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Opti-Cut
Whittle Cut-off Optimization Software

User Manual

April, 1998

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Copyright  1998 Whittle Programming Pty Ltd. All rights reserved.

Whittle Programming Pty Ltd (A.C.N. 065 377 004)
Level 4
1013 Whitehorse Road
Box Hill Victoria 3128
AUSTRALIA

Telephone: +61 3 9899 3799
Facsimile: +61 3 9899 3755

email: whittle@whittle.com.au
web: www.whittle.com.au

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High Level Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS RELEASE............................................................................................ 9

PART 1: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 10

PART 2: PROGRAMS IN THE OPTI-CUT PACKAGE ............................................ 30

Chapter 1: Getting Started.......................................................................................................................... 31

Chapter 2: The Programs ............................................................................................................................ 53

PART 3: DETAILED FILE FORMATS ..................................................................... 82

Chapter 1: Sequence Text File..................................................................................................................... 83

Chapter 2: Economics Text File .................................................................................................................. 94

Chapter 3: Spreadsheet Files..................................................................................................................... 116

PART 4: TECHNIQUES ......................................................................................... 137

Chapter 1: Auxiliary Files and Computer Techniques ............................................................................. 138

Chapter 2: Economic Factors .................................................................................................................... 153

Chapter 3: Mining Factors ........................................................................................................................ 171

PART 5: TUTORIALS AND EXERCISES .............................................................. 185

Tutorial 1 - A Simple Run Through of the Main Programs...................................................................... 189

Exercise 1 - Automating the Process.......................................................................................................... 216

Tutorial 2 - Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction ................................................... 222

Exercise 2 - Varying the Compaction ........................................................................................................ 235

Tutorial 3 - Using a Stockpile .................................................................................................................... 237

Exercise 3 - Adjusting Throughput............................................................................................................ 246

Tutorial 4 - Multi-element Deposits........................................................................................................... 250

Exercise 4 - Multi-element Stockpiles ....................................................................................................... 256

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APPENDICES......................................................................................................... 262

Appendix A: NPV, Discount Rate and Inflation........................................................................................ 263

Appendix B: How the Optimization is Achieved....................................................................................... 264

Appendix C: Program Limits .................................................................................................................... 269

Appendix D: Error Messages..................................................................................................................... 270

Appendix E: Requests for Program Enhancement ................................................................................... 275

GLOSSARY............................................................................................................ 276

INDEX..................................................................................................................... 290

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High Level Table of Contents
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Detailed Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS RELEASE............................................................................................ 9

PART 1: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 10
Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 10
Section A: How this Manual is Structured ................................................................................................. 11
Section B: Using this Manual .................................................................................................................... 13
Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 13
Conventions Used in this Manual.......................................................................................................... 14
Terminology ......................................................................................................................................... 18
Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................ 21
Section C: Opti-Cut Methodology.............................................................................................................. 22
Section D: Opti-Cut, Your Computer and Other Whittle Programs............................................................ 24
Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 24
Hardware and Software Requirements................................................................................................... 25
Installing Opti-Cut on Your Computer.................................................................................................. 26
Four-D and Four-X Interfaces ............................................................................................................... 28

PART 2: PROGRAMS IN THE OPTI-CUT PACKAGE ............................................ 30
Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 30

Chapter 1: Getting Started.......................................................................................................................... 31
Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 31
Program Description............................................................................................................................. 32
Accessing the Programs ........................................................................................................................ 34
At the Terminal .................................................................................................................................... 38
Files...................................................................................................................................................... 42
Getting the Most out of the Package...................................................................................................... 49

Chapter 2: The Programs ............................................................................................................................ 53
Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 53
Sequence Input Program (OCSE).......................................................................................................... 54
List Details Program (OCLD) ............................................................................................................... 57
Compaction Program (OCCO) .............................................................................................................. 60
Economics Input Program (OCEC) ....................................................................................................... 66
Optimization Program (OCOP)............................................................................................................. 69
Print Results Program (OCPR).............................................................................................................. 76

PART 3: DETAILED FILE FORMATS ..................................................................... 82
Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 82

Chapter 1: Sequence Text File..................................................................................................................... 83
Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 83
Background Information ....................................................................................................................... 84
The Way the Sequence Text File Describes the Physical Resource......................................................... 85
Sequence Text File Layout .................................................................................................................... 87
Lines in Detail ...................................................................................................................................... 89
Sequence Text File Guidelines and Examples ....................................................................................... 92

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.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 126 The Application of Spreadsheet Codes ..................... 185 Preparation ..................................................................................................... 159 Costs ...... 183 PART 5: TUTORIALS AND EXERCISES .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 128 Section B: Spreadsheet Output File............................................................................................................................................General ....................................... 134 PART 4: TECHNIQUES ....................................................................... 94 Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 185 Overview ........................................................................................................................... 133 Spreadsheet Output File Layout and Format........... 116 Overview ....................................................... 138 Auxiliary Files ............................ 154 Prices........................................................................................... 171 Overview ................................................... 132 Overview ......................................................................... 182 Cut-offs............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 168 Chapter 3: Mining Factors ........................ 139 Log Files................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 96 Lines in Detail .......................................................................................................................................................................... 114 Chapter 3: Spreadsheet Files.................................................................................................. 146 Simplifying the Text Files to Improve the Speed of Processing.............................................. 151 Chapter 2: Economic Factors .............................................Chapter 2: Economics Text File .................... 186 6 Detailed Table of Contents 28 April............................................................................................................................................................Specific .............. 98 Allowed Value Types and Functions .. 160 The Application of Costs............................................................. 119 Spreadsheet Definition File Codes................................................................................................................. 153 Constant Dollars ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 118 Spreadsheet Definition File Layout ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 179 Pre-stripping.................................................... 155 Costs ........................................... 95 Economics Text File Layout.................................................................................................................................................................. 116 Section A: Spreadsheet Definition File ......................................................................... 153 Overview ........................................................................................................................................................... 109 Economics Text File Guidelines and Examples ............................................ 1998 .............................................. 117 Background Information .......................................... 171 Iteration...... 172 Stockpiles ............. 94 Background Information ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 138 Overview ............................................... 173 Processing Throughput Factors ....................................................................................................... 137 Chapter 1: Auxiliary Files and Computer Techniques ..................................................................................... 117 Overview .................................................................................................................................. 164 Cost Estimation Sheets ................................................................................................................................ 181 Processing Recovery (non linear recovery) ..................................... 137 Overview ....................................................................................................... 132 Background Information .................................................................. 120 Spreadsheet Definition File Guidelines and Examples.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 141 Running the Programs in Batch Files.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................Multi-element Stockpiles ...... 260 APPENDICES................................................ 245 Exercise 3 ......................................................................................................... 214 What you have Learnt....Multi-element Deposits............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 246 Overview ................. 211 File Summary .............. 227 Step 4: Running the Optimization using a Log File......................................................................................................... 235 Tutorial 3 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 246 Exercise 3a ........................................................ 221 Tutorial 2 .........................................................................................................................................A Simple Run Through of the Main Programs............................................................ 201 Step 5: Re-running the Print Results Program to obtain the Marginal Cut-off Scenario ......................................................................Automating the Process................. 237 Step 1: Copying and Editing Files........................................................................................................................... 197 Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program ........................................................................................................................ 256 Overview .............. 259 Exercise 4c: Using Both Elements to Control Stockpiles ......................................................Tutorial 1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 242 What you have Learnt.................................................................. 257 Exercise 4b: Multiple Stockpiles ................Adjusting Throughput... 222 Step 1: Producing the Initial Sequence Binary File with the Sequence Input Program .. 216 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 252 Exercise 4 .............................................................................................................. 247 Exercise 3b ................................................................................................................ 215 Exercise 1 ............................................................................................. 220 What you have Learnt...........Using a Stockpile ................................................................................................................................ 193 Step 3: Doing the Optimization with the Optimization Program ................................ 222 Overview ................................................................................. 250 Overview .........................................Varying the Compaction .. 1998 .... 189 Step 1: Producing the Sequence Binary File with the Sequence Input Program....Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction ........................................................................... 262 Overview ....................... 237 Overview .......................... 256 Exercise 4a: Single Stockpile ...................................................................................... 229 Step 5: Running the Print Results Program with a Log File and Spreadsheet Output ................ 223 Step 2: Producing the Compacted Sequence Binary File with the Compaction Program ............................. 225 Step 3: Producing the Economics Binary File using a Log File............ 230 What you have Learnt..................... 238 Step 2: Using the Batch Processing Program............................................. 240 Step 3: Doing a Cash Flow Analysis ............. 234 Exercise 2 ......................................................................................................................... 189 Overview ............................................................... 216 Step 1: Copying and Editing the Text Files ............................... 190 Step 2: Producing the Economics Binary File with the Economics Input Program........................................................................................................................................................ Discount Rate and Inflation.......................................................... 248 Tutorial 4 ................................................................... 250 Procedure and Discussion ........ 263 7 Detailed Table of Contents 28 April............................................................................................................Making Stockpile Usage Independent of Rock Limit ............................................................................................................................. 262 Appendix A: NPV.. 218 File Summary ............................................................................................................... 217 Step 2: Using the Batch Processing Program.....Altering the Mining Throughput Limit ................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................... 268 Appendix C: Program Limits ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 269 Appendix D: Error Messages.............. 271 Problem Traps ................................................................................................................ 273 Appendix E: Requests for Program Enhancement .............................................................. 265 The Steps Involved in Optimization ..... 264 Special Costs . 270 Data Checks.................................... 275 GLOSSARY..................................................................................................... 1998 .......................................................................................Appendix B: How the Optimization is Achieved.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 272 System Error Messages ..................................................................................................................................................................... 270 Overview ..................... 276 INDEX.......... 290 8 Detailed Table of Contents 28 April................................................................................................. 264 Overview ...........................................................................................................................

• The user can define economic scenarios that vary with time. • It can capture the results in spreadsheet format for graphing and further analysis. • It can handle multiple elements. this increase can be substantial.0 of the Whittle Opti-Cut optimization software. 1998 . Main features The main features of Opti-Cut are: • It can use a mining sequence directly from a Generalised Mining Package from Whittle Four-D or Four-X. rock-types. Three-D. Four-D and Four-X. and • open-cut mines. processing methods. It allows the user to investigate how changing the cut-offs with time and the use of stockpiles can increase the Net Present Value of a project. Application Opti-Cut can be applied to: • underground mines. throughput limits and stockpiles. particularly those with a long mine life. What Opti-Cut Opti-Cut adds another dimension to the existing Whittle optimization does products. 9 About this Release 28 April. About this Release Introduction This version of the Opti-Cut Manual was released with version 1. For many mines. or a sequence can be defined by the user.

Your Computer and Other Whittle 24 Programs 10 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. Part 1: Introduction Overview In this part This part contains the following sections. 1998 . Section See Page Section A: How this Manual is Structured 11 Section B: Using this Manual 13 Section C: Opti-Cut Methodology 21 Section D: Opti-Cut.

• Information about how to use this Manual. • Mining factors. 1998 . See page 136. • Information about how to run the programs and how to get the most out of the Opti-Cut package. These parts are described below. special keys and default answers . See page 10. Part 4: This part contains information about: Techniques • Auxiliary files and computer techniques. Section A: How this Manual is Structured Introduction This Manual contains everything you need to know in order to use the Opti-Cut package effectively. Part 3: Detailed This part provides details of the different files used by the programs. how to install Opti-Cut on your machine and the Four-D and Four-X interfaces. abbreviations and conventions used. • Economic factors. and their File Formats formats. Part 2: This part provides: Programs in the • An overview of: Opti-Cut Package . .prompts and responses. See page 30. The Manual is divided into eight parts. Part 1: This part contains: Introduction • An overview of Opti-Cut and the structure of the Manual.each of the programs. • Hardware and software requirements. terminology. See page 82. and. • The genesis of Opti-Cut and an overview of the package.the files used by these programs. Continued on next page 11 Part 1: Introduction 28 April.

1998 . • Error messages. • Requests for program enhancement. • Program limits. Glossary This part contains a list of terms used in the Manual. Exercises See page 185. See page 275. Appendices This part contains information about: • How the optimization is achieved. See page 262. 12 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. See page 290. and their meanings. Continued Part 5: These tutorials and exercises are designed to help you learn about Opti-Cut Tutorials and and build up the necessary skills to use it. Index This part contains an Index of the concepts and terms used in the Manual.Section A: How this Manual is Structured.

1998 . Topic See Page Conventions Used in this Manual 14 Terminology 18 Abbreviations 21 13 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. Section B: Using this Manual Overview In this section This section contains the following topics.

type: octut1↵ In the preceding example. the symbol “↵” is used to indicate that you need to press the ↵” “↵ “Enter” (or Return) key. Here is an example. • The use of visual guides. “Please enter a name for the print file”. the “↵” indicates that you need to press the Enter key after typing in “octut1”. • Program names and Command Line names. Please enter the name of the Result Binary File [octut1. whenever we show a default response to a question “[ ]” asked by the Opti-Cut program.rbi] : In the preceding example. the filename “octut1. In particular it covers: • The use of brackets and special characters. Square brackets Throughout the Manual. Here is an example. Continued on next page 14 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. Enter symbol In this Manual.rbi” is the default response given by the program. that response is enclosed in square brackets “[ ]”.Conventions Used in this Manual Introduction This topic discusses the conventions used in this Manual. 1998 . In response to the question.

replacing the brackets and any information enclosed by them. This is to indicate that a definition can be found in the Glossary at the back of this Manual. This is particularly relevant for workstations.Conventions Used in this Manual. see Four-D and Four-X Interfaces. angle brackets “< >” are used to indicate that the “< >” appropriate codes or values should be inserted where the brackets appear. Here is an example. Here is an example. Continued Angle brackets Throughout the Manual. replacing the angle brackets and the information contained in them. the angle brackets and the information enclosed in them indicate that the appropriate information should be inserted. For more information. 1998 . Here is an example. the first instance in each topic of a Glossary term is italicised. EL <Element code> <Decimals> In the preceding example. Topic References Italics are also used to highlight references to related topics or literature. Continued on next page 15 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. Italics Glossary terms In this Manual. on page 28.

See below for more information about Command Line names and Program names. Print file name Call the print file octut1. To indicate the letters that make up the file extensions for those file types. Continued on next page 16 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. Underlining is only used where it will be most helpful to the user to determine Command Line names or file extensions. On a separate diskette. you will have been provided with your oc. Continued Bold type Bold type is used in this Manual: • To show the users’ response to a question asked by Opti-Cut. underlining is used in: • Program names. Underlining In this Manual.ini file. See page 42 for more information about file types and extensions. • File types. 1998 .Conventions Used in this Manual. Here is an example. • To emphasise important words or to highlight filenames. To indicate the letters from the Program name that make up the Command Line name.prs. Here is an example.

that is via the and Command Menu or from the Command Line.Conventions Used in this Manual. each of the programs in the Opti-Cut Line names package has two names: • a Program name. 17 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. 1998 . Program names have been used in preference to Command Line names. Continued Program names As the user has two means of accessing Opti-Cut programs. for reasons of consistency. and. • a Command Line name. Program name Command Line name Sequence Input OCSE List Details OCLD Compaction OCCO Economics Input OCEC Optimization OCOP Print Results OCPR Batch Processing OC For more information. see page 53. In this Manual. The following table lists Opti-Cut Program names and their corresponding Command Line names.

unless the context indicates otherwise. and for which grades are available.Terminology Introduction There are a number of special terms used in this Manual. Continued on next page 18 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. loading and hauling the same type of rock as waste. hauling and processing processing a tonne of a particular type of rock as ore. loading. Reference A particular position in the mine. Cost of This is the difference between the total cost of blasting. for which all mining and Position processing costs are calculated. 1998 . These are explained in the body of the text and in the Glossary. factors Opti-Cut deals with this by using positional “cost adjustment factors” (CAFs). Note: generally. The cost of mining this type of rock as waste in any other position is obtained by multiplying the cost of mining the same rock at the Reference Position by the positional mining CAF for the group in question. both at the Reference Position. The cost of processing for this type of rock in any other position is obtained by multiplying the cost of processing the same rock at the Reference Position by the positional processing CAF for the group in question. the first instance of a Glossary term in each topic is italicised to indicate that a definition can be found in the Glossary at the back of the Manual. loading and hauling a tonne of rock of a particular type as waste at the Reference Position. Cost adjustment The cost of mining and the cost of processing can vary with position in the pit. and the total cost of blasting. chosen by the user. Product An element which may be extracted for sale. If the costs are different in other parts of the mine. Element A substance in the mineralised material which is of interest to the study. this means the cost of blasting. but are also explained below to make it easier to read this Manual for the first time. this is handled by positional CAFs for mining and/or processing in each group. Cost of mining In this Manual.

A group has a tonnage. and grade information for each element in the rock-type. group A sequence consists of one or more increments. If more than one element is involved. average and maximum grades. Multiple groups of the same rock-type can be used to represent any grade distribution to arbitrary accuracy. Continued Rock This refers to all material. 1998 . Increment 1 Groups Increment 2 Sequence Increment 3 Increment An increment is a section of a sequence which can be assumed to be mined as a unit. Group A group is a section of an increment which is all of one type of rock and which has particular grade characteristics. Continued on next page 19 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. increment. Each group carries mining and processing CAFs. An increment consists of one or more groups. That is. The grade information can. The following diagram illustrates the relationship between a sequence and a series of increments and groups. A sequence is the order in which material is to be mined. each in turn consisting of a number of groups.Terminology. Sequence. not just waste. grade ranges should be sufficiently narrow for it to be assumed that there is no correlation between the grades of different elements within the group. in each case. be either in the form of an average grade or a range consisting of minimum. in any time period a given fraction of everything in the increment will be mined.

Continued Stockpile An accumulation of ore set aside for later processing. but only one unit is allowed for each. regardless of the amount mined. 20 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. processed or sold. Note: although the program and Manual refer to Tonnes throughout. provided they are used everywhere. 1998 . elements.Terminology. These are often called overheads or G&A (General and Administration) costs. Units The units used for quantities of rock. Time costs Costs that continue during mining. Different elements can have different units. and currency are arbitrary. A rock-type and one or more grade ranges are specified for each stockpile. Tons or Short Tons can be used.

1998 .Abbreviations Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in this Manual. Abbreviation Term NPV Net Present Value GMP Generalised Mining Package m million(s) k thousand(s) CAF Cost Adjustment Factor IRR Internal rate of return G&A costs General and Administration costs PC Personal Computer 21 Part 1: Introduction 28 April.

Main features Opti-Cut has been designed to be as flexible as possible to cater for all the different types of mining and processing which occur. . more advanced optimization and convergence techniques. Section C: Opti-Cut Methodology Introduction Opti-Cut allows the user to investigate how: • changing the cut-offs with time. and • the use of stockpiles can increase the Net Present Value of a project.Subject to a cut-off. • User definable (mining) sequence descriptions that are flexible enough to allow the user to specify them for: . where each element may or may not be: . • Spreadsheet output to allow further analysis and plotting of the results. Opti-Cut improves on Lane’s approach by using different. The Economic Definition of Ore: Cut-off Grades in Theory and Practice. we are left with a profound admiration for the work of Lane and his predecessors. Mining Journal Books Limited. after spending three years developing Opti-Cut.Production processes and throughput limits. London. Nevertheless. • Ability to handle optimized cut-offs fixed for each period or for each period/increment. . and. 1998 . and to allow designers the maximum scope for creativity. . Some of the major features offered by Opti-Cut are: • Ability to handle multiple: . 22 Part 1: Introduction 28 April.A product. 1988. • User definable economic scenarios that allow full variation with time of all variables. .Elements.Rock-types.design work . Lane.production planning.Stockpiles.scoping studies . Lane† . Continued on next page †Kenneth F. Genesis Opti-Cut is based on cut-off optimization concepts described in The Economic Definition of Ore by Kenneth F.sensitivity analysis. .

• Economics Input Program (OCEC). see Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package. to automate their package operation. The programs are the: • Sequence Input Program (OCSE). For more For more information. • Print Results Program (OCPR). 1998 . and a control Opti-Cut program called the Batch Processing Program (OC). Continued Programs in the The Opti-Cut package consists of six separate programs. • List Details Program (OCLD). starting information on page 30. • Compaction Program (OCCO). 23 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. • Optimization Program (OCOP).Section C: Opti-Cut Methodology.

1998 . Topic See Page Hardware and Software Requirements 25 Installing Opti-Cut on Your Computer 26 Four-D and Four-X Interfaces 28 24 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. Section D: Opti-Cut. Your Computer and Other Whittle Programs Overview In this section This section contains the following topics.

PCs Minimum requirements • IBM compatible PC version 386 • 4MB of memory • maths co-processor. UNIX Minimum requirements workstations • 16MB of memory. • 30MB of free disk space. Windows 95. Preferred • IBM compatible Pentium PC • 16MB of memory. and.Hardware and Software Requirements Introduction This section lists the hardware and software requirements for running Opti-Cut: • On a PC. • 300 MB or more of free disk space. and.x. and. and. Windows NT and OS/2. the preferred configuration is: • 32MB or more of memory. • in a DOS window under Windows 3. Platforms Opti-Cut will run: • under DOS. Preferred Because of the multi-process nature of workstations. 1998 . • 100MB of free disk space. 25 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. • 100MB of free disk space. • On a UNIX workstation. and.

Example Type “C:” at the DOS prompt. • One installation diskette for Windows icons . Disk 1 of 2” and “PC Version. you will also receive a separate diskette containing the Opti-Cut initialization file (oc. Disk 2 of 2”.“Whittle Icons. 4. Procedure Follow these steps to install Opti-Cut on your PC. then you will be given separate instructions about installing it. Opti-Cut would be installed from the A drive. 3. Select your hard drive as the default drive. Step Action 1. If this is your first copy of Opti-Cut. Make sure you are in MS-DOS mode or you have a DOS window open. INSTALL.ini). by typing: x:INSTALL (then press the Enter key “↵”) Where x is the letter name of the diskette drive. At the DOS prompt run the program. Existing users will have received their initialization file on a separate diskette when they received their first copy of Opti-Cut. Insert the disk labelled “PC Version. Continued on next page 26 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. your PC Other computers If you are installing Opti-Cut on a computer that is not a PC. 2. Disk 1 of 2” into a diskette drive. Disk 1 of 1”. Example C:> a:INSTALL ↵ In this example.“PC Version. then press the “Enter” key to change your default drive to the C drive. The diskettes This release consists of: • Two program diskettes .Installing Opti-Cut on Your Computer Installing PCs Opti-Cut on This section details the procedure for installing Opti-Cut on your PC. 1998 .

Continued Procedure (continued) Step Action 5. run the program. • Follow the instructions on the screen carefully. It would also be a good idea to store it in a directory \oc\ini for safekeeping. 7. The Whittle icons will be installed onto your computer. you have been provided with an oc. Opti-Cut would be installed from the A drive. Example C:> a:INSTALL ↵ In this example. By default.me file located on “PC Version. Disk 1 of 1” into a diskette drive. 27 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. refer to the Read.Installing Opti-Cut on Your Computer. For more For more information. You can change these defaults and also control what to load.ini file. 95 or NT. • into any directory where you intend to do work with Opti-Cut.1. Disk information 1 of 2”. Copy this file: • into directory \oc\tutor. To do this: • Insert the disk labelled “Whittle Icons. and. 6. Follow the instructions on the screen carefully. by typing: x:INSTALL (then press the Enter key “↵”) Where x is the letter name of the diskette drive. INSTALL. the installation will install the programs into C:\OC and the tutorial information into C:\OC\TUTOR. On a separate diskette. 1998 . If you are running under Windows 3. • At the DOS prompt. The Opti-Cut programs will be installed onto your computer. you can also install the Whittle icons.

1998 . Procedure The procedure to enable Opti-Cut output from Four-D or Four-X is as follows. • Four-X initialization file. 3. edit the file to include “Opti-Cut=Yes” in the [System] section.ini using a text editor or a word processor in pure text mode.and the line reads “Opti-Cut=Yes”. check to see if there is a line beginning with the words: Opti-Cut= • If there is a line beginning “Opti-Cut=”: . then the program is not enabled for Opti-Cut output.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces Introduction Customers who use either Four-D or Four-X can produce a Sequence Text File and an Economics Text File from FDAN or FXAN for use with Opti-Cut.ini. Continued on next page 28 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. Step Action 1. . or. fx. This section describes how you can do this. Save the file and exit from the text editor or word processor. It does not need to be the first line. 2. To enable Opti-Cut output. • If there is there is no “Opti-Cut=” line under the [System] section header. Under the [System] section header. fd. then the program is enabled for Opti-Cut output. Open and view the: • Four-D initialization file. The line “Opti-Cut=Yes” can occur anywhere in the [System] section.and the line reads “Opti-Cut=No”. To do this you must enable Opti-Cut output from Four-D or Four-X. edit the line to read “Opti-Cut=Yes”.

Note also: Opti-Cut files produced from Four-D or Four-X should be compacted so that the programs run more quickly. • If you answer yes (Y). 29 Part 1: Introduction 28 April. 1998 . then nominate the filename. Continued Producing an To produce Opti-Cut files: Opti-Cut • Run a single economic analysis for a single mining sequence (best.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces. • An additional message will appear that asks whether you want to produce Opti-Cut output. See page 50 for further discussion of this. worst or sequence scheduled). such as throughput factors or expressions to tidy up. Note: you should check the Economics Text File to ensure that capital costs and time costs have been applied and that there are no other matters.

and the files used by those programs. In this part This part contains the following two chapters. It also provides information about the programs in the Opti-Cut package. 1998 . Chapter See Page Chapter 1: Getting Started 30 Chapter 2: The Programs 53 30 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package Overview Introduction This part provides some general information about using Opti-Cut.

It is divided up into the following topics. Topic See Page Program Description 32 Accessing the Programs 34 At the Terminal 38 Files 42 Getting the Most out of the Package 49 31 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. 1998 . Chapter 1: Getting Started Overview In this chapter This chapter contains some basic information about the programs and their operation.

and. The The Compaction Program: Compaction • Compacts the information contained in Sequence Binary Files and Sequence Program (OCCO) Text Files. • creates a print file.the time taken for an optimization. It is called the Batch Processing Program. This can reduce: .Program Description Introduction The Opti-Cut package consists of six separate programs: The programs are the: • Sequence Input Program • List Details Program • Compaction Program • Economics Input Program • Optimization Program. and then. The List Details The List Details Program: Program (OCLD) • checks the validity of the Sequence Binary File. • Print Results Program. • prints a report of the information in the Sequence Binary File to a print file. . • It also creates a print file. and. Opti-Cut has a control program which automates the operation of several of the programs. Continued on next page 32 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.the size of files. and. The function of each of the programs is as follows. The Sequence The Sequence Input Program: Input Program • reads the Sequence Text File which describes the physical resource and the (OCSE) proposed mining sequence • creates a Sequence Binary File containing the information in a form more suitable for optimization. 1998 . In addition. enabling the user to double-check the information.

Continued The Economics The Economics Input Program: Input Program • reads the Economics Text File containing information about an economic (OCEC) scenario • creates an Economics Binary File containing the information in a form more suitable for optimization. • creates a print file. and.Economics Input Program (OCEC) . It automatically executes these programs in their required order. The Print The Print Results Program: Results • reads the Result Binary File as well as the Sequence and Economics Binary Program (OCPR) Files (indirectly) • prints the results to a file that can be read by the user. • creates a print file.Program Description. • produces spreadsheet output. The Batch The Batch Processing Program: Processing • controls the: Program (OC) . and.Optimization Program (OCOP). 33 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.Print Results Program (OCPR). 1998 . • produces a Result Binary File. The The Optimization Program: Optimization • reads the Economics Binary File as well as the Sequence Binary File Program (OCOP) (indirectly) • performs the optimization. and. and. . if requested.Sequence Input Program (OCSE) .

Continued on next page 34 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. all programs will return to the Menu.Accessing the Programs Introduction The programs can be accessed in two ways: • via the Menu. • from the Command Line. Accessing the The Menu is accessed: Menu • from the Command Line. or. via the Whittle Opti-Cut icon: Once the Menu has been accessed. on completion.or - • from Windows. by typing: OCMENU and then pressing the Enter key (↵) . 1998 . after the message: Press any key to continue… Here is a diagram of the Opti-Cut Menu.

1998 . Selection submenu By default. above the Selection submenu. The Selection submenu lists the Opti-Cut programs generally in order of use. then the program path must be updated. • Viewer. the Selection submenu appears on the right hand side of the screen. It also allows you to: • view output • invoke a text editor. • Options.Accessing the Programs. Files submenu The Files submenu sets the locations. The working directory is maintained from session to session and can be updated here. • Program. • exit from the program. and. The system will check to ensure that the programs exist in the directory you specify. Programs are run from within the working directory. This item allows you to specify the path for your favourite file viewer. When another submenu has been selected. and you will be unable to select any of the items from the Selection submenu. Unlike the other two submenus. the Selection submenu is still visible. Continued on next page 35 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. ready for you to select a program. the Opti-Cut Menu comes up with the Selection submenu open. • Selections. If you change the location of the programs. or “paths”. Continued Main Menu Bar The Main Menu Bar has three “drop down” submenus: • Files. of the: • Working directory. The program path is automatically set up during the installation process. The working directory is displayed on the Menu. but it is greyed out.

UNIX users can use emacs. with a mouse. It is almost universally available.0 and above.com (or c:\windows\command\edit. or to a variety of colour schemes. the List Details Program would be started. 1998 . For example. The colour of the screen can be changed to monochrome.up (“↑”) or down (“↓”) arrow keys on the keyboard. however.Accessing the Programs. A typical path could be: c:\dos\edit. This item allows you to specify the path for your favourite text editor. Remember you only need a text-based editor. Continued • Editor. LIST is shareware. . jove. Continued on next page 36 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. vi etc. The system will check to ensure that the program exists. Options submenu The Options submenu sets the screen colour. please contact Whittle Programming. The Files submenu also allows you to exit from the program. if you have difficulty in locating a copy. and then. • Typing one of the letters or numbers highlighted in the Menu items.com EDIT is provided with MS-DOS 5. if you typed the letter “L”.com) or c:\util\list.pressing the Enter key (“↵”). • Using the point and click method. Menu: exiting The Menu can be exited by: • Choosing eXit from the Selection submenu or from the Files submenu. • Pressing the Escape key (Esc) twice and then pressing the Enter key (↵). Menu: selecting The user can select an item from the Menu or a submenu by: items • Moving the highlighted bar with the: .

we have underlined the letters in the Program Name that make up the Command Line name. and the Opti-Cut program directory is in your PATH. by typing in the Line Command Line name and pressing Enter (↵). Continued The Command The programs can be accessed from the Command Line. In the table above (and throughout this Manual). • The last two letters of the Command Line name relate to the name of the particular program (with the exception of the Batch Processing Program). Hint Make sure that you are in the appropriate data directory. 37 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. 1998 .ini is also in that directory. Here is a table of Command line names. Line name for “Opti-Cut”. a copy of oc.Accessing the Programs. and corresponding Program names. Example Typing: ocse↵ at the Command Line. Command Line name Program name OCSE Sequence Input Program OCLD List Details Program OCCO Compaction Program OCEC Economics Input Program OCOP Optimization Program OCPR Print Results Program OC Batch Processing Program Working out The Command Line name is made up of four letters: the Command • The first two letters of the Command Line name are always OC. would start the Sequence Input Program.

or. Prompts and All user interaction with Opti-Cut takes the form prompts for information.At the Terminal Introduction This topic contains information about user interaction with the Opti-Cut programs. the alphabetic case of your responses is irrelevant. • filenames. Please enter the name of the Result Binary File : Note: Opti-Cut can handle filenames containing upper and lower case alphabetic characters. • On UNIX systems. Continued on next page 38 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. • On a PC. In particular. it discusses: • prompts and answers • selecting from a list of items • default answers • editing default answers and text • overwriting files. the alphabetic case is important. and. 1998 . Below is an example of a prompt. where it is usual to use lower case filenames. • exiting a program. to answers which you respond by typing an answer. The prompts request: • decisions • values.

Alternatively. you could type in a different answer. Continued Selecting from a Sometimes Opti-Cut will display a list of options or items from which you can list of items choose. Generally. octut1. • numbered options in the list.At the Terminal. 1998 .rbi] : In this case.rbi will be used. The default answer is always enclosed in square brackets: [ ] If the default answer is the answer you want to give. items can be selected by typing one of the: • highlighted letters. Here is an example of a default answer: Please enter the name of the Result Binary File [octut1. just press the “Enter” (“↵”) key. Continued on next page 39 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. or. Default answers Opti-Cut will often include a default answer in a prompt. if you press “↵”. Use the Escape key (Esc) to move from a selected submenu to the parent Menu.

1998 . Right arrow moves the cursor one character to the right. Note: pressing the Esc key will restore the text to the original default answer. below). Ctrl + Y deletes all the text. Continued on next page 40 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. If a default is given and the first key you press is the “backspace” key or the “left arrow” key. it is possible to edit default answers. Editing text The following table lists the effects of the various special keys on text.At the Terminal. You will then be able to edit it. Home moves the cursor to the start of the text. Key Function End moves the cursor to the end of the text. then the default answer will appear on the screen as though you had typed it. Left arrow moves the cursor one character to the left. Esc restores the text to the original default answer (see Default answers. Continued Editing default Editing default answers answers and text On PC compatibles and some other systems. Backspace deletes the character to the left of the cursor. DEL deletes the character at the cursor position. INS toggles between insert and overtype mode.

Continued Overwriting Opti-Cut will not allow you to overwrite an existing data file with a new file files unless you type the cross-hatch character (“#”) in front of the filename (with no space in between). Terminating the Optimization Program There is a special arrangement for terminating the Optimization Program during an optimization run. If this is the case on your system. press the Escape (ESC) key. you will then need to press the Enter key (“↵”). However. you merely have to type the # character.At the Terminal. To terminate an optimization run. Where you have not yet typed a response. Note: on some UNIX systems # is set up as the erase key. Exiting from a PC program To exit from a program on a PC. 41 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. 1998 . hold down the Control key (Ctrl) and type the letter “C”. The # character does not form part of the filename. If Opti-Cut suggests a default filename that you want to re-use. please redirect erase to some other key. UNIX Under UNIX. myrun1. the command for exiting a program varies as it is usually set up by the user. as a starting point we suggest that you try Ctrl C or Ctrl Y. Example By typing: #myrun1↵ you would be telling Opti-Cut to overwrite the file.

Four-D or Four-X • you • Opti-Cut itself . File types The types of files used by Opti-Cut are explained below. to create a Sequence Binary File. • The Compaction Program. Sequence Text File Default extension . Used by • The Sequence Input Program. Continued on next page 42 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. This section contains a description of each of the files that you will use. Four-D or Four-X.Files Introduction Opti-Cut uses a wide range of files. with a text editor or a word processor in pure text mode. Created by • a GMP. For more information See page 83. 1998 . See page 82 for the detailed layouts of those files that you may have to work on. • the user.and - • Some are supplied with the package.stx Description A text file that describes the physical resource and the proposed mining sequence. Some are created by: • your GMP. or.

1998 .sbi Description A binary file that carries the information from the Sequence Text File. with a text editor or a word processor in pure text mode. Economics Text File Default extension . but in a form more suitable for optimization. For more information See page 94. Created by • Four-D or Four-X. Continued Sequence Binary File Default extension . Used by • The List Details Program. or. You should never attempt to alter Sequence Binary Files in any way. • the user. • The Optimization Program (indirectly). • The Print Results Program (indirectly). Used by The Economics Input Program to create an Economics Binary File.etx Description A text file that contains detailed information about an economic scenario and how the optimization is to be done.Files. Created by The Sequence Input Program. • The Compaction Program. Continued on next page 43 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.

rbi Description A binary file that contains the results of an optimization. Created by The Optimization Program.ebi Description A binary file that carries the information from the Economics Text File. Used by The Print Results Program to produce the printed report and spreadsheet output. Used by • The Optimization Program.Files. 1998 . Continued Economics Binary File Default extension . For more information See page 117. Created by The Economics Input Program.ssd Description A text file that controls the data that the Print Results Program outputs to the Spreadsheet Output File. with a text editor or a word processor in pure text mode. Created by The user. You should never attempt to alter Result Binary Files in any way. Result Binary File Default extension . Spreadsheet Definition File Default extension . Used by The Print Results Program. • The Print Results Program (indirectly). Continued on next page 44 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. You should never attempt to alter Economics Binary Files in any way. but in a form more suitable for optimization.

in a form suitable for importation into a spreadsheet program. Used by The customer. Continued Spreadsheet Output File Default extension . 45 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. For more information See page 132. Created by The Print Results Program. for importation into a spreadsheet.sso Description A text file that contains output from the Print Results Program.Files. 1998 .

prs↵ lp octut1. type: To print a print file.or - • from the Command Line.Print files Print files are files in which the different programs store the results of their runs. type: EDIT <filename and extension>↵ more <filename and extension>↵ .pro • Print Results Program . On a PC On UNIX To view a print file. type: To view a print file.prp To view or print a print file You can view or print out a print file: • using a word processor or text editor .pre • Optimization Program .prl • Compaction Program .prs • List Details Program . Here is a list of default print file extensions. .or - TYPE <filename and extension> | pg <filename and extension>↵ MORE↵ To print a print file.prs↵ Continued on next page 46 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.prc • Economics Input Program . File type Default file extension Print files for the: • Sequence Input Program . These files can be viewed by the user. type: print octut1.or . Opti-Cut has a different print file extension for each of the main programs. 1998 . The following table shows how you can view or print out a print file from the Command Line.

lop For more information about using log files.”).loe • Optimization Program . the filenames and the extensions used are recorded in the initialization file. As programs are run. Filenames and Opti-Cut has special facilities for handling filenames and extensions. If Opti-Cut adds an extension to a filename.Files.loc • Economics program . these recorded filenames will be offered as defaults.lol • Compaction Program . to extensions minimize data entry. Here is a list of default log file extensions. or a different program. In a subsequent run of the same. Opti-Cut will add the default extension for a file of that type. They can be used to re-run a program using the previously logged set of prompts and answers. it will match the alphabetic case of the extension to the case of the last alphabetic character in the name. see page 141.loo • Print Results Program . • If you want to make sure the filename has no extension. 1998 . Continued on next page 47 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. Note: • If you type in a filename without an extension.ini. File type Default file extension Log files for the: • Sequence Input Program . you should end it with a full stop (“. Continued Log files Log files are files that contain abbreviated prompts and answers.los • List Details Program . oc. Opti-Cut has a different log file extension for each of the main programs.

Use a project name or code and series number Opti-Cut has been set up so that it is possible to run all of the programs using the same name part. filenames are currently limited to 8 characters. Filename limitations • Under DOS. 1998 . See page 42 for more information. • Opti-Cut uses filename extensions to distinguish the different types of files. Continued Naming files As you control the names of many of the files created by the Opti-Cut programs. and a series number may be the easiest way of maintaining filename consistency for a project.Files. This is particularly relevant for UNIX computers. the following may be useful when choosing names for those files. Alphabetic case Note: Opti-Cut can handle filenames containing upper and lower case alphabetic characters. and letting the program add the appropriate default extension. 48 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. Because of this. where it is usual to use lower case letters. • For both DOS and UNIX there is an overall limit of 50 characters in Opti-Cut for the filename and any directory path name. the use of a project name or code.

This should be in the form of a Sequence Text File. Run the Sequence Input Program to create a Sequence Binary File. 2. 5. and the sequence in which you plan to mine it. 3. Run the Economics Input Program to create an Economics Binary File. and factors to consider when doing an optimization. • discounted cash flows to a print file. in the form of an Economics Text File. Prepare a description of the economic conditions under which you expect to operate. Stage Description 1. 4. Run the Print Results Program to print the results of the optimization detailing: • cut-offs • tonnages • grades • cash flows. Run the Optimization Program to optimize the cut-offs. Prepare a description of the material you plan to mine.Getting the Most out of the Package Introduction This topic details: • The minimum you have to do to find a life-of-mine set of cut-offs. 1998 . and. 6. using Opti-Cut. Continued on next page 49 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. Minimum The following table sets out the minimum you have to do to find a life-of-mine required cut-off strategy. suggestions. • Options.

Continued Getting the Unfortunately. particularly those created by Four-D and Four-X. see pages 60 and 152. as distinct from grade ranges. it can reduce the size of the Sequence Binary File. This is because no allowance is made for experimentation or for package sensitivity work. using the Compaction Program. Opti-Cut will apply the mining throughput limit to A and leave the processing mill idle. However. For example. Continued on next page 50 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. increments contain a large number of small increments. For more information about compaction. Opti-Cut treats each of these and/or periods increments as a separate entity which must be completely mined and processed before the rest is started.Getting the Most out of the Package. Merging Some Sequence files. Because of this. It will then apply the processing limit to B and leave the mining fleet under-utilised. The effect can be reduced by combining a collection of small increments into larger increments. Note: both merging increments and compacting point grades can be done in one run of the Compaction Program. if increment A is all waste and increment B is all ore. and this will greatly reduce the optimization time. 1998 . the simple approach described above is unlikely to lead to the most out of the best solution. You should aim for the largest increment which would still allow you sufficient day-to-day scheduling flexibility to enable you to maintain steady streams of ore and waste. Compacting If the Sequence Text File or Sequence Binary File contains a large number of point grades point grades. Opti-Cut is unable to balance the throughputs between increments. This will have almost no discernible effect on the accuracy of the optimization. use the Compaction Program to combine the point grades into small grade ranges. Consider the following ideas.

Getting the Most out of the Package. Balancing the Check the actual rock and process values and compare them with the project throughput limits to see how balanced the load is over the life of the project. 1998 . to see if the cut-offs are sensitive to such changes. and. • Are there any items you can change to achieve a better balance? • Will contract mining help in the first few years? • What effect do these activities have on the NPV? Continued on next page 51 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. • Varying some of the major economic values. Continued Economics Text After the first run through. or use the Batch Processing Program to automate the procedure. there are a number of different options in the File options Economics Text File that you should experiment with. then re-running the: • Economics Input Program • Optimization Program. • Print Results Program. such as price. Each trial will involve changing the Economics Text File. In particular you should look at the following: • Using stockpiles. You can run them individually.

For more For more information about getting the most out of the package.Getting the Most out of the Package. A small change in an input parameter or value that produces a large change in the resultant NPV identifies that parameter or value as very significant when assessing the risks associated with the project. If you are using Four-D or Four-X to produce the mining sequence for Opti-Cut. and the other should be based on a worst case mining sequence. a large change in an input parameter or value that produces a small change in the resultant NPV identifies that parameter or value as a lower risk attribute. It is obvious that changing prices and costs will affect the NPV of the mine. 52 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. but varying these parameters in multiple runs will give you a feel for how much these parameters will affect NPV. Continued Sensitivity As with any results from an optimization process. You should plan runs that include the best and worst circumstances that are likely with the mine. starting on page 136. then you should get it to produce two Sequence Text Files. One should be based on a best case mining sequence. The same is true for throughput limits. you need to get a feel for the analysis stability of the results with changing circumstances (economics. mining schedule and throughput limits). Conversely. see Part 4: information Techniques. you should include at least one optimization by period and one by interval (where all other aspects are kept constant) to see if there are any sensitivities associated with holding cut-offs constant over a period or an interval. 1998 . Finally.

All rights reserved. 53 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. It contains the following topics. © 1996. Topic See Page Sequence Input Program (OCSE) 54 List Details Program (OCLD) 57 Compaction Program (OCCO) 60 Economics Input Program (OCEC) 66 Optimization Program (OCOP) 69 Print Results Program (OCPR) 76 Acknowledge. The clip art included in this chapter is provided by permission of CorelDraw ment Corporation. Chapter 2: The Programs Overview In this chapter This chapter describes the programs in detail. 1998 .

• Sequence Binary File . Files created • Print file .default file extension “.default file extension “.Sequence Input Program (OCSE) Purpose The Sequence Input Program: • reads the Sequence Text File describing the physical resource and the proposed mining sequence.stx”. 1998 . This is generally the first program that you run.default file extension “.sbi”. • creates a Sequence Binary File containing the information in a form more suitable for optimization. Files Files used • Sequence Text File .prs”. Input Program Output Sequence Input Sequence Text File OCSE Sequence Binary File Print File Continued on next page 54 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. and then.

choose the Sequence Input Program from the Menu. Process The Sequence Input Program reads and checks the Sequence Text File. Follow the steps in the table below. for the print file: Type in a name for the print file and press Enter (“↵”) Please enter the 2. the Sequence Input Program creates the Sequence Binary File. Continued on next page 55 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.Sequence Input Program (OCSE). and. • in the print file. • The Command Line. they should be corrected. • create a Sequence Binary File and a print file. even if the Economics Text File is unchanged. Step Prompt Action Please enter a name 1. Note: if the Sequence Binary File is re-created after an Economics Binary File has been created. and the Sequence Input Program should be re-run. Continued Procedure Start up the Sequence Input Program. It reports any errors or inconsistencies: • on the screen. 1998 . the Economics Binary File must also be re-created. name of the Sequence Type the name of the Sequence Text File Text File: and press ↵ Please enter a name 3. and. If you are using: • The Menu. If errors are reported. If no errors are found. for the Sequence Type in a name for the Sequence Binary File Binary File: and press ↵ What happens The program will: • read the Sequence Text File. type: OCSE and press the Enter key (“↵”). Opti-Cut checks that this rule is adhered to.

• Sequence Binary Files. see page 48. 56 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. and. For more Using the Menu or the Command Line information For information about how to use the: • Menu.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction. see pages 42 and 83. see pages 34 . see page 39.36. Tutorials and For practice in using the Sequence Input Program. starting on page 189. • number of point grade groups. see page 41.47. Default filenames and extensions For more information about default filenames and extensions. 1998 . see page 40. • Overwriting files. average and maximum grade of each element present. • Command Line. Naming files For guidelines on the naming of files.A Simple Run Through of the Main Programs. File types For more information about: • Sequence Text Files. the: • tonnage by rock-type • minimum. see page 37. see pages 42 . for each increment. Accepting/editing/overwriting defaults For more information about: • Accepting default answers. see: exercises • Tutorial 1 . see page 46. • Editing default answers. • Print files. starting on page 222.Sequence Input Program (OCSE). This information can be useful in determining whether to compact the Sequence Binary File with the Compaction Program (see page 60 for more information). Continued Report The Sequence Input Program produces a summary report in the print file that shows. see page 43. • Tutorial 2 .

and then.List Details Program (OCLD) Purpose The List Details Program: • checks the validity of the Sequence Binary File.default file extension “. Files created • Print file .sbi”. 1998 . Files Files used • Sequence Binary File . • prints a report of the information in the Sequence Binary File to another file. enabling the user to double-check the information. Input Program Output List Details Sequence OCLD Print File Binary File Continued on next page 57 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.default file extension “.prl”.

the List Details Program prints details of the sequence. choose the List Details Program from the Menu. Follow the steps in the table below. 1998 . type: OCLD and press the Enter key (“↵”). Process After checking the validity of the Sequence Binary File. and. name of the Sequence Type in the name of the Sequence Binary Binary File: File and press ↵ What happens The program will: • check the validity of the Sequence Binary File. Continued Procedure Start up the List Details Program.List Details Program (OCLD). Continued on next page 58 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. for the print file: Type in a name for the print file and press Enter (“↵”) Please enter the 2. Report The List Details report in the print file contains more detailed information than is provided in the Sequence Input print file. increments and groups. Step Prompt Action Please enter a name 1. The print file created by the List Details Program is not required in the running of optimizations but it has been included to allow the user to check all the details in the Sequence Binary File. • print a report of the information in the Sequence Binary File to the print file. If you are using: • The Menu. • The Command Line.

see page 46. see page 39. • Editing default answers. see page 37. Naming files For guidelines on the naming of files. 59 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. Default filenames and extensions For more information about default filenames and extensions. see page 43. see page 41. see page 48. Accepting/editing/overwriting defaults For more information about: • Accepting default answers.47. see pages 42 . 1998 . File types For more information about: • Sequence Binary Files. see page 40.36. see pages 34 . Continued For more Using the Menu or the Command Line information For information about how to use the: • Menu. • Command Line. • Overwriting files. • Print files.List Details Program (OCLD).

it may be inconvenient to have increments which would the Compaction take a month or less to mine. Compaction is especially recommended when using files created by Four-D and Four-X. This reduces: . These files also contain many groups with point grades. This is because Four-D and Four-X produce Opti-Cut files with increments which may be inconveniently small. and you can decide whether to combine them. 1998 . you should combine them. for operational reasons. and thus the optimization time.size of files. As a rule of thumb. if you wish. This can greatly reduce the size of the file. 2.Compaction Program (OCCO) Purpose The Compaction Program: • Compacts the information contained in Sequence Binary Files and Sequence Text Files. and. Also. The Sequence Input Program print file provides details of the tonnage of each increment. . throughputs can not be balanced across increments. as is explained on page 50. if you have more than. you do Program not want to change cut-offs too frequently.000 point grade groups. say. and you can use this information to decide whether to combine them into grade distributions. This is because each Four-D or Four-X “parcel” becomes an Opti-Cut group. and. The Sequence Input Program print file also gives the number of groups which have point grades.time taken for an optimization. The Compaction Program can: • combine increments to make larger increments. Continued on next page 60 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. with very little loss of accuracy. produce new cut-offs for the start of every whether to use increment and period. This is because. Deciding As Opti-Cut can. • combine groups with point grades into a smaller number of groups with grade distributions.

. • Compacted Sequence Binary File .default file extension “. you can use a Sequence Text File. Continued on next page 61 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. you should first create a Sequence Binary File so that the Sequence program can provide the grade ranges for you.sbi”.default file extension “.or - • Sequence Binary File . 1998 . On the other hand.Compaction Program (OCCO).sbi”.default file extension “. if you know what point grades you want to compact into grade ranges.stx”. This is File or a because Sequence Binary Files contain summary point grade information that Sequence Sequence Text Files do not.prc”.default file extension “. Input Program Output Compaction Compacted Sequence Sequence Text File OCCO Binary File OR Print File Sequence Binary File Using a The question of whether to compact a Sequence Text File or Sequence Binary Sequence Text File is particularly relevant when it comes to compacting point grades. Files created • Print file . Binary File This means that if you are unsure about the grade ranges you want. Continued Files Files used • Sequence Text File . without the intermediate step.

Step Prompt Action Please enter a name for 1. 1998 . the New Sequence Binary Type in a name for the new Sequence File: Binary File and press ↵ Continued on next page 62 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. the print file: Type in a name for the print file and press the Enter key (“↵”) Sequence information 2. of the Sequence Text Type the name of the: File: • Sequence Text File. If you are using: • The Menu. type in: 1. Follow the 6 steps in the table below.or . choose the Compaction Program from the Menu. • The Command Line. Please enter the name 3. may be input in one of If you want to: two ways: • compact a Sequence Text File. type: OCCO and press the Enter key (“↵”). Continued Procedure Start up the Compaction Program. press: ↵ to accept the default [2]. . . Sequence Binary File 1 and press ↵ Your choice [2]: • compact a Sequence Binary File.or - Please enter the name of the Sequence Binary • Sequence Binary File File: and press ↵ Please enter a name for 4.Compaction Program (OCCO). Sequence Text File 2.

and multiply that figure by 10. press: ↵ to accept the default [Y] Prompt Action Please enter the Type in the grade grade discrimination discrimination for for each element each element. press: • grade information.Compaction Program (OCCO). Note: when determining grade discrimination. Continued on next page 63 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. type: N↵ Do you wish to compact 6. Example: if you require cut-offs to two decimal places. tonnage: • Do not want to compact the increment information. and/or information. as a general rule. we suggest. Continued Procedure (continued) Step Prompt Action 5. ↵ It will then ask: to accept the default [Y] Do you wish to compact Prompt Action the increment Please enter the Type in the desired information? (Y/N) [Y]? desired increment increment tonnage. and then. use 0. • create a compacted Sequence Binary File and a print file.1 (0. type: N↵ What happens The program will: • validate the Sequence file.01 x10). • Do not want to compact the grade information. The program tells you If you: that it can compact: • Want to compact the increment • increments. 1998 . so that the smallest cut-off difference which is of interest to you is 0. the grade information If you: • Want to compact the grade (Y/N) [Y]? information. that you take the smallest cut-off difference which is of interest to you.01.

In practice. Those slots which contain any material are converted into groups with the required grade range and average grade. report The Compaction Program also produces a report which is located in the print file. This is illustrated in the following diagram. Combining point grades into grade ranges cannot introduce an error in the optimized cut-offs of more than half the width of each grade range. 1998 . the Compaction Program combining point grades accumulates the tonnages and element quantities of the point grades into a series of slots of the required grade width. It places each new increment boundary at the nearest increments existing increment boundary to the desired tonnage boundary. Increment tonnage boundaries Old Desired New Note: the Compaction Program does not split increments to get closer to the desired targets. Groups which already have a grade range are unaltered. compacted Sequence Binary File is created. This accumulation is done separately for each type of rock within each new increment. the error will usually be a very small portion of that. Process: When combining point grades into grade ranges. Output and Finally the new. the Compaction combining Program does this first. Continued on next page 64 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.Compaction Program (OCCO). Continued Process: If you are combining small increments into larger ones.

Naming files For guidelines on the naming of files.36. 65 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction. • Sequence Binary Files. • Editing default answers. see page 40. • Overwriting files. • Command Line. Continued For more Using the Menu or the Command Line information For information about how to use the: • Menu. see page 48. see pages 42 and 83. see page 41.Varying the Compaction. see page 43. see page 46. Tutorials and For practice in using the Compaction Program.Compaction Program (OCCO). see page 37. Default filenames and extensions For more information about default filenames and extensions. 1998 . • Exercise 2 . see page 39. see pages 34 . starting on page 234. see pages 42 . Accepting/editing/overwriting defaults For more information about: • Accepting default answers. starting on page 222. see: exercises • Tutorial 2 . • Print files. File types For more information about: • Sequence Text Files.47.

pre”.Economics Input Program (OCEC) Purpose The Economics Input Program: • reads a Sequence Binary File and the Economics Text File containing information about an economic scenario.default file extension “. • Economics Binary File . 1998 .etx”.default file extension “. Files Files used • Sequence Binary File . • Economics Text File .default file extension “. Files created • Print file .ebi”. Input Program Output Economics Input Economics Text File OCEC Economics Binary File Sequence Binary File Print File Continued on next page 66 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.default file extension “.sbi”. • creates an Economics Binary File carrying the economic information in a form more suitable for optimization. and then.

Economics Text File. name of the Sequence Type the name of the Sequence Binary File Binary File: and press ↵ Please enter the 3. choose the Economics Input Program from the Menu. any errors or inconsistencies. Follow the steps in the table below. Process The Economics Input Program checks the validity of the Sequence Binary File and then reads and checks the Economics Text File. type: OCEC and press the Enter key (“↵”).and the - . It reports. If you are using: • The Menu. 1998 . If no errors are found.Economics Input Program (OCEC). the Economics Input Program creates an Economics Binary File. name of the Type the name of the Economics Text File Economics Text File: and press ↵ Please enter a name 4. Step Prompt Action Please enter a name 1. and then. Continued Procedure Start up the Economics Input Program. • The Command Line. Continued on next page 67 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. they should be corrected and Economics Input Program should be re-run. on the screen and in the print file. • create an Economics Binary File and a print file. for the Economics Type in a name for the Economics Binary Binary File: File and press ↵ What happens The program will: • read the: . If errors are reported.Sequence Binary File . for the print file: Type in a name for the print file and press Enter (“↵”) Please enter the 2.

47. starting on page 189. • Print files. starting on page 222. Any changes from period to period are highlighted with the symbol “!”. see page 48. For more Using the Menu or the Command Line information For information about how to use the: • Menu. see page 43. • Editing default answers. File types For more information about: • Sequence Binary Files. 68 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. see page 39. see page 41. see page 37. Tutorials and For practice in using the Economics Input Program. Default filenames and extensions For more information about default filenames and extensions. see pages 42 . Continued Report The print file contains a listing of the raw input data and a schedule of the economic data by period. see pages 43. 1998 . Naming files For guidelines on the naming of files.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction. see: exercises • Tutorial 1 . Accepting/editing/overwriting defaults For more information about: • Accepting default answers. 51 and 94. • Tutorial 2 .Economics Input Program (OCEC). • Economics Text Files. see pages 34 . see page 40. • Command Line. • Economics Binary Files. • Overwriting files.36.A Simple Run Through of the Main Programs. see page 46. see page 44.

default file extension “. 69 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. the Optimization Program checks its validity and the validity of the associated Sequence Binary File.default file extension “.default file extension “. When you enter the name of the Economics Binary File. Files created • Print file . 1998 . Input Program Output Optimization Sequence Result Binary File OCOP Binary File Economics Print File Binary File Print File Continued on next page † Note: the corresponding Sequence Binary File must be in your working directory. Note: the Optimization Program does need to not ask for the name of the Sequence Binary File. • Result Binary File .ebi”†.Optimization Program (OCOP) Purpose The Optimization Program: • performs the optimization. Files Files used • Economics Binary File .pro”. This is because the name of the relevant Sequence Binary File is stored in the Economics Binary File. and then. • produces a Result Binary File.rbi”.

Follow the steps in the table below. Continued Procedure Start up the Optimization Program. choose the Optimization Program from the Menu. then press: ↵ To accept the default [Y]. 1998 . for the print file: Type in a name for the print file and press Enter (“↵”) Please enter the 2.Optimization Program (OCOP). • The Command Line. Step Prompt Action Please enter a name 1. name of the Type the name of the Economics Binary File Economics Binary and press ↵ File: Please enter a name 3. optimize by period If you: (Y/N) [Y]? • Want to optimize by period. type: OCOP and press the Enter key (“↵”). • Do not want to optimize by period (but want to optimize by interval) then type: N↵ Continued on next page 70 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. If you are using: • The Menu. for the Result Type in a name for the Result Binary File Binary File: and press ↵ Do you wish to 4.

The term. . These maximize the NPV. • It will then create a Result Binary File and a print file. increment and interval is discussed below. 1998 . • If you have chosen not to optimize by period: . and. Note: to exit from the Optimization Program during a run. These maximize the cash flow. press the Escape (ESC) key. interval. Periods are usually years or quarters.or - • interval.Find the marginal cut-off(s) for each interval. The relationship between period. Optimizing by Opti-Cut lets you choose to optimize by: period or • period interval? . Opti-Cut will assume you want to optimize by interval. These maximize the NPV. Continued on next page 71 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.Economics Binary File. Continued Procedure (continued) What happens The program will: • Check the validity of the: . see page 99. for more information. Period A period is a time interval to which particular economics and throughput limits apply. Then: • If you have chosen to optimize by period: .Optimization Program (OCOP). These maximize the cash flow. . Period lengths are determined by the Period Length Line (PL) in the Economics Text File. .Find the marginal cut-off(s) for each period. is explained below.Find the optimized cut-offs for each interval.Find the optimized cut-offs for each period. If you choose not to optimize by period.Sequence Binary File.

for the period. Opti-Cut can work with cut-offs which are constant within each period or within each interval. throughput limits are applied to each interval separately. If you do not optimize by period. neither limit is reached. The Print Results Program can report by period or by interval in either case. Thus. It is therefore possible to have two intervals within a period which are constrained by different throughput limits (e. Usually. and.Optimization Program (OCOP). and can optimize the cut-offs accordingly. Example Periods Increments Intervals Time In the above example. processing and mining) with the result that. Interval We use the term interval to describe time intervals which end wherever a period or an increment ends. Note: however the optimization is done. the same cut-offs would be applied to increment 1 and to the first part of increment 2. 1998 . Continued Increment Increments are defined by the Sequence file.g. a new set of cut-offs would be generated for each interval. each increment: • contains different quantities of material. and so forth. if you were to optimize by period. Continued on next page 72 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. • takes a different amount of time to mine and process. cut-offs would be constant during each period.

Then - 2. The program calculates the marginal cut-offs....... This maximizes the cash flow as opposed to the NPV........ Continued on next page 73 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April................... it displays a progress bar which: • indicates that the program is still active. The progress bar looks like the following..Optimization Program (OCOP).. .. Continued Process Stages The optimization has two stages: 1......!..... Progress While the program is performing the optimization.. It optimizes cut-offs to maximize NPV............... This provides a comparison between the NPV from the maximized cut-offs and the cash flow from the marginal cut-offs. • gives an indication of the length of time it has taken for the current iteration. The position of the ‘!’ “counts” the number of times the cursor has passed along the line of dots. and.. Progress:.... 1998 ......

These modes are described below. • Increment-based capital injections occur at the start of the increment. Note: Mode=3 is the default mode for reporting. This means that the NPV calculated with the other modes may not be quite optimal. • Other cash flows occur at the end of the interval. Mode=2 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • All cash flows occur at the start of the period. • Other cash flows occur at the end of the period. However. The run terminates when the NPV calculated by Mode=1 cannot be increased further. For more information about how the optimization is achieved. 1998 . • Increment-based capital injections occur at the start of the increment. Mode=4 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • All capital injections occur at the start of the period. Continued on next page 74 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. the difference is usually insignificant. • Other cash flows occur continuously throughout the interval. Mode Description Mode=1 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • Period-based capital injections occur at the start of the period. as though each day’s cash flow was discounted with the fraction for that day. Mode=5 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • Period-based capital injections occur at the start of the period. Continued Process: NPV The Optimization Program calculates the NPVs for a number of discount modes discount modes. see page 263.Optimization Program (OCOP). Mode=3 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • All cash flows occur at the end of the period. The Optimization Program aims to maximize the NPV calculated using Mode=1.

see pages 42 . see page 40. • Economics Binary Files. see page 39. 1998 . Optimization techniques For more information about: • How the optimization is achieved. see page 37. • Print files. see page 48. Accepting/editing/overwriting defaults For more information about: • Accepting default answers. see page 43. For more Using the Menu or the Command Line information For information about how to use the: • Menu. 75 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. • Tutorial 2 . Default filenames and extensions For more information about default filenames and extensions. • Overwriting files.Optimization Program (OCOP).A Simple Run Through of the Main Programs. Naming files For guidelines on the naming of files. • Editing default answers. • The NPVs for the different discount modes. see page 46. see page 263.47.36. • Command Line.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction. see page 41. starting on page 222. Continued Report The Optimization Program produces a report in the print file. File types For more information about: • Sequence Binary Files. • The iterations of the optimization. see page 44. see: exercises • Tutorial 1 . This report shows: • The marginal cut-offs. see pages 34 . Tutorials and For practice in using the Optimization Program. starting on page 189.

default file extension “. • prints the results to a file that can be read by the user . it uses the Sequence Binary File and the Economics Binary File. if requested. • Spreadsheet Output File .rbi”.prp”.default file extension “.if spreadsheet output is required. 1998 . Input Program Output Result Print Results Binary File OCPR Print File Print File Sequence Binary File Economics Binary File et Sprea dshe e Spreadsheet Definition Fil Output File Continued on next page 76 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. so they must still be present in the working directory.ssd” .Print Results Program (OCPR) Purpose of the The Print Results Program: Print Results • reads the Result Binary File. Program and then. • Spreadsheet Definition File .default file extension “.sso” .and - • creates a Spreadsheet Output File. Files created • Print file .if spreadsheet output is requested. Note: although the Print Results Program does not ask for them by name.default file extension “. Files Files used • Result Binary File .

The program will tell you: If you: • Want to produce an Opti-Cut A report can be produced for marginal cut-offs or Opti-Cut optimized cut-offs report. print file: Type in a name for the print file and press Enter (“↵”) Please enter the name of the 2. The program will tell you: If you: • Want to see interval entries. Continued Procedure Start up the Print Results Program. 1998 . An entry can be produced for each interval or for each period press: It will then ask: Do you want to see interval ↵ entries (Y/N) [Y]? to accept the default [Y] • Do not want to see interval entries.Print Results Program (OCPR). press: It will then ask: ↵ Do you want to produce an Opti-Cut report (Y/N) [Y]? to accept the default [Y] to report optimized cut-offs • Do not want to produce an Opti-Cut report. choose the Print Results Program from the Menu. If you are using: • The Menu. type: OCPR and press the Enter key (“↵”). Follow the 6 steps in the table below. type: N↵ Continued on next page 77 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. Result Binary File: Type the name of the Result Binary File and press ↵ 3. type: N↵ to get the marginal cut-off report 4. Step Prompt Action Please enter a name for the 1. • The Command Line.

1998 . Continued Procedure (continued) Step Prompt Action Do you want to output data for 5. • Do not want to output data for spreadsheet use. spreadsheet use (Y/N) [Y]? If you: • Want to output data for spreadsheet use.Print Results Program (OCPR). type: N↵ Continued on next page 78 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. press: ↵ to accept the default [Y] Prompt Action Please enter Type the name the name of the of the Spreadsheet Spreadsheet Definition File: Definition File and press Enter. Please enter Type in a a name for the name for the Spreadsheet Spreadsheet Output File: Output File and press Enter.

(max.NUMBER OF DECIMAL PLACES Prompt Action Small rock quantities 2 The .Print Results Program (OCPR). and then. The program will list a series of If you: items and the default number of • Want to modify any of the decimal places for each of those decimal places.and - • if you have requested spreadsheet output. it will create a Spreadsheet Output File. press: items. • print the results to a print file that can be read by the user. type: N↵ What happens The program will: • read the Result Binary File. It then asks: ↵ Do you want to modify any of to accept the default [Y] these values (Y/N) [N]? REPORT DISPLAYS . 8) and press ↵ . 1998 .Choose the Large rock quantities 0 program number of the Small metal quantities 2 will item you want and press ↵. Continued Procedure (continued) Step Prompt Action 6. Large metal quantities 0 display a Small dollar values 2 numbered Large dollar values 0 .Continue this process until you have completed all necessary changes. . • Do not want modify any of the decimal places.<element> 3 list of number of Do you want to modify any of these these decimal places values (Y/N) [N] items. then type: 99↵ to exit. Continued on next page 79 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April.Type in the Grade for .

then the number of decimal places is reduced and an asterisk (“*”) is added to the end of the number to indicate that this has happened. Continued on next page 80 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. If scaling factors are used. tonnages. is located in the print file. Continued Note: when changing reporting decimal places or scaling factors.000. and. Process Using the cut-offs from the Result Binary File. containing details of the Print Results Program run. Note also: if a number is too big to be displayed in the space available. it produces any spreadsheet data that you have requested. the program simulates the life of the mine. so that it can easily be re-run with different Spreadsheet Definition Files or alternate reporting selections. the computer will display the number of decimal places allowable.Print Results Program (OCPR). • in total. and prints a summary of the operation: • for each interval or period. Report A report.000. 1998 . production and discounted cash flows. Scaling factors are input as a negative value from one to six. This means a scaling by a factor of from 10 to 1. they are shown on the output report. The run time of this program is very short. but could be displayed if the number of decimal places was reduced. Re-optimization is not required. The Print Results Program gives details of the economic values. At the same time.

Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction. File types For more information about: • Print files.36. 1998 . 81 Part 2: Programs in the Opti-Cut Package 28 April. see pages 34 . see page 46. starting on page 189.47. see page 37. see page 39.Print Results Program (OCPR). see pages 44 and 117. see: exercises • Tutorial 1 . • Tutorial 2 . see page 44. Default filenames and extensions For more information about default filenames and extensions. see pages 42 . • Spreadsheet Definition Files. • Overwriting files. see page 48. • Result Binary Files. • Command Line. Tutorials and For practice in using the Print Results program. see page 40.A Simple Run Through of the Main Programs.Using a Stockpile. starting on page 222. Continued For more Using the Menu or the Command Line information For information about how to use the: • Menu. Naming files For guidelines on the naming of files. see page 41. • Spreadsheet Output Files. see pages 45 and 132. starting on page 237. • Editing default answers. Accepting/editing/overwriting defaults For more information about: • Accepting default answers. • Tutorial 3 .

In this part This part is divided up into the following chapters. See page 268 for details of these limits. 1998 . 82 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. • Spreadsheet Definition Files. • Economics Text Files. Part 3: Detailed File Formats Overview Introduction This section details the following text files used by Opti-Cut: • Sequence Text Files. • Spreadsheet Output Files. Chapter See Page Chapter 1: Sequence Text File 83 Chapter 2: Economics Text File 94 Chapter 3: Spreadsheet Files 116 Text file There are limits to the numbers of various types of items that can be included limitations in these text files.

Chapter 1: Sequence Text File Overview In this section This chapter contains the following topics. Topic See Page Background Information 84 The Way the Sequence Text File Describes the Physical 85 Resource Sequence Text File Layout 87 Lines in Detail 89 Sequence Text File Guidelines and Examples 92 83 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 1998 .

Background Information

Description Sequence Text Files (default file extension “.stx”) are text files that describe
the physical resource and the proposed mining sequence.
In other words, they describe the material to be mined, in the sequence in
which you plan to mine it.

How the The Sequence Text File can be created:
Sequence Text
• By a GMP, Four-D or Four-X.
File is created
These packages will provide you with a fully detailed sequence, which
could contain over 500,000 lines of text.
• Using a text editor or a word processor, in pure text mode.
This will produce a rough concept which might contain as little as 50 lines
of text. This method is particularly useful for early feasibility work.

The programs The Sequence Text File is used by:
that use the
• The Sequence Input Program to create a Sequence Binary File.
Sequence Text
File Each Sequence Text File must be converted into a Sequence Binary File,
before it can be used for an optimization.
• The Compaction Program.

The Compaction Program can compact the increments and/or point grades
in a Sequence Text File. See page 60 for more information.
This reduces:
- the size of the file, and,
- the time taken for an optimization.

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The Way the Sequence Text File Describes the Physical
Resource

Lines in the The Sequence Text File is made up of a number of lines of text, each
Sequence Text describing certain aspects of the physical resource.
File.
In particular, they describe:
• The increments in the physical resource, in the sequence in which they are to
be mined.
• The groups in each increment.
Each group has:
- a rock-type,
- a tonnage, and,
- for each element in that rock-type, a grade range and an average grade or
just a single point grade.
The terms, “sequence”, “increment” and “group” are explained below.

Definition: Sequence
Sequence,
increment,
A sequence is defined as the material which is to be mined, in the order in
group which it is to be mined.
A sequence consists of one or more increments, each in turn consisting of a
number of groups.
The following diagram illustrates the relationship between a sequence, and a
series of increments and groups.

Increment 1 Groups

Increment 2
Sequence

Increment 3

Continued on next page

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The Way the Sequence Text File Describes the Physical
Resource, Continued

Increment
In this context, an increment is a particular section, phase or cut-back of the
mine.
It will usually contain sufficient tonnage to satisfy at least a few months'
production. Increments should appear in the sequence in which they will be
mined. Opti-Cut makes no attempt to modify this sequence.
If only a fraction of a particular increment is mined during a particular time
period, the same fraction of each part of it is assumed to be mined. This is not
how mining takes place in practice, but doing the optimization in this way has
no appreciable effect on the cut-offs.

Group
Each increment consists of a number of groups which, collectively, describe
the types of rock and grade distributions in the increment. Depending on the
amount of detail available about the grade distributions, there may be anything
from a handful, to tens of thousands of groups in an increment.
Each group has a rock-type, a tonnage and, for each element in that rock-type,
a grade range and an average grade or a point grade. Each group can also
carry positional cost adjustment factors for mining and processing costs.

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Sequence Text File Layout

Line types Sequence Text Files are made up of lines of text.
Each line of text has a line type.
Line types identify the information contained in the particular line.

Order Line types must adhere to a certain order in the Sequence Text File.
The order is as follows:
• Sequence Description Line.
• One or more Element Lines.
• One or more rock-type definitions, consisting of:
- A Rock-type Line.
- Zero or more Element Presence Lines.
• One or more increments, consisting of:

- An Increment Description Line.
- One or more groups, consisting of:
A Group Header Line.
Any required element grade details.

Continued on next page

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Sequence Text File Layout, Continued

Information Line types are followed by certain information.
following line
types
This information may take the form of:
• Description(s).
Descriptions can contain up to 56 characters.
• Code(s).
Codes are created by the user to identify an element or a type of rock.
They can contain from 1 to 8 characters, starting with an alphabetic
character. Alphabetic case is not significant.
• Numeric value(s).
Numeric values may include values for grades of material, tonnage values
and cost adjustment factors.
• Additional information.
Additional information may include decimal places and scaling factors.
• A combination of these.

Example

Line type <description>
Line type <code> <numeric value> <additional information>

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1 increment Layout Definition Element Line EL <Element code> <Element code> <Decimals-grade> (EL) <Decimals-total> A code to identify an element. The angle brackets should not be included.Lines in Detail Introduction This topic describes Sequence Text File lines in detail. <Decimals-total> The number of decimal places to use when displaying totals of units of this element. Example: RO WASTE Continued on next page 89 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Layout Definition Sequence SEQ <Description> <Description> Description Up to 56 characters to describe the sequence. (SEQ) Example: SEQ Simple single element sequence . 1998 . Note: Items in angle brackets “< >”. A maximum of 4 decimal places is allowed. The Line description is optional. <Decimals-grade> The number of decimal places to use when displaying grades of this element. Example: EL GOLD 2 Layout Definition Rock-type Line RO <Rock-type code> <Rock-type code> (RO) A code to identify a type of rock. should be replaced by appropriate codes or values. Note that scaling is allowed here.

and the cost at the Reference Position. (optional) This must be a previously defined element code. defined above. (IN) Example: IN 1 Top Layout Definition Group Header GR <Rock-type code> <Tonnage> <Rock-type code> Line <Mining CAF> <Processing CAF> A rock-type code. Example: ELP GOLD Layout Definition Increment IN <Description> <Description> Description Up to 56 characters to describe the increment. 1998 . <Mining CAF> The ratio between the cost of mining at the position in the mine of this group. <Processing CAF> The ratio between the cost of processing at the position in the mine of this group. and the cost at the Reference Position. Example: GR ORE 1000 Continued on next page 90 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. The Line description is optional. (GR) <Tonnage> The total tonnage of the group.Lines in Detail. Continued Layout Definition Element ELP <Element code> <Element code> Presence Line This element code represents an element that occurs in (ELP) the type of rock identified by the previous Rock-type Line.

<Average grade> The average grade of this element. it is assumed that there is no significant correlation between the grades of the different elements within the range of grades in the group. <Maximum grade> The maximum grade of this element.0 0.0 91 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Continued Layout Definition Element ELA <Element code> <Element code> <Average grade> Average The code of the element for the rock-type of this group. If more than one element is involved.Lines in Detail.5 1. 1998 . (ELA) Example: ELA GOLD 3. Example: ELR GOLD 0.7 Layout Definition Element Range ELR <Element code> <Element code> Line <Minimum grade> The code of the element for the rock-type of this group. (point grade) <Average grade> Line The average grade of this element. <Average grade> (ELR) <Maximum grade> <Minimum grade> The minimum grade of this element.

Example: 1200. The alphabetic case of these letters is unimportant. 1998 . Example: Here is an example of the structure of a simple Sequence Text File.a “k”.Sequence Text File Guidelines and Examples Rules and Please note the following rules when creating Sequence Text Files.an “m”. The comment starts with ! and any further information on the line is ignored. or. Alphabetic case is not significant. • Numeric values can immediately be followed by: . structure SEQ <Description> EL <Element code> <Decimals> RO <Rock-type code> ELP <Element code> RO <Rock-type code> IN <Description> GR <Rock-type code> <Tonnage> <Mining CAF> <Processing CAF> GR <Rock-type code> <Tonnage> <Mining CAF> <Processing CAF> ELR <Element code> <Minimum grade> <Average grade> <Maximum grade> GR <Rock-type code> <Tonnage> <Mining CAF> <Processing CAF> ELR <Element code> <Minimum grade> <Average grade> <Maximum grade> GR <Rock-type code> <Tonnage> <Mining CAF> <Processing CAF> ELA <Element code> <Average grade> Continued on next page 92 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. and blank lines. but you can end any line with an ampersand (“&”) and continue it on the next line. 1. starting with an alphabetic character. guidelines • Items on a line should be separated by one or more spaces. can appear anywhere in the file. • Codes can contain from 1 to 8 characters. indicating millions.0012M all give the same value.2k and 0. • Individual lines are limited to 128 characters. indicating thousands. • Comment lines starting with !. . • In-line comments can be appended to any line.

93 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Items in angle brackets have been replaced with appropriate codes or values and comment lines (“!”) have been added. 1998 .1 increment ! Product code and decimal places for display EL GOLD 2 ! Rock type information RO ORE ELP GOLD RO WASTE ! waste has no elements IN ! start of increment GR WASTE 3000 GR ORE 1000 ELR GOLD 0.0 0.5 1.0 GR ORE 100 ELA GOLD 3. Sequence Text File ! Description SEQ Simple single element sequence .Sequence Text File Guidelines and Examples.0 1.6 2.7 This example uses the example structure above. Continued Example: Here is an example of a simple Sequence Text File.0 GR ORE 2000 ELR GOLD 1.

1998 . Topic See Page Background Information 95 Economics Text File Layout 96 Lines in Detail 98 Allowed Value Types and Functions 109 Economics Text File Guidelines and Examples 114 94 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Chapter 2: Economics Text File Overview In this chapter This chapter contains the following topics.

The resultant Economics Binary File contains a reference to the Sequence Binary File. How the Economics Text Files are created by: Economics Text • Four-D or Four-X. Note: the Economics Input Program requests the name of the relevant Sequence Binary File when creating an Economics Binary File. This is because economic data. or. such as prices and costs. The programs The Economics Text File is used by the Economics Input Program to create an that use the Economics Binary File. File is created • by the user.Background Information Description Economics Text Files (default file extension “. with a text editor or a word processor in pure text mode. must be interpreted in relation to the rock-types and elements described in a Sequence Binary File.etx”) are text files that carry detailed information about an economic scenario and how the optimization is to be done. The Economics Input Program checks the file in detail during the conversion. Economics Text File The Economics Text File must be converted into an Economics Binary File before optimization. 1998 . 95 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.

• Period Length Line. • Zero or more Capital Injection Lines. • Zero or more Stockpile Lines: . • Time Costs Line. 1998 . Order Line types must adhere to a certain order in the Economics Text File. • Zero or more Throughput Group Lines. . .A Method/Rock-type Line. • One or more processing path definitions. • Zero or one Terminal Value Lines. • Zero or more Rock-type Lines. • One or more Throughput Limit Lines. • One or more Product Lines. • One or more Cut-off Lines. Each line of text has a line type. • Zero or more Expression Variable Lines. Line types identify the information contained in the line.One or more Method/Rock-type/Product Lines.The required Stockpile Detail Lines. Continued on next page 96 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.Economics Text File Layout Lines types Economics Text Files are made up of lines of text. The order is as follows: • Economics Line. • Zero or more Global Mining Factor Lines. • Discount Line.Zero or more Method/Rock-type/Cut-off Lines. consisting of: .

1998 . 97 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. • A combination of these. • Expressions. expression variables and quantities for an interval. • Additional information. These values are referred to as “allowed value types”. containing constants and expression variables. containing constants. for more information. Codes are created by the user to identify an element or a type of rock. Alphabetic case is not significant. starting with an alphabetic character. The types of values that can occur in the Economics Text File are: • Constants. Values Lines may also contain values. types Descriptions can contain up to 56 characters. Continued Information Line types may be followed by: following line • Description(s). containing constants. They can contain from 1 to 8 characters.Economics Text File Layout. Additional information may include decimal places and scaling factors. • Code(s). See page 109. expression variables and element grades. • Values which vary with period. • Expressions. • Expressions.

containing constants.Lines in Detail Introduction This topic describes Economics Text File lines in detail. (TV) the estimated value of the remainder of the resource should be given. 1998 . This description is optional. should be replaced by appropriate codes or values. Note also: Items in angle brackets “< >”. expression Q variables and quantities for an interval. expression G variables and element grades. Layout Definition Economics Line ECO <Description> <Description> (ECO) A description of the economic scenario of up to 56 characters. Example: ECO Minimum economic conditions .base case Layout Definition Terminal Value TV <Terminal Value> <Terminal Value> Line If only part of a resource is described in the sequence. (optional) Allowed value types: C. containing constants and expression X variables. in today’s dollars. Note: in the following information. Example: TV 50m Continued on next page 98 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Expressions. allowed value types are abbreviated as follows: Allowed value type Abbreviation Constants. Expressions. The angle brackets should not be included. containing constants. P Expressions. C Values which vary with period.

Example: EV YEAR 0 p2/1 p3/2 p4/3 p5/4 Layout Definition Period Length PL <Number of Months> <Number of Months> Line The number of months must be a whole number. P. Allowed value types: C. X. rather than tonnage. (EV) (optional) Expression variables are useful for: • ensuring that the same number is used throughout the file. <Time Costs> The costs which are time. P. Allowed value types: C.Lines in Detail. P. (TC) • “M” if time cost figures are per month. Continued Layout Definition Expression EV <Code for Variable> <Code for Variable> <Value for Variable> Variable Line A code for a value that you will use in an expression later in this file. (PL) No decimal places. and. <Value for Variable> Allowed value types: C. 1998 . Example: TC A 1. Example: PL 12 Layout Definition Time Costs TC <Time Unit> <Time Costs> <Time Unit> Line • “A” if time cost figures are per annum. X.5m Continued on next page 99 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. dependent. • introducing variations with period into expressions.

Note: you cannot have increment zero. they must be in the order of increasing period or increment number. Allowed value types: C. If there is more than one Capital Injection Line. Allowed value types: C. 1998 .Lines in Detail. <Amount> Allowed value types: C. (optional) This is used for reporting purposes only. P. X. P. X. Use “0” for initial capital expenditure. Example: CI 0 16m Layout Definition Inflation Line IN <Rate per Annum> <Rate per Annum> (IN) The percentage inflation rate per annum. Example: IN 5 Layout Definition Discount Line DI <Rate per Annum> <Rate per Annum> (DI) The percentage discount rate per annum. Example: DI 10 Continued on next page 100 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Prices and costs must still be given in constant dollars. Increment Number> <Amount> Injection Line (CI) • “I” if the capital injection is at the start of an (optional) increment. Continued Layout Definition Capital CI <unit> <Period or <Unit> • “P” if the capital injection is at the start of a period. <Period or Increment Number> The number of the period or increment in which the capital injection is to take place.

A maximum of 4 decimal places is allowed. Allowed value types: C. <Sales Cost per Unit> The cost of selling a unit of this product. Continued Layout Definition Product Line PR <Element code> P <Element code> <Price per Unit> The code of an element which is a product. P. Example: PR GOLD P 445. X. (EL) <Decimals> The number of decimal places to use when displaying grades of this element. Allowed value types: C. (PR) PR <Element code> S <Price per Unit> <Sales Cost per Unit> The price obtainable for a unit of this product. This also sets the discrimination .01 Continued on next page 101 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.00 Layout Definition Element Line EL <Element code> <Decimals> <Element code> The code of an element to which cut-offs are to apply. Example: EL GOLD 0. Optional.that is. 1998 . Allowed value types: C. X.Lines in Detail. P. If this field is omitted. then the value in Element Line in the Sequence Text File is used. the smallest difference in grade which is significant for this element.

ground. where material that will not be processed is left in the ground. (RO) RO <Rock-type code> E <Environmental Cost> <Mining Cost> RO <Rock-type code> L The cost of mining a tonne of this type of rock if it is at the Reference Position. G . L L indicates that this type of rock is used in an underground operation. P. P. <Environmental Cost> The cost of rehabilitating a tonne of this type of rock if it is not processed. then this rock-type/element combination is included in the cut-offs.Lines in Detail. Optional. X. If this line is omitted for this rock-type/element combination. Allowed value types: C. or • is not (“N”) included in the list of cut-offs.waste grade.65 Layout Definition Rock-type ROC <Element code> Y <Element code> Element Cut-off or The code of an element. Continued Layout Definition Rock-type Line RO <Rock-type code> M <Mining <Rock-type code> Cost> Any rock-type code. Example: ROC CU N Continued on next page 102 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Allowed value types: C. G . Line This line identifies whether this element for this ROC <Element code> N (ROC) rock-type: • is (“Y”) (optional). X. Example: RO ORE M 1. Mining costs for unprocessed material will therefore be zero. 1998 .

1998 . Example: MT MILL ORE 16. by the current method.0 Continued on next page 103 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. X.input grade.50 Layout Definition Method/ MTP <Product code> R <Recovery Percentage> <Product code> Rock-type/ The code for a product which is in the above rock-type. Continued Layout Definition Method/ MT <Method code> <Method code> <Rock-type code> <Processing Rock-type Line Cost> A code which identifies a particular processing method. Product Line MTP <Product code> N <Non-linearity Threshold> <Recovery Percentage> (MTP) The percentage of this product which is recovered when the current rock-type is processed. X. G . X. when the current rock-type is processed by the current method. (MT) <Rock-type code> Any rock-type code. by this method.Lines in Detail. Example: MTP GOLD R 94. processing methods must be specified in the order in which they are to be used. Allowed value types: C. G . Optional. This specifies that the particular rock-type can be processed by this method. <Non-linearity Threshold> The recovery non-linearity threshold for this product. P. Note: if more than one processing method is available for a particular rock-type. Allowed value types: C. P. Allowed value types: C. P. <Processing Cost> The cost of processing a tonne of this rock-type.input grade.

P.Lines in Detail. Example: MTC Gold I 30 P3/0 Layout Definition Throughput TG <Throughput Group code> <Throughput Group code> <Throughput Def.> Group Line A code to identify a quantity which is to be limited during each period. P. Allowed value types: C. (TG) <Throughput Def.Q/1. <Maximum Cut-off> The highest allowable cut-off for this element when the current rock-type is processed by the current method. See pages 113. Continued Layout Definition Method/ MTC <Element code> I <Element code> <Minimum Cut-off> Rock-type/ A code for an element (already defined) pertaining to Cut-off Line MTC <Element code> A the current rock-type. ROCK. is already defined in the program and does not need to be defined here.> An expression involving quantities. 184 for a discussion of user-supplied cut-offs and of the pitfalls of not allowing Opti-Cut to find its own cut-offs. X. Provision value types: Q.05 + OREB. 172. 183. 1998 . Allowed value types: C. X. Note: the throughput group. <Maximum Cut-off> <Minimum Cut-off> (MTC) The lowest allowable cut-off for this element when the (optional) current rock-type is processed by the current method.Q Continued on next page 104 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Example: TG MILL OREA.

Continued Layout Definition Throughput TL <Code> <Time Unit> <Code> <Throughput Limit> Limit Line A code that identifies an item which is to be limited in each period. <Time Unit> • “A” if throughput limits are per annum. X. P.Lines in Detail. Example: TL ROCK A 1. which is the total of all material mined. “ROCK”. <Throughput Limit> The maximum that this particular throughput must not exceed. rock-type. There is also a pre-defined code. Allowed value types: C. This can be an element. 1998 . (TL) method.4m Continued on next page 105 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. • “M” if throughput limits are per month. or Group code.

it is common for it to be diluted by MF S extra waste. MF DPVS <decimal places Value small> Allowed value types: C. MF DPPL <decimal places Product <Global Stockpile Limit> large> The limit of the sum of all stockpile tonnages. <decimal places Rock small> <Mining Recovery Factor> MF DPRL <decimal places Rock large> The fraction of the material mined as ore which is MF DPPS actually input to the processing mill. then more material up to the limit. <Mining Stockpile Factor> Use: • 0 where stockpile usage is included in the rock throughput limit. DPVS (small value) This can have up to 4 decimal places. This factor gives the increase in ore (MF) <Mining Stockpile Factor> tonnage overall. Allowed value types: C.000.0. It must be greater than. material that could have been <decimal places Value large> added to a stockpile is discarded.000. Example: MF S 0 Continued on next page 106 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. If material is consumed from the stockpile after this limit has been reached. DPRS. Note: small values do not have a scaling factor. X. small> Allowed value types: C. 1998 . or equal to. Allowed value types: C. DPPS (small values) These can have up to 8 decimal places. They do not scale the input data. X. DPRL. MF DPVL Once this limit is reached. • 1 where stockpile usage is independent of the rock limit. P. P. (optional) MF SL 1. <Global Stockpile Limit> MF DPRS Allowed value types: C. from 10 to 1. X. This must be less <decimal places Product than or equal to 1.Lines in Detail. This scales the output data by factors of ten. <Decimal places…> These control the way the data is reported in the Print Results Program. P. DPPL. Continued Layout Definition Global Mining MF D <Mining Dilution Factor> <Mining Dilution Factor> Factors Line MF R <Mining Recovery Factor> When ore is mined. DPVL (large values) These can have up to 8 decimal places. They can also have a scaling factor from -1 to -6. can be added.0.

X. <Re-handling Cost> The cost of re-handling stockpile material when it is processed.Lines in Detail. Allowed value types: C. Continued Layout Definition Stockpile Line SP <Rock-type code> <Initial <Rock-type code> Size> <Re-handling Cost> The code for any type of rock which contains product. P. (SP) <Initial Size> (optional) The initial tonnage of this stockpile. Allowed value types: C. 1998 . See page 173 for a detailed discussion of stockpiles. Example: SP OXID 0 .5 Continued on next page 107 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Optional.

X. Optional. Allowed value types: C. <Initial Grade> The initial grade of this stockpile. P. Example: SPD GOLD R 100 SPD GOLD I . P.025 108 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Continued Layout Definition Stockpile Detail SPD <Product code> R <Recovery Percentage> <Product code> Line SPD <Element code> I Any product code applicable to the rock-type of this stockpile. X. <Recovery Percentage> This defines an additional recovery loss. but it is not necessary to specify grades for every element in a multi-element situation. Optional. This is only relevant if the initial tonnage in the SP line is not zero. X. then the resultant recovery when stockpile material is processed is 81%. if the milling recovery is 90% and the stockpile recovery is 90%. For example. P. and how the material will be marked and moved to the stockpile(s). <Maximum Grade> Material for this element that has a grade equal to or above this figure will not be placed in this stockpile. At least one element must have a minimum grade and possibly a maximum grade. The user should consider the practical aspects of grade control. Allowed value types: C. Grade ranges for stockpiles of the same rock-type must not overlap. <Minimum Grade> Material for this element that has a grade below this figure will not be placed in this stockpile. Allowed value types: C.Lines in Detail. Allowed value types: C. 1998 . (SPD) <Minimum Grade> SPD <Element code> A <Element code> <Maximum Grade> Any element code applicable to the rock-type of this SPD <Element code> G <Initial Grade> stockpile. due to degradation in the stockpile. A stockpile recovery percentage must be defined for every relevant product.

3” and “3. and. where: • expression variables.7 + EV1 . 4.8 p5/6 In this example. see Lines in Detail on page 98. grade information from element GOLD. Where: • k is thousands.3 p3/4. Expression containing: Example: • constants 4. The allowed value types are described in the table below. 12k or 2.3” until period 3. • m is millions.G” tells the system to use the • element grades. Allowed value There are five different ways values can be input into an Economics Text File.GOLD. and. the letter “p” is used to indicate that the value of the item is: • “4. when it changes to 4. • “1. • “6” at the start of period 5. that can be used when creating an Economic Text File.4 • constants.G/100 • expression variables.Allowed Value Types and Functions Introduction This section describes the allowed value types that can be used in an Economics Text File. types These are referred to as “allowed value types”. Economics Text File. as defined in an Expression Variable Line.4” are constants. For more information about where the various allowed value types can be used in the Economics Text File. Value which varies with the The letter “p” is used to indicate period. Continued on next page 109 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.8. 1998 . In this example the “.5. Expression containing: 1.3 + ev1*3. in the period. • “ev1” is an expression variable. Allowed value type Description Constant 0.7M. and. The item remains at 6 thereafter. It also describes the arithmetic signs and the various functions.

Q . the “. Used for subtraction. Used for addition. * ‘Times’.Q” tells the system to use the quantity information in relation to the methods. rock variable. Note: most values are.0. in practice. the following arithmetic symbols can symbols be used.q + MILL2.Q In this example. mill1 and mill2 and in relation to the product waste.Q is used to indicate that the quantity information should be used for product variables. • <product>. ROCK) is used to indicate that the • quantities for an interval.2*EV1*WASTE. and. which combines various throughputs. / ‘Division’.Allowed Value Types and Functions. • <method>. quantity information should be used for mining variables. Continued on next page 110 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. entered as a constant.Q is used to indicate that the quantity information should be used for processing variables. Symbol Name and description + ‘Plus’. 1998 . Arithmetic When creating an Economics Text File. ‘Minus’. Continued Allowed value types (continued) Allowed value type Description Expression containing: In the Economics Text File: • constants • <rock-type>.Q (including the predefined total • expression variables. Used for division. . ** Used for raising a value to a power. Used for multiplication. Example: mill1.

.X3.. any argument of a function can be: • a constant.Allowed Value Types and Functions. or. Minimum (X1.X3. you can use certain functions in expressions in an Economics Text File. Standard Seven standard functions may be used in Economics Text Files. In each case. 1998 .X2. Log 10 (X) LOG1 Log1(X) This gives the log to the base 10 of X.. • an expression that may include functions to any depth. Integral part of (X) I I(X) This gives the largest integer that is not greater than X.. They are functions described below. Continued Functions In addition... 111 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.X3.X3.X2. Continued on next page † This is the minimum number of letters that needs to be provided. Name and function Symbol† Layout Square root (X) SQ SQ(X) This gives the square root of X.) MA MA(X1...X2..) This gives the maximum of a list of values.X2.) MI MI(X1. Maximum (X1. Exponential (X) E E(X) This gives the exponential (base “e”) of X. Log (X) LOG Log(X) This gives the natural logarithm of X..) This gives the minimum of a list of values.

. if the grade was greater than or equal to 3. That is.Yn) R R(X. Y3.6. and returns the Y value that is also between those Z values. The Z values should be in ascending order (no check is made of this). 1. 3.. until a Z value higher than the X value is found.. Note that the second value and the last value should be Y values. so there should be an even number of arguments..6. Y2. Ranges(X. Y3... Y1.2) This example could be used to set a factor 20% higher. Z3.4. Z1.Yn) SE SE(X. 1998 . if X is 3. Z1. 112 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 1. according to the Z3.Allowed Value Types and Functions. In other words. Continued on next page † This is the minimum number of letters that needs to be provided.. Y1..G. Y2. Example: R(Gold... If X is greater than or equal to the last Z value.6. 1. Y2.. Continued Special Two special functions are also available for use in Economics Text Files. 1.. functions These are described below. The value of X is compared with each Z value in turn.Yn) Select takes the integral part of X and uses it to select from the Y values. If X is less than 1.. 1. Y4. Ranges selects one of the Y values. The Y value prior to the Z value is then used.. Y3.) The example above could be used to generate a value that varies irregularly with the integral value of an expression variable. the function finds the pair of Z values between which the X value lies. Name and function Symbol† Layout Select (X.. then the last Y value is used. Y2.27... If the integral part of X is greater than the number of Y values. Y1 is used. Example: se(EV1. Z2. 1.. Y1. Z2. Select will have the value Y3.. the last Y value is used. 1. Y3.32..Yn) value of X in relation to the Z values. Y1.3.35.

5. it can become unstable. the Optimization Program is presented with two maxima from which to choose. You should. 10. 20. a processing cost based on R(GRADE. therefore. for example. If. Continued Problems with The flexibility provided by the use of functions can sometimes lead to using functions problems. 113 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.0. For example. avoid grade-dependent expressions which can cause the cash-flow from a group to increase suddenly as the relevant cut-off increases.0) would decrease suddenly if the cut-off increased to the point where the feed grade for a group was above 5.Allowed Value Types and Functions. 1998 .

Alphabetic case is not significant.Economics Text File Guidelines and Examples Rules and Please note the following rules when creating or editing Economics Text Files. • Comment lines starting with !. The comment starts with ! and any further information on the line is ignored. structure ECO <Description> PL <Number of months> TC <Time Unit> <Time Costs> CI <unit> <Period or Increment Number> <Amount> CI <unit> <Period or Increment Number> <Amount> DI <Rate per Annum> PR <Element code> P <Price per unit> EL <Element code> <Decimals> RO <Rock-type code> <Mining Cost> RO <Rock-type code> <Environmental Cost> MT <method code> <Rock-type code> <Processing Cost> MTP <Product code> R <Recovery Percentage> TL <Code> <Time Unit> <Throughput Limit> TL <Code> <Time Unit> <Throughput Limit> Continued on next page 114 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. but you can end any line with an ampersand (“&”) and continue it on the next line. 1. • In-line comments can be appended to any line. The alphabetic case of these letters is unimportant. and blank lines. guidelines • Items on a line should be separated by one or more spaces. or. starting with an alphabetic character.a “k”.0012M all give the same value. • Individual lines are limited to 128 characters. .2k and 0. Example TV 50m ! residual value at the end of five years Example: Here is an example of the structure of a simple Economics Text File. • Codes can contain from 1 to 8 characters. • Numeric values can immediately be followed by: . indicating millions. 1998 .an “m”. For example: 1200. indicating thousands. can appear anywhere in the file.

Economics Text File Guidelines and Examples, Continued

Example: Here is an example of a simple Economics Text File.
Economics Text
File

! Description
ECO Minimum economic conditions - Base case
! Period length in months
PL 12
! Time costs per annum
TC A 1.5m
! Initial Capital and injection in period three
CI 0 16m
CI 3 2.5m
! Discount rate
DI 10
! Pricing
PR GOLD P 445.00
! Cut-off
EL GOLD 0.01
! Mining & processing costs
RO ORE M 1.65
RO WASTE M 1.65
MT MILL ORE 16.50
MTP GOLD R 94.0
! Throughput limits
TL ROCK A 1.4m
TL MILL A 250k

This example uses the example structure above. Items in angle brackets have
been replaced with appropriate codes or values and comment lines (“!”) have
been added.

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Chapter 3: Spreadsheet Files
Overview

In this chapter This chapter contains the following two sections.

Section See Page
Section A: Spreadsheet Definition File 117
Section B: Spreadsheet Output File 132

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Section A: Spreadsheet Definition File
Overview

In this section This section contains the following topics.

Topic See Page
Background Information 118
Spreadsheet Definition File Layout 119
Spreadsheet Definition File Codes 120
Spreadsheet Definition File Guidelines and Examples 126
The Application of Spreadsheet Codes 128

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Background Information

Description Spreadsheet Definition Files (default file extension “.ssd”) are text files which
control the data that the Print Results Program outputs to Spreadsheet Output
Files.

How the The Spreadsheet Definition Files are created and modified using a text editor
Spreadsheet or a word processor in pure text mode.
Definition File is
created

The programs The Spreadsheet Definition File is used by the Print Results Program, which
that use the reads:
Spreadsheet
Definition File • the Result Binary File, the Sequence and Economics Binary Files, and,
• the Spreadsheet Definition File.

It then produces a Spreadsheet Output File.

Output The Spreadsheet Definition File can specify the following tables of values as
output in the Spreadsheet Output File:
• An interval table.
• A period table.
• A grand totals table.

See Spreadsheet Output File Layout and Format on page 134, for more
information.

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Spreadsheet Definition File Layout

Line types Spreadsheet Definition Files are made up of lines of text.
Each line of text starts with a line type.
The line types for the Spreadsheet Definition File are:
• INT
- INT specifies which code values should appear in the intervals table, and
the order in which they appear.
• PER
- PER shows the interval data accumulated for the period and their order.
• GRA
- GRA specifies which values should appear in the grand totals table and
their order.
Note: all INT and PER values report the status at the end of the interval or
period.

Information Line types are followed by a series of codes.
following line
types
Codes may appear more than once in a line, if required.
Example

<line type> <code> <code> <code>

Codes are made up of a keyword which may or may not be followed by an
attribute.
The following topic discusses codes in detail.

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Spreadsheet Definition File Codes Codes Codes are made up of a keyword which may or may not be followed by an attribute.<type>. they must be separated by a full stop (“.<element> Keywords Description and allowed attributes AVMINCAF Average positional mining cost adjustment factor. Refer to page 123 for a list of attributes and their meanings. CAPEXREP Replacement capital expenditure.”). Example <line type> <keyword><attribute> <keyword> <keyword><attribute> This topic describes the various keywords and attributes that make up Spreadsheet Definition File codes. DISCOUNT The discount percentage. BLANK This produces a blank column between data columns. <expression> User specified expression code. CAPEXINI Initial capital expenditure. Allowed attributes: none. Allowed attributes: /C /CD. Where items in angle brackets are used in combination. Allowed attributes: none. Allowed attributes: nothing or /L. <element> Element based codes. 1998 . per annum. AVPROCAF Average positional processing cost adjustment factor. Allowed attributes: none. Allowed attributes: none. Example: <method>. The angle brackets should not be included. Note: items in angle brackets “< >”. should be replaced by appropriate codes or values. Continued on next page 120 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Allowed attributes: /L /PR /S /SC /SD /SR /UF /UG /UI /UO /US /UT. Allowed attributes: none. Keywords The following table lists the various keywords and shows any allowed attributes for those keywords.

Allowed attributes: /C /CD /L /TF /TG /TI. MINREC The mining recovery factor. Continued on next page 121 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. where the optimization is by period. 1998 . LIFE Length of project. This is not available for grand totals. Allowed attributes: none. Period. in relation to the: • Cut-off grade for intervals. Allowed attributes: /C /CD /GF /GG /GI /MA /MI /RP /RT /UF /UG /UI/ UO. INTERNAL The internal rate of return. <method>. per annum. <method>. Allowed attributes: /C /CD /GF /GG /GI /UF /UG /UI /UO. This applies only to grand totals Allowed attributes: none. Allowed attributes: none.<type> A processing-method/rock-type combination. Allowed attributes: /C /CD /PC /TF /TG /TI. • Cut-off grade for period. Period and intervals A processing-method/rock-type/element combination.<type>. <method> A processing method. Allowed attributes: /EN /EP /SN /SP. and percentage used.<element> A processing-method/element combination. This applies only to grand totals. Continued Keywords (continued) Keywords Description and allowed attributes INCREMENT The resource increment starting and ending number. interval and grand totals <element> A processing-method/rock-type/element combination. INFLATION The inflation percentage.Spreadsheet Definition File Codes. <method>. MINDIL The mining dilution factor. Allowed attributes: /CO. Allowed attributes: none. expressed as a percentage. Allowed attributes: none.

Allowed attributes: none. Allowed attributes: /TF /TS /TT. STRIP The stripping ratio . Allowed attributes: /C /CD /H /HD /L /R /RD /TG /TM.unprocessed material/processed material. so that starting conditions can be reported. /TS will cause a period 0 line to be introduced. TIMECOST Fixed costs. Allowed attributes: nothing. 1998 . Allowed attributes: /C /CD /GF /GG /GI /GM /GR /UF /UG /UI /UM /UO /UR. so that starting conditions can be reported. ROCK The total material mined . SELLCOST The total selling cost. Allowed attributes: nothing or /FR /LM . Allowed attributes: /C /CD. Continued on next page 122 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.Spreadsheet Definition File Codes. STOCKPILE The total tonnage of material that is not added to a stockpile because the global stockpile limit has been reached. Continued Keywords (continued) Keywords Description and allowed attributes PERIOD The period number. Allowed attributes: none. Allowed attributes: /C /CD. /GS and /US will cause a period 0 line to be introduced.<element> Stockpile-number/element combination. TERMINAL The terminal resource value. Allowed attributes: /C /CD /H /HD /L /MC /R /RC /RD /TF /TG /TI /TM /TR /TT. RESUSED The accumulative percentage of resource used.<element> A rock-type/element combination. Where <n> is a number.ore and waste. Where <n> is a number. Allowed attributes: /GF /GS /GT /UF /US /UT. Allowed attributes: none. SP_<n>. SP_<n> Stockpile number. <type>. <type> A rock-type. /L or /TR.

/GS Grade of material in the stockpile. /EP End percentage of increment used. Continued on next page 123 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. /CD Cash flow. /FR Fraction. /GI Grade of material from the increment to processing. /HD Stockpile handling cost. This is a reserved word spreadsheet code when no attributes are used. /EN End number of increment. 1998 . Allowed attributes: /C /CD. Note: “waste” can also be used as a rock-type code (e. /CO Cut-off/cut-over. See <type> and <type>. In this situation. discounted. WASTE The tonnage mined. output from Four-D or Four-X). Attributes Attributes consist of a slash (/) and one or two letters. Attribute Description /C Cash flow.g. /GT Grade of material to the stockpile. Continued Keywords (continued) Keywords Description and allowed attributes VALUE The total cash flow. /GF Grade of material from the stockpile to processing.Spreadsheet Definition File Codes.<element> for allowed attributes. /GG Grade of material in the ground. /GR Grade of material rejected. but not processed. discounted. at the end of the period/interval. a valid attribute must be used. The table below lists the various attributes and their meanings. Allowed attributes: none (but see note below). /GM Grade of material mined. /H Stockpile handling cost.

/UG Units of an element in the ground. /RT Processing recovery threshold. /RP Processing recovery percentage. /TI Tonnes from an increment to processing. /MC Unit mining cost. Continued on next page 124 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. /TT Tonnes input to the stockpile. /R Total rehabilitation value. /UF Units of an element from the stockpile. Continued Attributes (continued) Attribute Description /L Throughput or global stockpile limit. at the end of a particular interval or period. discounted. /TF Tonnes from the stockpile to processing. /PR Price per unit. /SD Total sales cost. /TR Tonnes rejected from processing or stockpiling. /PC Processing cost at the Reference Position. /RD Total rehabilitation value. /SC Sales cost per unit. /SP Start percentage of increment used. /TG Tonnes in the ground. /LM Length of period. /MI Minimum cut-off. /TS Tonnes in the stockpile. 1998 . /TM Tonnes mined.Spreadsheet Definition File Codes. /SN Start number of increment. /S Total sales cost. discounted. /RC Rehabilitation cost. in months. /MA Maximum cut-off. /SR Stockpile recovery percentage.

/US Units of an element in the stockpile. /UO Units of an element output from processing. Continued Attributes (continued) Attribute Description /UI Units of an element from an increment to processing. 125 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.Spreadsheet Definition File Codes. /UR Units of an element rejected. /UM Units of an element mined. 1998 . /UT Units of an element to the stockpile.

Where codes are continued on the second or subsequent lines. See page 127 for an example. interval and period data will normally include PERIOD. Continued on next page 126 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. • Codes can also be continued on second and subsequent lines.Spreadsheet Definition File Guidelines and Examples Rules and Please note the following rules and guidelines when creating or editing a guidelines Spreadsheet Definition File. • The maximum length of a line in the Spreadsheet Definition File is 80 characters. and blank lines can appear anywhere in the file. or a mixture of the two. 1998 . For example. • The user must ensure that enough values are output to identify the source of the values. • Comment lines starting with !. • The maximum number of codes that can appear in an interval. • Codes can be in upper or lower case. See page 268 for the current limits. only its order is important. period or grand total table is set when the program is compiled. the line type must be repeated at the beginning of the line. There can also be in-line comments where !text is appended to a valid line. • The data in Spreadsheet Definition Files is not in fixed field positions.

and. codes If you find their sheer number confusing. gold.MILL refers to the processing method used. . Continued Example 1 Here is an example of the contents of a simple Spreadsheet Definition File./CD indicates discounted cash flow./ti indicates tonnes from an increment to processing. The following is the exact equivalent of the example above. • VALUE/CD . and.VALUE refers to the cash flow. 127 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.GOLD/UO The application The codes. give you access to almost every value you could of spreadsheet want.GOLD indicates the product/element type. or a mixture of the two.Rock refers to the total material mined . mill. Gra Rock/tg Mill/ti GRA VALUE/CD MILL. Example 2 Codes can also be continued on second and subsequent lines. mill . . • Mill/ti . ./tg indicates tonnes in the ground. Gra Rock/tg Mill/ti VALUE/CD MILL.GOLD/UO In this example: • Gra indicates that the codes which follow are for grand totals. 1998 . • MILL.Spreadsheet Definition File Guidelines and Examples. listed above. and. you may find it helpful to refer to the diagrams in the following topic. and. As you can see.Mill refers to the processing method used. codes can be in upper or lower case.GOLD/UO .UO indicates the units of gold output from processing.ore and waste. • Rock/tg . .

To STOCKPILES From Stockpiles See Stockpile Details diagram Stockpiles INCREMENTS To From PROCESSES Processes Increment See Increment See Process Details diagram Details diagram Rejected material Product Output In this diagram: Stage Codes that can be used Material is mined: • From an increment.Some material is processed. may make it clearer where the spreadsheet codes are applied. page 129. page 130. page 131. page 130. Overview The following is an overview of the main material movements which occur during mining.Some material is rejected. below. See: • Increment Details diagram. and. and. • Increment Details diagram. Continued on next page 128 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. . See: • Increment Details diagram. page 129. • Stockpile Details diagram. . . page 129.Some material is sent to the See: stockpiles. • Process Details diagram. See: • Increment Details diagram. 1998 .The Application of Spreadsheet Codes Introduction The diagrams. page 129 • Process Details diagram.

<e>/GR Rehab rate <t>/RC Rejected Rehab cost <t>/R/RD LEGEND Material Tonnage ROCK/R/RD <t>/TR <e> <m> element / product method Units <t>.<e>/UG Grade <t>.<e>/GG Inflation rate INFLATION <t>.<e>/UT To Stockpiles <e>/UT Tonnage <sp_n>/TT <t>/TT STOCKPILE/L Increment GENERAL Ave mining CAF AVMINCAF Ave processing CAF AVPROCAF GRADE Discount rate DISCOUNT <m>.<t>/TG <t>/TG ROCK/TG UNITS <m>. Continued Increment This diagram shows all of the codes that can be used in relation to the details increment stage of mining. 1998 .<e>/GG Mine life LIFE Mining dilution MINDIL To Mining limit ROCK/L Mining recovery MINREC Processes Period length PERIOD Period number PERIOD/LM Resource usage % RESUSED Stripping ratio STRIP TONNAGE Terminal value TERMINAL <m>/TG <m>. Grade <sp_n>.<e>/UR <sp_n> stockpile number "n" <t> rock type Continued on next page 129 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.<e>/GG Increment details INCREMENT/EN/EP/SN/SP <m>.The Application of Spreadsheet Codes.<t>.<t>.<e>/GT Units <sp_n>.<e>/UG <t>.<e>/UG <m>.

<t>.<e>/UI <t>.<e>/GI <t>.<e>/C/CD <t>/C/CD Product <t>.<e>/GI Grade <m>.<e>/UF Process Cut-offs <m>.<e>/GF Tonnage <m>/TI Tonnage <m>/TF <m>. 1998 .<e>/GI <m>.<t>/TF <t>/TI <t>/TF <sp_n>/TF Units <e>/UI Units <e>/UF <m>.<t>/C/CD Processing costs:unit <m>.<t>.<e>/CO/MA/MI Process method limit <m>/L Processing costs:total <m>/C/CD <m>.<e>/C/CD Output VALUE/C/CD IRR INTERNAL Units <e>/UO <m>.<t>. From Increments From Stockpiles Grade <m>.<t>.<t>.<t>/PC Production limit <e>/L Product price <e>/PR Recovery <m>.<e>/UI <m>.<e>/RP/RT Rock type limit <t>/L Selling total cost <e>/S/SD Selling unit cost <e>/SC Cash <m>.<e>/UF <sp_n>.<e>/UO <e> element / product <m> method <sp_n> stockpile number "n" <t> rock type Continued on next page 130 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.<e>/UO <m>.The Application of Spreadsheet Codes.<t>.<e>/UO LEGEND <t>.<e>/C/CD <m>.<e>/GF <sp_n>.<e>/GF <t>.<t>.<e>/UI <m><e>/UF <m>.<t>.<t>/TI <m>.<e>/GF <m>. Continued Process details This diagram shows all of the codes that can be used in relation to the processing stage of mining.<e>/UF <t>.

The Application of Spreadsheet Codes. It has a minimum cut-off for at least one element and may have an upper cut-off.<e>/US Grade <m>.<e>/UF LEGEND <e> element / product <m> method <sp_n> stockpile number "n" <t> rock type 131 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.<e>/UT <e>/UT Stockpile Stockpiles are given a sequential number. The first stockpile code is sp_1.<e>/UF <m>. A stockpile is comprised of a single ore type but may be multi-element.<e>/UF <sp_n>.<e>/GT Tonnage <sp_n>/TT From <t>/TT Increments STOCKPILE/L Units <sp_n>. Current stockpile values Grade <sp_n>.<e>/GF Tonnage <m>/TF <m>.<e>/UF <t>.<t>. Continued Stockpile details This diagram shows all of the codes that can be used in relation to the stockpiling stage of mining.<e>/GS Tonnage <sp_n>/TS Units <e>/US <sp_n>.<t>/TF <t>/TF <sp_n>/TF Units <e>/UF <m>. Grade <sp_n>. Stockpile recovery can be varied over time (<e>/SR).<e>/GF <sp_n>. 1998 .<e>/GF To Processes <t>.<t>.<e>/GF <m>.

1998 . Section B: Spreadsheet Output File Overview In this section This section contains the following topics Topic See Page Background Information 133 Spreadsheet Output File Layout and Format 134 132 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.

133 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Using the The Spreadsheet Output File is used by the customer and input into a Spreadsheet spreadsheet package. Output File is created • a Spreadsheet Definition File.Background Information Description Spreadsheet Output Files (default file extension “.sso”) are text files that contain output from the Print Results Program in a form suitable for importation into most spreadsheet programs. 1998 . Output File This allows for further analysis and plotting of the optimization results. using: Spreadsheet • a Result Binary File. How the The Spreadsheet Output File is created by the Print Results Program. and.

or. period and grand totals. The columns are separated by commas. However. If this is inconvenient. • any combination of the above. The columns are separated by commas and the headings are enclosed in double quotes. the columns are separated by spaces. in some cases it may be necessary to parse the text after input. Format The format of a Spreadsheet Output File can be read into most spreadsheet packages. in order to get the numbers into their corresponding columns. By default. These options are obtained by changing the “StoreSpread” field in your oc. These are: • “StoreSpread=Comma”. two other formats are available to you. with each column headed by the corresponding code. The order of presentation is interval. • “StoreSpread=Quote”. 1998 . It can contain: • an interval table • a period table • a grand totals table.Spreadsheet Output File Layout and Format Layout The layout of the Spreadsheet Output File is quite simple. above. A detailed procedure is set out below. Each table consists of columns of numbers. Continued on next page 134 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.ini file from “StoreSpread=Fixed” to one of the two alternatives.

then edit the text to read: StoreSpread=Comma • If you want to change the format to StoreSpread=Quote. then edit the text to read: StoreSpread=Quote 3. in oc. Continued Changing the The following table describes the procedure for changing the format of the format of the Spreadsheet Output File. We also suggest that you modify the Spreadsheet Output default file extension to . we suggest that you change StoreSpread=Fixed to StoreSpread=Quote.csv is the extension expected by many packages for “Comma Separated Variable” files. change the SSOutput line: from: SSOutput=. Open and view the oc. In addition. To do this. the Spreadsheet Output File default extension can be changed to . 2. like these. Save the oc. Under the [System] section header.csv Note: for users of EXCELTM. 1998 . You will then find that it is very easy to read spreadsheet data.csv. find the line that reads: StoreSpread=Fixed • If you want to change the format to StoreSpread=Comma.sso to: SSOutput=. Spreadsheet Output File Step Action 1.csv in oc. Continued on next page 135 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.Spreadsheet Output File Layout and Format.ini.ini file and exit from the text editor or word processor.ini.ini file using a text editor or word processor. The extension . under the [Extensions] heading.

02 0. Sequence : Produced by FDAN from best case scheduling of pit 27 Filename : octut2. Continued Example The following diagram is an example of a Spreadsheet Output File.042 1405785 560054 4150637 35934 6 1.000 1854854 750000 4994737 47749 7 1.000 1755699 436374 2161138 27540 8 3.57 0.049 1929552 750000 10826542 61840 3 1.000 2313021 575540 2588409 36296 8 0 0.51 0.created from Four-D Tutorial 1 Filename : octut2.65 0.047 1774025 732882 6991123 48315 4 1.044 1771249 750000 6398566 48877 5 1.Spreadsheet Output File Layout and Format.ebi Intervals: MILL OXID MILL GOLD Rock Mill VALUE GOLD Period strip /CO /tg /ti /CD /UO 0 0 0 0 0 -18900000 0 1 1.32 0.000 30240 30240 240549 2204 Grand totals: MILL Rock Mill VALUE GOLD Blank strip Blank /tg /ti /CD /UO 0 1.042 440806 189946 1454767 12272 5 1.42 0.43 0.052 1989903 750000 12150343 62794 2 1.47 0.sbi Economics: OCTUT2 . 1998 .047 43025 17118 220994 1394 3 1.000 755280 311075 1853257 19599 7 3.36 0.02 0.51 0.74 0 16063440 5853229 35131060 404815 136 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.

In this part This part is divided into the following three chapters. Chapter See Page Chapter 1: Auxiliary Files and Computer Techniques 137 Chapter 2: Economic Factors 152 Chapter 3: Mining Factors 171 137 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 1998 . Part 4: Techniques Overview Introduction This part details certain information and techniques that can be used to refine the optimization and to speed up the process.

Indeed. 1998 . If it is easy to do another run to test a theory. then you are more likely to do it. or are created by. In this chapter This chapter contains the following topics. • run the programs unattended. Alternatively. It also discusses the various auxiliary files that come with. Opti-Cut provides several features that will help the user in these situations. often with simplified data little accuracy is lost. This chapter deals with certain computer techniques that can be used to: • speed up the optimization process • enable you to create large runs. but substantial gains can be made in reducing processing times. and. the user can create large runs if required. you may wish to prepare sets of runs and leave them to run unattended or overnight. the economic sensitivity analysis and the iterative nature of the problem. Topic See Page Auxiliary Files 139 Log Files 141 Running the Programs in Batch Files 146 Simplifying the Text Files to Improve the Speed of Processing 151 138 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. With these features. You may wish to simplify data to improve the processing speed. the Opti-Cut package. Chapter 1: Auxiliary Files and Computer Techniques Overview Introduction Project evaluation can take a lot of time and computer resources when you consider the optimization. and you will have greater confidence in the overall accuracy and stability of the final result.

ini must be present in your working directory whenever you run any of the Opti-Cut programs. • are created by the programs. For more information about default file extensions. You can have different copies of oc. or in the next step of the Opti-Cut process.ini for different disk directories. see pages 42 . See page 74 for more information about discount modes. The default is $.Lines on page . Discount mode is used to report the NPV of the optimization. see page 47. • [Filenames] This section records the last file name used in each program. See page 134 for more information.Discount mode . This is used to predict default filenames to be used in a re-run. A copy of oc. .47. Initialization The initialization file (the “ini” file) is a text file.Currency .StoreSpread sets the format of the output spreadsheet data. . . Continued on next page 139 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. For more information about filenames.this sets the number of lines to print per page.StoreSpread . • [System] This section is used to define the following system-wide variables: . and enables programs to offer a likely name as a default when a program asks you for a filename.Version . 1998 .this sets the symbol to use for currency. or.ini.Auxiliary Files Introduction This topic discusses the various auxiliary files that: • come with the Opti-Cut package. The initialization file is updated every time you run one of the Opti-Cut programs. The Opti-Cut initialization File file is called oc.Version is used to ensure that the initialization file has been updated to include all of the items required by the current version of the programs. Layout The ini file is divided up into the following sections: • [Extensions] This section identifies the default extensions for all file types used in Opti-Cut. . It keeps a record of the filenames you are using.this sets the discount mode.

Oc??. 1998 . it first deletes any copy of the file oc??. If you are supplied with a language file and you wish to use the translation facilities. no matter what language is involved. 140 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.ok (where oc?? is the Command Line name). For example.lng. all output text will be in English. make sure that there is a copy of it in your working directory.lng is not present in your working directory. If the run completes successfully. See page 148 for more information. screen messages and printer output into a language other than English. it writes a new copy of oc??. The language file is always called oc.ok file When a program starts a run. if an ocse. The presence or absence of this file is particularly useful when running batch files.Auxiliary Files.ok file were in your Opti-Cut directory.ok. it would indicate that the Sequence Input Program has been run successfully. Continued Language File This file allows the programs to translate their screen prompts. If a copy of oc.

los • List Details Program . and. As everything you type has been “pre-recorded”. Although it is not necessary to do so. Default log file Opti-Cut has a different log file extension for each of the main programs. . They can be what are used to re-run a program using the previously logged set of prompts and log files? answers. 1998 . you will probably find it convenient to use log files. log file PrintFile #octut1 EconomicsBinaryFile octut1 ResultBinaryFile #octut1 In this example: • The left hand column shows shortened versions of the screen prompts. • The right hand column shows the responses.Result Binary File.lol • Compaction Program .loo • Print Results Program . File type Default file extension Log files for the: • Sequence Input Program .lop Continued on next page 141 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Example of a Here is an example of a log file for running the Optimization Program.print file.Log Files Introduction: Log files are files that contain abbreviated prompts and answers. • The # symbol tells the program to overwrite the: . log files can significantly reduce the time and effort taken to re-run programs.loc • Economics program . extensions Here is a list of default log file extensions.loe • Optimization Program .

Description The !END command stops the logging of answers and repeats the prompt. Abbreviation !L Restriction You cannot use the !LOG command if you are already logging. 1998 . Description The !LOG command starts the writing of answers to the log file. Continued Using log files Log files are controlled by special logging commands which you enter in response to any prompt. and repeats the prompt. If you do not provide a filename. commands !LOG Command How to use Type: !LOG <filename> and press the Enter key (“↵ ”) in response to any prompt. With each answer.Log Files. the last one used as a log file for the program you are running will be used. the program writes a shortened version of the prompt. Logging A full description of logging commands follows. !END Command How to use Type: !END ↵ in response to any prompt. Abbreviation !E Restriction You cannot use the !END command unless you are logging. Continued on next page 142 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. See below for more information.

In this case the program reverts to waiting for answers from the keyboard.Log Files. • The end of the log file is reached. Continued !USE Command How to use Type: !USE <filename> ↵ in response to any prompt. The program then replays the prompts and answers on the screen. If you do not provide a filename. 1998 . the last one used as a log file for the program you are running will be used. Description The !USE command causes the program to start reading answers from the specified log file. Abbreviation !U Restriction You cannot use the !USE command if you are already logging. as though you had typed them in. Reading will stop when: • The program run finishes. This usually occurs where a mistake has been made when the file has been edited. then it reverts to waiting for answers from the keyboard. Continued on next page 143 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. • The program prompts and the log file get out of step. The program issues a warning.

Abbreviation !D Restriction You cannot use the !DEMO command if you are already logging. the program asks for an answer to the particular prompt interactively before continuing to read the log file. It is the only logging command that is valid within a log file. Note: all logging commands may be entered in upper or lower case. It is used for demonstration purposes. If you do not provide a filename. Description The !DEMO command has exactly the same effect as the !USE command. Description The !ASK command puts !ASK in the log file in place of your answer and asks the question again. !ASK Command How to use Type: !ASK ↵ in response to any prompt. except that the program pauses after displaying each answer. It can be inserted into a log file with a text editor or word processor in pure text mode in place of an answer. 1998 . the last one used as a log file for the program you are running will be used. This is useful if you want to do a series of similar runs while varying just one or two answers. Continued on next page 144 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. When the log file is replayed. Abbreviation !A Restriction The !ASK command can only be used at the keyboard when you are logging.Log Files. Continued !DEMO Command How to use Type: !DEMO <filename> ↵ in response to any prompt.

see: exercises • Tutorial 2 . the program will the !LOG start recording (or logging) your answers in “<filename>”. issuing the same prompt again. For an example of a log file. starting on page 222.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction. any log file of the same name will be overwritten. This will continue until the end of the run. or until you type “!END” in response to a prompt. Tutorials and For practice using log files. but care must be taken not to change anything in the left hand column. and to ensure that responses all start in the same column (column 26). It is quite common to edit an existing log file to produce a new one. Note: when creating a log file with the !LOG command. Continued Example: using If you type “!LOG <filename>” in response to any prompt.Log Files. command It will continue to prompt you for input. 1998 . Editing log files Log files can be edited with any text editor or a word processor in pure text mode. see page 141. If you do not include an extension in “<filename>” Opti-Cut will add the default extension for a log file for the program you are running. 145 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.

Running the Programs in Batch Files Introduction Opti-Cut programs can be automated in the following ways: • Using the Batch Processing Program. • Print Results. You will be asked to enter the project or run name. The Batch The Batch Processing Program (OC) controls the programs: Processing • Sequence Input Program • Economics Input • Optimization. • The Command Line.Type in the project or run name in the space provided. type: OC <project or run name> and press the Enter key (“↵”). • Running files created by you as redirected input files. Continued on next page 146 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. and. Example: oc octut1↵ where octut1 is the project or run name. Procedure Start up the Batch Processing Program. from the Command Line. • Using the autolog facility. from the Command Line. choose the Batch Processing Program from the Menu. 1998 . . . from the Command Line or from the Menu.Press the Enter key (“↵”). It automatically runs the programs in the required order. If you are using: • The Menu.

ok file is present (see page 150 for more information about the oc??. starting on page 215.ok file). Tutorials and Exercises For practice using the Batch Processing program. • Exercise 4 . then it will produce the printed report. starting on page 256. The program checks to see that each program terminates without error. if used. See pages 42 . starting on page 245. Note: • The Batch Processing Program requires that the Sequence and Economic files have the same project or run name. and will only progress to the next stage if the oc??. Continued on next page 147 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. • Exercise 2 . It will only produce spreadsheet output if a Spreadsheet Definition File is present with the same run name. • If a Result Binary File is present and the time sequence for all the other files is satisfied. Continued What happens The program will check to see what stage the processing for this project or run has reached.Varying the Compaction. It also requires that the Spreadsheet Definition File. • If an Economics Binary File has already been generated and its time and date of creation is later than that for the Sequence Binary File and the Economics Text File. • If a Sequence Binary File has already been generated and its date and time of creation is later than that of the Sequence Text File. • Tutorial 3 . see: • Exercise 1 .47 for more information about default file extensions.Automating the Process. • Exercise 3 . has the same name.Running the Programs in Batch Files. then the optimization will be performed. • The program works only if the user is using the default file extensions for the above files. starting on page 237.Multi-element Deposits. then it will look for the Economics Binary File. • Tutorial 4 .Adjusting Throughput.Multi-element Stockpiles. 1998 .Using a Stockpile. starting on page 234. starting on page 250.

SBI IS MISSING GOTO END :ETXERROR ECHO *** TST91. the autolog facility can be used to automate a series of runs. @ECHO OFF rem ECONOMICS BINARY rem the next two lines check that the files exist IF NOT EXIST TST91. to the autoocop. Note that you would have to have different print file names set up in the logs to retain the individual results. To use this facility.ETX IS MISSING GOTO END :LOEERROR ECHO *** TST91. Continued Autolog facility If log files have been created. Here is an example of a DOS file using the autolog facility.ETX GOTO ETXERROR IF NOT EXIST TST91.log where oc?? is the Command Line name.LOE IS MISSING GOTO END :PGMERROR ECHO *** RUN STOPPED BECAUSE OF PROGRAM ERROR GOTO END :END Continued on next page 148 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.log exists in the current directory.log file before running the Optimization Program. If you want to do a series of optimizations.OK GOTO PGMERROR rem further processing etc GOTO END :SBIERROR ECHO *** TST91. 1998 .SBI GOTO SBIERROR IF NOT EXIST TST91. from the Command Line.LOE GOTO LOEERROR REM Create input file copy tst91.Running the Programs in Batch Files. This file will automatically be used if the Optimization Program (OCOP) is run. in turn.loe autoocec. a log file must exist in the current directory. with the name: autooc??. This file will automatically be used as a log file without your giving a !USE or !DEMO command. you could set up a series of individual log files and then copy the log files.log OCEC IF NOT EXIST OCEC. Example Assume a file called autoocop.

Example OCSE <inp↵ In this example.ETX IS MISSING GOTO END :PGMERROR ECHO *** RUN STOPPED BECAUSE OF PROGRAM ERROR GOTO END :END Continued on next page 149 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Here is an example of a DOS file containing user input.then the - • filename . Continued Using files as Another way to automate user input is to create a file containing the responses redirected input required for the keyboard. using the keyboard responses from the file “inp”. at the Command Line type: • the program name . @ECHO OFF rem ECONOMICS BINARY rem the next two lines check that the files exist IF NOT EXIST TST91.and then press the Enter key.OK GOTO PGMERROR rem further processing etc GOTO END :SBIERROR ECHO *** TST91. Then to use this file as a redirected input file.ETX GOTO ETXERROR REM Create input file ECHO #TST91 > INP ECHO #TST91 >> INP ECHO #TST91 >> INP ECHO #TST91 >> INP OCEC <INP IF NOT EXIST OCEC.followed by - • the “<” symbol . To run a file as a redirected input file. 1998 . the Sequence Input Program (OCSE) would be run.SBI IS MISSING GOTO END :ETXERROR ECHO *** TST91.Running the Programs in Batch Files. under files DOS or UNIX.SBI GOTO SBIERROR IF NOT EXIST TST91.

In addition.ok file (where oc?? is the Command Line name) is a file that is oc??. This file is check the run deleted at the start of a run and re-created at the end. 150 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. its presence or absence can be used to control subsequent action by a batch or macro file.ok file to created by each program when a run is completed successfully. if the run is successful. This file can be useful in determining whether a program run has been successful.Running the Programs in Batch Files. Continued Using the The oc??. 1998 .

The solution time increases dramatically with the increase in the number of cut-offs. the longer the process takes. Continued on next page 151 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Simplifying If you find that the Opti-Cut runs are taking too long. the more groups there are in the increment. Do your initial runs and sensitivity analyses with the simplified data set and then confirm the results on the more complicated data set.Simplifying the Text Files to Improve the Speed of Processing Introduction The speed of processing is dependent on a number of factors. • Economic description. Therefore. The program has to evaluate the effects of cut-offs on the material usage. 1998 . and using simplified increment descriptions. then it may pay you to descriptions simplify the Sequence and Economics Text Files. You can do this by reducing the number of cut-offs. These include the complexity of the: • Sequence description. reducing the number of groups. or the more increments there are.

823. there is no significant difference in cut-off between any of the runs.001 73.020 10. Example The following table shows the reduction in file size and processing time for several levels of compaction of the fdtut Sequence file output. with point grades.667 0. • Similarly. 152 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. It is only when the grade spacing is increased to 50 times the grade discrimination that the NPV changes significantly (2.010 14.054 35.Simplifying the Text Files to Improve the Speed of Processing.822 0.636 Note: in this example. All are compacted to 4 million tonne increments.054 35. they can be combined with no loss of accuracy but with a gain in speed.054 35.055 35. Continued Compaction You can use the Compaction Program to reduce the number of groups and/or and bias the number of increments in the Sequence Text File. Within a sequence.042. Note also that using a grade spacing of 0.019. while the number of groups is reduced.960 6 min 42 sec 0. then the grade information remains the same. This means that there is no special significance to an individual group.054 35.728 1 min 12 sec 0. It takes the same amount from every group in the increment.020 produces effectively identical results in one forty-fifth of the time. Four-D and Four-X output With output from Four-D or Four-X.336 13 sec 0.3%).050 6.876 0. Grade spacing File size OCOP time First cut-off NPV result None 552. this reduction is significant.240 9 sec 0. Opti-Cut mines an increment proportionally.024. • Where two or more groups share the same grade range.659 0.144 3 sec 0.023. if the total grade range is split into a series of slots of specified minimum and maximum grade and the increment is reclassified into these slots. 1998 .

1998 .General 159 Costs . Chapter 2: Economic Factors Overview In this chapter This chapter contains the following topics. Topic See Page Constant Dollars 154 Prices 155 Costs .Specific 160 The Application of Costs 164 Cost Estimation Sheets 168 153 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.

due to changes in staffing levels. 1998 . Prices. • Costs. discount and inflation rates may all vary over this time-frame. have to change These might include: • changes to the scale of the operation and economies of scale. see page 159. costs. For more For more information about: information • Prices. Where price Prices and costs only have to change if there are other factors apart from and cost values inflation to be considered. see page 155. • changes to overheads or time costs. 154 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. By this we mean units that are not subject to inflation. or forward selling considerations. we use “constant” or “today’s” dollars.Constant Dollars Introduction Mining projects tend to run for a long time. To minimize the amount of computation that the user must do to provide input data to the economic scenario (in the Economics Text File).

Prices Introduction In general. You could insert an Expression Variable Line in the Economics Text File. The values entered into over a period of Opti-Cut must be decreased by a rate to allow for inflation. the value of the item is 0. pn/(n-1) In this example: • At the beginning of the project (YEAR). the value of the item is 3. the value of the item is 1. time For smooth or constant changes. • During the fifth year (p5). • During the second year (p2).. or they may rise or fall due to market forces. such as the following. to cover the duration of the project: EV YEAR 0 p2/1 p3/2 p4/3 p5/4 . • During the third year (p3). Continued on next page 155 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. … and so on. This topic discusses various economic scenarios in relation to prices. in today’s contract price dollars we would suffer a decrease in value over time. and provides example lines for the Economics Text File. up to pn. prices may be fixed for a period of time due to a forward supply contract. and then use this variable in the expression for price. the value of the item is 4. No real change Where there is no real change in price with time in today’s dollars. you would use: PR GOLD P 420 This line indicates that the product (PR) GOLD is $420 per unit.. 1998 . the value of the item is 2. • During the fourth year (p4). Constant Where there is a constant contract price over a period of time. you would in price use the standard Product Line in the following format: PR <Element code> P <Price per unit> Example Assuming the current price of gold is $420. it can be handy to define an expression in the Economics Text File for the deflation factor..

the price of the product. the price of GOLD would be $395. That is. up to pn. That is. That is. the price of GOLD would be $420. … and so on. Thus. • During the fifth year. the price of GOLD would be $373. 420/(1. That is.00.89. 420/(1. • At the beginning of the project. Continued on next page 156 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 420/(1. 420/(1. Example If the discount rate were 3%.03)**YEAR In this example.03 to the power of YEAR (as defined in the Expression Variable Line). 1998 .16. this would allow the following Product Line: PR GOLD P 420/(1. • During the third year.03)0.03)2.Prices. is $420 divided by 1. • During the fourth year.03)1.36. the price of GOLD would be $384. Continued You would then need make reference to this line in the Product Line.03)3. the price of GOLD would be $407. 420/(1. • During the second year. That is.77. GOLD.03)4.

is $420 divided by 1. • During the fifth year. 420/(1.05)4.95. the price of GOLD would be $400.05)1. • During the fourth year. … and so on. the price of GOLD would be $362. • During the third year. say. That is. That is.05 to the power of YEAR (as defined in the Expression Variable Line). 1998 .05)0. 420/(1. the price of GOLD would be $380. then you can deflate the annual price to get today’s dollars.00. the price of GOLD would be $420. using the same Expression Variable Line above. Continued on next page 157 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 420/(1. the price of the product. PR GOLD P 420/(1.05)2. up to pn.81.Prices. 420/(1. That is. That is.05)3. Example If you feel that the price of your product will decrease by.05)**YEAR In this example. GOLD. • At the beginning of the project. Continued Steadily If you feel that the price of your product will decrease each year due to market decreasing price forces. you would use the following Product Line. • During the second year. That is.53. 420/(1. 5% per annum. the price of GOLD would be $345.00.

but then decline by a certain percentage. percentages. Example If you feel that the price will remain constant for. ounces per tonne. 1998 . the price of a product might remain constant for a period then declining of time.Prices. 5 years but then decline by ten percent. grams per tonne. carats per tonne. say. This information must appear in the Product Line. 158 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. is $420 until the sixth year (P6) when it falls to $378 (that is $420-(10%)=378). GOLD. due to factors other than time.g. Continued Constant and In another situation. you would use the following Product Line: PR GOLD P 420 P6/378 In this example.) used in the Economics Text File with those in the Sequence Text File. the price of the product. etc. make sure you match the grade units (e. Note: when determining the price of the product.

However. There can be adjustment factors for waste mining costs and for processing costs for each group in the Sequence Text File. you must calculate the expected mining. 1998 . Opti-Cut has very specific requirements with regard to the calculation of these costs and the way they are input. The concept of a Reference Position is very important in Opti-Cut.General The following sections are not intended to be a detailed discussion of costs. the Reference Position may consist entirely of barren material) but you should still work out the processing cost as though the material to be processed is there. but more an overview of the types of costs that relate to mining. These costs are stored in the Economics Text File. and it is important that these be fully understood. Opti-Cut deals with any variation of these costs. rehabilitation and selling costs. costs for Opti-Cut are NOT Four-X users calculated in the same way as they are for Four-D or Four-X. is usually at the surface. processing. Note: many users set up all their cost calculations in a computer spreadsheet. This position. provided you have it clearly in mind. called the Reference Position.Costs . Introduction When preparing for an Opti-Cut optimization. See page 160 for more information.00. Waste mining and processing costs should be worked out for the Reference Position even if there is no appropriate material at that position (that is. The CAFs for any material at the Reference Position should be 1. Four-D and Note: if you are a Four-D or Four-X user. This makes re-calculation much easier. Cost adjustment Opti-Cut assumes that all costs are calculated for a particular position in the factors mine. by the use of positional CAFs. such as the increase of mining cost with depth. but it can be anywhere you like. 159 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.

Costs may or may not include • Expenditures that are related to time rather than to tonnage or production.Specific What is a cost? Costs include • Incremental costs. These costs must be included in the calculation of the cost of the activity with which they are associated. but generally: Include: any time-related expenditure that would stop if mining stopped (time costs). This is because Opti-Cut obtains its results by balancing tonnage-related cash flows against time costs. Exclude: any expenditure that would not stop if mining stopped. time costs must be handled explicitly rather than being factored into the incremental costs. The same basic figures are required.Costs . These require careful thought. and/or • time costs. Note: Four-D and Four-X users Costs for Opti-Cut are NOT calculated in the same way as they are for Four-D or Four-X. Continued on next page 160 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. However. Such as wages and fuel costs. Types of costs Costs can be expressed as: • mining costs per tonne • processing costs per tonne • rehabilitation costs per tonne • selling costs per unit of product produced. 1998 .

Continued Mining costs The mining cost is the cost of mining a unit of rock as if it were to be treated as waste.Costs . a group located a certain distance below the surface may cost 30% more to mine and haul to the waste dump than a group located at the surface. • Mobilising/demobilising. If the Reference Position is at the surface. then the additional costs associated with this are applied. regardless of whether in reality the rock will be processed or stockpiled for later processing.Geological services. Mining costs include: • Assaying and sampling. . For example. • Mine services. 1998 .Mine administration. .3. for the particular type of rock.Surveying. from the Economics Text File. The CAF is used to modify the mining cost in order to allow for the physical location of the group in question. • Waste dump management. and. Note: if a group is to be processed or stockpiled. Continued on next page 161 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. • Standby and miscellaneous machine hire maintenance.Specific.In-pit supervision. then the CAF for the group located a certain distance below the surface should be set to 1. Calculating mining costs Actual mining costs for each group in a Sequence Text File are calculated by multiplying: • the positional mining CAF for that group in the Sequence Text File. • Clearing the site and topsoil removal. See page 162 for more information.Grade control. which include: . . using the processing cost and re-handling cost values. . • Loading and hauling. • Ground support. • Dewatering the pit. • the mining cost (at the Reference Position). • Drilling and blasting.

Costs - Specific, Continued

Processing costs Processing costs include:
• Crushing and grinding.
• Grade control (usually - see page 167 for more information).
• Maintenance.
• Mill services.
• Ore handling (additional costs).
• Stockpile management.
• Treatment plant reagents.
Extra ore mining costs
Because different equipment may be used, it is not uncommon for the cost per
tonne of mining ore to be greater than the cost per tonne of mining waste. For
Opti-Cut purposes, the extra cost should be added to the processing cost.
Example
If the costs of mining and processing ore are $1.54 and $7.37 respectively, and
the cost of mining waste is $0.82, then, for Opti-Cut purposes, we use a
processing cost of $8.09 (=1.54+7.37-0.82).
Remember that it is important to calculate these figures initially as though
mining were taking place at the Reference Position, even if there is no
mineralised material in the Reference Position.
If the costs are different in other parts of the model, then the differences
should be handled by including positional mining and/or processing CAFs in
the Sequence Text File.

Rehabilitation The rehabilitation cost is the cost per tonne of rehabilitating material of a
costs particular type of rock, after it has been dumped as waste.
Rehabilitation costs relate to the material that is mined but is not processed.
Rehabilitation costs include:
• Waste dump rehabilitation.
• Acid mine drainage measures.
• Revegetation.
Although these costs are not directly proportional to tonnage, an amount per
tonne must be estimated in order for Opti-Cut to be able to handle this.

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Costs - Specific, Continued

Selling costs Selling costs include:
• Bullion transportation.
• Insurance.
• Marketing.
• Refining.
• Smelting.
• Supervision.
• Transporting.

Time costs Time costs include:
• Accommodation supplies and services.
• Administration salaries and wages.
• Communications.
• Insurance.
• Legal.
• Safety and training.
• Supplies and services.

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The Application of Costs

Introduction Some examples of the handling of various costs may be helpful.
These examples do not cover all possible costs, but should indicate how to
treat most costs.

Processing mill There may be a several types of costs involved in relation to a processing mill.
There may also be other expenditures that are not considered to be “costs” for
the purposes of Opti-Cut.

Example
Assume that we have a processing mill that cost $10m to build and
commission.
If the mine were to be shut down very shortly after operations commenced, the
mill would have:
• an unrecoverable initial capital expenditure, and,
• a certain salvage value.

Initial capital expenditure
The mill would have an initial capital expenditure which would be
unrecoverable, say, $4m.
This is an “up-front” or “sunk” cost that must be entered as an
initial capital expenditure. It does not affect the cut-offs.

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The Application of Costs, Continued

Salvage value
The mill may also have a certain salvage value ($6m).
The extent of the salvage value will depend on:
• Whether there is an on-going program of maintenance and capital
replacement.
If we assume that there will be an on-going program of maintenance and
capital replacement that will keep the salvage value of the mill close to
$6m in today's dollars, then the $6m is theoretically recoverable when the
mine is closed, and so is not a cost.
However, maintenance and periodic capital replacement expenses are costs
for these purposes, because they would stop if mining stopped. They
should be treated as time costs and/or a series of capital injections.
• Whether only essential maintenance will be done.

If only essential maintenance will be done, the salvage value of the mill will
progressively decline.
In this case, the expected rate of this decline should be treated as a
time cost.
Note: the rate of decline is not necessarily the same as the depreciation rate
that is used by accountants. In most cases the depreciation rate is set by
taxation considerations, and may reduce the book value to zero when the
salvage value is clearly not zero.
The interest on the salvage value is discussed in Bank loans for recoverable
costs on page 167.

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The Application of Costs, Continued

Trucks The types of costs involved in relation to trucks depends upon the life of the
mine.
Where the life of the mine shorter than the life of a truck
If the expected life of the mine is shorter than the operating life of a truck, then
truck purchases can be treated in the same way as the cost of the mill (see the
example above).
Where the life of the mine is longer than the life of a truck
If the life of the mine is much longer than the life of a truck, then trucks will
have to be purchased progressively to maintain the fleet.
Such purchases will stop if mining is stopped. Consequently, the cost of
purchasing trucks should be averaged out over the life of the mine and treated
as a time cost.

Unless the life of the mine is expected to be very long, some compromise
between the two approaches, above, is usually required.

Contract mining companies must take these factors into account when quoting
for a job, and it is sometimes useful to think as they do when you are working
out the costs for your own fleet. You should include everything that they do,
except for their allowance for profit.

Administration As on-site administration costs will usually stop if mining is stopped, they
costs should be treated as a time cost.
Head office administration costs may, or may not, stop if mining stops
depending on the circumstances of the particular mine, and thus may or may
not be included.

Bank loans for Repayment (principal and interest) of a bank loan taken out to cover initial
initial costs set-up costs will have to continue whether mining continues or not.
Repayments of bank loans for initial costs should therefore not be included in
the costs.
Of course, these repayments will have to come from the cash flow of the mine.
If the mine is not going to produce enough cash flow to cover them, the
project should not proceed. You should not introduce these repayments as
costs, in an attempt to “improve” the optimization.

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In this costs case. so the interest rate used should not include an allowance for inflation. some of the recoverable items that the loan was used to pay for may be included. if you borrow money from the bank for day-to-day working capital or for items. Terminal value Terminal value is the value. 167 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. If only some of the waste is grade controlled. 1998 . if we were to start mining today. This is entered in today’s dollars and ensures that the cut-offs will be the same as if the resource was consumed to completion. If you are only optimizing a part of the resource then there should be a terminal value applied to the remainder of the resource. However. Continued Bank loans for Although bank loan repayments themselves are not included. grade control costs apply to waste costs too. such as the $6m discussed in the mill example above. the interest paid on such a loan is a cost that stops if mining stops. then you can reasonably expect to repay the loan if mining stops. Consequently. then the correct way to handle it is to load the cost of those particular types of waste rock. Note: Opti-Cut works throughout in today’s currency. many users make an estimate of the tonnes of such waste per tonne of ore and load the cost of mining ore. costs For example. of the resource remaining when the current processing finishes. It should therefore be treated as a time cost. Grade control It is often necessary to do grade control work on waste as well as ore.The Application of Costs.

Mining costs The following is a mining cost estimation sheet. MINING COSTS Total cost Per tonne Estimated tonnage Clearing the site and topsoil removal Mobilising/demobilising Drilling and blasting Loading and hauling Standby and miscellaneous machine hire maintenance Dewatering the pit Ground support Waste dump management Mine services: Geological services Grade control In-pit supervision Mine administration Surveying etc. Total unit mining cost Continued on next page 168 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. it will be necessary to compute adjustment factors on a separate work sheet.Cost Estimation Sheets Introduction This section is not intended to be a detailed cost estimation review. All costs should be expressed in today’s dollars. In cases where costs vary with type of rock. Many decisions can change according to the type and location of the mine. The following lists are not exhaustive. The design and costing of a complete mining system is a complex matter. There are many good guides to cost estimation and no doubt each user has a favourite method. but they may give an indication of the types of costs that have to be considered under each category. Feel free to add or modify cost centres where applicable. depth or other parameters. 1998 .

Continued Processing costs The following is a processing cost estimation sheet. PROCESSING COSTS Total cost Per tonne Estimated tonnage Crushing and grinding Treatment plant reagents Maintenance Mill services Ore handling (additional costs) Stockpile management Grade control Total unit processing cost Rehabilitation The following is a rehabilitation cost estimation sheet. costs REHABILITATION COSTS Total cost Per tonne Estimated tonnage • Waste dump rehabilitation • Acid mine drainage measures • Revegetation Total unit rehabilitation cost Continued on next page 169 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 1998 .Cost Estimation Sheets.

1998 . SELLING COSTS Total cost Per unit Estimated tonnage Assaying and sampling Smelting Refining Transporting Marketing Insurance Supervision Bullion transportation Total unit selling cost Time costs The following is a time cost estimation sheet. Continued Selling costs The following is a selling cost estimation sheet. TIME COSTS Per annum Per month Administration salaries and wages Supplies and services Accommodation supplies and services Communications Insurance Legal Safety and training Total time cost 170 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.Cost Estimation Sheets.

1998 . Chapter 3: Mining Factors Overview In this chapter This chapter contains the following topics. Topic See Page Iteration 172 Stockpiles 173 Processing Throughput Factors 179 Pre-stripping 181 Processing Recovery (non linear recovery) 182 Cut-offs 183 171 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.

This knowledge may be further enhanced by undertaking what-if and sensitivity analyses. the model includes the sequence in which the resource (waste and mineralised material) will be mined. it is necessary to create a “model”. the capacity of processing plants. In the case of Opti-Cut. costs. 172 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 1998 . other than those which are to be optimized. a circular problem exists. To create a reasonable mine design. the cut-offs must be known. and many other details. plans. facts and forecasts. a mining sequence is required. Opti-Cut deals with one model at a time. This involves the repeated use of Opti-Cut as well as other design tools and techniques. covering all of the important aspects of the operation. Mine design Mining Sequence Cut-offs Iteration Thus. and by using advanced tools and techniques. However.Iteration Introduction It cannot be too strongly emphasised that the use of any optimizer is an iterative process. the rate at which mining can proceed. a mine design is required. the final set of assumptions becomes your plan. in order to optimize all aspects of a mining operation as far as it is possible. Once the process is completed to your satisfaction. As you can see. to optimize cut-offs. the body of knowledge on which you base your assumptions increases. A model is a set of assumptions. Model In order to perform an optimization of one or more aspects of a mining operation. To determine the mining sequence. a circular solution is required. As each cycle proceeds.

Using stockpile In Opti-Cut. has not been implemented. • If there is at least a mining limit and a processing limit. set aside for later processing. then stockpile material may be used to top up the processing stream and improve cash flow when the project is mining limited. Sensible selection of a cut-off will maximize your chances of using it all. there are two different ways in which stockpile material can be material used. Note: a third situation where the processing of stockpile material may be preferable to mined ore under certain circumstances.Stockpiles Definition A stockpile is an accumulation of ore. For more information about the effects of stockpiles on cut-offs. It is envisaged that a stockpile could feed into more than one processing method for a given ore type. 1998 . A rock-type and one or more grade ranges must be specified for each stockpile. then the simulation of the operation of the mine will terminate. in a later period. There is no guarantee that it will all be used. Intermediate grade material is moved to a stockpile if the grade of the element(s) is within the specified range for the stockpile. since this relies on the economic factors applicable in a later period. the price rises sufficiently to make processing profitable. This occurs even if. If the resource is finished but stockpile material remains and the economics indicate it should not be processed. • At the end of the project resource. Continued on next page 173 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. the stockpile material can be processed to extend the life of the project and provide additional cash flow. see page 176.

the stockpile and the processes. See Multi-element stockpiles on page 175 for more information. starting on page 98. so that at any point in time. Decisions made using processing cut-offs and stockpile cut-offs Stockpile 2 Increment Stockpile 1 Rejected Processing Method B Processing Method A Decisions made on cash flow Product Stockpile From Opti-Cut’s point of view: grades • A stockpile is made up of a particular type of rock. As material is moved to the stockpile. stockpile grade ranges must not overlap. 1998 . • A stockpile may start with a defined tonnage and initial grades. Continued The diagram below shows the possible ore movement between an increment. Stock withdrawals are considered to be at the average grade. See Lines in Detail. the average grade is known. Continued on next page 174 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. Stockpiles are only used if they return a positive cash flow. This information should be added to the Economics Text File. • At least one element in the stockpile must have a grade range specified. • Where there is more than one stockpile for the same type of rock. but it is not necessary to specify all grades in a multi-element situation. for more information.Stockpiles. the tonnage and metal information is accumulated.

As each stockpile can have its own handling charge. there is a recovery percentage allocated to each product in the stockpile. Dealing with old If you want to use old stockpiles to feed an existing mill. The optimizer will then order the stockpile usage in the most appropriate manner. in the Economics Text File. The stockpile recovery percentage and the process recovery percentage are multiplied together. Costs associated Each stockpile can have an associated re-handling cost which is only applied as with stockpiles the stockpile is used. you can give them stockpiles another rock-type code in the Sequence Text File so that they do not receive any material from existing pits. When multiple elements are involved. Continued on next page 175 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. See page 107 for more information. Add an additional method/rock-type processing record to cater for the processing of the material. See Lines in Detail. One element may be closely controlled while another is only broadly controlled. Note: Opti-Cut does not handle stockpiles based on equivalent metal cut-offs. This percentage can vary with time. The size and initial grade can be entered in the standard manner in the Economics Text File. this information should be included in the Stockpile Line. To allow for the effects of time on the stored material. If there is a re-handling cost. the costs of haulage can be correctly allocated. 1998 . stockpile cut-offs can be used for elements which do not have cut-offs for processing discrimination. starting on page 98. This information should be added to the Economics Text File.Stockpiles. Material will be passed stockpiles to the pile if it is not processed and falls within the limit boundaries. you do not have to have the same tolerance for each element. Continued Multi-element The cut-off limits can be set for one or more elements. for more information. With Opti-Cut.

• Number of piles or discrete locations. 1998 . ‘MF S’ (Global Mining Factors Line in the Economics Text File). Continued Stockpile There are many variables associated with stockpiles. Opti-Cut can cater for the case where: • the stockpile usage is included in the rock throughput limit (use 0). This will vary from site to site and with the availability of equipment to transfer the stockpile material. This is because material rejected in early years is no longer sent to waste and still has value. This information should be included in the Economics Text File. Effects of Stockpiles and cut-offs stockpiles The use of stockpiles will affect the optimal cut-offs. • Choice of cut-off and the amount used each interval (for each method). Thus. cut-offs will tend to be set higher to improve cash flow even more in the early years. for more information. starting on page 98. • Number of products to handle. Continued on next page 176 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. • Total tonnage limit of all stockpiles. If you use the mining factor switch. and • stockpile usage is independent of the rock limit (use 1). See Lines in Detail. provided that the project is not mining limited.Stockpiles. See page 106 for more information. Treatment and mining capacity Stockpile withdrawals may or may not affect the mining capacity. variables These include the: • Size of the pile.

you could use the cut-off for one element to separate the stock into two or more piles.1 0.08 Element 1 0.2 0. it is necessary to break the stockpiles into grade ranges for one element and a series of stepped values for the other(s).02 0. for example: • Where there are two stockpiles. the lowest stockpile cut-off should be greater than or equal to: Rehandling cost + Processing cost Stockpile recovery × Processing recovery × Price Where all the values are what you expect them to be when the stockpile material is processed.Stockpiles. Therefore. in order to approximate the sloping line of the processing cut-off.00 0. Opti-Cut can only use stockpile cut-offs which each apply individually. the situation is more complicated. When more than one element is involved.3 0.04 SP_1 0.10 SP_3 0. In this situation. Continued Stockpile cut-offs When one element is involved.0 0.06 SP_2 0.4 0.5 Element 2 Alternatively. Continued on next page 177 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 0. 1998 . • Where there are three stockpiles. as shown below. give them a low/high structure. give them a low/medium/high structure.

However. Tutorials and For tutorials and exercises using stockpiles. the higher in general. on page 256. Material that is available to be sent to the stockpiles can be controlled by the parameters defining the rock-type and grade ranges for each stockpile. Rehabilitation Rehabilitation costs are not an issue with stockpiles because if the material is costs in the stockpile. see: exercises • Tutorial 3 . For example. Continued More than one If possible. it is assumed that it will be processed and not sent to waste.Using a Stockpile.Stockpiles. 178 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.Multi-element Stockpiles. you can stockpile define a low-grade stockpile and a high-grade stockpile. 1998 . will be the NPV. • Exercise 4 . it will pay to have more than one stockpile. on page 237. Opti-Cut will always use the material from the stockpile that gives the greatest return first. depending on the grade control techniques used. There will be a practical limit to the number of stockpiles that can be handled for a project. the greater the number of different stockpiles.

The following examples show two different ways of setting processing throughput factors. OREA and OREB. Continued on next page 179 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. and must therefore be counted differently when dealing with processing limits. • In the Throughput Limit Line: the throughput of the mill is limited to 120.05 in relation to ore type OREA.Q/1. In Opti-Cut the same effect can be produced by defining a throughput group line and a throughput limit line in the Economics Text File. Example 1 Assume that there are two ore types. 1998 . A process throughput group and an appropriate throughput limit may be defined as follows: TG MILL OREA. and a process called MILL.Processing Throughput Factors Introduction In Four-D and Four-X a processing throughput factor can be defined for each rock-type. this will ensure a throughput factor of 1.05 + OREB.Q TL MILL M 120K In this example: • In the Throughput Group Line: the material that is put through to the mill will be OREA divided by 1.000 tonnes per month (M). This can be used to show that some rock-types are easier to process than others.05 plus OREB. In other words.

Processing Throughput Factors. Continued Example 2 Where the throughput factor will change with time.05 for the first four periods and a factor of one for the remainder of the project. you can create an expression that changes with time.Q By adding the Expression Variable Line and modifying the Throughput Group Line to recognise the Expression Variable Line.Q/THRFACT + OREB. and apply it to the throughput group. 180 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.0 TG MILL OREA. 1998 . as follows: EV THRFACT 1. An Expression Variable Line may be added to the Economics Text File and the Throughput Group Line modified.05 P5/1. OREA now has a throughput factor of 1.

the rock-type. MT MILL ORE 5 MTC Gold I 30 P3/0 In this example: • MT refers to the method/rock-type line. After that. Mill. must have at least a cut-off of 30 (say. ORE. 181 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. 1998 . which is 30. • 5 is the processing cost. there is no fixed minimum cut-off (0). there is no fixed minimum and the economics determines whether the material will be processed. ORE.I refers to the minimum cut-off. until period 3 (P3). Example The following lines in the Economics Text File would allow for pre-stripping.Pre-stripping Introduction Pre-stripping is not explicitly handled by Opti-Cut. grams per tonne) for it to be processed in the first two years. • MTC refers to the method/rock-type/cut-off line. In other words. • I 30 P3/0 . • ORE is the rock-type code. That is the element to be found in the rock-type. but it can be simulated by setting the minimum cut-off high in the period that would be considered for pre-stripping. • Gold is the element code. • MILL is the processing method. Thereafter.

regardless of head grade. this is easily simulated by setting the recovery threshold to the expected tailings grade. The sort of effective recovery percentage curves that result from this are illustrated below. Opti-Cut can subtract a “threshold” grade from the actual grade of the material before applying the recovery percentage. 1998 . and the recovery to 100%. 182 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.Processing Recovery (non linear recovery) Introduction Opti-Cut has a facility whereby you can simulate non-linear recovery. To do this. and all the other product is recovered. Recovery fraction at high grade Effective recovery fraction Different threshold grades Grade If a processing mill has a constant tailings grade.

Thus. More than one If more than one processing method is available for a particular type of rock. and Opti-Cut tries a set of cut-offs for each step of the search. For each interval or period. Opti-Cut tries different cut-offs. method in the order in which they appear in the Economics Text File. Multiple If there are multiple cut-offs. Continued on next page 183 Part 4: Techniques 28 April. processing each group of that type of rock is tested against each of the methods in turn. and the NPV which results from them. It finally settles on the cut-off which gives the highest such value. Opti-Cut restricts its cut-off search range accordingly. it is important to describe the mill first. For example. for a mill and heap leach operation. then a number of cut-offs are required for each cut-offs period or interval. the order in which methods are described in the Economics Text File can be important.Cut-offs Introduction Opti-Cut searches for the set of cut-offs which maximize the NPV of the project. Any material in the group which is above the cut-off for a method is sent to that method and removed from the group before the next method is checked. If you supply a minimum or maximum cut-off. 1998 .

Cut-offs. If the sum of the grades divided by the corresponding cut-offs is greater than 1. Opti-Cut selects material for processing in multiple cut-offs the following way. The following diagram illustrates this. Continued The way When multiple cut-offs are in use. This is the same as using an equivalent metal. then the material is processed. 1998 . Element 1 Material processed Material not processed Element 2 184 Part 4: Techniques 28 April.

1998 . but you need to know what options exist and what they can do for you in order to be able to choose the appropriate facilities for your project.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence 222 Compaction Exercise 2 .Multi-element Deposits 250 Exercise 4 .A Simple Run Through of the Main Programs 189 Exercise 1 . Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises Overview Introduction Opti-Cut is a large package with a wide range of facilities. In this part This part contains four tutorials and four related exercises that are of increasing complexity and difficulty.Using a Stockpile 237 Exercise 3 .Varying the Compaction 234 Tutorial 3 . Tutorial/Exercise See Page Tutorial 1 .Multi-element Stockpiles 256 185 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.Adjusting Throughput 245 Tutorial 4 . You may not need to use all of these facilities.Automating the Process 215 Tutorial 2 .

It is used in Tutorial 2.etx An Economics Text File. fdtut. It is used in Tutorial 4. Windows). You should find at least the following files. Continued on next page 186 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. octut1. Please check this by using the “DIR” command on a PC under DOS. The instructions assume that you are working in the directory containing the tutorial data files.g. 1998 . octut2. The sequence represents a small gold deposit.etx An Economics Text File. It contains information about the price and costs associated with the project in Tutorial 1. this is usually directory C:\OC\TUTOR.stx A Sequence Text File for a two element copper/molybdenum deposit. It contains information about the price and costs associated with the project in Tutorial 2. the “ls” command under UNIX. octut4.ssd A Spreadsheet Definition File. octut2.etx An Economics Text File that contains information about the price and costs associated with the project. File Description octut1.Preparation Introduction This topic contains some preliminary information that you may need to know in order to run the tutorials and exercises. It is used in Tutorial 4. Directory and The tutorials and exercises make use of a small set of demonstration data files data files that are supplied with your software. On a PC.stx A Sequence Text File produced by Four-D. Disk space You will need about 30 megabytes of disk space. It contains details of the material to be mined. It is used in Tutorial 2. octut4.stx A Sequence Text File for a small mine. or the appropriate action in one of the graphical operating environments (e.

Viewing and Opti-Cut Programs output the reports of their runs to what are called print printing files. try: EDIT <filename and extension>↵ more <filename and extension>↵ . or default.prs↵ lp octut1. often called an “ini file” or a “dot ini file”. print files You can view or print out a print file: • by loading it into a word processor or text editor .or - TYPE <filename and extension> | pg <filename and extension>↵ MORE↵ To print a print file try: To print a print file. The following table shows how you can view or print out a print file from the Command Line. oc. you must have an initialization file. This file.or - • from the Command Line.or . On a PC On UNIX To view a print file.prs↵ Continued on next page 187 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. . directory.ini in your current. is usually supplied to you separately from the programs and tutorial data. You should also have the Batch Processing Program file.bat (or its UNIX equivalent) in your program directory. Continued Other files In addition. try: To view a print file. try: print octut1.Preparation. 1998 . called: oc.

the symbol “↵” indicates that you press the “Enter” key. This is because some of them are used again in the tutorials and exercises that follow. 188 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.Preparation. • using logged commands. or. Continued In the tutorials • In the screen displays: and exercises . • On a PC. On UNIX computers. Important to It is important to keep the all of the files that you generate in the tutorials keep files and exercises. where case is important. 1998 . Note: there is a “for more information” section at the end of the tutorial or exercise if you require further explanation of a particular topic. We will firstly go through the interactive method. the alphabetic case of the filenames you use is irrelevant. Running the There are three ways that you can run the Opti-Cut programs: programs • interactively • with the Batch Processing Program. pressing “Enter” will have the same effect as keying in that response. • Whenever an Opti-Cut program asks a question and shows a default response in square brackets. it is usual to use lower case.

A Simple Run Through of the Main Programs Overview Introduction The object of this tutorial is to familiarise yourself with the general operation of the programs. 1998 . and will also use the Print Results Program to obtain a print of the results of the optimization. Tutorial 1 . In this tutorial This tutorial is divided up into the following topics. In working through this tutorial you will carry out a straightforward optimization. Topic See Page Step 1: Producing the Sequence Binary File with the Sequence 190 Input Program Step 2: Producing the Economics Binary File with the 193 Economics Input Program Step 3: Doing the Optimization with the Optimization Program 197 Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program 201 Step 5: Re-running the Print Results Program to obtain the 211 Marginal Cut-off Scenario File Summary 214 What you have Learnt 215 189 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.

Use the following information in response to the prompts. in one increment. as a result of a previous run.Step 1: Producing the Sequence Binary File with the Sequence Input Program Introduction The Sequence Text File (octut1. containing gold. the program will complain and ask for the file name again. and will then ask for certain information. You will use the Sequence Input Program to create a Sequence Binary File from octut1. Continued on next page † If an output file already exists. Enter the name again.ini and will add the appropriate extension when you do not provide one.stx. Procedure Start up the Sequence Input Program (OCSE). A Sequence Binary File contains the information from the Sequence Text File in a form more suitable for optimization. octut1. Alternatively you can just enter the cross hatch. which will have the same effect. It will display a heading similar to the one shown below. choose the Sequence Input Program from the Menu.sbi† Note: Opti-Cut has a list of default file extensions stored in oc. 190 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. Prompt Use Print file name Call the print file octut1. If you are using: • The Menu. type: OCSE and press the Enter key (“↵”).stx Sequence Binary File name Call the Sequence Binary File octut1. In this way you can simplify your data entry to simply octut1 for all responses. but put a cross hatch (#) in front of it to indicate that you want to overwrite the existing file. 1998 . • The Command Line.prs† Sequence Text File name Use the Sequence Text File provided. Refer to Files starting on page 42 for a list of default extensions.stx) you will use in this tutorial describes the grade information for the mining of one ore type.

The program then starts its run. You will not actually see the “↵” symbol on the screen when you press the Enter key. Note: we have added the Enter symbol “↵” to the following example screen to make it clearer where you press the Enter key. Continued What you see on the screen looks like the following.Step 1: Producing the Sequence Binary File with the Sequence Input Program. 1998 . which takes less than a second. The screen report looks like this: Continued on next page 191 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.

The print file should look like the following.921.0714 0.0200 0.895 0. Whittle Opti-Cut CREATE A SEQUENCE BINARY FILE Page 1 Rev 1.| ------. ----- ORE 5. • A summary of the contents of each of the increments.0200 0.960 | ****************************************************************************** Summary: Number of increments 1 Average Mining Adj 1. See page 187 for guidelines on how to do this. 192 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.600 | Total: 11.000 Average Processing Adj 1. 1998 . -------. ----- ORE 5. Continued Examining the Now examine the print file (octut1.420.1970 WASTE 5. In this case. there is only 1 increment. text editor or word processor. ----.499.prs) in detail by printing it out.960 | ****************************************************************************** Number of text lines read 52 A Sequence Binary File was created The run time was 0 hrs 0 mins 0 secs Apart from page headings. ------.420.895 0. ----. ----. the print file contains: • The names of the input and output files.499.600 | Total: 11.00 14:51 Licensed for use by <Your company name will appear here> 17-OCT-97 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ FILE INFORMATION Sequence Text File : octut1. ----.360 | GOLD 392.000 Number of groups 18 Number of point grades 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | Total Minimum Average Maximum Rock-Type Tonnage | Element Quantity Grade Grade Grade --------. showing the amounts of rock. or by print file viewing it on the screen with a system utility.921.| ------.Step 1: Producing the Sequence Binary File with the Sequence Input Program.0714 0. ------. -------. One increment gold example EL GOLD 4 RO ORE ELP GOLD RO WASTE Increment summaries ****************************************************************************** Increment 1 1 Top Average Mining Adj 1.1970 WASTE 5.000 Average Processing Adj 1.000 Number of groups 18 Number of point grades 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | Total Minimum Average Maximum Rock-Type Tonnage | Element Quantity Grade Grade Grade --------.360 | GOLD 392. mineralised material and the grade for each of the elements.sbi Raw sequence data SEQ Opti-Cut.stx Sequence Binary File : octut1.

etx Economics Binary File name Call the Economics Binary File octut1. and will then ask for certain information. one limiting mill capacity and one limiting mining capacity. and let the system take care of the filename extensions. There are two throughput limits specified. It will display a heading similar to the one shown below. Use the following information in response to the prompts. the program will complain and ask for the file name again. you can simplify your responses to octut1. Prompt Use Print file name Call the print file octut1. Procedure Start up the Economics Input Program (OCEC). processing costs and recoveries have all been specified. but put a cross hatch (#) in front of it to indicate that you want to overwrite the existing file. which will have the same effect.pre† Sequence Binary File Accept the default [octut1. Note: you need to be aware of the extensions because the files are saved on disk using the full filename.Step 2: Producing the Economics Binary File with the Economics Input Program Introduction The Economics Text File (octut1. You will use the Economics Input Program to create an Economics Binary File from octut1. Continued on next page † If an output file already exists. Alternatively you can just enter the cross hatch. An Economics Binary File contains the information from the Economics Text File in a form more suitable for optimization. as a result of a previous run. Enter the name again. octut1.sbi] offered by the system Economics Text File Use the Economics Text File provided.ebi† Again. 193 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.etx.etx) you will use in this tutorial covers a very simple milling operation based on one mill and one element. 1998 . Time costs.

You will not actually see the “↵” symbol on the screen when you press the Enter key. will be displayed. Note: we have added the Enter symbol “↵” to the following example screen to make it clearer where you press the Enter key. Note also that the number of decimal places finally used is also used to define the grade discrimination in the optimization. Continued What you see on the screen looks like the following. a message like the one above. which takes only a second or two.Step 2: Producing the Economics Binary File with the Economics Input Program. 1998 . The program then starts its run. The following message will appear on the screen during the run. Continued on next page 194 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. It can be overridden in the Economics Text File and when this happens. The number of decimal places used to print element grade information is specified in the Sequence Text File.

etx Economics Binary File : octut1.sbi Economics Text File : octut1. ---------- GOLD 370.00 | ORE F 1.00 GOLD 90.25 0. Processing Percent Threshold Minimum Maximum Method Type Cost/Tonne Element Recovery Linearity Cut-off Cut-off -------.Q 41.| -------.00 MTP GOLD R 90.667 per month | Discount 10.0 N/A N/A N/A ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Throughput limit ROCK 250.------- MILL ORE 8.00 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Proc. ---------.667 per month 500.25 RO ore M 1.---------.0 % per year | Mining recovery 1. RO WASTE M 1. 1998 . Whittle Opti-Cut CREATE ECONOMIC DATA BASE Page 1 Rev 1. Rock. One increment gold example Economics description : OCTUT1 initial example ***************************************************************************** Initial Capital 0 Terminal value 0 (resource fully consumed) Cut-Off Mode 1 ***************************************************************************** Economic Parameters for period 1 to the end: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Period length 12 months | Time Costs 41.000 per month 3.------.-------.00 | WASTE F 1.pre) in detail (see page print file 187 for guidelines).00 0.000.25 MT MILL ore 8.000 per year Throughput limit MILL. -------.000 Inflation 0.------.-------.25 0.0 TL ROCK A 3M TL MILL a 500K Number of text lines read 31 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Sequence description : Opti-Cut. Continued Examining the Now take the time to examine the print file (octut1.--------.00 14:51 Licensed for use by <Your company name will appear here> 17-OCT-97 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ FILE INFORMATION Sequence Binary File : octut1.ebi Raw data listing ECO OCTUT1 initial example TV 0 PL 12 TC A 500K DI 10 PR GOLD P 370 EL GOLD 3 --. -------.000 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Price Sales Cost | Lv in Mining Environmental Product Per unit Per unit | Rock-typ Gnd Cost/Tonne Cost/Tonne -------.Decimal places for GOLD in Sequence file (4) is altered to 3. The print file should look like the following.Step 2: Producing the Economics Binary File with the Economics Input Program.000 per year ***************************************************************************** An Economics Binary File was created The run time was 0 hrs 0 mins 0 secs Continued on next page 195 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April..0 % per year | Mining dilution 1.

the print file contains: • The names of the input and output files. Either way. 196 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.Step 2: Producing the Economics Binary File with the Economics Input Program. Continued Apart from page headings. 1998 . This will allow you to check that the economic scenario is set up correctly. the report always shows both. Note: throughput limits can be entered as monthly or yearly data. • A summary of the economic parameters and the periods to which they apply.

197 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. it uses the Sequence Binary File octut1. the optimization can be performed.ebi] offered by the system Result Binary File name Call the Result Binary File octut1. Prompt Use Print file name Call the print file octut1. which will have the same effect. Use the following information in response to the prompts.pro† Economics Binary File Use the default [octut1. but put a cross hatch (#) in front of it to indicate that you want to overwrite the existing file. Alternatively you can just enter the cross hatch. Enter the name again. Continued on next page † If an output file already exists. The name is recorded in the Economics Binary File. 1998 . as a result of a previous run. It will display a heading similar to the one shown below. the program will complain and ask for the file name again. so it must still be present in the working directory.sbi. Procedure Start up the Optimization Program (OCOP).Step 3: Doing the Optimization with the Optimization Program Introduction Now that the Sequence and Economics Text Files have been converted to binary files.rbi† Do you want to optimize by period? Use the default [Y] Note: although the Optimization Program does not ask for it by name.

The report also contains the names of the input and output files. Note: we have added the Enter symbol “↵” to the following example screen to make it clearer where you press the Enter key.Step 3: Doing the Optimization with the Optimization Program. You will not actually see the “↵” symbol on the screen when you press the Enter key. The program then shows the progress of the optimization on the screen. Continued on next page 198 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. The program goes through the entire resource to calculate the initial NPV. The NPVs for the different discount modes are shown.pro. Continued What you see on the screen looks like the following. unoptimized. On the following pages there is a copy of the print file. The optimization print file contains a report of the processing done which is identical to the screen display. giving the NPVs achieved at the end of each iteration. cut-offs. and the cut-off used. 1998 . Discount modes are explained on page 74. octut1. It shows the amount of an increment used in each period. The cut-offs shown are the marginal.

0505 2 1 22 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0376 8 1 82 MILL ORE GOLD 0.908 Change is 0.0270 4 1 36 MILL ORE GOLD 0.463.0270 11 1 100 MILL ORE GOLD 0.463.196 The NPV with discount mode = 3 is 39.666.0270 9 1 82 MILL ORE GOLD 0.028909% The NPV with discount mode = 3 is 40.467.998479% The NPV with discount mode = 2 is 44.0270 10 1 91 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0320 10 1 100 MILL ORE GOLD 0.666.0270 7 1 64 MILL ORE GOLD 0.462.0286 The NPV with discount mode = 1 is 42.419 Change is 1.633.0377 8 1 82 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0318 10 1 100 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0350 9 1 91 MILL ORE GOLD 0.671 Change is 1.989585% The NPV with discount mode = 3 is 40.991 ITERATION 1 OF THE OPTIMIZATION (Press ESC to stop at end) Period Increment End% Ex-stock Process Rocktype Element Cut-off 1 1 12 MILL ORE GOLD 0. Continued Whittle Opti-Cut PERFORM THE OPTIMIZATION Page 1 Rev 1.542 The NPV with discount mode = 4 is 39.00 14:51 Licensed for use by <Your company name will appear here> 17-OCT-97 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ FILE INFORMATION Economics Binary File : octut1.0468 4 1 43 MILL ORE GOLD 0.Step 3: Doing the Optimization with the Optimization Program.0270 The NPV with discount mode = 1 is 41.rbi Optimization by period FINDING THE MARGINAL CUT-OFFS Period Increment End% Ex-stock Process Rocktype Element Cut-off 1 1 9 MILL ORE GOLD 0.542 The NPV with discount mode = 5 is 39.671 Change is 1.0288 The NPV with discount mode = 1 is 42.510.0452 5 1 54 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0487 3 1 33 MILL ORE GOLD 0.622.329 Change is 0.522.476.598 Change is 2. 1998 .0270 8 1 73 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0402 7 1 72 MILL ORE GOLD 0.475.0448 5 1 53 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0270 5 1 46 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0428 6 1 63 MILL ORE GOLD 0.475.673.371 Change is 0.0475 4 1 44 MILL ORE GOLD 0.007688% ITERATION 2 OF THE OPTIMIZATION (Press ESC to stop at end) Period Increment End% Ex-stock Process Rocktype Element Cut-off 1 1 11 MILL ORE GOLD 0.038 Change is 1.0426 6 1 63 MILL ORE GOLD 0.371 Change is 0.0517 2 1 23 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0270 2 1 18 MILL ORE GOLD 0.ebi Result Binary File : octut1.0270 3 1 27 MILL ORE GOLD 0.028909% The NPV with discount mode = 4 is 40.0270 6 1 55 MILL ORE GOLD 0.015 Change is -0.478.0403 7 1 73 MILL ORE GOLD 0.989585% The NPV with discount mode = 4 is 40.0496 3 1 33 MILL ORE GOLD 0.212 The NPV with discount mode = 2 is 43.989585% The NPV with discount mode = 5 is 40.028909% The NPV with discount mode = 5 is 40.0348 9 1 92 MILL ORE GOLD 0.006383% Continued on next page 199 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.011562% The NPV with discount mode = 2 is 44.

015 Change is 0.475. 200 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. may occasionally decrease by a small amount when mode 1 increases. 1998 .0426 6 1 63 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0288 The NPV with discount mode = 1 is 42.0505 2 1 22 MILL ORE GOLD 0.000000% The NPV with discount mode = 3 is 40.371 Change is 0.0377 8 1 82 MILL ORE GOLD 0.000000% The NPV with discount mode = 5 is 40. This occurs in iteration 2. because they are calculated differently.0487 3 1 33 MILL ORE GOLD 0.0320 10 1 100 MILL ORE GOLD 0.000000% The NPV with discount mode = 2 is 44.329 Change is 0.467.0402 7 1 72 MILL ORE GOLD 0.475.Step 3: Doing the Optimization with the Optimization Program.371 Change is 0.0468 4 1 43 MILL ORE GOLD 0. other discount modes.0350 9 1 91 MILL ORE GOLD 0.908 Change is 0.0448 5 1 53 MILL ORE GOLD 0.000000% The NPV with discount mode = 4 is 40.522.000000% A Result Binary File was created The run time was 0 hrs 0 mins 12 secs Note: as the optimization is done using discount mode 1.476. above.00 14:51 Licensed for use by <Your company name will appear here> 17-OCT-97 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ITERATION 3 OF THE OPTIMIZATION (Press ESC to stop at end) Period Increment End% Ex-stock Process Rocktype Element Cut-off 1 1 11 MILL ORE GOLD 0. in relation to discount mode 5 (highlighted). Continued Whittle Opti-Cut PERFORM THE OPTIMIZATION Page 2 Rev 1.

In this way you can modify the type of report you require and add or modify spreadsheet output to suit your needs. A report entry can be produced for Accept the default [Y] for interval each interval in the period or for the reporting period total. so they must still be present in the working directory. Procedure Start up the Print Results Program (OCPR).sbi) and the Economics Binary File (octut.Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program Introduction The Print Results Program must now be run to get details of the mining and processing operations. Note: the program may be run repeatedly. Spreadsheet output can be produced. Use the following information in response to the prompts.prp Result Binary File Accept the default [octut1. without having to re-run the optimization. Type N Note: although the Print Results Program does not ask for them by name.rbi] offered by the system A report can be produced for Accept the default [Y] for an marginal (economic) cut-offs or Opti-Cut report Opti-Cut optimized cut-offs. It will display a heading similar to the one shown below. 1998 . Continued on next page 201 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. it uses the Sequence Binary File (octut1.ebi). Prompt Use Print file name Call the print file octut1.

Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program. The user is then offered a chance to change the number of decimal places or scale the output for reporting purposes. The report display formats do not need to be changed for this run. so accept the default answer. 1998 . please print this report out. You will not actually see the “↵” symbol on the screen when you press the Enter key. refer to page 187. For information about how to print out a print file from the Command Line. N. print file If possible.prp. Continued on next page 202 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. Note: we have added the Enter symbol “↵” to the following example screens to make it clearer where you press the Enter key. as it contains a very wide range of information that we will now discuss in detail. in response to the question. Continued What you see on the screen looks like the following. Examining the The detailed report is output to the print file. octut1. “Do you want to modify any of these values?”.

***************************************************************************** Use spreadsheet output if you require more detailed information or want to plot the results Continued on next page 203 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.-------. -------.000 Inflation 0. Whittle Opti-Cut PRINT OPTIMIZATION RESULT SUMMARY Page 1 Rev 1.ebi Optimization was by period OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS . 1998 .25 0.Q 41.------- MILL ORE 8.DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION INITIAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS Economic values change during the life of the project.rbi Sequence Binary File : octut1.| -------.-------.25 0.00 GOLD 90.0 N/A N/A N/A ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Throughput limit ROCK 250. Processing Percent Threshold Minimum Maximum Method Type Cost/Tonne Element Recovery Linearity Cut-off Cut-off -------. ***************************************************************************** Initial Capital 0 Terminal value 0 (resource fully consumed) Cut-Off Mode 1 ***************************************************************************** Economic Parameters for period 1 to the end: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Period length 12 months | Time Costs 41.---------.00 0. there are no such changes in this case. -------.Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program.667 per month | Discount 10.------.000 per month 3.000 per year ***************************************************************************** Discount Mode 3 All cash flows at the end of the period.000 per year Throughput limit MILL.667 per month 500.00 | ORE F 1.--------.000.00 14:51 Licensed for use by <Your company name will appear here> 17-OCT-97 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ FILE INFORMATION Result Binary File : octut1. Any changes which come into effect in later periods would be detailed in the body of the report. ---------.prp is shown below.000 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Price Sales Cost | Lv in Mining Environmental Product Per unit Per unit | Rock-typ Gnd Cost/Tonne Cost/Tonne -------. Continued Preliminary The report contains the following preliminary information: information • A record of all of the files that were used in the optimization.------.sbi Economic Binary File : octut1. The preliminary information contained in octut1.00 | WASTE F 1. • User descriptions of the sequence and the economics. • A detailed listing of the economic parameters that apply for the first period. All changes will be highlighted at the start of the period to which they apply. ---------- GOLD 370.0 % per year | Mining recovery 1. However.00 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Proc.. Rock.0 % per year | Mining dilution 1.

078 0.57 -1607908 -1461734 MILL ORE 500000 -4000000 -3636364 GOLD 39241 0. but this may not always be the case. One increment gold example Economic details : OCTUT1 initial example Note that any throughput limits are shown both per month and per year.26% of increment 1 6959255 6326596 Limiting factor : MILL In this case. The output also contains summaries of the products. Detailed The remainder of the print file consists of detailed information about the information processing for each interval. rock-types. OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS . Continued Whittle Opti-Cut PRINT OPTIMIZATION RESULT SUMMARY Page 2 Rev 1. processing details.00 14:51 Licensed for use by <Your company name will appear here> 17-OCT-97 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Sequence details : Opti-Cut. the interval is also a period. The first interval is shown below.00% of increment 1 ---------. Continued on next page 204 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== 1 Rock 1286326 1. throughput limits (and stockpiles if they are used).---------- 365 days Finish: 11.051 13067163 11879239 Timecost expenditure -500000 -454545 Resource usage Start: 0. see page 71. 1998 . For more information about periods and intervals.Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program.

Continued on next page 205 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS . 1998 .734. In this case.326 tonnes.DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== 1 Rock 1286326 1. ° The cost of mining all the material as waste. 1. 1.57 -1607908 -1461734 ¬ . period number 1. ± The discounted cost of mining all the material as waste. ® The amount of material (ore and waste) mined in the interval.908.461. In this case. ¯ The stripping ratio (material-not-processed/material-processed). . Continued First line The first line for a typical interval is explained below.57. The category “Rock” indicates that this line gives figures for all the material mined.607.Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program. 1. 1. In this case. ® ¯ ° ± In this line: ¬ The period number.286. In this case. In this case.

. If more than one processing-method/rock-type is used. the processing method is “MILL”. It is explained below. ° The discounted cost of processing the material.Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program. Continued Second line The second line contains processing-method/rock-type information. “ORE”. In this case. 1998 . then more than one of these lines will be displayed. In this case. the cost of processing ore is 4.000 tonnes (the mill limit) of this type of rock is fed to this processing method.DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== 1 Rock 1286326 1. In this case.57 -1607908 -1461734 MILL ORE 500000 -4000000 -3636364 ¬ .000. ® ¯ ° In this line: ¬ The processing method. In this case. Continued on next page 206 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.000. The rock-type.636.364. 500. ¯ The cost of processing the material. OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS . the discounted cost of processing ore is 3. ® Tonnage milled. In this case.

067. In this case. In this case. ° The cash flow associated with this product. If there are other products.DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== 1 Rock 1286326 1. In this case there are 39. ® The average grade of material input into the process. Units of material input into the processing mill.239.078. ± The discounted cash flow associated with this product. for this interval. then this line is repeated as required. OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS . the Opti-Cut cut-off is 0.57 -1607908 -1461734 MILL ORE 500000 -4000000 -3636364 GOLD 39241 0. Continued Third line The third line provides details of element production. Continued on next page 207 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. In this case the product is “GOLD”. In this case. 1998 .051 13067163 11879239 ¬ .879.Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program. ¯ The Opti-Cut cut-off for the interval. In this case the average grade is 0.163. ® ¯ ° ± In this line: ¬ The product.051.078 0.241 units of metal input into the processing mill. 13. 11. . It is explained below.

Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program. This information will be located after the element production details. ® In the fourth line: ¬ This is an additional expense category. The cash flow associated with this expense. 500. In this case. however. In this case. • stockpile additions and deductions. time cost expenditure.078 0. and may occupy several lines. and is explained below.000.545. Continued Other lines The output can include details about: • selling costs • capital expenditure • time costs. . only contains time cost information.051 13067163 11879239 Timecost expenditure -500000 -454545 ¬ . This example. Continued on next page 208 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. 454. In this case. 1998 . OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS . and.DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== 1 Rock 1286326 1. ® The discounted cash flow.57 -1607908 -1461734 MILL ORE 500000 -4000000 -3636364 GOLD 39241 0. This information is located in the fourth line.

078 0. ® ¯ ° ± In these lines: ¬ The number of days in this interval. In this case.00% of increment 1 ---------.326. there were 365 days in this interval. 6. During this interval. 1998 . Continued Totals lines The printout for each interval ends with totals information.26% of increment 1 6959255 6326596 Limiting factor : MILL ¬ . Item limiting production.255.051 13067163 11879239 Timecost expenditure -500000 -454545 Resource usage Start: 0. It is possible to be limited by more than one item.---------- 365 days Finish: 11. .DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== 1 Rock 1286326 1. production was limited by the “MILL” process.959. 6. In this case.596. OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS . ± The discounted cash flow. In this case.57 -1607908 -1461734 MILL ORE 500000 -4000000 -3636364 GOLD 39241 0. ® and ¯ Resource/increment usage with the starting and finishing percentage used.Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program. Continued on next page 209 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. ° The net cash flow associated with this interval.

Comparison After the grand totals information. 210 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. which represents a 2.28 -14276200 -8935944 MILL ORE 4998568 -39988547 -24573853 GOLD 373572 0.0 % This amounts to an increase in NPV for this project of 808829 In this case the additional discounted cash flow (or NPV) is 808. scenarios NOTE:Comparing the above results with those based on marginal Cut-offs. Continued Grand totals At the end of the report.00 65136252 40475371 The grand total of the discounted cash flows. Note: the internal rate of return is only shown if an initial capital expenditure is specified in the Economics Text File. 1998 . Note that this is the same as the NPV for discount mode 3 (the default mode) on page 200.829. discounted NPV 39666542) shows that the Opti-cut method gives an improvement in NPV of 2.0% improvement on operating with marginal cut-offs.---------- Total number of years 10. there is a section that compares the between cut-off Opti-Cut results to those of a standard marginal cut-off evaluation. To look at the marginal cut-offs more fully. together with the mine life in years. This is explored in the following topic. the grand total figures appear.Step 4: Producing the Report using the Print Results Program.96. Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Rock 11420960 1. (Total number of years 10. given at the bottom right of the printout. is the Net Present Value of the mine. you can re-run the Print Results Program and print out the marginal cut-off scenario.075 124399568 77056899 Timecost expenditure -4998568 -3071732 Internal rate of return % N/A ---------.

we have plotted the information for you. However.Step 5: Re-running the Print Results Program to obtain the Marginal Cut-off Scenario Introduction To see how the Opti-Cut results compare with the marginal cut-off scenario. Procedure Start up the Print Results Program. for both scenarios. you would have needed to request spreadsheet output in both runs of the Print Results Program (in step 4 and above). you can re-run the Print Results Program and print out the marginal cut-off scenario. could be plotted against time.rbi] Opti-Cut report Type N (you will get the marginal cut-off results) Interval entries Accept the default [Y] (as before) Spreadsheet output Type N (as before) Comparison The cut-offs and the discounted cash flows. Use the following information in response to the prompts. Prompt Use Print file name octut1a Result Binary File Accept the default [octut1.Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction. 1998 . to keep this tutorial as simple as possible. we got you to request no spreadsheet output. using a spreadsheet program. Continued on next page 211 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. To do this easily. starting on page 222. Instead. Spreadsheet output is explored in Tutorial 2 .

05 .Step 5: Re-running the Print Results Program to obtain the Marginal Cut-off Scenario. Continued The following graph shows a comparison between optimized cut-offs and marginal cut-offs.03 . 1998 .00 1 3 5 7 9 11 Period Optimized cut-offs Marginal cut-offs The slight irregularities in the optimized cut-off curve are caused by the round of the cut-offs to 3 decimal places.06 . Continued on next page 212 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.04 Cut-off . Comparison Between Marginal and Optimized Cut-offs .01 .02 .

1998 . the Opti-Cut cash flows (shown in millions) are higher for the first 9 years and then fall off.Step 5: Re-running the Print Results Program to obtain the Marginal Cut-off Scenario.0% improvement. The net result in this case is a 2. Comparison Between Discounted Cash Flows 7 6 Cash flows (millions) 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 Period Discounted cash flows for optimized cut-offs Discounted cash flows for marginal cut-offs As can be seen. 213 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. Continued The following graph compares discounted cash flows for optimized cut-offs and discounted cash flows for marginal cut-offs.

etx Economics Input octut1.sbi) Program octut1.ebi Optimization Program octut1.prs Program octut1.sbi) (OCOP) octut1.ebi (OCEC) octut1. 1998 .stx Sequence Input octut1.sbi) (on the re-run of OCPR) 214 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.prp (octut1.pre (octut1.rbi Print Results Program octut1. Input Program Output octut1.ebi) (OCPR) octut1a.prp (octut1.File Summary Introduction The following diagrams give a summary of the files used by each of the programs in this tutorial.pro (octut1.rbi octut1.sbi (OCSE) octut1.

and provides them as defaults. • Learnt what files are required by the programs. because some of them are used again in the tutorials and exercises that follow. . . see page 83. see page 183. see page 263. . optimal cut-offs and cash flows. 215 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. The Economics Input Program. see page 42. . 1998 . Naming files. see page 187. grades. Viewing or printing a print file. .NPV. . Economics Text Files. The Optimization Program. see page 69. see page 74. Sequence Text Files. including the print files. . • Other . . The Sequence Input Program. see page 54.What you have Learnt What you have In working through this tutorial.Cut-offs. . Print files. see page 76. see page 66. For more For more information about: information • The programs . General information. see page 48. it is important to keep the keep files files that you generated. The Print Results Program. Important to Although you have now completed this tutorial. with all its tonnages. see page 46.Discount mode. to save you repeatedly re-typing them. • Seen how Opti-Cut can quickly generate a cut-off schedule for the operation of the mine. • Seen how Opti-Cut takes note of the filenames that you use. • Files . . see page 94. you have: learnt • Learnt how to run four of the programs.

It automatically runs the programs in their required order. This exercise aims to show you how to automate the process. 1998 . say. and. Let us assume that you want to see the effect of a change in the time costs for the project. you merely have to change the time costs information in the Economics Text File and re-run the programs. the economics or the spreadsheet codes and only repeat a part of the calculations. The Batch Processing Program is discussed in detail. The Batch Processing Program (OC) controls the following programs: • Sequence Input • Economics Input • Optimization.Automating the Process Overview Introduction Tutorial 1 took you through the individual steps involved in an optimization. In this tutorial This exercise is divided up into the following topics. Topic See Page Step 1: Copying and Editing the Text Files 217 Step 2: Using the Batch Processing Program 218 File Summary 220 What you have Learnt 221 216 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. To do this. using the Batch Processing Program. • Print Results. Exercise 1 . The programs are broken up in this way because it allows you to change. on page 146.

etx↵ cp octut1. and change the Economics Text time costs. Edit the text to read: TC A 1M 3.etx and exit from the text editor or word processor. • octut1. type: At the Command Line. from 500K to 1M. refer to the following table. • Save exer1.etx. To preserve these files.etx. Step Action 1. At the Command Line. File Note: the programs allow you to use K for thousand and M for million. 1998 . type: At the Command Line. type: copy octut1.etx. Follow the steps in the table below to edit exer1. files Step On a PC On UNIX 1.stx exer1.etx exer1.Step 1: Copying and Editing the Text Files Introduction In this exercise we will again be using the text files: • octut1.stx.etx using a text editor or word processor in pure text mode.etx exer1. 217 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. they need to be copied.etx↵ Editing the Now you need to edit the Economics Text File. and. exer1. in the line starting with TC. • The ninth line in the file is the time costs (TC) line. type: copy octut1. Open and view exer1. 2. At the Command Line.stx↵ 2. Copying the If you are unsure about how to copy the files.stx↵ cp octut1.stx exer1.

Continued on next page 218 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. If you are using: • The Menu. • The Command Line.Step 2: Using the Batch Processing Program Introduction To run through all the programs required to get a final printed report we can use the Batch Processing Program. The batch procedure requires that all of the files have the same name and use the default extensions. choose the Batch Processing Program from the Menu.Then type in: exer1 and then press the Enter key ↵. . 1998 . Procedure Start up the Batch Processing Program. type: oc exer1 and then press the Enter key ↵.

This information can be found in the Optimization Program print files octut1.4% improvement. Opti-Cut has elevated the cut-offs in the early years.63 -1646532 -1496847 MILL ORE 500000 -4000000 -3636364 GOLD 39570 0.89. shows a slightly different set of cut-offs from those output: in Tutorial 1. 219 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.33 -14276200 -9008884 MILL ORE 4904791 -39238327 -24284610 GOLD 369486 0. OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS .DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== 1 Rock 1317225 1.079 0. in exer1. It also shows an improvement in profit above marginal cut-off Exercise 1 and evaluation of 875.4 % This amounts to an increase in NPV for this project of 875981 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ The run time was 0 hrs 0 mins 0 secs Comparing The output.Step 2: Using the Batch Processing Program.00% of increment 1 ---------.---------- 365 days Finish: 11. The first interval is shown below.---------- Total number of years 9. discounted NPV 36528158) shows that the Opti-cut method gives an improvement in NPV of 2.030. Continued Examining the The detailed report is printed to file exer1.prp.027 and for exer1 is 0. Tutorial 1 In both cases. print file Take the time to examine the report in detail.981.prp.075 123038837 76768787 Timecost expenditure -9809582 -6071153 Internal rate of return % N/A ---------. 1998 . The marginal cut-off for octut1 is 0. This is a 2.81 59714729 37404139 NOTE:Comparing the above results with those based on marginal Cut-offs.052 13176675 11978796 Timecost expenditure -1000000 -909091 Resource usage Start: 0. Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Rock 11420960 1. (Total number of years 10.pro.53% of increment 1 6530144 5936494 Limiting factor : MILL The grand totals information and the comparison between the marginal cut- offs and the Opti-Cut cut-offs are shown below.pro and exer1. and they move down to the marginal cut-off towards the end of the project.

pro (exer1.ebi (exer1.stx exer1.sbi) Program exer1. 1998 .rbi exer1.prs exer1. Input Program Output exer1.File Summary Introduction The following diagram gives a summary of the files used by each program in this exercise. there will be new output as shown.ebi) (OC) exer1. Because all four programs were run.rbi) exer1.sbi Batch Processing exer1.prp 220 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.pre (exer1.etx exer1.

see page 83. see page 94. Sequence Text Files. 1998 . Economics Text Files. see page 187. . and the generation of output. 221 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. For more For more information about: information • The Batch Processing Program. • Files . see page 183. Print files. see page 146. • Other .What you have Learnt What you have In working through this exercise you have: learnt • Learnt how easy it is to edit text files. • Seen how the Batch Processing Program can be used to simplify the interaction. General information. Viewing or printing a print file. . see page 46. • Seen how the Opti-Cut time-variable cut-offs will change with changes to time-costs. .Cut-offs. . see page 42.

Four-D and Four-X Interfaces and Sequence Compaction Overview Unless you have already done so. If you do not. Introduction The Whittle Four-D and Four-X programs can automatically provide you with a Sequence Text File based on a single economic scenario. you may find them hard to follow. In this tutorial This tutorial contains the following topics. fdtut. Tutorial 2 . 1998 . we strongly suggest that you read through the whole Manual before working through the remainder of these tutorials and exercises. Topic See Page Step 1: Producing the Initial Sequence Binary File with the 223 Sequence Input Program Step 2: Producing the Compacted Sequence Binary File with 225 the Compaction Program Step 3: Producing the Economics Binary File using a Log File 227 Step 4: Running the Optimization using a Log File 229 Step 5: Running the Print Results Program with a Log File and 230 Spreadsheet Output What you have Learnt 234 222 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.stx (provided) is the name of a Four-D sequence output.

which takes less than a minute to complete.Step 1: Producing the Initial Sequence Binary File with the Sequence Input Program Introduction First you have to convert fdtut. Procedure Start up the Sequence Input Program. 1998 . Prompt Use Print file name fdtut Sequence Text File fdtut Sequence Binary File fdtut name The program then starts its run.stx to a Sequence Binary File. Use fdtut for all of your responses. Continued on next page 223 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. thus ensuring that it is properly checked and validated.

000 Number of groups 5779 Number of point grades 5779 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | Total Minimum Average Maximum Rock-Type Tonnage | Element Quantity Grade Grade Grade --------. Continued Examining the The print file. ------.923 0. 224 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.760 | Total: 16. each possibly with a different stripping ratio. is very long. print file If you look at the end of the printed report.071 0.501. In practice. normal short-term scheduling would allow these stripping ratios to be evened out over longer time periods. then you would have. 1998 .000 Average Processing Adj 1.020 0. throughput limits are applied strictly to each increment within each period.000 OXID 640.767.063.153. on average.440 | ****************************************************************************** Number of text lines read 14043 A Sequence Binary File was created The run time was 0 hrs 0 mins 18 secs In Opti-Cut.000 0. say.000 0.037 0. ----. 4 million tonnes so that only one or two increments are active in each period. The data would therefore be better compacted into increments of.675 0. If the project had a duration of 5 years.229 SULF 5. fdtut. -------.101 0.| ------. ----- WTHR 4.320 | GOLD 64.Step 1: Producing the Initial Sequence Binary File with the Sequence Input Program. 20 increments per period and therefore 20 intervals in which throughput limits were applied per period.840 | GOLD 0 0. you will see a summary of the tonnages and grades for this Sequence file.prs. and this sequence is made up of 181 increments.520 | GOLD 391. ****************************************************************************** Summary: Number of increments 181 Average Mining Adj 1. ----.220 WASTE 5.

Step 2: Producing the Compacted Sequence Binary File with the Compaction Program Introduction Because the Four-D file is generated block by block. Sequence Binary File Sequence Binary File name Accept the default [fdtut. Sequence Text File Accept the default [2] 2. Prompt Use Compact the increment Accept the default [Y] information? Desired increment tonnage 4m (“m” is million) Compact the grade Accept the default [Y] information? Continued on next page 225 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. • the grade information because of the high number of point grades.sbi] New Sequence Binary File octut2 name In this case. Use the following information in response to the prompts. Use the following information in response to the prompts. we wish to compact: • the increment tonnages to make bigger increments. it is better to compact it to provide a time-efficient sequence description for Opti-Cut. and. Procedure Start up the Compaction Program. 1998 . Call the new compacted Sequence Binary File. Prompt Use Print file name octut2 1. octut2.

Step 2: Producing the Compacted Sequence Binary File
with the Compaction Program, Continued

The computer system reviews the grade range for each element and offers a
suitable tolerance based on the grade discrimination specified in the Sequence
file (defined as the number of decimal places in the EL line).
However, because of the high number of point grades, and the fact that the
Compaction Program uses a grade range and a weighted average to define
grouped items, you can use a coarser discrimination without actually losing
very much information. Use the following grade discrimination.

Prompt Use
Grade discrimination 0.01

The original Sequence Binary File is checked and then reorganised into the
increment and grade ranges specified. The new file is written out.

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Step 3: Producing the Economics Binary File using a Log
File

Introduction When evaluating a project, it is very common to want to do a re-run with
variations in the economic values. You may wish to set up a series of
economic scenarios and run them one after another. Different scenarios can
share the same Sequence file.
You can “log” your keyboard responses to a log file which you can then edit
and replay as required. This is explored below.
octut2.etx (provided) needs to be converted to an Economics Binary File.

Procedure Start the Economics Input Program. However, as we want to use a log file,
enter a logging command instead of a print file name as the first response.
Use the following information in response to the prompts.

Prompt Use
Print file name !LOG octut2.loe
This can be shortened to: !L octut2

This tells the program to start logging your responses and to ask for the name
of the print file again.
Now, type in the following information in response to the prompts.

Prompt Use
Print file name #octut2
Sequence Binary File name Accept the default [octut2.sbi]
Economics Text File name octut2
Economics Binary File name #octut2

The # symbol is used to automatically overwrite an existing file.
This is good practice for output files if you wish to re-run the log files.

Continued on next page

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Step 3: Producing the Economics Binary File using a Log
File, Continued

Examining the The log file, octut2.loe, contains a list of abbreviated prompts and your
log file responses.

PrintFile #octut2
SequenceBinaryFile octut2
EconomicsTextFile octut2
EconomicsBinaryFile #octut2

The run can be repeated exactly, by starting up the Economics Input Program
and then entering “!use octut2.loe”. Again, this can be shortened to “!u
octut2”.
Indeed, if you want to re-run the same log file that you ran with a program the
last time, even if you have edited it in between, “!u” is sufficient, because
Opti-Cut remembers log filenames as well.
This makes it very easy to re-run programs.

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Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises
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Step 4: Running the Optimization using a Log File

Introduction Again we can use the logging to allow faster repeat runs, or to set up log files
for an overnight run.

Procedure Start the Optimization Program.
• As you did in step 3, enter the logging command instead of a print file name.

“!L octut2” tells the program to start logging your responses and to ask for
the name of the print file again.
Note: the default log file extension for optimization is “loo”.
• Then use the following information in response to the prompts.

Prompt Use
Print file name #octut2
Economics Binary File name Accept the default [octut2.ebi]
Result Binary File name #octut2
Optimize by period? Accept the default [Y]

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Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises
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Step 5: Running the Print Results Program with a Log File
and Spreadsheet Output

Introduction Opti-Cut provides a reasonable report of the results. However, many users
want to plot results or know more detailed information about ore, process and
production details than can be included in a fixed report layout.
Many of these extra values are calculated within the Print Results Program and
are available in a Spreadsheet Output File, in formats that are suitable for input
to most spreadsheet programs.
There are two files involved in this:
• The Spreadsheet Definition File.
• The Spreadsheet Output File.

The The Spreadsheet Definition File is a small text file that lists the particular items
Spreadsheet that you want to output.
Definition File
The Spreadsheet Definition File used in this tutorial is called octut2.ssd.

It contains the following lines of text.

! Interval (intersection of period and increment) codes
Int Period strip MILL.OXID.GOLD/CO Rock/tg Mill/ti
INT VALUE/CD MILL.GOLD/UO

! Grand total codes
! Note that "blank" can be used to space out the columns so that the equivalent
! columns from the 'int' (or 'per') line up with their respective totals.
Gra Blank strip Blank Rock/tg Mill/ti
GRA VALUE/CD MILL.GOLD/UO

Continued on next page

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Spreadsheet The Spreadsheet Output File contains the output itself.gold/co indicates that we want to output the cut-offs for the oxide ore to be sent to the mill. the codes can be in upper case and/or lower case. • Int indicates that the remaining codes on the line refer to interval amounts. has the effect of leaving a blank column in the output.Step 5: Running the Print Results Program with a Log File and Spreadsheet Output. or a mixture of both. • Value/cd indicates that we want to output the NPV of the project cash flows. period and grand total data. 1998 . • Mill. Output File It can be: • viewed on the screen • printed out. As you can see. • input to a spreadsheet program.gold/uo indicates that we want to output the gold production from the mill. and a detailed description of the output formats available starts on page 134. An explanation of spreadsheet files starts on page 132. • Period indicates that we want to output the period number. • Strip indicates that we want to output the stripping ratio. Blank. This can be useful to maintain continuity between interval. • The items in the GRA lines are similar but apply to grand totals rather than intervals. The item. Continued In this file: • Lines beginning with ! are comment lines. • Rock/TG indicates that we want to output the total tonnes mined. Continued on next page 231 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. There are many other codes that we could have used. See page 120 for details of these codes. or. • Mill.oxid. Any further information on the line is ignored by the program. • Mill/TI indicates that we want to output the total tonnes input to the process.

Step 5: Running the Print Results Program with a Log File and Spreadsheet Output. Continued Procedure Start the Print Results Program and enter the logging command instead of a print file name.rbi] Opti-Cut report Accept the default [Y] Interval entries Accept the default [Y] Spreadsheet output Accept the default [Y] Spreadsheet Definition File octut2 name Spreadsheet Output File name #octut2 Modify number of decimal Accept the default [N] places? The run is very quick. Continued on next page 232 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. Prompt Use Print file name #octut2 Result Binary File name Accept the default [octut2. Then use the following information in response to the prompts. 1998 . as you did in steps 3 and 4. The default log file extension for the Print Results Program is “lop”.

42 0.049 1929552 750000 10826542 61840 3 1. Note also that we could have chosen to report by period rather than by interval (period/increment combination). Sequence : Produced by FDAN from best case scheduling of pit 27 Filename : octut2.000 1755699 436374 2161138 27540 8 3.042 440806 189946 1454767 12272 5 1.042 1405785 560054 4150637 35934 6 1.43 0.sso. octut2. 1998 .32 0.74 0 16063440 5853229 35131060 404815 The spreadsheet file shows the Sequence and Economics descriptions and then prints details for each of the intervals.36 0.052 1989903 750000 12150343 62794 2 1.ebi Intervals: MILL OXID MILL GOLD Rock Mill VALUE GOLD Period strip /CO /tg /ti /CD /UO 0 0 0 0 0 -18900000 0 1 1.000 1854854 750000 4994737 47749 7 1.000 30240 30240 240549 2204 Grand totals: MILL Rock Mill VALUE GOLD Blank strip Blank /tg /ti /CD /UO 0 1.57 0.Step 5: Running the Print Results Program with a Log File and Spreadsheet Output.sbi Economics: OCTUT2 .02 0.51 0.65 0.047 1774025 732882 6991123 48315 4 1.02 0. Continued Examining the Now take the time to examine the Spreadsheet Output File.sso) should look like the following.000 755280 311075 1853257 19599 7 3.044 1771249 750000 6398566 48877 5 1.created from Four-D Tutorial 1 Filename : octut2. Note the use of the “BLANK” spreadsheet code to maintain column alignment when there is not an equivalent grand total code. spreadsheet output The Spreadsheet Output File (octut2.047 43025 17118 220994 1394 3 1.51 0. 233 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.000 2313021 575540 2588409 36296 8 0 0.47 0.

Log files. The Economics Input Program. Spreadsheet Definition Files. see page 132. The Sequence Input Program. see page 60. . . The Optimization Program. see page 141. General information. see page 42. . . see page 94. Print files. see page 54. 234 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. see page 83. you have: learnt • Seen how Sequence Binary Files can be compacted. Spreadsheet Output Files. . . see page 117. . • Files . see page 187. see page 76. . see page 69. 1998 . . . For more For more information about: information • The programs . The Print Results Program. • Seen how spreadsheet output can greatly facilitate work with Opti-Cut. . The Compaction Program.What you have Learnt What you have In working through this tutorial. • Learnt how to use log files. Sequence Text Files. see page 46. Economics Text Files. Viewing or printing a print file. see page 66.

use the Batch Processing Program to run through the remaining programs to get a final printed report. we suggested gathering the point grade groups into grade ranges which were 0.sbi as the input Sequence Binary File.etx to exer2b. Continued on next page 235 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. but will make the following changes.sbi as the input Sequence Binary File. Exercise 2b For the purposes of this exercise.Varying the Compaction Introduction In Tutorial 2 you used compaction to reduce: • The number of increments. compacted Sequence Binary File.001.05 for the point grades.etx to exer2a. Next.etx. Clearly. compact the increments. compacted Sequence Binary File.sbi as the name for the output. You reduced the number of increments to give more realistic grouping of the mining units. However. compact the increments. • exer2a. ten times the required grade discrimination. You reduced the number of groups to reduce the optimization time. use the Batch Processing Program to run through the remaining programs to get a final printed report. if we combine the point grade groups into sets with a width equal to the required grade discrimination of 0. • exer2b. and use a compaction width of 0. First copy octut2. but do not compact the point grades. and. Then run the Compaction Program using: • fdtut. Then run the Compaction Program using: • fdtut. Exercise 2 . • The number of groups. or can we go further? In this exercise you will repeat Tutorial 2. and. Next. Is that too much. 1998 . First copy octut2. Exercise 2a For the purposes of this exercise.01 wide. it cannot have any significant effect on the result.sbi as the name for the output.etx.

Using these. .The Compaction Program. see page 146. see page 117. see page 183. see page 187. Viewing or printing a print file. General information. see page 60. see page 46. see page 132. • Other . Spreadsheet Output Files. . . draw your own conclusions about compaction. • Files . Spreadsheet Definition Files. 236 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.Cut-offs. see page 262.Re-running Tutorial 2 and Varying the Compaction. see page 42. . . Print files. Continued Examining the Examine the print files from Exercise 2a and 2b to find the optimization times print files and the cut-off and NPV results.The Batch Processing Program. . Copying files. together with the results from Tutorial 2. 1998 .NPV. . For more For more information about: information • The programs .Exercise 2 . see page 217.

run the optimization and produced the report the next question is.Using a Stockpile Overview Introduction Having successfully compacted the Sequence file. Tutorial 3 . 1998 . Topic See Page Step 1: Copying and Editing Files 238 Step 2: Using the Batch Processing Program 240 Step 3: Doing a Cash Flow Analysis 242 What you have Learnt 245 237 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. will a stockpile improve this project? In this tutorial This tutorial contains the following topics.

say. • Oxide ore (rock-type code “OXID”).Step 1: Copying and Editing Files Introduction To find out whether a stockpile will improve this project you need to add stockpile information to the Economics Text File. Each type of rock should be assigned a stockpile.sbi. Continued on next page 238 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.026. and. Copying files To preserve the tutorial information.025 could be beneficial. The Opti-Cut cut-offs for these types of rock vary from approximately 0. Stockpile The mine in this project contains two types of rock from which we want to information extract the product. 0. • Sulphide ore (rock-type code “SULF”). This would suggest that stockpiling intermediate grades above.052 to 0. and • octut2.sbi to octut3.etx to octut3. GOLD. namely. copy: • octut2.etx. 1998 .

SPD refers to the Stockpile Detail Line. in relation to both “OXID” and “SULF”..etx) to add an “OXID” stockpile and a “SULF” stockpile. . • SP OXID 0 .GOLD R 100 indicates that the product. 1998 . • SPD GOLD I . 239 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. That is. there is no need to set the maximum cut-off.0 indicates that in this case.5. will not be adversely affected by exposure.SPD refers to the Stockpile Detail Line.5 indicates that the re-handling costs are set at 50 cents per tonne. when processing material from the stockpile.025.025 . . MF S 0 SP OXID 0 . is set at 0.Step 1: Copying and Editing Files. and so 100 percent recovery (R) is possible. the mill recovery.025 indicates that minimum cut-off for the element. GOLD.5 .MF S refers to the Global Mining Stockpile Factors Line. . is the same as if it was material directly from the mine.SP refers to the Stockpile Line.GOLD I . GOLD.5 SPD GOLD R 100 SPD GOLD I . Since there is no other stockpile for this ore type.0 indicates that there is no initial stockpile.025 SP SULF 0 . and SP SULF 0 . • SPD GOLD R 100 . .025 In this example: • MF S 0 .5 SPD GOLD R 100 SPD GOLD I . stockpile usage is included in the rock throughput limit. in relation to both “OXID” and “SULF”. Continued Add the following lines to end of the Economics Text File (octut3. .

17. octut3. Examining the The results are located in the print file. Tutorial 3 Results Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Rock 16063440 2.prp.Step 2: Using the Batch Processing Program Introduction To run all the programs required to get a final printed report we can use the Batch Processing Program. print file The grand totals information and the comparison between the NPV for the marginal cut-offs and the Opti-Cut cut-offs (located at the end of octut3. discounted NPV 34734180) shows that the Opti-cut method gives an improvement in NPV of 4.071 130395670 87856950 Stockpile additions 1530343 Stockpile deductions 1530343 -765171 -369294 Timecost expenditure -4087815 -2704705 Total capital expenditure -18900000 -18900000 Internal rate of return % 67. 1998 .---------- Total number of years 8.prp) are shown below. Procedure Start the Batch Processing Program. If necessary.49 -20079300 -14536776 MILL OXID 640320 -6979488 -5563735 GOLD 64675 0. refer to page 218 for instructions.47 ---------. (Total number of years 8.18 58426835 36399805 NOTE:Comparing the above results with those based on marginal Cut-offs. The programs will take several minutes to run. using the filename octut3.101 22733265 18966839 MILL SULF 5486291 -43890326 -28349473 GOLD 391579 0.8 % This amounts to an increase in NPV for this project of 1665626 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Continued on next page 240 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.

1998 .Step 2: Using the Batch Processing Program.1 % This amounts to an increase in NPV for this project of 396880 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Comparing the reports shows that: • The stockpiles were processed after all the resource was consumed (see increment 7.35. (Tutorial 3 Total NPV) MINUS (Tutorial 2 Total NPV). 36.63 ---------. since the material is not lost.17 years). located in print file.---------- Total number of years 7.382.04 years. 8.104 22295307 19321182 MILL SULF 5241249 -41929989 -27219610 GOLD 382842 0.7% improvement in project NPV. (Total number of years 8.131.073 127486271 83524028 Timecost expenditure -3905664 -2623454 Total capital expenditure -18900000 -18900000 Internal rate of return % 60. That is.745. octut2. See increments 7 (end).382 tonnes were processed.060 = 1.18 years. 8 and 9 in octut3. the stockpile option would have to be seriously considered.268.320 + 5.249) = 273.399.486. • There was a $1.17.prp.745 increase in NPV.980 + 5. With a 3. and produces higher cash flows at the start of the project.(611. • The stockpile option allows the cut-offs to be raised higher at the start of the project.805 .prp). octut3. • The stockpile usage lasts 2. Continued Compare with Tutorial 2 results. • The project length. That is.241. is then only a little more than one based on marginal cut-offs (8.291) .268.81 58296042 35131060 NOTE:Comparing the above results with those based on marginal Cut-offs. • An additional 273. (640. discounted NPV 34734180) shows that the Opti-cut method gives an improvement in NPV of 1. (Tutorial 3 Total Mill) MINUS (Tutorial 2 Total Mill). 241 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.prp.74 -20079300 -13192400 MILL OXID 611980 -6670584 -5778685 GOLD 63429 0. Tutorial 2 Results Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== Rock 16063440 1.

This is because the Opti-Cut scenario is mill limited for the first four years. 1998 . Plot the results from octut3 and octut3a using a spreadsheet program. • Years eight and nine are occupied entirely with stockpile consumption.04 . so a cut-off is not displayed.07 .02 . Comparison Between Optimized and Marginal Cut-offs . Procedure Re-run the Print Results Program. • The marginal cut-off scenario has the same rock limit in the eighth and ninth years.01 . In years five. Continued on next page 242 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. the rock limit comes into play. sending the output to octut3a. to obtain the marginal cut-off results.03 .Step 3: Doing a Cash Flow Analysis Introduction The cut-offs and discounted cash flows can be plotted for the Opti-Cut results as well as for marginal cut-off results. it can be seen that: • There is a substantial drop in optimized cut-offs around period four.06 .00 1 3 5 7 9 Period Optimized cut-offs Marginal cut-offs From the graph.05 Cut-offs . Sulphide ore A comparison between optimized cut-offs and marginal cut-offs for sulphide cut-offs ore is shown below. which causes the cut-offs to drop in an attempt to maintain mill feed. six and seven.

then the rock limit could have been avoided. If this could have been used to perform some pre-stripping for period 6.Step 3: Doing a Cash Flow Analysis.5 1.0 0. Exercise 3.0 1. Continued Annual rock A plot of the annual rock tonnages (in millions) shows the peak usage for both tonnages the optimized and marginal cut-off scenarios.0 Rock tonnage (millions) 2. with consequent better grades through the mill and an increased cash flow. below.5 2.5 0.5 3. will explore ways of achieving this. Continued on next page 243 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Period Rock tonnages for optimized cut-offs Rock tonnages for marginal cut-offs As can be seen. 1998 . there has been spare rock capacity in the first five years of the project. Comparison Between Rock Tonnages 3.

Continued Discounted cash A comparison of the discounted cash flows for optimized cut-offs and flow marginal cut-offs is shown below. However. Comparison Between Discounted Cash Flows 16 14 Cash flows (millions) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Period Discounted cash flows for optimized cut-offs Discounted cash flows for marginal cut-offs The Opti-Cut stockpile scenario has created a mine life of a similar length to the marginal cut-off scenario.Step 3: Doing a Cash Flow Analysis. this graph clearly shows that the higher cash flows at the start of the project have more than compensated for the reduction in cash flows at the end of the project. 244 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. 1998 .

Copying files. . see page 262. Economics Text Files. see page 42. see page 146. see page 187. . General information. see page 217. In this tutorial re-handling costs were included. .NPV. For more For more information about: information • The Batch Processing Program. • Files .What you have Learnt What you have In this tutorial you have learnt how to apply a simple stockpile simulation and learnt see if there is an increased NPV. • Other . Print files. see page 46. see page 173. However. 1998 . Viewing or printing a print file. 245 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.Stockpiles. . see page 94. . in a practical situation the increase in NPV has to be weighed against the availability of a stockpile area and costs of providing the facility.

Topic See Page Exercise 3a . Exercise 3 . 1998 .Adjusting Throughput Overview Introduction In Tutorial 3 we found that the project was limited by the mining throughput limit in period 6. In this exercise This exercise is divided up into the following topics.Making Stockpile Usage Independent of Rock 247 Limit Exercise 3b .Altering the Mining Throughput Limit 248 246 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. Two methods of lessening the impact of the mining throughput limit are explored below.

MF S 1 is used for the case where stockpile usage is independent of the rock limit.MF S 0 is used for the case where the stockpile usage is included in the rock throughput limit. • Edit the Economics Text File (exer3a.sbi. and.Exercise 3a .etx. This gives a further 0.2% improvement in NPV. . Is there much advantage to be gained here? If you run this example you will find that the stockpile is used to make up the mill capacity. 247 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.etx) and change the mining factor stockpile code from “MF S 0” to “MF S 1”. If the stockpile is independent of this limit.octut3. when the plant is rock limited. 1998 .Making Stockpile Usage Independent of Rock Limit Introduction It was mentioned that the stockpile may. • Run the Batch Processing Program.etx to exer3a. Procedure • Copy: .sbi to exer3a. Note: . . or may not. impact on the mining throughput limit.octut3. then additional stockpile material may be used in periods 6 and 7.

sbi to exer3b. A indicates that throughput limits are per annum. Rather than create a new Sequence file that reflects this pre-stripping. Continued on next page 248 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.octut3. Procedure • Copy: . and. . and remains at 4 million thereafter.octut3. • Edit the Economics Text File (exer3b.Exercise 3b .etx) and change the rock throughput limit to: TL ROCK A 3M P6/4M Where: TL is the Throughput Limit Line. 3M 6/4M indicates that the throughput limit is 3 million until period 6 (year 6) when it becomes 4 million.etx to exer3b.Altering the Mining Throughput Limit Introduction The rock throughput limit was not exceeded in the first 5 years of operation and there may have been spare truck capacity to do pre-stripping during this time.sbi. if you feel it applies to your situation. 1998 . you can alter the mining throughput limits to cope with this. ROCK is the total amount of material mined.etx. • Run the Batch Processing Program.

. Economics Text Files.prp) and compare the results print files of the two alternatives. see page 94. 1998 .prp and exer3b. Viewing or printing a print file. see page 46. For more For more information about: information • The Batch Processing Program. . . 249 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. Print files. see page 173. General information. . see page 179. • Other . Continued Examining the Examine the print files (exer3a. see page 146.Stockpiles. • Files .Altering the Mining Throughput Limit. see page 262.Exercise 3b .NPV. . see page 217.Processing throughput factors. . Copying files. see page 187. see page 42.

530.40 T 1.440 C .6303 .1648 .212 30.10 T 3.877 228.482 57.4558 M .209 134.0906 .Multi-element Deposits Overview Introduction Until now.2530 .0607 . M=average molybdenum % grade Continued on next page 250 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.3413 .00-0.0062 .126 C 1.20 T 393.6521 .834 88.5614 .20-0.690 105.0124 .30 T 681.894 C .463 310.0877 .113 408. One of the things that Opti-Cut handles very well is multi-element deposits.5650 .60-0.4529 .0166 .075-0.0126 .961 202.1150 0.40-0.50 T 543.1408 M .047 319.050 0.1231 0.6387 M .364 230.70+ T 2.0679 .051 C .195 27.0881 .050-0.0290 .0563 .0638 . Background Data can be entered into the Sequence Text File in a variety of ways to simulate real situations. One typical situation. 1998 .007 77.025 0.3698 M .1520 0.50-0.30-0.1255 .075 0. The following table shows the tonnage and average copper and molybdenum grades at various grade intervals.10-0.2501 . Tutorial 4 .0115 .0639 .5516 .3565 . all examples have been based on single element deposits.0294 .359 57.3617 .192.0133 .882 C M 0.244 275.70 T 371.2561 M .456 247.0592 * T=tonnes.511.906 306. is to take tabulated drilling information.5738 M . C=average copper % grade.0358 .161 621.025-0.653 91. at the initial evaluation stage.1402 0.176 C .1157 0.2589 .1886 .1583 .1222 0. Molybdenum (%) Copper (%) * 0.4578 .0851 .0849 .0323 .6476 .0900 .4574 .60 T 481.3239 .485 C .0604 .6547 .4669 .853 86.2291 .327 30.0241 M .100+ 0.00-0.207 494.102 215.0419 .0384 .100 0.856 135.983 C .5453 .

In particular. It would probably be clearer to enter actual physical grades and use actual prices.Overview.stx contains this information. • fixed costs. Note: because the grades have been entered as percentage grades. 251 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. The file octut4.etx contains the economic scenario. Opti-Cut can handle them. Continued This data can be entered into the Sequence file using a group for each cell and using either ranged or point grades as appropriate. The point is that. as long as the units are consistent. 1998 . and. The file octut4. treatment and marketing costs • plant capacity • product recovery • copper and molybdenum prices. the prices and selling costs have been divided by 100 to bring them into line. it contains information about: • the mining.

19 -15357932 -8732172 MILL ORE 6614164 -23281858 -12461064 CU 4539482 0. 1998 .087.055 20301986 11084652 Selling costs -2644736 -1457420 Timecost expenditure -6966920 -3728879 Internal rate of return % N/A ---------. in economic terms. Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Rock 14488615 1.55. in using the optimized cut-offs. Use the project name octut4.prp. print file The grand totals information is shown below. discounted NPV 16714227) shows that the Opti-cut method gives an improvement in NPV of 14.364 during the life of the mine. (Total number of years 12.---------- Total number of years 8.623 to 0. there is a substantial benefit. The project duration has been substantially shortened.Procedure and Discussion Procedure Run the Batch Processing Program either from the Menu or from the Command Line.150 to 0. while the molybdenum cut-offs range from 0.82 34400322 19093303 NOTE:Comparing the above results with those based on marginal Cut-offs. Examining the The output is contained in octut4.2 % This amounts to an increase in NPV for this project of 2379076 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ As can be seen. The copper percentage cut-off grades range from 0. Continued on next page 252 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.686 62349782 34388185 MO 364684 0.

• Similarly. 1998 . • Material containing both elements can be treated on an equivalent metal basis and be accepted or rejected.84 -2257516 -1963058 MILL ORE 750000 -2640000 -2295652 CU 586689 0. it would go to the MILL.70% of increment 1 4494487 3908249 Limiting factor : MILL • If we have material containing only copper.DETAILED INTERVAL BASED INFORMATION Metal Strip Optimal Costs and NPV Process Rock Units Process /Feed Element Income Discounted Period Element Input Tonnes Grade Cut-off Cash Flow Cash Flow ============================================================================== 1 Rock 2129732 1. MILL? OPTIMIZED CUT-OFFS .---------- 365 days Finish: 14.150 2463862 2142489 Selling costs -340035 -295682 Timecost expenditure -790000 -686957 Resource usage Start: 0. material containing only molybdenum with a grade greater than 0.623 8058176 7007109 MO 44258 0.Procedure and Discussion. Continued on next page 253 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. then in the first period.623%. as an example. based on either the copper or molybdenum cut-off.059 0.15% would be accepted.00% of increment 1 ---------. Continued What material What material should be passed to the MILL? should be passed to the Let us look at the details for the first period. if the grade is greater than 0.782 0.

Alternatively - • Material is accepted if the molybdenum equivalent grade is greater than the molybdenum cut-off of 0. Continued on next page 254 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. 1998 .15%.Procedure and Discussion. for the first period: • Material is accepted if the copper equivalent grade is greater than the copper cut-off of 0. This can be displayed graphically where all material with grades to the right of the sloping line is processed. Thus. Continued Equivalent The equivalent metal is calculated as follows: metal Copper equivalent grade  Cu  Cuequiv = Cugrade + Mograde x  co   Moco  Molybdenum equivalent grade  Moco  Moequiv = Mograde + Cugrade x    Cuco  Where “co” means cut-off.623%. .

NPV. General information.Procedure and Discussion. . see page 83. see page 42. 255 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. see page 262. Sequence Text Files. 1998 . see page 94. see page 46. Viewing or printing a print file. . . . • Other . see page 146. Economics Text Files.623 For more For more information about: information • The Batch Processing Program. • Files . Continued Molybdenum 0. Print files. see page 187.15 Copper 0.

Multi-element Stockpiles Overview Introduction In Tutorial 4. Exercise 4 . • Since this is a multi-element deposit you could control both elements and have two. depending on other opportunities and uses for the plant and/or infrastructure. Note: in a multi-element situation selection for processes. such as the mill. however. worthwhile investigating what would happen with one or more stockpiles. Topic See Page Exercise 4a: Single Stockpile 257 Exercise 4b: Multiple Stockpiles 259 Exercise 4c: Using Both Elements to Control Stockpiles 260 256 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. • The use of the copper cut-off grade to separate the stock into two or three piles giving a low/high or low/medium/high structure. so it is necessary to break the stockpiles into grade ranges for one element and a series of stepped values for the other in order to approximate the sloping line of the mill cut-off. however. This may or may not present a problem. However. It is. the mine life was shortened. is based on the combined values of the element 1 and element 2 produced. when selecting material for stockpiles. three or four stockpiles. Opti-Cut can only use cut-offs which both apply individually. 1998 . the first pass through the data showed that cut-off grade optimization achieved a satisfactory improvement in NPV. Options This exercise investigates the following three alternatives: • The use of a single stockpile containing all material above the marginal cut- off of the principal element. In this Exercise This exercise contains the following topics. The question is whether the increase in NPV outweighs the additional costs of grade control and stockpile management.

or whether the stockpile handling uses up some of the mining handling resources.prp). • Re-handling costs are set at 15 cents per tonne (Stockpile Line). exer4a. add the following lines to the Economics Text File.sbi. • octut4.sbi to exer4a. and since there is no other stockpile. • Another assumption that is important is whether the stockpile handling is independent of the mining throughput limit. MF S 0 SP ORE 0 . say.etx.62 to 0.etx to exer4a.36. Copying the To preserve the tutorial information. To add a stockpile. we will assume that it is included in the mining handling.15 SPD CU R 100 SPD MO R 100 SPD CU I . and. it can be seen that the copper Economics Text cut-off varies from 0. 1998 .40 could be beneficial. • It is assumed that the material will not be adversely affected by exposure and so 100 percent recovery is possible (Stockpile Detail Line). copy: files • octut4. This would suggest that stockpiling File intermediate grades above. Editing the Upon examining the print report (octut4. This is controlled by the Global Mining Stockpile Factors Line.etx.40. • The element minimum cut-off is set to 0. there is no need to set the maximum cut-off (Stockpile Detail Line). 0.Exercise 4a: Single Stockpile Introduction Let us start with the simplest case of a single stockpile containing all material above the marginal cut-off of the principal element. At this stage. Continued on next page 257 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.40 From the Economics Text File it can be seen that: • There is no initial stockpile (Stockpile Line).

Exercise 4a: Single Stockpile. • The stockpile added about two months to the life of the project. run the Batch Processing Program.761 increase in NPV. 258 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.798 tonnes were processed for a 525. The programs will take several minutes to run. Continued Procedure Next. • An additional 113. 1998 . Examining the Examining the report output will show that: print file • The stockpile was processed after all the resource was consumed.

sbi to exer4b.60 SP ORE 0 .15 SPD CU R 100 SPD MO R 100 SPD CU I .60 Procedure Run the Batch Processing Program.15 SPD CU R 100 SPD MO R 100 SPD CU I . • octut4.sbi. print file 259 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. copy: files • octut4. Economics Text File MF S 0 SP ORE 0 . Editing the Edit the Economics Text File by adding the following lines.etx. and.50 SP ORE 0 .etx to exer4b. Copying the To preserve the tutorial information. giving a low/high or low/medium/high structure.15 SPD CU R 100 SPD MO R 100 SPD CU I . Examining the Examine the print file.50 SPD CU A .40 SPD CU A . 1998 . namely where the copper cut-off grade is used to separate the stock into two or three piles.Exercise 4b: Multiple Stockpiles Introduction Now we will look at the second alternative.

Economics Text File MF S 0 SP ORE 0 .06 SP_2 0. 0.sbi to exer4c. copy: files • octut4. • octut4.087 SP_3 0.Exercise 4c: Using Both Elements to Control Stockpiles Introduction The third option is to control both elements.etx.20 SPD MO I .15 SPD CU R 100 SPD MO R 100 SPD CU I .5 Copper Continued on next page 260 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April.1 0.etx to exer4c.2 0.0 0. Editing the Edit the Economics Text File by adding the following lines.3640.15 SPD CU R 100 SPD MO R 100 SPD CU I .00 0.3 0.08 Molybdenum 0.02 SP ORE 0 . 1998 . and. Copying the To preserve the tutorial information.02 0.04 SP_1 0.35 SPD MO I .06 The following diagram illustrates the relationship between the lowest mill cut- off without stockpiles (the sloping line) and the proposed stockpile limits.00 SPD CU A .sbi.35 SP ORE 0 .4 0.20 SPD CU A .10 0.15 SPD CU R 100 SPD MO R 100 SPD CU I .

Copying files.Stockpiles. . see page 173. Economics Text Files. see page 42. Examining the Examine the print file. . . 261 Part 5: Tutorials and Exercises 28 April. see page 187. see page 46. . Continued Procedure Run the Batch Processing Program. • Files . see page 94. • Other . Viewing or printing a print file. see page 217.Exercise 4c: Using Both Elements to Control Stockpiles. see page 146. print file For more For more information about: information • The Batch Processing Program. Print files. General information. 1998 .

Discount Rate and Inflation 262 Appendix B: How the Optimization is Achieved 263 Appendix C: Program Limits 268 Appendix D: Error Messages 269 Appendix E: Requests for Program Enhancement 274 262 Glossary 28 April. 1998 . Appendices Overview In this part This part contains the following appendices. Appendix See Page Appendix A: NPV.

This formula assumes that all cash flows occur at the end of the year. The present value of a future net cash inflow is obtained by discounting at the required discount rate. n = the life of the project. Calculating NPV A project’s NPV is found by deducting the initial cash outlay from the present value of all future net cash inflows. when the Print Results Program is run). 1998 . Appendix A: NPV. you should use the “real” rather than the “notional” discount rate. Inflation The inflation rate factor is only used to inflate cash flows to expected future dollars at the reporting stage (that is. Discount Rate and Inflation NPV Opti-Cut searches for an optimal resource usage based on an initial NPV (Net Present Value) and then iterates the solution to find the overall best NPV. Rt = annual net cash inflows generated by the project. do not include an allowance for inflation. Thus. NPV is given by: n NPV =∑ Rt − C t =1 (1+ k ) t Where C = the initial (or capital) cash outlay for the project.and - • a factor for risk. When deciding on a discount rate for the calculation of NPV. k = the discount rate. Discount rate The discount rate should include two factors: • the “real” money rate . In financial terms. See Discount modes on page 74. 263 Glossary 28 April. All costs must be entered in today’s dollars (see page 154 for more information). in period t.

In this section This section contains the following topics. Topic See Page Special Costs 265 The Steps Involved in Optimization 268 264 Glossary 28 April. These techniques are explained in this Appendix. Appendix B: How the Optimization is Achieved Overview Introduction There are a number of different techniques involved in optimizing cut-offs. 1998 .

Example: site maintenance costs. 1998 . 265 Glossary 28 April. Nonetheless. 3. they have an important influence on cut-offs. 2. A pseudo cost which we call the delay cost. London. Continued on next page † Mining Journal Books Limited.Special Costs Introduction In his book. 4. These costs are called pseudo costs because they never appear in any accounts. rather than to the amount mined or processed. they are proportional to the time taken. 1988. Lane explains that there are four types of costs: 1. Cash costs which are proportional to time. The two pseudo costs behave like time costs. Cash costs which are proportional to quantities mined and processed. That is. Example: fuel costs. The Economic Definition of Ore: Cut-off Grades in Theory and Practice†. A pseudo cost which we call the change cost.

If the discount rate is 12 percent (1 percent per month). we must allow for the delay cost when making decisions. namely: • Method A. Continued on next page 266 Glossary 28 April. 1998 . even though it never appears in any accounts. the Net Present Value of the last nine million tonnes will be decreased by about six percent (because of the 6 month delay). and hence the consequent cash flows in today's dollars. then. If we wish to maximize the NPV of our project. it is a type of time cost and it is called the “delay cost”. We have fixed the way that we are going to exploit the last nine million tonnes of the resource. That is. There is therefore an effective cost of one percent of the NPV of the last nine million tonnes for every month that we spend exploiting the first million tonnes. the exploitation of the last nine million tonnes starts six months later if we choose Method B. Example Consider a scenario where we have a resource consisting of ten million tonnes of ore and waste. we are considering two different methods of exploiting the first million tonnes. causing the NPV to be reduced. Continued Delay costs Delay costs occur when the mining of the remaining resource is delayed. Since the delay cost depends on the time taken rather than on the tonnes exploited. However. • Method B.Special Costs. If Method B takes six months longer than Method A. in addition to having a different cash flow from A. it will also delay all the cash flows from the exploitation of the last nine million tonnes by an extra six months.

they too tend to fall. cash flows are lower if we exploit our resource when the price of the product is low.Special Costs. and is zero when no further resource remains. which is always positive. It is different from all other time costs because. both the delay and the change costs should be project added to the processing cost when calculating the cut-off. In general. Consequently: • The delay cost. That is. respectively. • The change cost can increase or decrease the cut-off. the NPV of the remainder of the resource tends to fall. As the resource is used up. increases the cut-off. Since this effect will generally get bigger with increasing delay. Thus. depending on whether the economic circumstances are deteriorating or improving. using the previous example. Continued Change costs Change costs arise when delay causes mining to occur when economic conditions are different. therefore. we again treat it a type of time cost. it can be negative. Mill limited If the project is mill limited. Example Cash flows are higher if we exploit our resource when the price of the product is high. thus changing the cash flow. Note: if the economic circumstances are constant. 1998 . it can be advantageous to delay part of the project. we reduce the cash flows for the nine million tonnes. 267 Glossary 28 April. Conversely. Since both the delay and the change costs are dependent on the remaining NPV. if the price of the product increases with time. optimized cut-offs start high and progressively decrease throughout the life of the project. if we delay the exploitation of the last nine million tonnes to a period of lower prices. the change cost is zero. and hence the NPV of this nine million tonnes. and we call it the “change cost”.

†Kenneth F. we do a similar search for the best cut-off for the second increment. we have to go back to the beginning and optimize the first increment again. and for each period or for each interval (a period/increment intersection). is a formidable task which is impractical with present day computers. Three or four passes. taking into account any economic circumstances which change with time. Having found the best cut-off for the first increment. are usually sufficient. While we are doing this. is as follows. 268 Glossary 28 April. and this changes the time at which we start mining the remaining increments. 1998 . Lane† has shown that it is possible to break the problem down. the principle of breaking the problem into a number of smaller problems has been retained. We then search for a new cut-off for the first increment which maximizes the NPV of the whole project. processing methods and products. we may be finding cut-offs for several elements. we keep the cut-offs for the other increments constant. 1988. The process We first calculate the marginal cut-off for each increment. by optimizing each year separately within a larger optimization loop. and we have put a lot of software development work into that aspect. Since. This iterative approach is continued until no further increase in NPV can be obtained. Consequently. the cut-off for the first increment is no longer optimal. London. due allowance is automatically made for the delay cost and any change cost. and store these cut-offs as a reference set. In reality. The approach hinges on our ability to calculate the NPV of the whole project very quickly. While we do not use Lane’s algorithm. Mining Journal Books Limited. but the principle is the same. the time taken to mine it varies. We continue this procedure until we have dealt with all the increments. by changing the cut-offs for the later increments we have changed their NPVs and thus any delay and change costs associated with them. A simplified description of what we do. Lane. in a whole run on a project with one element. Thus.The Steps Involved in Optimization Introduction Simultaneously optimizing the cut-offs for an entire project that spans a number of years. As we vary the cut-off for the first increment. in which we optimize the cut-off for each increment. while taking into account the complications of multiple rock- types. The Economic Definition of Ore: Cut-off Grades in Theory and Practice.

To view a list of the current program limits For users with revision 1. Item Limit Number of elements and products 10 Number of cut-offs 100 Number of rock-types 30 Number of processing methods 30 Number of processing-method/rock-types 30 Number of expressions 20 Number of intervals or periods 999 Number of throughput limit groups 10 Number of throughput limits 10 Number of stockpiles 20 Number of spreadsheet codes in a line 50 Note: these limits may change in future Opti-Cut revisions. A list of current program limits will then be displayed and the program automatically terminates. 1998 . “Please enter a name for the print file”. 2.00 or above: 1. Run the Print Results Program. 269 Glossary 28 April. Appendix C: Program Limits Current limits The current limits are as follows. type: ? and then press the Enter key. At the prompt.

• system error messages. messages These are: • data checks • problem traps. can produce a wide range of error messages if things go wrong. 1998 . Types of error The error messages produced by Opti-Cut fall into three broad categories. Topic See Page Data Checks 271 Problem Traps 272 System Error Messages 273 270 Glossary 28 April. In this section This section contains the following topics. Appendix D: Error Messages Overview Introduction A package such as Opti-Cut that runs on a wide range of machines. and.

so there is little point in listing them here. If you inadvertently give it wrong data that could still be valid. The Sequence and Economics Text Files are checked for consistency and completeness. and it does whatever checks it can as soon as it can.Data Checks Introduction Opti-Cut never assumes that the data that it is given is correct. are recognisable because they all start with three asterisks (“***”) and are displayed in capital letters. Any errors that Opti-Cut detects are reported on the screen and in the print file. Note: there is a limit to the power of data checking. 1998 . 271 Glossary 28 April. produced by Opti-Cut. Error messages Data check error messages. Opti-Cut cannot detect the error. We have tried to make the meaning of these messages self-explanatory.

giving the details of the message and the circumstances under which it appeared.Problem Traps Introduction The programming of Opti-Cut is defensive to the point that it does not even trust itself to do the right thing! There are nearly three hundred points in the code where the programmer's understanding of the problem and the integrity of the program itself are checked. 1998 . Error messages If any of the programs ever stop and display the message: PROGRAM ERROR ? IN ?????? where the question marks are replaced by various letters. you should inform Whittle Programming immediately. 272 Glossary 28 April.

please be sure to include details of any computer gobbledegook that accompanies it. Since Opti-Cut can run on a variety of operating systems and compilers. Consequently their error message is all you get.System Error Messages Introduction Opti-Cut. there is very little that can be said to help you deal with these messages. If you report one of these system messages to Whittle Programming. like all application packages. without giving the Opti-Cut code the opportunity to take any action. Continued on next page 273 Glossary 28 April. uses the facilities of the computer operating system when: • starting up • creating input and output. When either the operating system or the compiler detects an error. and. except to suggest that you take the wording very literally. • stopping. it usually issues a message and stops the run. It also uses the facilities of a FORTRAN compiler. 1998 .

you find that there appears to be ample free disk space. after getting one of these messages. This could be caused by another program already reading the file. As a consequence. For example.System Error Messages. 274 Glossary 28 April. 1998 . it is quite possible for there to be free disk space after the run. which the system automatically deletes when the program stops. The message this produces can be anything from “Out of disk space” to the less helpful “Unable to write file”. • “Unable to open file” error message. even though the message indicated that there was none left.SYS file being omitted or set to too low a number. If. Continued Error messages Common system error messages are described below: • “Out of disk space” and “Unable to write file” error messages. This is usually caused by the “Files=” line in the CONFIG. another confusing error arises with the message “Unable to open file”. it is important to note that the Opti-Cut programs often use temporary files. an Opti-Cut program may not be able to access the file at that point in time. If this happens. you will have to clear something off your disk before you can run successfully. • “Can’t read” error message. if an automatic backup program is making a backup of the file. The most common problem is to run out of disk space. It also possible to get a “Can’t read” error. On a PC.

The more detailed an explanation you can give. 1998 . users may feel that additional features or functions would make their life easier. the better your chances of having it implemented. Appendix E: Requests for Program Enhancement Requests From time to time. We are responsive to users’ needs and all requests will be considered and implemented wherever possible. Please photocopy this page and fax to Whittle Programming on one of the following facsimile numbers: International Facsimile (61 3) 9857 8800 USA Facsimile 1 800 942 2460 Canada Facsimile 1 800 665 4312 Name: Company: Suggestion: 275 Glossary 28 April. We certainly want to make your task as easy as possible.

and that cannot be displayed on the screen. containing text and punctuation. Continued on next page 276 Glossary 28 April. Average mining This is a weighted average. Argument A value to which mathematical procedure. Binary file A disk file containing information that is purely for computer use. CAF See Cost adjustment factors. Glossary ASCII text file “American Standard Code for Information Interchange”. CAF See Positional CAFs. This pseudo cost affects the optimization. Average This is a weighted average. Change cost The change in project value caused by delaying the start of exploitation into a period where the economic parameters are different. Capital Injection • replacement. You need to input an initial capital expenditure to obtain internal rates of return (IRR). 1998 . function. A document file in ASCII format. etc. carriage returns and tab stops but carrying no formatting information. or edited as text. See Initial capital expenditure and Replacement capital expenditure below. and. See page 267 for more information. Cash flow The net cash income generated by the operation of a mine or some component of it. printed. processing CAF See Positional CAFs. below. Capital Opti-Cut deals with two types of capital expenditure: Expenditure • initial. applies.

7M. factors Opti-Cut deals with this by using positional “cost adjustment factors” (CAFs). Delay cost The change in project value caused by the extra discounting of all cash flows when the exploitation of a project is delayed. and the total cost of blasting. loading. at the Reference Position. Cost of This is the difference between the total cost of blasting.Glossary. Cut-over A grade above which material is processed by one method and below which it is processed by another method. Cut-off A grade below which material is not processed. 1998 . The cost of mining this type of rock as waste in any other position is obtained by multiplying the cost of mining the same rock at the Reference Position by the positional mining CAF for the group in question. Example: 0. the cost of mining is the cost of blasting. both at the Reference Position. See page 266 for more information.5. hauling and processing processing a tonne of a particular type of rock as ore. unless the context indicates otherwise. Continued on next page 277 Glossary 28 April. Where • k is thousands • m is millions. This pseudo cost affects the optimization. loading and hauling the same type of rock as waste. 12k or 2. The cost of processing this type of rock at any other position is obtained by multiplying the cost of processing the same rock at the Reference Position by the positional processing CAF for the group in question. Continued Constant A value that is fixed and unchanging for the purposes of a particular calculation. Cost of mining In this Manual. Cost adjustment The cost of mining and the cost of processing can vary with position in the pit. loading and hauling a tonne of rock of a particular type as waste.

• Increment-based capital injections occur at the start of the increment. These modes are described below. Mode=5 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • Period-based capital injections occur at the start of the period. Note: Mode=3 is the default mode for reporting. Mode=2 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • All cash flows occur at the start of the period. which is calculated using Mode=1. Continued Discount mode The Optimization Program calculates the NPVs for a number of discount modes. Mode=3 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • All cash flows occur at the end of the period. and the Print Results Program uses the highest value found at any time in any case. as though each day’s cash flow was discounted with the fraction for that day. the difference is usually insignificant. Continued on next page 278 Glossary 28 April. However. Mode=4 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • All capital injections occur at the start of the period. Mode Description Mode=1 NPV is determined on the assumption that: • Period-based capital injections occur at the start of the period. This means that the NPV calculated with the other modes may not be quite optimal. • Increment-based capital injections occur at the start of the increment. The optimization aims to maximize the NPV. • Other cash flows occur continuously throughout the interval. • Other cash flows occur at the end of the period.Glossary. 1998 . • Other cash flows occur at the end of the interval.

Element A substance in the mineralised material which is of interest to the study. Economics A binary file which carries the information from the Economics Text File in a Binary File form more suitable for optimization. it is common to reduce expected future cash flows by a certain percentage per year. to allow for interest and risk. Continued on next page 279 Glossary 28 April. 1998 . Grade dependent expressions can be used for costs. variables and functions linked by mathematical symbols which indicate how they are to be combined to produce a final value. It allows rapid simulation of the mine life for different mining sequences and economic scenarios. Economics Text A text file that carries detailed information about the economic scenario and File how the optimization is to be done. Four-D explicitly deals with the effect of time on the value of cash flows. and for which grades are available. see page 262. discount rate and inflation. Expression A series of constants. Four-DTM A Whittle Programming computer package. recoveries and so forth. Opti-Cut allows the user to specify expressions which depend on grades or on throughput quantities. The sum of all expected discounted cash flows is called the Net Present Value (NPV). etc. scenario that constitutes one possible economic environment for this project. This process is called discounting. Economic A set of economic values and process definitions which may change over time. Throughput dependent expressions can be used in defining complex throughput limits. When estimating the value of a project. Continued Discounted cash A dollar that we get today is more valuable to us than a dollar that we expect flow to get next year. For more information about NPV.Glossary.

Costs and recoveries can vary with the grade of any of the elements. and operates in a similar way. Generalised This may be used to prepare the mining sequence file for Opti-Cut and. Grade The smallest difference in grade which is significant for an element. where each may or may not be a product and each may or may not be the subject of a cut-off. Four-X has all the facilities of Four-D.Glossary. GMP Generalised Mining Package – see above. Function A mathematical function that performs a specified mathematical action. below. 1998 . Grade The units of an element in a tonne of mineralised material. Mining Package probably. G&A costs See Time costs. discrimination Grade range When material is assumed to be of different grades within a certain range. However. Continued Four-XTM A Whittle Programming computer package. to complete the details of the design after the final optimization. unlike Four-D it will handle up to ten “elements”. we call this a grade range. Contrast with Point grade. Continued on next page 280 Glossary 28 April.

Initial capital The amount spent before the first day of operation of the mine. Multiple groups of the same rock-type can be used to represent any grade distribution to arbitrary accuracy. see Sequence. Each group carries mining and processing CAFs. Increments are defined by the Sequence file. a series of increments and groups. each increment: • contains different quantities of material. Increment A section of a sequence which can be assumed to be mined as a unit. below. If more than one element is involved. 1998 . Inflation Inflation is specified as an annual percentage rate. Usually. in any time period a given fraction of everything in an increment will be mined. Handling costs Material handling costs should be included in the cost of mining and may be included specifically for stockpile re-handling costs. A group has a tonnage. increments and periods see Interval. Head grade The grade of the ore input into the mill. The grade information can. Continued on next page 281 Glossary 28 April. That is. and grade information for each element in the rock-type. be either in the form of an average grade or a range consisting of minimum. and. below. • A sequence. This amount is expenditure not discounted. An increment consists of one or more groups. • is mined and processed at a different rate.Glossary. grade ranges should be sufficiently narrow for it to be assumed that there is no correlation between the grades of different elements within the group. For more information about the relationship between: • Intervals. in each case. average and maximum grades. Continued Group A section of an increment which is all of one type of rock and which has particular grade characteristics.

Continued Initialization A small text file that is used to retain a record of the most recently used File filenames and extensions. into another language. Log file A text file of abbreviated prompts and responses that can be used to re-run a program. See page 141 for more information Marginal cut-off A cut-off which maximizes cash flow from the mine. It also contains license. so that the programs can offer sensible default filenames. Continued on next page 282 Glossary 28 April. is called oc. having regard to mill costs and time costs but not to delay and change costs. We use the term interval to describe time intervals which end wherever a period or an increment ends. return (IRR) Interval Tonnages and grades are reported at the end of each period or at the end of each period and each resource increment. For more information. and in the print files. and other information. The file.Glossary. 1998 . Internal rate of The discount rate (percentage) at which the NPV of the project is zero. See page 140 for more information. This file is named oc. if present. Periods Increments Intervals Time Language File A binary file which contains the necessary information for translating the English text that appears on the screen. The following diagram shows the relationship between periods. increments and intervals.ini.lng. see page 139.

Opti-Cut can apply an overall dilution factor that increases the tonnage of each group processed. Example A 5% dilution would require a mining dilution factor of 1. Continued on next page 283 Glossary 28 April. Continued Maximum A cut-off specified by the user. then the mining recovery factor is 0.Glossary. recovery If. the rate at which mining can proceed. costs and many other details. This factor affects Cut-offs and Cut-overs. The Optimization Program will not raise a cut-off grade cut-off or cut-over above this limit. Model A model is an idealised representation of a real-life system. for example. the model includes the sequence in which the resource (waste and mineralised material) will be mined. Mining recovery affects optimized cut-offs and cut-overs only indirectly.95. the capacity of processing plants.05. Mining Dilution Dilution Waste Ore Mining Not all the ore that you intend to process actually reaches the processing mill. The Optimization Program will not lower the cut-off grade cut-off or cut-over below this limit. Mining dilution When mining ore. Both the tonnage and the element content of each group processed are multiplied by this factor. but leaves the element content of the group unchanged. Minimum A cut-off specified by the user. it is common to inadvertently mine some waste also. 1998 . In the case of Opti-Cut. 5% is lost.

*. Value NPV Net Present Value.0 for a group in the Reference Position. Continued on next page 284 Glossary 28 April. See Discounted cash flow. above. Point grade When material is assumed to be entirely of one grade. above. Period A time interval to which particular economics and throughput limits apply. The mining cost per tonne. 1998 . For more information about the relationship between intervals. Parse In a spreadsheet program. is multiplied by the positional mining CAF of each group to obtain the mining cost at that position Processing costs are obtained in a similar manner by using the positional processing CAF. Overheads See Time costs. increments and periods see Interval. /. we call this a point grade. The user defines the length of a period. Continued Net Present See Discounted cash flow. but can have any value in other positions. to arrange text into columns of cells. Contrast with Grade range.Glossary. Positional CAFs Opti-Cut allows for the variation of mining and processing costs with position in the pit by the use of positional mining and processing “cost adjustment factors” (CAFs) which are part of the description of a group. which applies at the Reference Position. These factors should be 1. -. Operators include: +. Operator A symbol expressing a mathematical procedure. PC IBM Personal Computer or compatible clone.

Continued Price The amount obtained for one unit of a particular product. Opti-Cut has a different print file extension for each of the main programs. this is handled by positional CAFs for mining and/or processing in each group. per tonne. Processing The percentage of product that is extracted by a particular processing method. Project life The time span of the project or the model scenario.Glossary. 1998 . Processing cost See Cost of processing. Continued on next page 285 Glossary 28 April. Reference A particular position in the mine. of rehabilitating material of a particular type of rock after cost it has been dumped as waste. Processing A grade that is subtracted from the grade before the processing recovery recovery percentage is applied. Pure text mode Operation of a word processor in a mode which causes it to store the file in pure ASCII without any formatting controls. measured in years. These files can be viewed or printed out by the user. Product An element which may be extracted for sale. threshold See page 182 for a detailed explanation. Print files Print files are files in which the different programs store the results of their runs. for which all mining and Position processing costs are calculated. See page 46 for a list of print files and default file extensions. There is a separate price for each product. If the costs are different in other parts of the mine. recovery See also Processing recovery threshold. chosen by the user. Rehabilitation The cost.

and this often involves expenditure that is well in excess expenditure of normal maintenance costs. above. File Rock This refers to all material.Glossary. Result Binary A binary file containing details of the optimization. Replacement From time to time. There is a separate selling cost for each product. but is not. See Discount mode. We refer to this as replacement capital expenditure.000. in the operation of a mine.000. Selling cost The costs associated with selling a unit of a product. Continued on next page 286 Glossary 28 April. Continued Reject material Mineralised material that could be processed. Scaling factors Scaling factors are input as a negative value from one to six. 1998 . not just waste. These items are discounted. Rock-type Different types of rock are identified in Opti-Cut by rock-type codes of up to eight characters. it is necessary to refurbish major capital pieces of equipment. due to the current cut-offs. Sales cost See selling cost. This means a scaling by a factor of from 10 to 1.

see page 83. An increment contains one or more groups. Continued Sequence The material which is to be mined. in the order in which it is to be mined. Stockpile An accumulation of ore set aside for later processing. 1998 . The relationship between a sequence. Spreadsheet A small text file containing columns of selected values created from a run of Output File the Print Results Program. Increment 1 Groups Increment 2 Sequence Increment 3 Sequence A binary file which carries the information from the Sequence Text File in a Binary File form more suitable for optimization. The items that are to be included are listed in a Spreadsheet Definition File. Spreadsheet A small text file that lists the items which are to be output to a Spreadsheet Definition File Output File during a run of the Print Results Program. Sequence Text A text file that describes the physical resource and proposed mining sequence. A Sequence consists of one or more increments.Glossary. File For more information. a series of increments and groups is shown below. Continued on next page 287 Glossary 28 April. A rock-type and one or more grade ranges are specified for each stockpile.

of the resource remaining when the current processing finishes. if we were to start mining it today. 1998 . and edited as text. It is there to allow recovery for the effects of stockpile degradation over time due to exposure to wind. Continued Stockpile feed The amount of stockpile material which is fed to a processing plant.Glossary. Continued on next page 288 Glossary 28 April. above. Three-DTM A Whittle Programming computer package. It can be used for mines with a life of up to three years. Three-D finds the three dimensional open pit outline which maximizes the total undiscounted cash flow. the discounting of future cash flows starts to affect the ultimate pit outline which has the highest NPV. When we refer to a text file. the recovery used is the product of the stockpile recovery and the processing recovery. When material from a stockpile is processed. air and rain. printed. Stockpile This is the percentage of the element that can be recovered. This will be zero if the entire resource is included in the sequence. for more information. Beyond three years. Text file A file containing alphanumeric characters that can be displayed on the screen. See ASCII. Stripping ratio The ratio of the tonnes not processed (including any sent to stockpiles) to the tonnes processed. Terminal Value The value. we refer to a file in ASCII format.

Withdrawals Material taken out of a stockpile. processed or sold. Continued Throughput A quantity which must not be exceeded in a period. Waste Material that contains no product. Note: although the program and Manual refer to Tonnes throughout. UNIX A multi-user. y or z. 1998 . or the like. Different elements can have different units. but only one unit is allowed for each. Units The units used for quantities of rock.Glossary. numbers. limit This may be based on: • the material mined (ROCK) • elements • rock-types • methods. provided they are used everywhere. • user specified throughput groups. or. such as x. regardless of the amount mined. Variable A symbol. Workstation UNIX style computer. These are often called overheads or G&A (General and Administration) costs. 289 Glossary 28 April. elements. and currency are arbitrary. Tons or Short Tons can be used. multi-tasking computer system. or so little that it is not worth processing. Time costs Costs that continue during mining. representing an unspecified member of a group of objects. A period is terminated when any of these limits is reached.

................................................... 14 * scaling factors ...................... 120 Capital replacement position in file.......................................... 274 CAF............................... 146.............................................................................................................. 96. 276 Comma delimited format................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 120 Bold type..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Arithmetic symbols ................ 109 Argument................... 142 !ASK................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1998 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15 A Abbreviations used............................................... 92 290 Index 28 April..................................................................................................................................... 278 spreadsheet code .......................................................................................17.................................................................................... 268.....................................................................33..................................................... 144 !END ............................. 68 ! logging commands ........................ 16 C .... 187......... 142 !USE....................... 92 ↵ Enter symbol .......................... Special characters and keys ! comment lines............................................................................................... 37 Comment lines .............................................................. 110 Autolog facility .................................. 21 Allowed value types .................................... 74....................................................... 165.................................................................................................................... see Cost adjustment factors Capital injection position in file........................................................... 220 Blank spreadsheet code ..................................................................................................... 218.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115.......... use of ......................................................................................................... 37 Command Line names.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 146 Batch Processing Program reference ....................................................................... 271 [ ] use of square brackets.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 120 Change cost.............................................................................................................................. 148 B Batch operation ...................................................................................143............................................................................................................................................................... 165 spreadsheet code ...................................................... 144 !DEMO..................................................................................................................... 80 *** error message .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................111.............................................................................. 100 reference ................................................................ 92 ! in output report ..................................................................................................................... 135 Can’t read error message..................................................................... 134 Command line...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................csv as a Spreadsheet Output File extension............................................................................... 267.................................................................... 41 & continuing a line................................ 142 !LOG ......................................................... 100 reference ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 < > use of angle brackets.................................................................. Index Page numbers in bold type contain extensive and/or highly relevant topic information. 228 # overwriting files ..........................................................................................................

....................................................................................... 205. 277 position in file........................................44....................................................................................................................... 167.................................................................................................................................. 277 reference ....... 120 positional processing position in file.............................................................................................................................................................. 152.......................see Economics Text File Economics Binary File creation................................................................................................................................ 114............................................................................................... 277 Cost of mining definition .......................................................................................... 90 reference ...................................................................... 100 reference ................................................. 193................................................................ 281 spreadsheet code ................39............................................... 69.................................................................................................................................................................................... 210....................................................... 282 spreadsheet code ............................................ 74............................................................................................................................................................ 227 291 Index 28 April.................................................Compaction reference ................................ 161....... 1998 ......................................... 268............................................. 169............................................................... 123 stockpile reference ........................................................................................................... 271 Default answers ................................................................. 225..... 103 reference ...................................................................................... see Mining dilution Discount mode ......... 139........... 123 D Data checks.............................................................................................................................................................................. 124 Cost of processing position in file............................................................. 49........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 189.................................................................................... 109............................................................................................................................................ 162................................................ 123 E ........ 176 Cut-off grade Maximum and Minimum definition ........................................................................................................................................... 168.......................................... 40 Delay cost ..................................................90................................................................................................. 50........................ 110...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................159....................................................................................................................................................................................... 235 Constants definition ........................................ 120 Discounted cash flow definition ......................................................... 96......................... 252 Cut-over definition ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 96......... 66......................... 283 spreadsheet code ...............121............ 104 reference .............................................................. 111..... 92...................... 219...........................................................................ebi ..................................................................................... 279 reference ....... 162 spreadsheet code .................... 162.............etx ........................................................................................................................................ 277 spreadsheet code .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 120 reference .................................................................................................................... 90...................... 279 Cost adjustment factor positional mining position in file................................................... 102 reference ............................................................................................................................................................ 159........... 60........................................................................................................ 90 spreadsheet code ....................................................... 98............................................................................................................................................................ 266............. 283 spreadsheet code .............................................................................................. 80 spreadsheet code ........................................................................................ 277 Dilution ......................................................................................... 124 Costs stockpile reference .................................................. 279 reference .................................................................... 183.......................................... 184 reference .......................................... 115....... 283 position in file........... 175 Cut-off multiple cut-offs.... 277................................................................................................. 207...see Economics Binary File ............... 95.......................... 66 definition ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 277 reference ................. 198................................................ 206............................................................ 267......... 200 Discount rate position in file.........

....................................................................................................... 259......... 111 G ............................................................................................................................ 134 Four-D definition ............................. 160... 115 EL .................................................................................................................................................................... 115. 222 Four-X definition ................................................................................................. 66................................................. 98........................................................... 109 reference...................................................................................................................................... 155........................................................................................................................Global Mining Factors Line................................... 115...................................... 103...................................................................................... 158 RO ........................................................................................................................................ 114.................................... 114 format ...... 260 TC ............................. 96........... 98 Economics Input Program................................................................. 260 MT ........................................ 63 292 Index 28 April.............Throughput Limit Line ............................ 28 reference .............. 257......................... 104...... 100............... 114.............................. 155............................... 238 Economics Text File line types CI .............................................................................................................. see File extensions F File types .................................................................................................. 179.......................... 98..........................................108.......................................................... 99 reference ......... 52.. 280 reference ........................................................... 114........................................................................................................................ 257.......... 156............................................................................... 155..... 112 Glossary.......................... 222 Functions ..............................Time Costs Line..........................................Product Line.............................................. 181 MTC .................... 239......................G grade ..................................... 160.............................................. 114.......................................................................... 101...Method/Rock-type/Cut-off Line .......................... 248 TV ...... 28 reference .................................... 60.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 66 Economics Text File conversion....................................... 239...........105................................................................................................ 176.................................................................................................... 102 SP ............................................................................................ 179................................................... 217.............Stockpile Detail Line ................ 115 PL .................. 115 PR .................................... 247................................... 152............................................................................................................Rock-type Line ............Discount Rate Line....... 114.................. 114........................... 114............. 115........................................................Economics Line.................................................................................................. 217 TG ......Method/Rock-type Line....... 42 Filenames and extensions........................................................ 260 SPD .............................................................................................. 98 Error messages............................Economics description position in file............ 100 MF ............................................................................................................................................................ 115 ROC ................ 279 interface................................................................................................ 115 ECO .............................. 106................. 60.................................Expression Variable Line... 279 example ......................................... 269 spreadsheet code ................................................................................................................................... 115 DI ................Stockpile Line ............................................ 114. 120 Expressions definition ..................................................................................................... 280 interface....................Period Length Line ..... 114..... 101....................... 111................................................................. 102...........Rock-type Element Cut-off Line .... 259........................................ 51.....................Inflation Line ........................................................................................ 99....................................................................... 180 IN ...................................................................109.....................................................Throughput Group Line............ 114........104........ 115...... 270 Expression Variable position in file.......Element Line..................................................................................... 115 EV ..................................................... 152...............................................................................Capital Injection Line ............................................................................................................................ 269 Extensions ................................. 96 functions .............. 279 reference ........ 181 MTP ...................... 99................................................................................. 47 Fixed delimited format............................................................................................. 114.................................................................................... 107................. 180 TL .. 52................................................ 155................................................................................................................................. 1998 .............................................. 103........................................................................... 97........................................... 99....................................................................Method/Rock-type/Product Line . 109......................................................................................................43....................... 259.................... 257.................... 100.. 95.....................................................................................................................................................................................................Terminal Value Line...... 108................................................................................................................................................................................................... 66 definition ............... 239....................................... 276 Grade discrimination definition .................................................... 180.......................................................................................................................................

...................................................... 282 License file ............................................................................. 167................................................................................................................................................................................................22..................... 126 Italics........................................... 71...............................................................................................................................................................................................see Log files ......................... 265 Language file ...... 26 Internal rate of return definition .................................................................................................... 282 reference ...................... use of.. 141 M m (millions) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................see Log files ........................................................................loe ............. 282 reference .......................................................................................................................................................................................see Log files ....................................................................................... 217 Maximum cut-off grade.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 92........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92.......................................................................................................................... 72 Inflation position in file.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 210 spreadsheet code .........................21................................................................... 40 L ................................................................. 141 example ...................................... 141 in batch mode.............................. 134............................................................. 119........................................................... 281 spreadsheet code ......................... Kenneth F.................................................21............................................................ 282 Installation ................................................. 47........................... 282 reference ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................see Log files ......................................... 121 Lines per page.......................................................................................................................loc........................................................................ 121 Initial capital................................................. 72......................................... 100 reference ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................loo ................................................................................................................................................ 281 Hardware and software requirements......................................................................................................................................see Log files ......................... 142 definition . 139 Log file commands...............187..... 139................................................................................................................................................ H Handling costs .............................. 217 Keyboard prompts and answers ................................................................ 25 I Increments combining ....................................................................................................... 121 Interval definition ....................... see Cut-off grade 293 Index 28 April............................................................see Capital injection Initialization File reference ...........................................lol .... 141 extensions ........................los.............................. 15 K k (thousands) ................................................... 269 spreadsheet use ...................................................................................... 1998 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 64 reference ................................see Log files Lane..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Keyboard special keys.......................... 148 reference ............................................................. 155.......................................................................................................................................... 140 License entitlement ..............lop ...................................... 282 Life of project spreadsheet code ................................................................... 263......................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................51........................................... 48 Net present value ...............................................................................................................................................................................................ok file........ 285 reference ........................................................................................................................................ 103 reference ............................................................................................................................. 267.... see Economics Input Program OCLD................................ 60..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................net present value ...................................................................206...................... see Print files ............................................................. see Print files .................................................................................... see Cost of processing Processing method more than one ................................................................................... 46 Problem traps... 134 spreadsheet use .....................................................................................................................................................................see List Details Program OCOP .............. 152.................................................................... 119............................................................................ 269 spreadsheet code ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 99 reference ......................................................... 106 spreadsheet code .................................................................................................. 182 NPV .......... 198....... see ok file OCCO...........pro ................................................................................ 272 Processing cost.... 121 N Naming files .............................................................................................. 126 pn/ ....... 284 reference ...........50.............................. 155 Point grades definition ................................................................................................... 248 Print files ............................................................................ see Cost adjustment factors Pre-stripping ................................................................................................................................................................................... see Compaction Program OCEC .......prc ........... 124 294 Index 28 April................................................................................................... see Print files Period definition ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 74 reference .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... see Print files ...................................................................................................................................... 69 Overwriting files ...................................... see Sequence Input Program ok file .....................Menu Files submenu........................................... 268................................................................................................. 274 Oc??........................................................................ 288 O Out of disk space error message ............................. 35 Options submenu ..................................... see Cut-off grade Mining dilution definition .......................see Print Results Program OCSE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Selection submenu ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 106 spreadsheet code ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 283 position in file....................................................... 74............................................................................ 41 P .................................................................................................................................................................... see Print files ...........prs ..................................................................pre .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 263.................................................................................prl..................................... 121 Mining recovery definition .................................... 183 position in file........ 35 Minimum cut-off grade ...........................................................................................prp ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................see NPV Non-linear recovery......................................................................... 181..................................................................... 280 Positional mining factors .....................................................................................................................................121................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 266...... 71........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... see Cost adjustment factors Positional processing factors........ 60.. 243................ 124............................................................................................................................. see Print files .................................................. 91.......................140......... 279.............................................................................................. 50................................................................................. see Optimization Program OCPR .................................................... 283 position in file................................................................................... 1998 ............................................................................................................................................................ 150 Optimization Program ........................................................................... 284 position in file................................................................................................................................................................

.................................... see Result Binary File Recovery.............. 159...................................................... 32 reference ................................................................................................... 284 Rehabilitation definition ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 101 reference ...................................Processing method threshold position in file...................................................................................................................................................................................... 277...................................................... 134 R ....................................................................... 163........... 286 reference ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 151 295 Index 28 April..................................................................................... 76 Rock spreadsheet code ..................................89........................ 102.........96.....................................................................ssd ............................... 102 S ............................................................................... 103 Processing throughput factors .....................................................................................................................................................................................sso .......................... 159.....see Mining or Processing recovery Reference position definition ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................see Capital replacement Result Binary File definition .......................................... 272 Program limits ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 169...... see Spreadsheet Definition File ............................................................................... 162......................................... 208 spreadsheet code ........................................................................................... 275 PROGRAM ERROR ? IN ?????? ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 285 reference ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 101 reference .................................................................. 180 Quote delimited format ....................................................rbi.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................see Sequence Text File scaling factors ............................... 1998 ......................................................... 162......................................................................................90..................... 122 Sensitivity analysis................................ 170.................................. 182 Processing recovery percentage position in file........................................................................................................... see Spreadsheet Output File ........... 34 exiting ..........................................stx.................................. 41 functions ......................................................................... 124 Rejected material spreadsheet code ....................... 104............................ 110...............................................Q quantity ............................................................................................................................. 157.......................sbi........................................................................... 269 Program names ......................................... 179..... 285 reference ....................................................... 122 Rock-type position in file..................................... 39 Selling cost definition ............................... 269 Program Enhancement...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69............................................................. 53 Prompts and answers.........................................................44......... 182 reference ..see Sequence Binary File ................................... 103 Processing recovery fraction ............................................. 155................................................... 80 Selecting from a list of items ..................................................................................................................................... see Keyboard prompts and answers Q .............................................. 178 spreadsheet code ........................................................................................................................................................ 207............................................................................................................. 17 Programs accessing................................................ 286 position in file.................................................................................................................................................52.......................................................... 159............ 123 Replacement capital ...... 158.............. 179 Product position in file..............

.................total rehabilitation value............. 95 Sequence compaction ...... 121............... 287 reference ......................................................120................end percentage of increment used ......Element Range Line............................... 122............................. 124..... 92.......................................................................... 120.........................................................................................grade of material mined ......... 124.........................Element Line.......................................... 130 /SD ................... 122..................................................................... 120....... 129 /FR ....................................... 122............................................ 123.......... 130................................120.............. 123 /GF ................................................. 124................. 121... 129 /GS ........................................... 123........... 93 IN ...................................... 123..................................processing recovery percentage....................................units of an element from the increment to processing..................................... 130 /UM ........................................... 124... 127...........90......................................................................... 124..................................................................122.................................... 121............................. 124. 92.......................... 124.................. discounted......... 122.................................................................. 125.............. 123... 123..........stockpile recovery.............................. 124.......................................Increment Description Line ................................................................................................................. 124... 129................................................................................................. 52.................................. 61........................... 122... 129........................................................Rock-type Line ...... 123........... 93 ELR ............................................................. 93 RO ..................... discounted ................cut-off/cut-over ................................................................................................... 129 296 Index 28 April.. 122........... 122............................ 122.......................start percentage of increment used ................. 130................................. 122............................................................ 93.........................tonnes rejected (from processing or stockpiling .. 124......................43.................................................end number of increment ...................... 129 /MA ......... 121................................................... 124.....................................................................throughput limit................ 123 /C .......................................... 124....... 121... 129 /UI ..................................... 129 /TS .............................................................. discounted........................tonnes mined............................ 122... 121......................................... 121...........grade of material in the ground .................... 130 /RT ........ 231 /TI ...................................cash flow. 121........ 121. 129 /RP ......................................................... 92................................121. 130........ 124......... 131 /UF .. 121....................... 130 /PC ....... 129........ discounted ......... 226 ELA .tonnes from the stockpile (to processing) ............................ 124....... 120................................................ 121........ 122............ 122.................................... 124............................ 129 /MI ............ 120............... 124............ at the end of a particular interval or period .....................................122.................................................................... 129.............. 129 /RD . 122...tonnes in the stockpile.................... 131 /UG ........... 124.............total sales cost ... 121......................tonnes in the ground....................... 122.........................................cash flow............ 121......... 120.................................grade of material from the stockpile ................. 121........................................... 1998 ............... 92............................tonnes input to the stockpile .......................... 130 /R .......... 131 /H .. 130 /SC .. 131 /TT ............Element Presence Line ..... 122................. 122........................................................................ 124.. 131 /TG ................................. 121...... 122...................... 85 Sequence Text File line types EL .......................................................................................... 84........ 92........................processing recovery threshold.....................total rehabilitation ...........................................................................................................total sales cost.................... 129 /GR .................................... 123 /L ............. 122.price per unit.......................... 130 /CD ..................... 127............................................units of an element from the stockpile ................................................................. 92.Element Average Line.. 129.. 124.......................start number of increment ....... 122... 121....rehabilitation cost ..................................grade of material from the increment (to processing) ................................................. 89................................... 93 SEQ .........................tonnes from the increment (to processing)................ 129 /TR ..............units of an element mined ........grade of material to the stockpile .... 123................................................... 129...........................................fraction ......... 40 Spreadsheet Definition File attributes....................stockpile handling cost............ 120................Sequence Binary File creation... 231 /TM .......................... 122............. 131 /LM .. 131 /GT .................................stockpile handling cost ......................................................sales cost per unit............ 57............................units of an element in the ground............. 130 /MC .................................. 55 definition ....... 124....... 129 /SP ...121................................................... 129 /RC .............................................................length of period.................. 231 /EN ............54........................................................ 122........... 124............ 120.................................. 124........ 92....... 124................................................ 121.............................. 129 /SR ............ 124......................................... 42.......... 122...................................minimum cut-off.................... 130 /SN ............................processing cost at the reference position ............................................................................... 130 /GM . 124............................90................ 123...................... 121..... 131 /TF ........... 122.120................................................. 123................... 61.................. 127..........91............................Sequence Description Line.............................. 231 /CO ................ 129 /EP ...............................................................89................ 125.............................. 120................ 93 Special keys .................. 92......................90........................................................................................... 129 /GI ....maximum cut-off .................89........................ 130.............. 124...... 130................ 123.............. 121.................... 123..........................................................................................grade of material in the stockpile at the end of the period/interval . 131 /GG ......... 130 /S ............................. 123 /HD .............................................................................. 130 /PR ............................ 122......... 87 reference . 124.Group Header Line ........ 130............................................................................. 122..............122...............................................unit mining cost ....... see Compaction Sequence Input Program......grade of material rejected ............91............................................ 122.. 76 Sequence Text File format .......................................................................................................................................................... 93 ELP .. in months....................................... 93 GR ............................................................................................. 130............................................ 123................................ 121..................................................................

.............................................. 123 tutorial ............................ 130.... 131............................................................................... 129 MINDIL............................................................... 129 ROCK.... 231 INT.................................................................................................................................... 122............................... 122................................120....................................... 108 reference ......................................................... 173.............. 230....... 129...................... 122......................... 287 grades . 256 297 Index 28 April..............................................................units of an element in the stockpile ...... 121........................................121........................................ 123....................... 129. 130.................................................... 130....122.........................................45............123........................................................................... 122................................................................................................... 131 AVMINCAF ....................................... 237................ 130.............. 129 TIMECOST .....units of an element rejected . 129.................121..........108............................................ 269.................................................................................................................................................... 230 Spreadsheet Output File creation.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 122........... 230...................................................... 129........................................................... 107 recovery percentage.............................120...............................................122........ 231 /UR ...............................................................................................................................................................................................121............................................................................122............................................................................................................................................... 131....................................................119..................................................................................................................... 231 SELLCOST..................................................................................................... 119.................................................. 129 INFLATION................................. 131........................................................................122......................................................................................... 130...... 107 spreadsheet codes................... 131 STOCKPILE .................................................... 120............................................................................................................................... 131 <method>........................................................ 129............. 106 multi-element........................... 288 re-handling costs ............................................................................................ 131............................................................120.......................................................................................................................................................................................<type>......... 129.......................................... 121....................................................................... 127............................ 129 CAPEXREP................................121.......................................................................................121.........................................................................................................122.............. 131 codes.............51................................ 231 RESUSED ........................................................................................... 122.............................................................. 230.................... 287 Stockpiles cut-offs...... 133. 131 STRIP.................<element>............................ 129....... 130.................................... 250.................. 175 old175 position in file...................................................... 127..... 118........................................................... 129 SP_<n>......................................................................... 129 AVPROCAF ............ 136 format .................................................................. 129. 287 example ....... 129........................................................................................................................... 121............................ 120.................................................... 125 /UT ...................................................................................................................................................... 127..................... 127..................................... 230........................... 76 definition .......................................................... 129 DISCOUNT ......................................121.............. 231 CAPEXINI......................................................................................................................... 127....................................................................................................................................................................... 129 INTERNAL................................................................................................................ 130....................120............ 125.................................................122.................................................................... 120 <element>........................................... 129.............................................................................................. 130.......................<element> ........................................................................................................................... 129 line types GRA ............................................................................................................................................... 231 <type> ................................................ 231 TERMINAL. 231 <method>.......................................... 131 SP_<n>.....................................................................................<element>............units of an element output from processing ............................................... 122................................................... 121.......................................................................120............................................ 230 <method>................................................. 121........................................................................................................... 131 <type>.........................................units of an element to the stockpile .......... 231 PER .......................................................................................................................... 131 <expression>................................. 129............... 130... 96.......................... 130.............................................................................................................. 1998 ... 230............................................................................................ 134 reference .................................................................... 129 /US .... 177 definition ........ 129.......................... 120....................... 230................................................................................. 122................................................... 129 INCREMENT ..................................... 130......................................................................................... 129 Blank ................................................................ 129 MINREC................................... 122............................ 122................................. 129............. /UO .............................. 44............................................................................................................. 125..........123.................................. 80........................ 127.......................................................... 107 rock-type code............................................................................... 122............................................................ 230........................ 130 LIFE ...................................... 120 <method>..................................................................... 119 reference ........ 119.............. 230.................. 129 PERIOD................................................................................. 119 keywords............................................. 231 WASTE .............................................. 174 Mining factor ................................................ 129............................................................................................................................................... 128 definition ...................................120................................................................. 125........................<type>.................. 120................................................. 287 format ......................... 129 VALUE..................................... 118................... 120..................<element> ................................

........................................... 167.......................... 170.................................................... 284 Time costs definition ..see Processing throughput factor Throughput Group position in file................................... 179.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 104 reference ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 289 position in file......................................96............................................................................................................Stripping ratio definition .............................. 160........................................................................................................................................................... 124............... 289 exercise......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 251 spreadsheet code ........................................................................................ 122 Tutorials and exercises................................................................................................. 123 298 Index 28 April....................... 99 reference ..................................................................................................... 96........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 124 Using the package .......................................................... 269.............................................................................................. 167 Termination of optimization ............................... 246 position in file.................................................................................... 166... 163............................................................................................................................ 288 reference ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 289 reference .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................96.... 71............................. 31 V Value spreadsheet code ....................................................................................... 269............. 274 Unable to write file error message .............. use of............ 185 U Unable to open file error message................................. 122 System error messages ........................................................................................................................................ 105 reference ............................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Units definition .................................................. 284.......................... 288 position in file.................................................................................51.............................................................. 98 reference ..................................................................................... 273 T Terminal Value definition ....................................... 265 spreadsheet code ........................................................................................................ 96........................................................................ 1998 ............................................................................................... 74 Three-D definition .............................................................................................. 289 Throughput limit definition ......................................................... 9 Throughput factor............ 288 Spreadsheet code.................158................................... 274 Underlining.............................