol:
 (a) At dc steady state, the inductor acts like a
short circuit and the capacitor like an open circuit
12
i (0 − ) = = 2A, v (0 − ) = 2i (0 − ) = 4 V
4+2
i (0 + ) = i (0 − ) = 2A, v (0 + ) = v (0 − ) = 4 V
 (b) At t = 0+ , the switch is open
iC (0 + ) = i (0 + ) = 2A
dv (0 + ) iC (0 + ) 2
= = = 20 V/s
dt C 0.1

Example 8.1
− 12 + 4i (0 + ) + vL (0 + ) + v (0 + ) = 0
vL (0 + ) = 12 − 8 − 4 = 0
di (0 + ) vL (0 + ) 0
= = = 0 A/s
dt L 0.25
 (c) For t > 0 , the circuit undergoes transience. But
t →∞, the circuit reaches steady state

i ( ∞ ) = 0 A, v ( ∞) = 12V

 Practice Problem 8.1
 The switch was open for a long time but
closed at t = 0. Find: (a) i(0+), v(0+),
(b) i(0+)/dt, v(0+)/dt, (c) i(∞), v(∞).
 Ans: (a)2A 4V, (b) 50A/s, 0V/s
(c) 12A, 24V

3

Example 8.2

 In the circuit, calculate: (a) iL(0+),
vC(0+), vR(0+), (b) iL(0+)/dt, vL(0+)/dt,
vR(0+)/dt, (c) iL(∞), vL(∞), vR(∞).
 Sol:
 For t < 0, 3u(t) = 0, at t = 0- the circuit

iL (0 − ) = 0, vC (0 − ) = −20 V, vR (0 − ) = 0
 For t > 0, 3u(t) = 3, since inductor current
and capacitor voltage cannot change abruptly
iL (0 + ) = iL (0 − ) = 0,
vC (0 + ) = vC (0 − ) = −20 V

Example 8.2

 Applying KCL at node a,
vR (0+ ) vo (0+ )
3= +
2 4
 Applying KVL to the middle mesh,
− vR (0+ ) + vo (0+ ) + vC (0+ ) + 20 = 0
v R ( 0 + ) = vo ( 0 + )
∴ v R ( 0 + ) = vo ( 0 + ) = 4 V
+ +
 (b) Since LdiL/dt = vL , diL (0 ) = vL (0 )
dt L
Applying KVL to the right mesh,
diL (0 + )
vL (0 + ) = vC (0 + ) + 20 = 0 , hence =0
dt

4

− vR + vo + vC + 20 = 0 Example 8.5  Applying KCL to node a.2  Similarly. iL (0 + ) = 0 4 ⇒ iC (0 + ) = = 1 A 4 dvC (0 + ) iC (0 + ) 1 = = = 2V/s dt C 0 .2  Taking derivative of each term dvR (0 + ) dvC (0 + ) dvo (0 + ) − + + =0 dt dt dt dvR (0 + ) dv (0 + ) =2+ o dt dt + dvR (0 ) 2 = V/s dt 3 diR (0 + ) 1 dvR (0 + ) 1 2 1 ∴ = = ⋅ = A/s dt 2 dt 2 3 3  (c) As t → ∞. 2+4 4 vR ( ∞) = 3 A × 2 = 4 V. the circuit reaches steady state 2 i L (∞) = 3 A = 1A. vo (0 + ) = iC (0 + ) + iL (0 + ) 4 Q vo (0 + ) = 4. vC ( ∞) = −20 V 2+4 5 .Example 8. and applying KCL at node b. vR vo dv (0 + ) dvo (0 + ) 3= + ⇒0= 2 R + 2 4 dt dt Applying KVL to the middle mesh. CdvC/dt = iC .

3 The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit  The series RLC circuit is excited by the energy initially stored in the capacitor and inductor 1 0 C ∫−∞ v (0 ) = idt = V0 i (0 ) = I 0 Applying KVL around the loop di 1 t dt C ∫−∞ Ri + L + idt = 0 d 2i R di i 2 + + =0 dt L dt LC second-order differential equation 6 . 0 (c) -1A.0 (b) 0. vR(0+). vC(0+).Practice Problem 8.2  For the circuit. vR(0+)/ dt. 10V. 10V/s. vC(0+)/dt. vR(∞). 10V 8. (c) iL(∞). vC(∞). (b) iL(0+)/dt.  Ans: (a) -3A. find: (a) iL(0+). 0 .

s2 = −α − α 2 − ω02 R 1  where α= .The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit  The initial conditions should be solved di (0 ) Ri (0 ) + L + V0 = 0 or dt di (0 ) 1 = − ( RI 0 + V0 ) dt L  The first-order circuit experience suggests that the solution might be of exponential form Let i = Ae st ( A and s are constants to be determined) AR st A st d 2i R di i As 2 e st + se + e = 0 or 2 + + =0 L LC dt L dt LC ⎛ R 1 ⎞ Ae st ⎜ s 2 + s + ⎟=0 ⎝ L LC ⎠ The polynomial should be zero The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit R 1 s2 + s+ =0 L LC  The above equation is known as the characteristic equation of the differential equation 2 2 R ⎛ R ⎞ 1 R ⎛ R ⎞ 1  The roots are s1 = − + ⎜ ⎟ − . s2 = − − ⎜ ⎟ − 2L ⎝ 2 L ⎠ LC 2L ⎝ 2 L ⎠ LC  Or more compact form s1 = −α + α 2 − ω02 . ω0 = 2L LC 7 .

we have the overdamped case 2. any linear combination of i1 and i2 is also a solution i (t ) = A1e s1t + A2e s2t  where A1 and A2 are determined from the initial conditions i(0) and di(0)/dt  There are three types of solution: 1.The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit  The roots s1 and s2 are called natural frequencies. If α > ω0 . we have the critically damped case 3. If α < ω0 . i2 = A2e s2t  Because of linear equation. If α = ω0 . measured in nepers per second (Np/s)  ω0 is known as the resonant frequency or strictly as undamped natural frequency expressed in radians per second (rad/s)  α is the neper frequency or the damping factor expressed in nepers per second (Np/s)  The ratio α/ω0 (ζ) is known as the damping ratio R 1  The equation s 2 + s+ = 0 is now rewritten as L LC s 2 + 2αs + ω02 = 0 The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit  The two roots indicate that there are two possible solutions: i1 = A1e s1t . we have the underdamped case 8 .

Overdamped Case (α > ω0)  α > ω0 implies C > 4L/R2 R α=  Both roots s1 and s2 are negative and real 2L 1 i (t ) = A1e s1t + A2 e s2t ω0 = LC  They decays and approaches zero as t increases s1. 2 = − ± ⎜ ⎟ − 2L ⎝ ⎠ 2 L LC Typical overdamped response Critically Damped Case (α = ω0) R  α = ω0 implies C = 4L/R2 and s1 = s2 = −α = − 2L  Therefore. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 2 R ⎛ R ⎞ 1 s1.order equation has solution as : f = A1e −αt di di Then + αi = A1e −αt or eαt + eαtαi = A1 dt dt 9 . i (t ) = A1e −αt + A2 e −αt = A3e −αt  But the initial conditions cannot be satisfied d 2i di d di di 2 + 2α + α 2i = 0 or ( + αi ) + α ( + αi ) = 0 dt dt dt dt dt di df Let f = + αi ⇒ + αf = 0 dt dt The first .

Critically Damped Case (α = ω0) d αt ( e i ) = A1 Integrating both sides dt eαt i = A1t + A2 or i = ( A1t + A2 )e −αt  where A1 and A2 are two constants e −1 α critically damped response i(t) = te-αt Underdamped Case (α < ω0)  α < ω0 implies C < 4L/R2. e − jθ = cos θ − j sin θ 10 . the roots are s1 = −α + − (ω02 − α 2 ) = −α + jωd ωd = ω02 − α 2 s2 = −α − − (ω02 − α 2 ) = −α − jωd  ωd is called the damped natural frequency. while ω0 is called as undamped natural frequency  The natural response is i (t ) = A1e − (α − jωd ) t + A2e − (α + jωd ) t = e −αt ( A1e jωd t + A2e − jωd t )  By Euler’s identities e jθ = cos θ + j sin θ .

i (t ) = e −αt [ A1 (cos ωd t + j sin ωd t ) + A2 (cos ωd t − j sin ωd t )] = e −αt [( A1 + A2 ) cos ωd t + j ( A1 − A2 ) sin ωd t ]  Replacing constants with B1 = (A1 + A2) and B2 = j(A1 .A2) i (t ) = e −αt ( B1 cos ωd t + B2 sin ωd t )  With the linear combination of sinusoidal functions.Underdamped Case (α < ω0)  Therefore. or overdamped  Oscillatory  Oscillatory response is formed due to the presence of two types of storage elements  The damped oscillation exhibited by the underdamped response is known as ringing  It stems from the ability of the storage elements L and C to transfer energy back and forth between them 11 . the response is in exponentially damped sinusoidal nature Typical underdamped response Conclusions on RLC network  Damping  The damping is the gradual loss of the initial stored energy by the presence of resistance R  The damping factor α determines the damping rate  R = 0 (α = 0) will generate an undamped oscillatory circuit  By adjusting the value of R. underdamped. the response may be made undamped. critically damped.

2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 2 = −5 ± 25 − 1 0 or s1 = −0. s2 = −9. and C = 1/4F. Calculate the characteristic roots of the circuit. or critically damped?  Sol:  We first calculate R 40 1 1 α= = = 5. underdamped.3  In the figure.Conclusions on RLC network  Settling time requirement  In general.101.899  Since α > ω0 . the critically damped decays the fastest. the response is overdamped 12 . ω0 = = =1 2 L 2( 4 ) LC 4 × 14  The roots are s1. R = 40Ω. it is difficult to tell from the waveforms the difference between the overdamped and critically damped responses  With the same damping factor α . L = 4H. while the overdamped case has the longest settling time e −αt ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t ) A1e s1t + A2e s2t ( A1t + A2 )e −αt e −1 α overdamped response critically damped response underdamped response Example 8. Is the natural response overdamped.

underdamped Example 8.4  Find i(t) in the circuit. v (0 ) = 6 i (0 ) = 6 V 4+6  For t > 0. and C = 2mF. What type of natural response will the circuit have?  Ans: 1.  Sol:  For t < 0. capacitor is open-circuited. s1 and s2.3  If R = 10Ω.95. R 9 1 1 α= = = 9. -1 ± j9. 10. Assume that the circuit has reached steady state at t = 0-. ω0 = = = 10 2 L 2( 1 2 ) LC 1 2 × 50 1 s1.359 13 . inductor is shorted 10 i (0 ) = = 1A. L = 5H. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 02 = −9 ± 81 − 100 s1.Practice problem 8. Find α > ω0 . 2 = −9 ± j 4.

359t ) A Practice Problem 8.6583t) A 14 .359t + A2 cos 4.5t(5 cos1.359t ) dt + e −9 t (4.359t ) − 6 = −9( A1 + 0 ) + 4. the response is underdamped (α < ω0) i (t ) = e −9 t ( A1 cos 4.6882 sin 4.359 )( − A1 sin 4.4  Hence.  Ans: e-2.359( −0 + A2 ) − 6 = −9 + 4.6882 i (t ) = e −9 t (cos 4.6583t – 7.Example 8. If the make-before-break switch moves to position b at t = 0.359t ) i (0 ) = 1 = A1 = − [Ri (0 ) + v (0 )] = −2[9 (1) − 6 ] = −6 A/s di 1 dt t =0 L di = −9 e −9 t ( A1 cos 4. calculate i(t) for t > 0.359t + A2 sin 4.359 A2 ⇒ A2 = 0.359t + A2 sin 4.4  The circuit has reached steady state at t = 0-.5378 sin1.359t + 0.

ω0 = 2 RC LC 15 .8. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 1 1 where α = .4 The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit  Assume initial inductor current I0 and initial capacitor voltage V0 1 0 L ∫∞ i (0 ) = I 0 = v (t )dt v (0 ) = V0  Applying KCL at the top node gives v 1 t dv + ∫ vdt + C =0 R L −∞ dt d 2v 1 dv 1 2 + + v =0 differentiate and divide by C dt RC dt LC 1 1 s2 + s+ =0 Characteristic equation RC LC The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit  The roots of the characteristic equation are 2 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 s1. 2 = − ± ⎜ ⎟ − or 2 RC ⎝ 2 RC ⎠ LC s1.

and R = 6. R = 1. and C =10mF.Solution cases  Overdamped Case (α > ω0) v (t ) = A1e s1t + A2e s2t  Critically damped Case (α = ω0) v (t ) = ( A1 + A2t )e −αt  Underdamped Case (α < ω0) s1. 2 RC 2 × 1.25Ω  Sol:  Case 1: If R = 1. i(0) = 0.923Ω. dv(0)/dt. v(0) = 5V.923Ω. 1 1 α= = = 26 .5  In the parallel circuit. v(0). − 50  The corresponding response is overdamped: v (t ) = A1e −2 t + A2e −50 t 16 . 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 = −2. L = 1H. R = 5Ω.923 × 10 × 10 −3 1 1 ω0 = = = 10 LC 1 × 10 × 10 −3  The roots of the characteristic equation : s1. 2 = −α ± jωd where ωd = ω02 − α 2 v (t ) = e −αt ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t )  A1 and A2 are to be determined by the initial conditions. The latter can be obtained by V0 dv (0 ) dv (0 ) (V + RI 0 ) + I0 + C = 0 or =− 0 R dt dt RC Example 8. find v(t) for t > 0.

A1 = 10.625 and A2 = 5.25Ω.25 × 10 × 10 −3 17 . s1 = s2 = −10 Example 8.Example 8. 1 1 α= = =8 2 RC 2 × 6. dv (0 ) v (0 ) + Ri (0 ) 5+0 =− =− = 100 dt RC 5 × 10 × 10 −3 dv = ( −10 A1 − 10 A2t + A2 )e −10 t dt At t = 0.5 v (0 ) = 5 = A1 + A2 L (1) . v (t ) = A1e −2 t + A2e −50 t dv (0 ) v (0 ) + Ri (0 ) 5+0 =− =− = 260 dt RC 1. 1 1 α= = = 10 2 RC 2 × 5 × 10 × 10 −3  The response is critically damped α = ω0 = 10. 100 = −10 A1 + A2 ⇒ A1 = 5 and A2 = 150 v (t ) = (5 + 150t )e −10 t V  Case 3: When R = 6.5 v (t ) = ( A1 + A2t )e −10 t v (0 ) = 5 = A1 .923 × 10 × 10 −3 dv = −2 A1e − 2 t − 50 A2 e −50 t dt At t = 0. 260 = −2 A1 − 50 A2 L (2) From (1) and (2).625  Case 2: When R=5Ω.

5 18 . 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 = −8 ± j6 v (t ) = ( A1 cos 6 t + A2 sin 6 t )e −8 t v (0 ) = 5 = A1 . dv (0 ) v (0 ) + Ri (0 ) 5+0 =− =− = 80 dt RC 6.5 s1. 80 = −8 A1 + 6 A2 ⇒ A1 = 5 and A2 = 20 v (t ) = (5 cos 6 t + 20 sin 6 t )e −8 t V Example 8.Example 8.25 × 10 × 10 −3 dv = ( −8 A1 cos 6 t − 8 A2 sin 6 t − 6 A1 sin 6 t + 6 A2 cos 6 t )e −8 t dt At t = 0.

000 − 124.16 e −854 t + 30.5 =− =− =0 dt RC 50 × 20 × 10 −6 1 1 α= = = 500 2 RC 2 × 50 × 20 × 10 −6 1 1 ω0 = = = 354 LC 0.  Sol: 50 5 v (0 ) = (40 ) = × 40 = 25 V 30 + 50 8 40 i (0 ) = − = −0.Example 8.6  Find v(t) for t > 0 in the RLC circuit of the figure.6 = −500 ± 354 s1 = −854.4 × 20 × 10 −6 s1. s2 = −146 Example 8.997.6 v (t ) = A1e −854 t + A2e −164 t v (0 ) = 25 = A1 + A2 ⇒ A2 = 25 − A1 dv = −854 A1e −854 t − 164 A2e −164 t dt 0 = 854 A1 + 164 A2 A1 = −5.16 v (t ) = −5. A2 = 30.16 .5 A 30 + 50 dv (0 ) v (0 ) + Ri (0 ) 25 − 50 × 0.16 e −164 t V 19 . 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 = −500 ± 250.

Find v(t) for t > 0.e-2.6  Refer to the circuit. di dv L + v + Ri = Vs .steady responses v (t ) = vt (t ) + vss (t ) 20 . and steady .67(e-10t .  Ans: 66.5 Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit  Step response is obtained by the sudden application of a dc source  Applying KVL around the loop for t >0. and i = C dt dt 2 d v R dv v V 2 + + = s dt L dt LC LC The solution has two components : transient.Practice Problem 8.5t )V 8.

and is the same as that in source-free circuit  Therefore. there are also three cases vt (t ) = A1e s1t + A2e s2t (Overdamped) vt (t ) = ( A1 + A2t )e −αt (Critically Damped) vt (t ) = ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t )e −αt (Underdamped)  The steady-steady response is the final value of v(t) vss (t ) = v ( ∞) = Vs Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit  The complete solutions are v (t ) = Vs + A1e s1t + A2e s2t (Overdamped ) v (t ) = Vs + ( A1 + A2t )e −αt (Critically Damped) v (t ) = Vs + ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t )e −αt (Underdamped) 21 .Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit  The transient response dies out with time.

25 s1. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω0 = −1..25 dv take the derivative = − A1e −t − 4 A2e −4 t dt dv (0 ) At t = 0. R = 1Ω. − 4 2 Since α > ω0 ⇒ overdamped natural response Example 8.-(2) dt 64 4 from(1) and (2) A1 = − A2 = 3 3 22 .  Sol:  Case 1: R = 5Ω For t < 0 24 i (0 ) = = 4 A. R = 4Ω. = 16 = − A1 − 4 A2 . ω0 = = =2 2L 2 × 1 LC 1 × 0..7  For the circuit in the figure.5. R = 5Ω. v (0 ) = 1 × i (0 ) = 4 V 5+1 For t > 0 R 5 1 1 α= = = 2.Example 8. find v(t) and i(t) for t > 0.7 v (t ) = vss + ( A1e − t + A2e −4 t ) using the initial conditions v (0 ) = 4 = 24 + A1 + A2 − − − (1) The current through the inductor is the same current through the capacitor at t = 0 + dv (0 ) dv (0 ) 4 4 i (0 ) = C =4 ⇒ = = = 16 dt dt C 0.

2 ⇒ = ( −2 A1 − 2tA2 + A2 )e − 2 t dt C dt dv (0 ) At t = 0. = 19.8 A 4+1 initial capacitor voltage v (0 ) = 1 × i (0 ) = 4.8 dv (0 ) = = 15.Example 8.2 v (t ) = 24 + ( −19.2 dv (0 ) 4.25 s1 = s2 = −α = −2 ⇒ critically damped natural response vss = 24 V The total response is : v (t ) = 24 + ( A1 + A2t )e − 2 t Example 8.8 + 9.8 V characteri stic roots R 4 1 1 α= = = 2 ω0 = = =2 2L 2 × 1 LC 1 × 0.6 t )e − 2 t A dt  Case 3: R = 1Ω 24 i (0 ) == 12 A v (0 ) = 1 × i (0 ) = 12 V 1+1 R 1 α= = = 0.2t )e − 2 t V dv i (t ) = C = (4.2 = −2 A1 + A2 dt ∴ A1 = −19.2 − 19.7 v (0 ) = 4.5 2L 2 × 1 23 .2 and A 2 = −19.8 = 24 + A1 ⇒ A1 = −19.7 4 4 v (t ) = 24 + ( −16 e −t + e −4 t ) V i (t ) = (4 e −t − e −4 t ) A 3 3  Case 2: R = 4Ω 24 initial current through the inductor i (0 ) = = 4 .

936 t − 12 cos 1.936 v (t ) = 24 + ( A1 cos 1.5 t V dv i (t ) = C = (3.936 t )e −0.936 t )e −0.1 sin 1.5 t ( −1.5 < w0 = 2 ⇒ underdamped response s1.936 t + 1.694 sin 1.936 t + A2 sin 1.936 t + 12 cos 1.936 t + A2 sin 1.936 t ) dv (0 ) = 48 = ( −0 + 1.936 A2 cos 1.936 t )e −0.Example 8.5 t A dt Example 8.5( A1 + 0) ⇒ A2 = 21.5 ± j1.5 t ( A1 cos 1.5 t v (0 ) = 12 = 24 + A1 ⇒ A1 = −12 dv (0 ) 12 = = 48 dt C dv = e −0.936 A1 sin 1.7 24 .7 Since α = 0.694 dt v (t ) = 24 + ( 21.936 A2 ) − 0. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 02 = −0.936 t ) dt − 0.5e −0.

31e-2t sin3.7  Having been in position a for a long time.464t + 2 cos3.6 Step response of a parallel RLC circuit  Applying KCL at the top node for t > 0.(1. 2. v dv +i+C = Is R dt di and v = L dt 2 d i 1 di i I 2 + + = s dt RC dt LC LC i (t ) = it (t ) + iss (t ) iss (t ) = I s 25 .464t)e-2t V.1547 sin3. the switch is moved to position b at t = 0.464t V 8.  Ans: 10. Find v(t) and vR(t) for t > 0.Practice Problem 8.

5 LC 20 × 8 × 10 −3 s1.  Sol:  For t < 0 i (0 ) = 4 A 20 v (0 ) = (30 ) = 15V 20 + 20 For t > 0 1 5 α= = = 6. v = Ldi/dt. s2 = −0.0625 − 6.25 s1 = −11.8  Find i(t) and iR(t) for t > 0. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 = −6.978.25 2 RC 2 × 10 × 8 × 10 −3 1 1 ω0 = = = 2.5218 26 . and iR = v/R Example 8.Solution cases  The complete responses are as: i (t ) = I s + A1e s1t + A2 e s2t (Overdamped) i (t ) = I s + ( A1 + A2t )e −αt (Critically Damped) i (t ) = I s + ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t )e −αt (Underdamped)  The constants A1 and A2 are to be determined by the initial conditions for i and di/dt  Once inductor current iL = i is obtained.25 ± 39.

978 t − 0.75 = (11.8 α > ω0 implies an overdamped case i (t ) = I s + A1e −11.978 t + A2 e −0.0342e −0.  Ans: 20(1 .0655( e −0.5218 t − e −11.Example 8.cost) A.8 i (t ) = 4 + 0.0655 Example 8.978 t ) A v (t ) L di iR (t ) = = = 0.5218 ) A2 ⇒ A2 = 0.978 t − 0.5218 t i (0 ) = 4 = 4 + A1 + A2 ⇒ A2 = − A1 di = −11.75 dt dt L 20 0.978 − 0.978 A1 − 0.5218 A2 dt di (0 ) di (0 ) 15 15 L = v (0 ) = 15 ⇒ = = = 0.8  In the circuit.5218 t dt di (0 ) ⇒ = −11.5218 t A 20 20 dt  Practice Problem 8.785e −11.978 A1e −11. 100 sint V 27 .5218 A2e −0. find i(t) and v(t) for t > 0.

Obtain the steady-state response xss(t) = x(∞) 4.  Sol:  For t < 0 v (0 − ) = 12V i (0− ) = 0  At t = 0+ v (0 + ) = v (0 − ) = 12V i (0+ ) = i (0− ) = 0 Applying KCL at node a v (0+ ) i (0+ ) = iC (0+ ) + 2 12 0 = iC (0+ ) + ⇒ iC (0+ ) = −6A 2 28 . The complete response is x(t) = xt(t) + xss(t) 5. we are ready to analyze second-order circuits with one or more independent sources or with op amps.8. etc  Procedures for analysis of step response on second-order circuits 1. Determine initial condition {x(0).7 General Second-Order Circuits  After analyzing series and parallel RLC circuits. Determine the constants with the transient response by using the initial conditions procured in procedure 1 Example 8. Obtain characteristic roots and find the transient response xt(t) 3. dx(0)/dt} and the final value x(∞) 2.9  Find the complete response v and then i for t > 0 in the figure.

−3 The natural response is vt (t ) = Ae − 2 t + Be −3t And the steady − state response is vss (t ) = v ( ∞) = 4 The complete response is v (t ) = vt + vss = 4 + Ae −2 t + Be −3t Determine A and B using the initial values v (0 ) = 12 ==> A + B = 8 − − − (1) taking the derivative dv = −2 Ae −2 t − 3 Be −3t dt t = 0 ==> 2 A + 3 B = 12 − − − −( 2) 29 .Example 8.9 dv (0 + ) − 6 = = −12 V/s dt 0. v (∞) = 2i ( ∞) = 4 V 4+2 Applying KCL at node a v 1 dv i= + − − − − − −(1) 2 2 dt Left mesh di 4i + 1 + v = 0 − − − − ( 2) dt From (1) and ( 2) dv 1 dv 1 d 2 v dv d 2 v 3v + 2 + + 2 = 0 or 6v + 5 + 2 = 0 dt 2 dt 2 dt dt dt Example 8.9 Characteristic equation is s 2 + 5 s + 6 = 0 ⇒ s = −2.5 12 i (∞) = = 2 A.

3(1 .  Ans: 12(1 .10  Find vo(t) for t > 0 in the figure.9 From(1) and ( 2) ⇒ A = 12 B = −4 v (t ) = 4 + 12e − 2 t − 4 e −3t V.e-5t)V.  Sol:  For t < 0 i1 (0 + ) = i1 (0 − ) = 0 i2 (0 + ) = i2 (0 − ) = 0 vL 2 (0 + ) = vo (0 + ) [ ] = 1 × i1 (0 + ) − i2 (0+ ) = 0 Applying KVL 7 = 3i1 (0+ ) + vL1 (0+ ) + v0 (0 + ) or vL1 (0+ ) = 7V 30 .e-5t)A Example 8. t > 0  Practice Problem 8.9  Determine v and then i for t > 0.Example 8. t > 0 v 1 dv i= + = 2 + 6 e − 2t − 2e −3t − 12e −2 t + 6e −3t 2 2 dt = 2 − 6e −2 t + 4e −3t A.

10 1 di1 4 di1 1 d 2i1 4i1 + + + − i1 = 0 2 dt 5 dt 10 dt 2 d 2i1 di 2 + 13 1 + 30i1 = 0 dt dt Characteri stic equation is s 2 + 13 s + 30 = 0 and therefore s = −3.state response is i1ss = i1 ( ∞) = A 3 7 The complete response is i1 (t ) = + Ae −3 t + Be −10 t 3 31 . i1 (∞) = i2 ( ∞) = A 3 Since L1di1 / dt = vL1 Applying KVL to the two meshes yields 1 di1 1 di2 4i1 − i2 + = 0. i2 + − i1 = 0 2 dt 5 dt Example 8.Example 8.10 Since L1di1 / dt = vL1 di1 (0+ ) vL1 7 = = = 14 A/s dt L1 1 2 Since L2 di2 / dt = vL 2 di2 (0+ ) vL 2 = =0 dt L2 7 As t → ∞.−10 The natural response is i1t (t ) = Ae −3t + Be −10 t 7 The steady .

obtain vo(t) in the circuit.10 v0 (t ) = 1[i1 (t ) − i2 (t )] = 2(e −3t − e −10 t )  Practice Problem 8. t > 0 32 .e-6t) V. t = 0 14 = −3 A − 10 B − − − − − − − −( 2) From (1) and ( 2) ⇒ A = −4 / 3. (Hint: First find v1 and v2)  Ans: 2(e-t .Example 8. B = −1 7 4 i1 (t ) = − e −3t − e −10 t 3 3 Applying KVL to the left loop 1 di1 7 = 4i1 − i2 + 2 dt 28 16 −3t 7 10 i2 (t ) = −7 + − e − 4 e −10 t + 2e −3t + 5e −10 t = − e −3t + e −10 t 3 3 3 3 Example 8.10  For t > 0.10 7 t = 0 ==> 0 = + A + B − − − −(1) 3 taking the derivative i1 (t ).

R1 = R2 =10kΩ . C1 =20μF and C2 =100μF.8 Second-Order Op Amp Circuits  The use of op amps in second-order circuits avoids the use of inductors which are somewhat undesirable in some applications  Only RC second-order op amp circuits are discussed here  The analysis of a second-order op amp circuit follows the same four steps in the previous section Example 8.11  Find v0(t) for t > 0 when vs(t)=10u(t)mV.8.  Sol:  KCL at node 1 and 2 vs − v1 dv v − v = C2 2 + 1 o R1 dt R2 v1 − vo dv = C1 o R2 dt v2 = v1 − vo vs − v1 dv dv dv = C2 1 − C2 o + C1 o R1 dt dt dt dvo v1 = vo + R2C1 dt 33 .

2 = −1 ± j 2 vot = e −t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t ) t→∞ vo ( ∞) = v1 (∞) = vs voss = vo ( ∞) = vs = 10mV. t > 0 34 .5e-t + e-5t V. vs =4u(t)V.11  In the circuit. Assume that R1 = R2 =10kΩ .Example 8. vo (0 + ) = v2 (0 + ) = 0 v1 (0 + ) = v2 (0 + ) + vo (0 + ) = 0 0 = 10 + A ⇒ A = −10 dvo (t ) = e −t ( − A cos 2t − B sin 2t − 2 A sin 2t + 2 B cos 2t ) dt 0 = − A + 2B vo (t ) = 10 + e − t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t ) vo (t ) = 10 − e −t (10 cos 2t + 5 sin 2t ) mV t > 0  Practice Problem 8. t>0 vo (t ) = vot + voss = 10 + e −t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t ) mV Example 8.  Ans: 4 .11 For t < 0.11 d 2 vo ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ dvo vo vs 2 + ⎜⎜ + ⎟⎟ + = dt ⎝ R1C2 R2C2 ⎠ dt R1 R2C1C2 R1 R2C1C2 d 2 vo dv 2 + 2 o + 5vo = 5vs dt dt s 2 + 2 s + 5 = 0 ⇒ s1. C1 =20μF and C2 =100μF. vo (0 − ) = v2 (0 − ) = 0 For t > 0. find v0(t) for t > 0.

Use Pspice to plot v(t) for 0 < t < 4 s.75e −t + 0.086 ( − A3e −( t − 2 ) − 9 A4 e −9 ( t − 2 ) ) i (t ) = and 27 (6.75e −9 = −2.83 mA 27 Therefore. A3 + A4 = 5.12 A1 = −9 A2 0 = 9 A2 − A2 + 6 .9 PSpice Analysis of RLC Circuits  Example 8. VTH = 0.−9 v (0 ) = 0. 2 = −5 ± 5 2 − 9 = −1.75e −9 t + 6 )u(t )V for all 0 < t < 2 s At t = 1 s.75 and A1 = −6.75e −2 + 0 + 6 = 5.75e − 2 − 6.552 V At t = 2 s. A2 = 0.8. i (0 ) = 0 dv (t ) i (t ) = C dt where v (t ) = A1e + A2e −9 t + 6 −t v (0 ) = 0 = A1 + A2 + 6 i (0 ) = 0 = C ( − A1 − 9 A2 ) Example 8.086 V Note that from 2 < t < 4 s.9135 35 . v (1) = −6.483 + 0.75e −1 + 0. v ( ∞) = 6 V.75 v (t ) = ( −6. − A3 − 9 A4 = 0.12  The input voltage vs is applied to the circuit.75e −18 ) i ( 2) = = 33. Therefore v (t ) = [ A3e −( t − 2 ) + A4 e −9 ( t −2 ) ]u(t − 2) V At t = 2 s. which implies that v (∞ ) = 0. 1 α = R /( 2 L) = 30 / 6 = 5 and ω0 = =3 3 × 1 27 s1.0001 + 6 = −3. v ( 2) = −6.

 Ans: 36 .835 and A4 = −0.9135.12 Combining the two equations. v (3) = ( 2. v (t ) = (5. we get A3 − 9(5. At t = 4 s.147 V.12  Find i(t) using Pspice for 0 < t < 4s if the pulse voltage vs is applied to the circuit.Example 8.147 − 0 ) = 2.086 − A3 ) = 0. v (4 ) = 0.749.749 e −9 ( t −2 ) )u(t − 2) V At t = 3 s.835e −( t −2 ) − 0.7897 V Practice Problems 8. which leads to A3 = 5.

37 .Example 8.13  For the circuit in the figure.13  Refer to Practice Prob. Practice Problems 8. Use Pspice to obtain v(t) for 0 < t < 2s. use Pspice to obtain i(t) for 0 < t < 3s.7. 8.

8.10 Duality duality d 2i R di i d 2v 1 dv 1 + + =0 + + v =0 dt 2 L dt LC dt 2 RC dt LC  The duality principle asserts a parallelism between pairs of characterizing equations and theorems of electric circuits  Two circuits are said to be duals of one another if they are described by the same characterizing equations with dual quantities interchanged Dual pairs Table 8.1 Duals pairs Resistance R Conductance G Inductance L Capacitance C Voltage v Current i Voltage source Current source Node Mesh Series path Parallel path Open circuit Short circuit KVL KCL Thevenin Norton 38 .

Replace that element by its dual  Voltage polarity and current direction: A voltage source producing a positive mesh current has its dual current source whose reference direction is from the ground to the nonreference node Example 8. and even theorems  Note that power has no dual.Duality  Duality principle extends to circuit elements. configurations. we automatically have the solution for the dual circuit  To graphically find the dual of a given planar circuit  Place a node at the center of each mesh. 39 . since power is not linear  Duality principle is limited to planar circuits  Once we know the solution to one circuit. Place the reference node of the dual circuit outside the given circuit  Draw lines between the nodes such that each line crosses an element.14  Construct the dual of the circuit in the figure.

Practice Problem 8.15  Obtain the dual of the circuit in the figure.14  Draw the dual circuit.  Ans: Example 8. 40 .

 Ans: 8. obtain the dual circuit. peaking circuits. smoothing circuit. resonant circuits.11 Applications  Practical applications of RLC circuits are found in control and communication circuits such as ringing circuits. automobile ignition and smoothing circuits are introduced 41 .15  For the circuit in the figure. and filters  Most of the circuits involve ac sources  Here.Practice Problem 8.

vC (0 − ) = 0 4 t = 0 + . then i (0 + ) = 3 A.1 Automobile Ignition System  The voltage generating system is introduced here. then i (0 − ) = = 3A. = =0 dt L 42 .11. in addition to the charging system introduced before  The 12V source is due to the battery and alternator  4Ω resistor is the resistance of the wiring  The ignition coil is modeled by the 8mH inductor  The 1μF capacitor (known as condenser to automechanics) Example 8.16  Assume that the switch in the figure is closed prior to t = 0-.8. vC = (0 + ) = 0 We obtain di (0 + ) / dt from vL (0 + ) Applying KVL to the mesh at t = 0 + yields − 12 + 4i (0 + ) + vL (0 + ) + vC (0 + ) = 0 − 12 + 4 × 3 + vL (0 + ) + 0 = 0 ⇒ vL (0 + ) = 0 di (0 + ) vL (0 + ) Hence. find the inductor voltage vL for t > 0.  Sol: 12 t = 0 − .

so that the capacitor acts like an open circuit ⇒ i ( ∞) = 0 If we apply KVL to the mesh for t > 0.118 × 10 4 2L LC Since α < ω0 . we obtain di 1 t 12 = Ri + L + ∫ idt + vC (0 ) dt C 0 Taking the derivative of each term yields d 2i R di i 2 + + =0 dt L dt LC R 1 ⇒α = = 250.180t + B sin 11.180t ) dt + e − 250 t ( −11.180t ) 43 .118 × 10 4 it (t ) = e −αt ( A cos ωd t + B sin ωd t ) where A and B are constants. The steady .180 B cos 11.180t + B sin 11.180 A sin 11.16 ωd = ω02 − α 2 ≈ ω0 = 1.16 As t → ∞.180t + 11. the system reaches steady state.180t ) We noe determine A and B i (0 ) = 3 = A + 0 ⇒ A = 3 Taking the derivative di = −250 e − 250 t ( A cos 11. the response is underdamped Example 8.Example 8. ω0 = = 1.state response is iss (t ) = i ( ∞) = 0 so that the complete response is i (t ) = it (t ) + iss (t ) = e − 250 t ( A cos 11.

180 B ⇒ B = 0. which is vL (t0 ) = −268 e − 250 t0 = −259 V Practice Problem 8.7e-250t sin11180t V 44 .16 Setting t = 0 and incorporating 0 = −250 A + 11.180 t ) The voltage across the inductor is then di The cosine part is much smaller vL (t ) = L = −268 e − 250 t sin 11. that is .180t0 = π 2 or t0 = 140.12e-250t cos11180t + 267.0671 Thus i (t ) = e −250 t (3 cos 11. the inductor voltage reaches its peak.  Ans: 12.5 μs.16  Find the capacitor voltage vC for t > 0.180 t than the sine part dt This has a maximum value when sine is unity. At time = t0 .Example 8.180 t + 0. at 11.0671 sin 1.

11.2 Smoothing Circuits  This is an example for digital communication systems Smoothing Circuits 45 .8.

Example 8.17 46 . determine the output voltage v0(t). If the RLC circuit is used as the smoothing circuit.Example 8.17  The output vs of a D/A converter is shown in the figure.

9.30. 8. Assignments  8. 8.2. 8. 8.63.65 47 . 8.17. 8.13. 8.17 if the output of the D/A converter is as the figure.17  Rework Example 8.Practice Problem 8.50.32. 8. 8.25.

vC = 2.5 -2 -1. iL = 0 I0 vL L C vC di dv vL = vC = L L iL = −iC = −C C i L iC dt dt vC iL LC resonant without source  I0 = 0. iL = 0 I0 L C vC W (t ) = WC (t ) + WL (t ) iL 1 1 2 1.5 48 .5 -0.LC resonant without source  I0 = 0.5 vC 0 -2. vC = 2.5 2 2.5 1 1.5 = CvC + LiL 2 iL 2 2 1 0.5 -1 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.

4 1 1 2 = CvC + LiL 2 0.LC resonant without source  I0 = 0.6 0.5 W (t ) = WC (t ) + WL (t ) 0.2 0. vC = 2.1 0 0 0. iL = 0  Energy distribution I0 L C vC iL WL 0.2 0.8 2 WC 49 .3 2 2 0.6 0.2 1.8 1 1.4 1.4 0.6 1.