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** Finding initial and final values
**

Source-free series RLC circuit

Source-free parallel RLC circuit

Step response of series/parallel RLC circuit

General second-order circuits

8.1 Introduction

** A second-order circuit is characterized by a second-order
**

differential equation. It consists of resistors and the equivalent of

two energy storage elements

An op amp circuit with two storage elements may also be a second-

order circuit

series RLC circuit RL circuit

parallel RLC circuit RC circuit

1

Introduction

** A second-order circuit may also contain several resistors and
**

dependent and independent sources

First, source-free circuits giving natural responses are

introduced; and then with independent source circuits

Obtaining initial conditions from the circuit variables and their

derivatives are crucial for analyzing second-order circuits

Resistors provide damping in second-order circuits, which is

somewhat different from first-order circuits

8.2 Finding Initial and Final Values

** The possible initial conditions for second-order circuit
**

are v(0), i(0), v(0)/dt, i(0)/dt, v(∞), and i(∞)

Two key points in determining the initial conditions

v and i are defined strictly according to the passive sign

convention

The capacitor voltage is always continuous

v (0 + ) = v (0 − )

the inductor current is always continuous

i ( 0 + ) = i (0 − )

In finding initial conditions, focus on those variables not

changing abruptly, i.e. capacitor voltage or inductor current

2

Example 8.1

** The switch in the figure has been closed for a
**

long time. It is open at t = 0. Find: (a) i(0+),

v(0+), (b) i(0+)/dt, v(0+)/dt, (c) i(∞), v(∞).

Sol:

(a) At dc steady state, the inductor acts like a

short circuit and the capacitor like an open circuit

12

i (0 − ) = = 2A, v (0 − ) = 2i (0 − ) = 4 V

4+2

i (0 + ) = i (0 − ) = 2A, v (0 + ) = v (0 − ) = 4 V

(b) At t = 0+ , the switch is open

iC (0 + ) = i (0 + ) = 2A

dv (0 + ) iC (0 + ) 2

= = = 20 V/s

dt C 0.1

Example 8.1

− 12 + 4i (0 + ) + vL (0 + ) + v (0 + ) = 0

vL (0 + ) = 12 − 8 − 4 = 0

di (0 + ) vL (0 + ) 0

= = = 0 A/s

dt L 0.25

(c) For t > 0 , the circuit undergoes transience. But

t →∞, the circuit reaches steady state

i ( ∞ ) = 0 A, v ( ∞) = 12V

Practice Problem 8.1

The switch was open for a long time but

closed at t = 0. Find: (a) i(0+), v(0+),

(b) i(0+)/dt, v(0+)/dt, (c) i(∞), v(∞).

Ans: (a)2A 4V, (b) 50A/s, 0V/s

(c) 12A, 24V

3

Example 8.2

** In the circuit, calculate: (a) iL(0+),
**

vC(0+), vR(0+), (b) iL(0+)/dt, vL(0+)/dt,

vR(0+)/dt, (c) iL(∞), vL(∞), vR(∞).

Sol:

For t < 0, 3u(t) = 0, at t = 0- the circuit

has reached steady state

iL (0 − ) = 0, vC (0 − ) = −20 V, vR (0 − ) = 0

For t > 0, 3u(t) = 3, since inductor current

and capacitor voltage cannot change abruptly

iL (0 + ) = iL (0 − ) = 0,

vC (0 + ) = vC (0 − ) = −20 V

Example 8.2

** Applying KCL at node a,
**

vR (0+ ) vo (0+ )

3= +

2 4

Applying KVL to the middle mesh,

− vR (0+ ) + vo (0+ ) + vC (0+ ) + 20 = 0

v R ( 0 + ) = vo ( 0 + )

∴ v R ( 0 + ) = vo ( 0 + ) = 4 V

+ +

(b) Since LdiL/dt = vL , diL (0 ) = vL (0 )

dt L

Applying KVL to the right mesh,

diL (0 + )

vL (0 + ) = vC (0 + ) + 20 = 0 , hence =0

dt

4

− vR + vo + vC + 20 = 0 Example 8.5 Applying KCL to node a.2 Similarly. iL (0 + ) = 0 4 ⇒ iC (0 + ) = = 1 A 4 dvC (0 + ) iC (0 + ) 1 = = = 2V/s dt C 0 .2 Taking derivative of each term dvR (0 + ) dvC (0 + ) dvo (0 + ) − + + =0 dt dt dt dvR (0 + ) dv (0 + ) =2+ o dt dt + dvR (0 ) 2 = V/s dt 3 diR (0 + ) 1 dvR (0 + ) 1 2 1 ∴ = = ⋅ = A/s dt 2 dt 2 3 3 (c) As t → ∞. 2+4 4 vR ( ∞) = 3 A × 2 = 4 V. the circuit reaches steady state 2 i L (∞) = 3 A = 1A. vo (0 + ) = iC (0 + ) + iL (0 + ) 4 Q vo (0 + ) = 4. vC ( ∞) = −20 V 2+4 5 .Example 8. and applying KCL at node b. vR vo dv (0 + ) dvo (0 + ) 3= + ⇒0= 2 R + 2 4 dt dt Applying KVL to the middle mesh. CdvC/dt = iC .

3 The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit The series RLC circuit is excited by the energy initially stored in the capacitor and inductor 1 0 C ∫−∞ v (0 ) = idt = V0 i (0 ) = I 0 Applying KVL around the loop di 1 t dt C ∫−∞ Ri + L + idt = 0 d 2i R di i 2 + + =0 dt L dt LC second-order differential equation 6 . 0 (c) -1A.0 (b) 0. vR(0+). vC(0+).Practice Problem 8.2 For the circuit. vR(0+)/ dt. 10V. 10V/s. vC(0+)/dt. vR(∞). 10V 8. (c) iL(∞). vC(∞). (b) iL(0+)/dt. Ans: (a) -3A. find: (a) iL(0+). 0 .

s2 = −α − α 2 − ω02 R 1 where α= .The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit The initial conditions should be solved di (0 ) Ri (0 ) + L + V0 = 0 or dt di (0 ) 1 = − ( RI 0 + V0 ) dt L The first-order circuit experience suggests that the solution might be of exponential form Let i = Ae st ( A and s are constants to be determined) AR st A st d 2i R di i As 2 e st + se + e = 0 or 2 + + =0 L LC dt L dt LC ⎛ R 1 ⎞ Ae st ⎜ s 2 + s + ⎟=0 ⎝ L LC ⎠ The polynomial should be zero The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit R 1 s2 + s+ =0 L LC The above equation is known as the characteristic equation of the differential equation 2 2 R ⎛ R ⎞ 1 R ⎛ R ⎞ 1 The roots are s1 = − + ⎜ ⎟ − . s2 = − − ⎜ ⎟ − 2L ⎝ 2 L ⎠ LC 2L ⎝ 2 L ⎠ LC Or more compact form s1 = −α + α 2 − ω02 . ω0 = 2L LC 7 .

we have the overdamped case 2. any linear combination of i1 and i2 is also a solution i (t ) = A1e s1t + A2e s2t where A1 and A2 are determined from the initial conditions i(0) and di(0)/dt There are three types of solution: 1.The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit The roots s1 and s2 are called natural frequencies. If α > ω0 . we have the critically damped case 3. If α < ω0 . i2 = A2e s2t Because of linear equation. If α = ω0 . measured in nepers per second (Np/s) ω0 is known as the resonant frequency or strictly as undamped natural frequency expressed in radians per second (rad/s) α is the neper frequency or the damping factor expressed in nepers per second (Np/s) The ratio α/ω0 (ζ) is known as the damping ratio R 1 The equation s 2 + s+ = 0 is now rewritten as L LC s 2 + 2αs + ω02 = 0 The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit The two roots indicate that there are two possible solutions: i1 = A1e s1t . we have the underdamped case 8 .

Overdamped Case (α > ω0) α > ω0 implies C > 4L/R2 R α= Both roots s1 and s2 are negative and real 2L 1 i (t ) = A1e s1t + A2 e s2t ω0 = LC They decays and approaches zero as t increases s1. 2 = − ± ⎜ ⎟ − 2L ⎝ ⎠ 2 L LC Typical overdamped response Critically Damped Case (α = ω0) R α = ω0 implies C = 4L/R2 and s1 = s2 = −α = − 2L Therefore. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 2 R ⎛ R ⎞ 1 s1.order equation has solution as : f = A1e −αt di di Then + αi = A1e −αt or eαt + eαtαi = A1 dt dt 9 . i (t ) = A1e −αt + A2 e −αt = A3e −αt But the initial conditions cannot be satisfied d 2i di d di di 2 + 2α + α 2i = 0 or ( + αi ) + α ( + αi ) = 0 dt dt dt dt dt di df Let f = + αi ⇒ + αf = 0 dt dt The first .

Critically Damped Case (α = ω0) d αt ( e i ) = A1 Integrating both sides dt eαt i = A1t + A2 or i = ( A1t + A2 )e −αt where A1 and A2 are two constants e −1 α critically damped response i(t) = te-αt Underdamped Case (α < ω0) α < ω0 implies C < 4L/R2. e − jθ = cos θ − j sin θ 10 . the roots are s1 = −α + − (ω02 − α 2 ) = −α + jωd ωd = ω02 − α 2 s2 = −α − − (ω02 − α 2 ) = −α − jωd ωd is called the damped natural frequency. while ω0 is called as undamped natural frequency The natural response is i (t ) = A1e − (α − jωd ) t + A2e − (α + jωd ) t = e −αt ( A1e jωd t + A2e − jωd t ) By Euler’s identities e jθ = cos θ + j sin θ .

i (t ) = e −αt [ A1 (cos ωd t + j sin ωd t ) + A2 (cos ωd t − j sin ωd t )] = e −αt [( A1 + A2 ) cos ωd t + j ( A1 − A2 ) sin ωd t ] Replacing constants with B1 = (A1 + A2) and B2 = j(A1 .A2) i (t ) = e −αt ( B1 cos ωd t + B2 sin ωd t ) With the linear combination of sinusoidal functions.Underdamped Case (α < ω0) Therefore. or overdamped Oscillatory Oscillatory response is formed due to the presence of two types of storage elements The damped oscillation exhibited by the underdamped response is known as ringing It stems from the ability of the storage elements L and C to transfer energy back and forth between them 11 . the response is in exponentially damped sinusoidal nature Typical underdamped response Conclusions on RLC network Damping The damping is the gradual loss of the initial stored energy by the presence of resistance R The damping factor α determines the damping rate R = 0 (α = 0) will generate an undamped oscillatory circuit By adjusting the value of R. underdamped. the response may be made undamped. critically damped.

2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 2 = −5 ± 25 − 1 0 or s1 = −0. s2 = −9. and C = 1/4F. Calculate the characteristic roots of the circuit. or critically damped? Sol: We first calculate R 40 1 1 α= = = 5. underdamped.3 In the figure.Conclusions on RLC network Settling time requirement In general.101.899 Since α > ω0 . the critically damped decays the fastest. the response is overdamped 12 . ω0 = = =1 2 L 2( 4 ) LC 4 × 14 The roots are s1. R = 40Ω. it is difficult to tell from the waveforms the difference between the overdamped and critically damped responses With the same damping factor α . L = 4H. while the overdamped case has the longest settling time e −αt ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t ) A1e s1t + A2e s2t ( A1t + A2 )e −αt e −1 α overdamped response critically damped response underdamped response Example 8. Is the natural response overdamped.

underdamped Example 8.4 Find i(t) in the circuit. v (0 ) = 6 i (0 ) = 6 V 4+6 For t > 0. and C = 2mF. What type of natural response will the circuit have? Ans: 1. Sol: For t < 0. capacitor is open-circuited. s1 and s2.3 If R = 10Ω.95. R 9 1 1 α= = = 9. -1 ± j9. 10. Assume that the circuit has reached steady state at t = 0-. ω0 = = = 10 2 L 2( 1 2 ) LC 1 2 × 50 1 s1.359 13 . inductor is shorted 10 i (0 ) = = 1A. L = 5H. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 02 = −9 ± 81 − 100 s1.Practice problem 8. Find α > ω0 . 2 = −9 ± j 4.

359t ) A Practice Problem 8.6583t) A 14 .359t + A2 cos 4.5t(5 cos1.359t ) dt + e −9 t (4.359t ) − 6 = −9( A1 + 0 ) + 4. the response is underdamped (α < ω0) i (t ) = e −9 t ( A1 cos 4.6882 sin 4.359 )( − A1 sin 4.4 Hence. Ans: e-2.359( −0 + A2 ) − 6 = −9 + 4.6882 i (t ) = e −9 t (cos 4.6583t – 7.Example 8. If the make-before-break switch moves to position b at t = 0.359t ) i (0 ) = 1 = A1 = − [Ri (0 ) + v (0 )] = −2[9 (1) − 6 ] = −6 A/s di 1 dt t =0 L di = −9 e −9 t ( A1 cos 4. calculate i(t) for t > 0.359t + A2 sin 4.359 A2 ⇒ A2 = 0.359t + A2 sin 4.4 The circuit has reached steady state at t = 0-.5378 sin1.359t + 0.

ω0 = 2 RC LC 15 .8. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 1 1 where α = .4 The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit Assume initial inductor current I0 and initial capacitor voltage V0 1 0 L ∫∞ i (0 ) = I 0 = v (t )dt v (0 ) = V0 Applying KCL at the top node gives v 1 t dv + ∫ vdt + C =0 R L −∞ dt d 2v 1 dv 1 2 + + v =0 differentiate and divide by C dt RC dt LC 1 1 s2 + s+ =0 Characteristic equation RC LC The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit The roots of the characteristic equation are 2 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 s1. 2 = − ± ⎜ ⎟ − or 2 RC ⎝ 2 RC ⎠ LC s1.

and R = 6. R = 1. and C =10mF.Solution cases Overdamped Case (α > ω0) v (t ) = A1e s1t + A2e s2t Critically damped Case (α = ω0) v (t ) = ( A1 + A2t )e −αt Underdamped Case (α < ω0) s1. 2 RC 2 × 1.25Ω Sol: Case 1: If R = 1. i(0) = 0.923Ω. dv(0)/dt. v(0) = 5V.923Ω. 1 1 α= = = 26 .5 In the parallel circuit. v(0). − 50 The corresponding response is overdamped: v (t ) = A1e −2 t + A2e −50 t 16 . 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 = −2. L = 1H. R = 5Ω.923 × 10 × 10 −3 1 1 ω0 = = = 10 LC 1 × 10 × 10 −3 The roots of the characteristic equation : s1. 2 = −α ± jωd where ωd = ω02 − α 2 v (t ) = e −αt ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t ) A1 and A2 are to be determined by the initial conditions. The latter can be obtained by V0 dv (0 ) dv (0 ) (V + RI 0 ) + I0 + C = 0 or =− 0 R dt dt RC Example 8. find v(t) for t > 0.

A1 = 10.625 and A2 = 5.25Ω.25 × 10 × 10 −3 17 . s1 = s2 = −10 Example 8.Example 8. 1 1 α= = =8 2 RC 2 × 6. dv (0 ) v (0 ) + Ri (0 ) 5+0 =− =− = 100 dt RC 5 × 10 × 10 −3 dv = ( −10 A1 − 10 A2t + A2 )e −10 t dt At t = 0.5 v (0 ) = 5 = A1 + A2 L (1) . v (t ) = A1e −2 t + A2e −50 t dv (0 ) v (0 ) + Ri (0 ) 5+0 =− =− = 260 dt RC 1. 1 1 α= = = 10 2 RC 2 × 5 × 10 × 10 −3 The response is critically damped α = ω0 = 10. 100 = −10 A1 + A2 ⇒ A1 = 5 and A2 = 150 v (t ) = (5 + 150t )e −10 t V Case 3: When R = 6.5 v (t ) = ( A1 + A2t )e −10 t v (0 ) = 5 = A1 .923 × 10 × 10 −3 dv = −2 A1e − 2 t − 50 A2 e −50 t dt At t = 0. 260 = −2 A1 − 50 A2 L (2) From (1) and (2).625 Case 2: When R=5Ω.

5 18 . 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 = −8 ± j6 v (t ) = ( A1 cos 6 t + A2 sin 6 t )e −8 t v (0 ) = 5 = A1 . dv (0 ) v (0 ) + Ri (0 ) 5+0 =− =− = 80 dt RC 6.5 s1. 80 = −8 A1 + 6 A2 ⇒ A1 = 5 and A2 = 20 v (t ) = (5 cos 6 t + 20 sin 6 t )e −8 t V Example 8.Example 8.25 × 10 × 10 −3 dv = ( −8 A1 cos 6 t − 8 A2 sin 6 t − 6 A1 sin 6 t + 6 A2 cos 6 t )e −8 t dt At t = 0.

000 − 124.16 e −854 t + 30.5 =− =− =0 dt RC 50 × 20 × 10 −6 1 1 α= = = 500 2 RC 2 × 50 × 20 × 10 −6 1 1 ω0 = = = 354 LC 0. Sol: 50 5 v (0 ) = (40 ) = × 40 = 25 V 30 + 50 8 40 i (0 ) = − = −0.Example 8.6 Find v(t) for t > 0 in the RLC circuit of the figure.6 = −500 ± 354 s1 = −854.4 × 20 × 10 −6 s1. s2 = −146 Example 8.997.6 v (t ) = A1e −854 t + A2e −164 t v (0 ) = 25 = A1 + A2 ⇒ A2 = 25 − A1 dv = −854 A1e −854 t − 164 A2e −164 t dt 0 = 854 A1 + 164 A2 A1 = −5.16 v (t ) = −5. A2 = 30.16 .5 A 30 + 50 dv (0 ) v (0 ) + Ri (0 ) 25 − 50 × 0.16 e −164 t V 19 . 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 = −500 ± 250.

Find v(t) for t > 0.e-2.6 Refer to the circuit. di dv L + v + Ri = Vs .steady responses v (t ) = vt (t ) + vss (t ) 20 . and steady .67(e-10t . Ans: 66.5 Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit Step response is obtained by the sudden application of a dc source Applying KVL around the loop for t >0. and i = C dt dt 2 d v R dv v V 2 + + = s dt L dt LC LC The solution has two components : transient.Practice Problem 8.5t )V 8.

and is the same as that in source-free circuit Therefore. there are also three cases vt (t ) = A1e s1t + A2e s2t (Overdamped) vt (t ) = ( A1 + A2t )e −αt (Critically Damped) vt (t ) = ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t )e −αt (Underdamped) The steady-steady response is the final value of v(t) vss (t ) = v ( ∞) = Vs Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit The complete solutions are v (t ) = Vs + A1e s1t + A2e s2t (Overdamped ) v (t ) = Vs + ( A1 + A2t )e −αt (Critically Damped) v (t ) = Vs + ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t )e −αt (Underdamped) 21 .Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit The transient response dies out with time.

25 s1. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω0 = −1..25 dv take the derivative = − A1e −t − 4 A2e −4 t dt dv (0 ) At t = 0. R = 1Ω. − 4 2 Since α > ω0 ⇒ overdamped natural response Example 8.-(2) dt 64 4 from(1) and (2) A1 = − A2 = 3 3 22 . Sol: Case 1: R = 5Ω For t < 0 24 i (0 ) = = 4 A. R = 4Ω. = 16 = − A1 − 4 A2 . ω0 = = =2 2L 2 × 1 LC 1 × 0..7 For the circuit in the figure.5. R = 5Ω. v (0 ) = 1 × i (0 ) = 4 V 5+1 For t > 0 R 5 1 1 α= = = 2.Example 8. find v(t) and i(t) for t > 0.7 v (t ) = vss + ( A1e − t + A2e −4 t ) using the initial conditions v (0 ) = 4 = 24 + A1 + A2 − − − (1) The current through the inductor is the same current through the capacitor at t = 0 + dv (0 ) dv (0 ) 4 4 i (0 ) = C =4 ⇒ = = = 16 dt dt C 0.

2 ⇒ = ( −2 A1 − 2tA2 + A2 )e − 2 t dt C dt dv (0 ) At t = 0. = 19.8 A 4+1 initial capacitor voltage v (0 ) = 1 × i (0 ) = 4.8 dv (0 ) = = 15.Example 8.2 v (t ) = 24 + ( −19.2 dv (0 ) 4.25 s1 = s2 = −α = −2 ⇒ critically damped natural response vss = 24 V The total response is : v (t ) = 24 + ( A1 + A2t )e − 2 t Example 8.8 + 9.8 V characteri stic roots R 4 1 1 α= = = 2 ω0 = = =2 2L 2 × 1 LC 1 × 0.6 t )e − 2 t A dt Case 3: R = 1Ω 24 i (0 ) == 12 A v (0 ) = 1 × i (0 ) = 12 V 1+1 R 1 α= = = 0.2t )e − 2 t V dv i (t ) = C = (4.2 = −2 A1 + A2 dt ∴ A1 = −19.2 − 19.7 v (0 ) = 4.5 2L 2 × 1 23 .2 and A 2 = −19.8 = 24 + A1 ⇒ A1 = −19.7 4 4 v (t ) = 24 + ( −16 e −t + e −4 t ) V i (t ) = (4 e −t − e −4 t ) A 3 3 Case 2: R = 4Ω 24 initial current through the inductor i (0 ) = = 4 .

936 t − 12 cos 1.936 v (t ) = 24 + ( A1 cos 1.5 t V dv i (t ) = C = (3.936 t )e −0.936 t )e −0.1 sin 1.5 t ( −1.5 < w0 = 2 ⇒ underdamped response s1.936 t + 1.694 sin 1.936 t + A2 sin 1.936 t + 12 cos 1.936 t + A2 sin 1.936 t ) dv (0 ) = 48 = ( −0 + 1.936 A2 cos 1.936 t )e −0.Example 8.5 t A dt Example 8.5( A1 + 0) ⇒ A2 = 21.5 ± j1.5 t ( A1 cos 1.5 t v (0 ) = 12 = 24 + A1 ⇒ A1 = −12 dv (0 ) 12 = = 48 dt C dv = e −0.936 A1 sin 1.7 24 .7 Since α = 0.694 dt v (t ) = 24 + ( 21.936 A2 ) − 0. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω 02 = −0.936 t ) dt − 0.5e −0.

31e-2t sin3.7 Having been in position a for a long time.464t + 2 cos3.6 Step response of a parallel RLC circuit Applying KCL at the top node for t > 0.(1. 2. v dv +i+C = Is R dt di and v = L dt 2 d i 1 di i I 2 + + = s dt RC dt LC LC i (t ) = it (t ) + iss (t ) iss (t ) = I s 25 .464t)e-2t V.1547 sin3. the switch is moved to position b at t = 0.464t V 8. Ans: 10. Find v(t) and vR(t) for t > 0.Practice Problem 8.

5 LC 20 × 8 × 10 −3 s1. Sol: For t < 0 i (0 ) = 4 A 20 v (0 ) = (30 ) = 15V 20 + 20 For t > 0 1 5 α= = = 6. v = Ldi/dt. s2 = −0.0625 − 6.25 s1 = −11.8 Find i(t) and iR(t) for t > 0. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω02 = −6.978.25 2 RC 2 × 10 × 8 × 10 −3 1 1 ω0 = = = 2.5218 26 . and iR = v/R Example 8.Solution cases The complete responses are as: i (t ) = I s + A1e s1t + A2 e s2t (Overdamped) i (t ) = I s + ( A1 + A2t )e −αt (Critically Damped) i (t ) = I s + ( A1 cos ωd t + A2 sin ωd t )e −αt (Underdamped) The constants A1 and A2 are to be determined by the initial conditions for i and di/dt Once inductor current iL = i is obtained.25 ± 39.

978 t − 0.75 = (11.8 α > ω0 implies an overdamped case i (t ) = I s + A1e −11.978 t + A2 e −0.0342e −0. Ans: 20(1 .0655( e −0.5218 t − e −11.Example 8.cost) A.8 i (t ) = 4 + 0.0655 Example 8.978 t ) A v (t ) L di iR (t ) = = = 0.5218 ) A2 ⇒ A2 = 0.978 t − 0.5218 t i (0 ) = 4 = 4 + A1 + A2 ⇒ A2 = − A1 di = −11.75 dt dt L 20 0.978 − 0.978 A1 − 0.5218 A2 dt di (0 ) di (0 ) 15 15 L = v (0 ) = 15 ⇒ = = = 0.8 In the circuit.5218 t dt di (0 ) ⇒ = −11.5218 t A 20 20 dt Practice Problem 8.785e −11.978 A1e −11. 100 sint V 27 .5218 A2e −0. find i(t) and v(t) for t > 0.

Obtain the steady-state response xss(t) = x(∞) 4. Sol: For t < 0 v (0 − ) = 12V i (0− ) = 0 At t = 0+ v (0 + ) = v (0 − ) = 12V i (0+ ) = i (0− ) = 0 Applying KCL at node a v (0+ ) i (0+ ) = iC (0+ ) + 2 12 0 = iC (0+ ) + ⇒ iC (0+ ) = −6A 2 28 . The complete response is x(t) = xt(t) + xss(t) 5. we are ready to analyze second-order circuits with one or more independent sources or with op amps.8. etc Procedures for analysis of step response on second-order circuits 1. Determine initial condition {x(0).7 General Second-Order Circuits After analyzing series and parallel RLC circuits. Determine the constants with the transient response by using the initial conditions procured in procedure 1 Example 8. Obtain characteristic roots and find the transient response xt(t) 3. dx(0)/dt} and the final value x(∞) 2.9 Find the complete response v and then i for t > 0 in the figure.

−3 The natural response is vt (t ) = Ae − 2 t + Be −3t And the steady − state response is vss (t ) = v ( ∞) = 4 The complete response is v (t ) = vt + vss = 4 + Ae −2 t + Be −3t Determine A and B using the initial values v (0 ) = 12 ==> A + B = 8 − − − (1) taking the derivative dv = −2 Ae −2 t − 3 Be −3t dt t = 0 ==> 2 A + 3 B = 12 − − − −( 2) 29 .Example 8.9 dv (0 + ) − 6 = = −12 V/s dt 0. v (∞) = 2i ( ∞) = 4 V 4+2 Applying KCL at node a v 1 dv i= + − − − − − −(1) 2 2 dt Left mesh di 4i + 1 + v = 0 − − − − ( 2) dt From (1) and ( 2) dv 1 dv 1 d 2 v dv d 2 v 3v + 2 + + 2 = 0 or 6v + 5 + 2 = 0 dt 2 dt 2 dt dt dt Example 8.9 Characteristic equation is s 2 + 5 s + 6 = 0 ⇒ s = −2.5 12 i (∞) = = 2 A.

3(1 . Ans: 12(1 .10 Find vo(t) for t > 0 in the figure.9 From(1) and ( 2) ⇒ A = 12 B = −4 v (t ) = 4 + 12e − 2 t − 4 e −3t V.e-5t)V. Sol: For t < 0 i1 (0 + ) = i1 (0 − ) = 0 i2 (0 + ) = i2 (0 − ) = 0 vL 2 (0 + ) = vo (0 + ) [ ] = 1 × i1 (0 + ) − i2 (0+ ) = 0 Applying KVL 7 = 3i1 (0+ ) + vL1 (0+ ) + v0 (0 + ) or vL1 (0+ ) = 7V 30 .e-5t)A Example 8. t > 0 Practice Problem 8.9 Determine v and then i for t > 0.Example 8. t > 0 v 1 dv i= + = 2 + 6 e − 2t − 2e −3t − 12e −2 t + 6e −3t 2 2 dt = 2 − 6e −2 t + 4e −3t A.

10 1 di1 4 di1 1 d 2i1 4i1 + + + − i1 = 0 2 dt 5 dt 10 dt 2 d 2i1 di 2 + 13 1 + 30i1 = 0 dt dt Characteri stic equation is s 2 + 13 s + 30 = 0 and therefore s = −3.state response is i1ss = i1 ( ∞) = A 3 7 The complete response is i1 (t ) = + Ae −3 t + Be −10 t 3 31 . i1 (∞) = i2 ( ∞) = A 3 Since L1di1 / dt = vL1 Applying KVL to the two meshes yields 1 di1 1 di2 4i1 − i2 + = 0. i2 + − i1 = 0 2 dt 5 dt Example 8.Example 8.10 Since L1di1 / dt = vL1 di1 (0+ ) vL1 7 = = = 14 A/s dt L1 1 2 Since L2 di2 / dt = vL 2 di2 (0+ ) vL 2 = =0 dt L2 7 As t → ∞.−10 The natural response is i1t (t ) = Ae −3t + Be −10 t 7 The steady .

obtain vo(t) in the circuit.10 v0 (t ) = 1[i1 (t ) − i2 (t )] = 2(e −3t − e −10 t ) Practice Problem 8. t > 0 32 .e-6t) V. t = 0 14 = −3 A − 10 B − − − − − − − −( 2) From (1) and ( 2) ⇒ A = −4 / 3. (Hint: First find v1 and v2) Ans: 2(e-t .Example 8. B = −1 7 4 i1 (t ) = − e −3t − e −10 t 3 3 Applying KVL to the left loop 1 di1 7 = 4i1 − i2 + 2 dt 28 16 −3t 7 10 i2 (t ) = −7 + − e − 4 e −10 t + 2e −3t + 5e −10 t = − e −3t + e −10 t 3 3 3 3 Example 8.10 For t > 0.10 7 t = 0 ==> 0 = + A + B − − − −(1) 3 taking the derivative i1 (t ).

R1 = R2 =10kΩ . C1 =20μF and C2 =100μF.8 Second-Order Op Amp Circuits The use of op amps in second-order circuits avoids the use of inductors which are somewhat undesirable in some applications Only RC second-order op amp circuits are discussed here The analysis of a second-order op amp circuit follows the same four steps in the previous section Example 8.11 Find v0(t) for t > 0 when vs(t)=10u(t)mV.8. Sol: KCL at node 1 and 2 vs − v1 dv v − v = C2 2 + 1 o R1 dt R2 v1 − vo dv = C1 o R2 dt v2 = v1 − vo vs − v1 dv dv dv = C2 1 − C2 o + C1 o R1 dt dt dt dvo v1 = vo + R2C1 dt 33 .

2 = −1 ± j 2 vot = e −t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t ) t→∞ vo ( ∞) = v1 (∞) = vs voss = vo ( ∞) = vs = 10mV. t > 0 34 .5e-t + e-5t V. vs =4u(t)V.11 In the circuit. Assume that R1 = R2 =10kΩ .Example 8. vo (0 + ) = v2 (0 + ) = 0 v1 (0 + ) = v2 (0 + ) + vo (0 + ) = 0 0 = 10 + A ⇒ A = −10 dvo (t ) = e −t ( − A cos 2t − B sin 2t − 2 A sin 2t + 2 B cos 2t ) dt 0 = − A + 2B vo (t ) = 10 + e − t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t ) vo (t ) = 10 − e −t (10 cos 2t + 5 sin 2t ) mV t > 0 Practice Problem 8. t>0 vo (t ) = vot + voss = 10 + e −t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t ) mV Example 8. Ans: 4 .11 For t < 0.11 d 2 vo ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ dvo vo vs 2 + ⎜⎜ + ⎟⎟ + = dt ⎝ R1C2 R2C2 ⎠ dt R1 R2C1C2 R1 R2C1C2 d 2 vo dv 2 + 2 o + 5vo = 5vs dt dt s 2 + 2 s + 5 = 0 ⇒ s1. C1 =20μF and C2 =100μF. vo (0 − ) = v2 (0 − ) = 0 For t > 0. find v0(t) for t > 0.

Use Pspice to plot v(t) for 0 < t < 4 s.75e −t + 0.086 ( − A3e −( t − 2 ) − 9 A4 e −9 ( t − 2 ) ) i (t ) = and 27 (6.75e −9 = −2.83 mA 27 Therefore. A3 + A4 = 5.12 A1 = −9 A2 0 = 9 A2 − A2 + 6 .9 PSpice Analysis of RLC Circuits Example 8. VTH = 0.−9 v (0 ) = 0. 2 = −5 ± 5 2 − 9 = −1.75e −9 t + 6 )u(t )V for all 0 < t < 2 s At t = 1 s.75 and A1 = −6.75e −2 + 0 + 6 = 5.75e − 2 − 6.552 V At t = 2 s. A2 = 0.8. i (0 ) = 0 dv (t ) i (t ) = C dt where v (t ) = A1e + A2e −9 t + 6 −t v (0 ) = 0 = A1 + A2 + 6 i (0 ) = 0 = C ( − A1 − 9 A2 ) Example 8.086 V Note that from 2 < t < 4 s.9135 35 . v (1) = −6.483 + 0.75e −1 + 0. v ( ∞) = 6 V.75 v (t ) = ( −6. − A3 − 9 A4 = 0.12 The input voltage vs is applied to the circuit.75e −18 ) i ( 2) = = 33. Therefore v (t ) = [ A3e −( t − 2 ) + A4 e −9 ( t −2 ) ]u(t − 2) V At t = 2 s. which implies that v (∞ ) = 0. 1 α = R /( 2 L) = 30 / 6 = 5 and ω0 = =3 3 × 1 27 s1.0001 + 6 = −3. v ( 2) = −6.

Ans: 36 .835 and A4 = −0.9135.12 Combining the two equations. v (3) = ( 2. v (t ) = (5. we get A3 − 9(5. At t = 4 s.147 V.12 Find i(t) using Pspice for 0 < t < 4s if the pulse voltage vs is applied to the circuit.Example 8.147 − 0 ) = 2.086 − A3 ) = 0. v (4 ) = 0.749.749 e −9 ( t −2 ) )u(t − 2) V At t = 3 s.835e −( t −2 ) − 0.7897 V Practice Problems 8. which leads to A3 = 5.

37 .Example 8.13 For the circuit in the figure.13 Refer to Practice Prob. Practice Problems 8. Use Pspice to obtain v(t) for 0 < t < 2s. use Pspice to obtain i(t) for 0 < t < 3s.7. 8.

8.10 Duality duality d 2i R di i d 2v 1 dv 1 + + =0 + + v =0 dt 2 L dt LC dt 2 RC dt LC The duality principle asserts a parallelism between pairs of characterizing equations and theorems of electric circuits Two circuits are said to be duals of one another if they are described by the same characterizing equations with dual quantities interchanged Dual pairs Table 8.1 Duals pairs Resistance R Conductance G Inductance L Capacitance C Voltage v Current i Voltage source Current source Node Mesh Series path Parallel path Open circuit Short circuit KVL KCL Thevenin Norton 38 .

Replace that element by its dual Voltage polarity and current direction: A voltage source producing a positive mesh current has its dual current source whose reference direction is from the ground to the nonreference node Example 8. and even theorems Note that power has no dual.Duality Duality principle extends to circuit elements. configurations. we automatically have the solution for the dual circuit To graphically find the dual of a given planar circuit Place a node at the center of each mesh. 39 . since power is not linear Duality principle is limited to planar circuits Once we know the solution to one circuit. Place the reference node of the dual circuit outside the given circuit Draw lines between the nodes such that each line crosses an element.14 Construct the dual of the circuit in the figure.

Practice Problem 8.15 Obtain the dual of the circuit in the figure.14 Draw the dual circuit. Ans: Example 8. 40 .

Ans: 8. obtain the dual circuit. peaking circuits. smoothing circuit. resonant circuits.11 Applications Practical applications of RLC circuits are found in control and communication circuits such as ringing circuits. automobile ignition and smoothing circuits are introduced 41 .15 For the circuit in the figure. and filters Most of the circuits involve ac sources Here.Practice Problem 8.

vC (0 − ) = 0 4 t = 0 + . then i (0 + ) = 3 A.1 Automobile Ignition System The voltage generating system is introduced here. then i (0 − ) = = 3A. = =0 dt L 42 .11. in addition to the charging system introduced before The 12V source is due to the battery and alternator 4Ω resistor is the resistance of the wiring The ignition coil is modeled by the 8mH inductor The 1μF capacitor (known as condenser to automechanics) Example 8.16 Assume that the switch in the figure is closed prior to t = 0-.8. vC = (0 + ) = 0 We obtain di (0 + ) / dt from vL (0 + ) Applying KVL to the mesh at t = 0 + yields − 12 + 4i (0 + ) + vL (0 + ) + vC (0 + ) = 0 − 12 + 4 × 3 + vL (0 + ) + 0 = 0 ⇒ vL (0 + ) = 0 di (0 + ) vL (0 + ) Hence. find the inductor voltage vL for t > 0. Sol: 12 t = 0 − .

so that the capacitor acts like an open circuit ⇒ i ( ∞) = 0 If we apply KVL to the mesh for t > 0.118 × 10 4 2L LC Since α < ω0 . we obtain di 1 t 12 = Ri + L + ∫ idt + vC (0 ) dt C 0 Taking the derivative of each term yields d 2i R di i 2 + + =0 dt L dt LC R 1 ⇒α = = 250.180t + B sin 11.180t ) dt + e − 250 t ( −11.180t ) 43 .118 × 10 4 it (t ) = e −αt ( A cos ωd t + B sin ωd t ) where A and B are constants. The steady .180 B cos 11.180t + B sin 11.180 A sin 11.16 ωd = ω02 − α 2 ≈ ω0 = 1.16 As t → ∞.180t + 11. the system reaches steady state.180t ) We noe determine A and B i (0 ) = 3 = A + 0 ⇒ A = 3 Taking the derivative di = −250 e − 250 t ( A cos 11. the response is underdamped Example 8.Example 8. ω0 = = 1.state response is iss (t ) = i ( ∞) = 0 so that the complete response is i (t ) = it (t ) + iss (t ) = e − 250 t ( A cos 11.

180 B ⇒ B = 0. which is vL (t0 ) = −268 e − 250 t0 = −259 V Practice Problem 8.7e-250t sin11180t V 44 .16 Setting t = 0 and incorporating 0 = −250 A + 11.180 t ) The voltage across the inductor is then di The cosine part is much smaller vL (t ) = L = −268 e − 250 t sin 11. that is .180t0 = π 2 or t0 = 140.12e-250t cos11180t + 267.0671 Thus i (t ) = e −250 t (3 cos 11. the inductor voltage reaches its peak. Ans: 12.5 μs.16 Find the capacitor voltage vC for t > 0.180 t than the sine part dt This has a maximum value when sine is unity. At time = t0 .Example 8.180 t + 0. at 11.0671 sin 1.

11.2 Smoothing Circuits This is an example for digital communication systems Smoothing Circuits 45 .8.

Example 8.17 46 . determine the output voltage v0(t). If the RLC circuit is used as the smoothing circuit.Example 8.17 The output vs of a D/A converter is shown in the figure.

9.30. 8. Assignments 8. 8.2. 8. 8.63.65 47 . 8.17. 8.13. 8.17 if the output of the D/A converter is as the figure.17 Rework Example 8.Practice Problem 8.50.32. 8. 8.25.

vC = 2.5 -2 -1. iL = 0 I0 vL L C vC di dv vL = vC = L L iL = −iC = −C C i L iC dt dt vC iL LC resonant without source I0 = 0. iL = 0 I0 L C vC W (t ) = WC (t ) + WL (t ) iL 1 1 2 1.5 48 .5 -0.LC resonant without source I0 = 0.5 vC 0 -2. vC = 2.5 2 2.5 1 1.5 = CvC + LiL 2 iL 2 2 1 0.5 -1 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.

4 1 1 2 = CvC + LiL 2 0.LC resonant without source I0 = 0.6 0.5 W (t ) = WC (t ) + WL (t ) 0.2 0. vC = 2.1 0 0 0. iL = 0 Energy distribution I0 L C vC iL WL 0.2 0.8 2 WC 49 .3 2 2 0.6 0.2 1.8 1 1.4 1.4 0.6 1.

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