THE ORY OF
MAXI MA AND MI NI MA

BY

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DR SC
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( P A RI S
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R ESS R M AT EM AT I S N
P OF O OF H C I TH E

NI V E R S I T Y O
U I N I NNAT I F C C

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A T L A N TA D A LLAS C OL U MBU S S AN F R ANC I SC O

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H A RRI S H A N C O C K

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m ore e n t er t a in in g t h an t h o se w h i c h rel a t e t o m a x i m a an d m in i m a .

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h igh er p a r t s o f g e om e t ry a b ou t a h u n dred ye a rs ago Mr de , .

Fer m a t p ro po sed a m e t h o d f or fin din g t h e m a xi m a an d m in im a .

H o w t h e m e th o ds t h a t were t h e n in v en t ed f or t h e m e n s u ra t ion
o f fi gu res a n d dr a w in g t an g e n t s t o c u rv es ar e c om preh e n ded
an d i m r o v ed by t h e m e th o d o f Fl u xi on s m be ders t d
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. o nly is a m odel o f re i se rese t t r i g r s ded t p c p n a i o n a n d o ou u c i on . . on t h e le c t u res th a t were p rese n t ed by t h e l a t e P r o f ess o r W e iers tra ss in t h e Un iv ers i t y of Berlin I t t re a t s t h e o rd in a ry .iv T H E ORY OF MAX I MA AND M IN I MA re so ving l qu es tion s er n in g c on c m a x i m a a n d m in i m a i s a ls o de ri ve d fro m it tha t is so e asy an d exp ed iti ou s in t h e m os t . tha t i s w h ere t h e f u n c ti on s a r e e v eryw h ere re g u l a r an d . de fini te e t c A t re a t m e n t o f th ese c a ses t h e e xtraord in a ry c a ses . “ w h ere t h e f orm i s se m i . s i ded d iff er p . . As in t r o d u c t o ry t o a c o u rse o f le c t u res o n t h e c a l c u l u s of v a ria ti on s I h av e f or a n u m ber o f ye a rs giv en a br ie f o u tl in e . c a ses . I n t he pre face t o t he Ger m a n t ra n sl at ion by Bohlm a n n a n d Sc he pp o f Pe a n o s Ca lc olo difle r e n zi a le e p r i n c ip i i di c a lcolr ’ i n tegr a te P ro fes s o r A Mayer wr it es t h a t t hi s b ook o f P e a n o n o t . . Ferm at s r u le fo r fin d in g m axi m a an d m in i m a w a s i m p erf e c t . o f t he t h e o ry o f m a xi m a an d m in im a T hi s ou tli n e i s f ou n ded . Ma th e m a t ic ian s were a t firs t s a ti sfied with fin di n g t h e n e c ess ary c o n d ition s f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o ble m Th ese c on d iti on s h ow . c o nse q u e n tly bee n del a yed s o l o n g th a t I h av e c o n c l u ded t o gi v e a n e n ti rely n e w e xp os iti o n o f t he w h o le t h e o ry . e ver a re seld o m a t t h e s a m e ti m e s u ffi c i en t I n o rder t o de c i de thi s . . . as a b u lle tin o f t h e U n i v ers i t y o f C in c in n a t i in 1 9 0 3 At t h a t . W here t h e fo r m s a r e e ith er de fin i t e o r in de fin it e I t w a s p u bli sh ed . las t poin t t h e d is c ov ery o f fu r th er a lg ebr a i c m e an s w as n e c ess a ry . h fl w ose propitio u s in u e n c e has bee n u n m is tak ably fel t u pon . an d ’ we s hall s e e th at m an y im p er f e c tion s s till e xi s t ed f or a l on g tim e a f te r t he in v e n t ion o f t h e c al c u l u s by New t on . . co mm o n cas es an d i s . ” a ppli c a ti o n s o f Fl u x i o n s . tim e I e xpe c ted t o p u bli sh a n o th er b u lle tin w h ic h w a s t o t rea t t he m ore s pe c ial c a ses . fail u s t ha t this is ju s tly es t ee m ed on e o f t h e m o s t a dm i rable . . Des ca r t es h ad alre a dy re m arked in a le tt er o f Ma r c h 1 1 6 38 th a t . so s u c c ess f u l w h e n t h e q u es ti o n i s o f a hi g her deg ree wh e n t he diffic u l ty i s g re a t er an d oth er m e th o ds . e n t ia t ion e n te rs t h e a m b i g u ou s c a se ” . . The the ory o f m a x i m a an d m in i m a w as r ap i dly d e v el op ed a lon g t h e li n es o f t h e c al c u l u s a f t er t h e d i s c o v ery o f t h e l a tt er . re q u i red m ore s t u dy th an w a s a n ti c ipat ed Th e b u lle ti n h as . f or e x a m le w h ere o nly on e .

. . To a c o n s i der a ble de gree th ese in a c c u r a c i es a r e du e t o on e o f t h e g re a t es t o f al l m ath e m ati c i an s L ag r a n g e an d th ey h av e . t h e T ayl or dev el opm e n t i n ser i es i s gi v e n u n der at le a s t h al f a d o z en di ff eren t for m s H A RR I S H ANCOC K . m a t h e m a t i c al s c i e n c e in t hi s c ou n t ry t h a t m o re a tt e n t i on be giv en t o t h e t h e o ry of m axi m a an d m in im a . ot h ers. g gi c al s i de o f t he presen t a ti on i s in si s t ed u p o n . I h av e th ere fo re prepared t h e presen t b o ok f or s tu den t s w h o w i sh t o t a ke a m ore ext en ded c o u rse in t h e c a l c ulu s as in t ro du c t or y t o gra d u a t e w ork in m at h em a ti c s I do n ot bel i e v e in . t akes an d in a c c u ra c i es t h at h av e bee n s o l on g in v ogu e b u t w hic h bes ides s o in c i si v ely p en e tr a t es an i m p o r t an t fi eld th a t . . Th e i m p ort an t o b je c ti on c on t ain ed in th i s b o o k ( Nos 133 1 36) — . m e n tion ed b o ok de c l a res th a t t h ere h as bee n a l on g -f el t n eed . s h owed u n qu es ti on a bly th a t t h e e n tire f orm er th e ory o f m a xi m a an d m i n i m a n eeded a th o r ou gh re n ov a ti on . f or e xa m ple o . F C P RE A E a l m o s t e v ery c a l c u l u s th a t h a s appe a red (in Ge r m an y ) s in c e th a t ti m e b u t by c all in g a tt en ti on t o old an d dee p ly r o o t ed e rr ors it h a s g i v e n an im p u lse t o n e w a n d f r u it f u l de v el op m e n t . . . . . hi th er t o h as been c on s i dered q u i te elem en t a ry . . D an t sc h e r an d o th ers w h o h av e de v el op ed n e w a n d s t re n u ou s . . . I t seem s th ere fo re v ery des i r a ble in t h e presen t s tat e o f . fo r it h as a high in t eres t as a t opi c o f pu re a n a lys i s an d fi n d s i m m ed i a t e appli c a t ion t o a l m o s t e v ery br a n c h o f m ath e m a ti c s . o f a w o rk w hi c h f or t h e firs t ti m e n o t on ly i s f ree f r om m i s . bee n d iff u sed in t h e Fren c h s c h oo l by Bertr an d S erre t an d . . W e f u rth er fi n d th a t th ese m i s t a kes ar e e v er bein g repe at ed by E n g li sh an d A m er i c an au t h o rs in t h e n u m ero u s n e w w o rks w hic h a r e c on s t an t ly a e r i n g on t h e c al c u lu s pp a . m a k in g u n iv ers it y s t u den t s s t u dy a bs t r u se th e or i es i n f oreig n l an g u ag es an d in th is t re a ti se it w ill be f ou n d th a t t h e p ed a . the ori es f or e xtr em e v alu es of f u n c ti on s Spe a k in g f or t h e . a n d i n t h e m ai n P e a n o s b oo k i s t h e o rigi n al s ou r c e o f t h e be au t i fu l an d t o a ’ g re a t d egree f u n d a m en t al w o rks o f S c h e e fi e r St ol z Vi c t o r v ‘ . Germ an s P ro fess o r A Ma yer in t h e i n t r o d u c ti on t o t h e ab ov e .

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E xa m p l e s i n w h i c h t h e f u n c t i ons a r e di s c o n t i n u o u s . S P AG 1 Grea te st . up p er an d lower li mi ts E x am p l e s e a st va . Fu n c t io ns w i c h hh a ve on l y On e -S id e d D ifle r e n t i a l Q u o t i e n ts ' f o a Ce r t a i n Or d e r f or a Va lu e 1: . a b s o l u te a n d re la t ive m a xi m a a n d m i n i m a 1 2 . A Fu n c t ions . C ri t e ri o n f o r m axi m a o r m i n i m a va lu e s 2 3 . T h e ext r em es o f f u n c t i on s . Upp e r a n d L o w e r L i m i t s of a On e Va lu e d Fu n c t i o n w i c is h h Co n t i n u o u s f or Va l u es o f t h e Ar u m e n t w i t i n a D efi n i t e I n t e r v a l g h 8 . C ri t e ri a as t o w h e t h e r a r o ot o f t h e e qu a t i on f (a ) 0 o ffe rs a n e xt re m e ’ of t h e f u n c t i on f S t a t e m e n t a n d p r o o f s o f c e rt a i n t h e o r e m s 7 B . up p e r a n d l ower li m i t s . Or di na r y a n d es tr aor di n a r y p r op e r a n d i m p r op e r m a xi m a a n d m i n i m a . Ot h e r t h e o r e m s 4 4 . . x 0 7 . L e - f ha nd t a n d r i g ht- ha nddi ffe r e n t i a l q u o t i e n ts 6 6 . w hi h h c a ve D e r i va t i v e s on l y on D efi n i t e P os i t i o ns 5 . 12 9 . T h e o re m s and t h e i r p r oo f s 11 0 . C ONTE NTS C HA P T E R I FU N T I ONC S OF ONE V A R I AB L E I OR D I NA R Y M A XI M A AN D M I N I M A ECT I O N E . Gr ea test and l l u e s . An i n t e r e st i ng e x a m p l e gi ve n b y L i o u vill e 13 10 . a n d sm a l l l o f a f u n ct i o n i n a fi xe d i n t e rv a l . Resu m e o f t h e a b o ve e xp r e sse d i n a s o m e w ha t di ffe r e n t f o rm 5 II E XT RA O R D I NA RY M A X I M A AN D M I N I M A . c as e s in w hi c h t h e u p p e r a n d l ow e r li m i t s ar e n ot r e ac h e d 14 P R OB L E MS 15 vi i . . m a xi m u m es t v a u e a n d m i n im u m S e ve ra l m a xi m a o r m i n i m a i n t h e sa m e i n t e rva l .

D I FF E R EN T ATT E MP T S I MP R O V E T H E T H E O R Y TO Fa il ure i n d e ri vi ng t he re q u i re d c o n di t i o n s b s t u d i n t h e b e h a v i o r y y g o f t he f u n c t i o n u o n a l e b ra i c c u r ve s 35 p g 27 . OR D I NA R Y M A XI M A AN D M INI M A i m i na r y Re m a r ks P r el 17 17 Defi nit e . I NOO RREC T NE SS or DED U C T I ON S MA D E BY E AR L I ER AN D M A NY M O D ER N W R IT ER S The L a g ra ng e f a ll ac y f oll o w e d b y Be rt ra n d S e rr e t . T he d e fi n i t e ca se 25 19 . S um m a ry o f t h e re su lt s de ri v e d f o r t h e t w o c a se s a bo ve . 33 II I . e tc Ge o m e t ri c e xp l a n a t i o n o f t hi s f a ll a c y . z ia n t h e o re ms T he S to l 39 . OR D I N AR Y E XT RE M E S 16 . D e fin ti i ons an d d e ri va t i on o f t h e r e qu i re d c on di t i on s S t at e m e n t . T o dh u n t e r . and i nd efinit e f orm s 19 C ri te ri o n f o r a d e fi n i te qu ad ra t i c f o rm 19 II . o f di ffe re n t c ase s af t e r Gou r sa t 23 17 . sem i- defin it e . T HE O R Y OF MA XIMA AND M I N I MA C H A P T ER II F UN C T I O N S OF S E V E R AL VA R I ABL E S I . T he i n d e fi n i t e c ase 25 18 . Sta te m e nt o f t he Sc he c ff e r m e t h od 37 The m e t hod o f Vo n Da n ts c h e r o u t li n e d 89 29 . . D e ri v a t i o n o f the c di t i on ons 21 P RO B L E M S 22 C H A P T E R III F UN C T I O N S OF T W O V A R I A BL E S I . E xam p le t a k e n f ro m t h e t h e o ry o f l e as t s q u a r e s 26 P RO B L E M S 27 I n t r od u c t io n to t h e Am bi g u o u s Ca s e B 2 AO 0 i i on o f t he a t t e n di n g di ffi cu l t i e s wh i c h a r e ill u st ra t e d b y E xp os t m ea ns o f ge o m e t ri c c o n s id e ra t i o n s d u e t o Gou rsa t 27 The c l as si c e xa m p l e o f P e a n o sh o wi n g w h e n w e m a y a n d m a y n o t e xp e c t e xt re m e s 31 II . RE L A TIV E M A XI MA AND MI N I M A 15 S ta t e m e n t o f t h e p r o ble m .

A di r e ct a n d m o re p ra ct i c a l m e t h o d du e t o S t o lz o f d e ri vi ng t h e a b ov e r e su l t s 55 41 . S t olz ’ l y t i c p r oo f o f t h e S c h e e fi e r t h e o re m s an a 43 31 S t ol z s a dd e d t h e o r e m b y w hi c h t h e n o n e x i s t e n c e o f re m e s ’ . S c h e e ff e r ’ s c r i t ri o f e a e xt re m e s f o r su c h f ct i o un ns 49 I II . E vi d e n t g e n e r a li z a t i o n s o f - 37 4 1 71 . D ANT S C H E R 42 . E x c e p t i o n a l c ase s 58 E XA M P L ES 59 IV . TH E ME T H O D O F V I CTOR v . d e fi n i t e f o rm E xtr em e cu r ves . F UN C T I O N S OF T H REE VAR IA B L E S Tr e a t m e n t i n P a r ti cu la r o f the S e m ir d efi n i t e Ca s e 45 . I n r i cu l a r t h e c a se w h e r e t h e t e rm s of l o w e s t di m e n si o n c o n s t i pa t t u t e a se m i . GE N ERA L C R I T ER IA F OR A GREA T E S T AN D A L EA S T VA L U E OF A F U N C TI ON O F Tw o VAR I A B L E S . T r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e m i -d e fi n i t e c a se 64 PR O BL E MS 69 V . e xt m ay h e o f t e n a s c e rt a i n e d 45 32 . C ON T E N T S ix C H A P TE R IV THE S C H E E FFE R TH E O RY I . S c h e e fi e r s g e om e t r i c p r oo f o f hi s o w n t h e o r e m ’ 46 33 . H OM O G ENE O U S F U N C TI ONS 34 . E xt e n si on s o f t h e t h e o r e m s a n d p r oo f s gi ve n by St ol z an d S c h e e ff e r f o r f u n c t i o n s o f t w o va ri a ble s 70 46 . 72 . I N P AR T I C U L AR T HE E X T RA O R B I N AR Y E X T RE M E S S E C TI ON P AG E 30 . T h e c ri t e r i a e st a b li s h e d 54 - 37 40 . Fa il u r e o f t hi s t h e o r e m 48 II . 52 36 . Th e g e a e n r l m et h o d o u t li n e d an d a pp le i d to t he de finite and i n d e fi n i t e c a se s 62 - 43 44 . E XTRE M E S F OR F UN C T I O N S T H A T A RE N O T H OM OG E NE O U S 35 .

D efin i t i on of r egu l a r 48 . APP L I CA T I O N or T HE THEO RY or Q U A D RA T I C FO R MS To THE P R OB L E M MA XI M A AN D M I NI M A S T A T E D I N OF 47 5 1 - 68 . Disc ussio n of t he re st ri c t ion t h at t h e d e fin i t e qu a d rat i c f o rm m u s t o n l y va n ish wh e n allt h e va ri a b l e s van is h T h e p ro b l e m o f t hi s . T he q u e s t i o n o f 53 a n s w e r e d 91 III . E ve ry h om og e n e o us f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e c on d d e g r e e x2 o x) . f u n ct i ons of o n e va ri a bl e 75 Ta y l o r s t h e o r e m f o r f un c t i o ns o f se v e r a l va r i a b l e s 77 ’ 50 . x ) Z ii M xi x b e e xp r e ss i b l e ” i . S om e p rop e rt i e s of qu a d ra t i c f o rm s T h e c o n di t i o n t h a t t h e . 96 - 6 7 70 De ri va t i o n o f a f u nd a m e n t a l c o n di t i o n . No i m ax m u m o r mi n i m u m Va l u e o f t h e f u n ct i on c an e n t e r w h e n t h e c o rr e s p o n di n g q u a d r a t i c f o r m is i n defin it e W h e n is a . qu a d ra t i c f o rm (xl x2 . D i t i o n o f m axim a a n d m in i m a of f u n c t i on s o f o n e a n d of se ve ra l e fin va ri a b l e s 74 T h e p r o b l e m o f t hi s c h a p t e r p r o p ose d T a y l o r s t h e o r e m f or ’ 49 . 96 7 1 Ano t he r m e t hod o f fi n di n t he sa m e co n di t i o n 98 g . Th e us u a l f o rm o f t h e sa m e t h e o r e m 79 52 . T HE O R Y OF MA XI MA AN D MIN IM A C H A P T ER V MA XI MA AND M INI MA OF F UN C T I O N S OF SE VE R AL V A R I AB L E S T HA T ARE S UBJ E C TE D T O N O S UB S I D I A R Y C O N D I T I O N S I . . A c on di t i o n o f m a xi m a a n d m i n i m a o f s u c h f un c t i o ns 81 II . c ha p te r co m p l e t e l y s o l ve d 92 64 . Uppe r a n d l o w e r li m i t s 94 C H A P T ER VI T HEO R Y OF MA XI MA AND M I N I MA OF F UN C T I O N S OF S E VE R AL VA R I A BL E S T HAT ARE S U BJ E C T E D T O S U B S I D I A R Y C O ND I T I O N S . qu a dra t i c f o rm a defin i te f o rm ? 82 54 . . TH E O R Y or T HE H O M O GE N E O U S Q U A D R A T I C F O R MS 58 . OR D IN AR Y E X T RE M E S S EC T I ON P AG E 47 . 51 . 96 66 The n a t u ral way to so l ve i t . n m a y b e e xp r e sse d as a n agg r e g a t e o f s q u a r e s o f li n e a r f u n ct i o ns o f t h e va ri a b l e s 85 62 .“L as a f u n c t i o n o f n 1 va r i a b l e s 83 - 55 6 1 . R E LAT I VE MA XI MA AND M I NI MA 65 T he p r o bl e m s t a te d . Na t u re of t h e f ct i o un ns u n d e r c o ns id e rat i o n . .

C o n di t i o n s t h a t t h e qu ad ra t i c f o rm he i nva r i a b l y p o s i t i ve o r i n va ri a b l y n e g a t i ve 1 14 II . 90 : D e ri vat i on . t he t he o ry o f ligh t . T h r oo t o f t h i e q t io s llr l s e ua n ar e a ea 10 7 80 82 - . the sm a l les t c u rva t u r e a t a r e gu l a r p oi nt of a su rf a c e . W H I C H O F T E N RE N D ER S UNN CE SS AR Y T H E S E C R I T R I A E E 93 . B ra n d s p ro b l e m s T w o p ro b l e m s t a k e n f ro m ’ . CON T E N T S xi S E C TI ON P AG E 72 . n n as th e e qu at i o n o f c l r ri t i o se u a va a ns 104 79 . e va n e un a en a e e n an e and t he di scu ss i o n o f t h r oot o f t h q t i o A 0 k o w e s e e ua n e . o f t h e c h a ra c t e ri st i c di ff e r e n t i a l e qu at i o n o f m i n i m a ls u rf ac es 1 16 91 . THE O R Y or H O M O GE N E O U S Q U A D RA T I C F O R MS 77 Addi t i o n of b i di ry c o di t i a su s a n on 103 D ri t i o of t h f d m t l d t rmi t A . an d m i n im a ar e e st a b li s h e d w h e n n o s u c h m a x i m a o r m i n i m a 134 . 12 6 C H A PT ER VI I SP E C I AL C A S E S 1 . APP LI C A T I O N T H E C R I T E R I A J U S T F O U ND T O T H E OF P R OB L E M O F T H I S C H A P T ER 88 . E st a b li s h m e n t o f c e rt ai n c r i t e r i a 10 2 75 . TH E P RAC TI C AL AP P L I C A T I ON O F T HE C RI T RI A T H AT HA B N E VE EE H I T H E R T O G I V E N AN D A M E T H O D FOU N UP O N T HE THE O RY DED or FU N C T I O N S . W i r tr e e s p r oo f f t h a ss s b’ o t h o r m o e a ve e e 108 83. A ge n e ra l p roo f o f a ge n e ra l t h e o re m in de t e rm i n an t s 11 1 86 . D iffi c li u t es t h at ar e of t e n e xp e ri e n c e d Fa ll a c i e s b y w h i c h m axi m a . R e fl e ct i o n R e f ra c t i o n . ’ A ge om e t r i c a l ill u s t ra t i on o f t h e s e r e s t ri c t i o ns 10 1 74 . Mo re sy m m e t r i c c on di t i on s r e qu i r e d 103 I . S i m p lifi c a t i o ns t h at m ay b e m a d e 10 2 76 . 78. 84 . 79 . T h e t h e o r e m p r o v e d w h e n t h e va r i a b l e s a r e su bj e c t e d t o su b s idi a ry c on d i t i on s 112 87 . An i m p o rt an t l e m m a 10 9 85 . Th e p r o ble m as s t a t e d in 65 s o l ve d a n d f o rm ula t e d in a sy m m e t ri c m an n e r 114 89 T h e r e su l t s su m m a r i z e d a n d t h e g e n e r a l c ri t e r i a st a t e d 1 15 D iscu ss i on of t h e ge om e t ri ca l p r ob l e m D eter m i n e the gre a test a nd . Sol u t i o n o f t h e ge o m e t ri c a l p r o b l e m From a gi ven p oi n t to a : g i ven su rf ac e dr a w a str a ig ht l i n e whos e l en gth is a m i n i m u m or 12 3 92 . Disc u ss i o n of r e s t r i c t i on s t h a t h a v e b e e n m a d e t he 100 73 .

15 9 .i t io n A n n - ple m ul . n d t h e o n e w hi c h c o n ta i ns t he g r ea te st s u rf a c e -a re a 142 - 102 10 7 . I t s a na l y t i c a l f o rm u l a t i o n 15 2 115 . tip l ic ity S tr uc . R e du c t i o n o f t w o i n e qu a li t i e s t o o n e 149 111 . By m e a ns o f t hi s p ri n c i p l e a l l p ro bl e m s o f m e c h a n i cs m ay be ’ red u ce d to p rob l e m s o f m a xi m a a n d m i n i m a 15 2 116 P roo f o f a t h e o re m i n t h e t h e o r o f f u n c t i o n s 15 3 y . So l u t i o n o f t h e a b ov e p r o b l e m 143 102 . sa t i s f y t he e q u a t i o ns . I n e q u a li t i e s e xp re sse d i n t h e f o rm o f e qu a t i o n s 1 50 112 . T h e p re v i o us i n v e s t i ga t i o ns ill u s t r a t e d b y t h e p r o b l e m A m o ng al lp ol y go ns whic h ha ve a g i ve n n u m b e r of si des a n d a gi ve n p e r i m e te r fi. 14 1 100 . P ro of a nd di sc uss i o n o f t hi s t h e o re m D e t e rm in a t i o n o f u pp e r . d e fin i t e re al m on t h e bo u nda ry o r withou t t hi s re a l m . T H E RE V ER S ION OF SE R I ES - 1 17 12 6 . R e d u ct i o n o f s u c h c as e s t o t h e t h e o ry o f m a xi m a a n d m i n i m a p r o p e r T h e d e ri va t i ve s o f t h e fi r s t o r d e r m u s t va n i s h .x ii T HE O R Y OF MA XIM A AND MIN IM A BI C T I O N 94 . a nd l o we r li m i ts f o r t h e q u a n t i t i e s t h a t o cc u r 154 128 Un iq u e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t he s s t e m o f v a l u e s o f t h e x s t h a t ’ y . t u res A p os i t i o n d e fi n e d w hi c h li e s w i t hi n t h e i n te ri or o f a . app roac h Ge o m e t ri c a l a n d g ra p h i c a l ill us t ra t i o n s 137 9 7 D i g re ssi on i n t o t h e t h e o r y o f f u n c t i o ns . E xa m p l e s i llus t ra t i n g t h e n a t u re o f t h e p r o b l e m w h e n t h e va ri a b l e s o f a g i v e n f u n c t i o n c an n o t e x c e e d d e fi n i t e li m i t s 149 1 10 . . T he r e s u l t s t h a t o cc u r h e r e a r e j u s t t h e c o n di t i o n w h i c h m a d e t h e f o rm e r c r i t e ri a i m p o ss i ble 142 10 1 . S ta te m e n t i p ri n c i p l e of t h s 15 1 114 . D e fi ni t i o ns Rea lm :A p o s. CA SE S I N W H I C H T HE S U B S I D I AR Y C O N D I T I O N S A RE N O T T O BE R EGA R D E D AS E Q U A T I O N S B U T As L I M I T A T I O N S 109 . C r e m o n a s c ri t e r i o n a s t o w h e t h e r a p o l y g o n h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d ’ i n t h e po s i t i ve o r n e ga t i v e di r e c t i o n 143 PR O BL E M 14 7 108 . . E xa m pl e s t a k e n f r o m m e c h a n i c s 150 GA U SS ’ S PR IN I PL C E 118 . b A p r o le m d u e t o H a d a m a r d 14 7 I II . 135 ? S t a t e m e n t of t wo i m p o rt a n t t h e o r e m s i n t h e t h e o ry o f f u n c t i o n s 136 8 Upp e r a n d l o we r li m i t s f o r t h e va l u e s o f a f u n c t i o n A s y mp to ti c . 138 II . E X A MP L E S OF I MP R O P ER EX T RE M E S 98 . C ase s w h e re t h e re are an i n fi n i t e n u m b e r of p os i t i on s on w hi c h a f u n c t i o n m a y h a ve a m a xi m u m va l u e 140 99 .

130 . . t h e fi rs t d e r i va t i ve s 162 Th e x s e xp r e ss e d i n t e r m s o f t h e y s a r e o f t h e s a m e f o r m a s ’ 12 6 ’ . un ns e ne t h ro g h ri t h m t i c l op r t i o u a O . A ly t i c d p d c na e en en e 169 133 . n ve en e 166 12 9 U if o rm c o n rg c n ve en e 16 7 rg c D i ff r t i t i o . If t he y ’ s bc i nfi ni t e l y sm all w i t h th e a s t h e a s b e c om e e om e ’ . r eg u la r p o i n t si ngu la r p o i n t s tru c t u e 176 D e ve l op m e n t of an a lge b ra i c f u n ct i on y in t h e n e igh b o r h oo d o f . ’ of t h e y s ’ 160 T h e a s c o n s i d e r e d a s f u n c t i o n s o f t h e y s h ave d e ri va t i ve s ’ ’ 12 5 . . un ns e a ve e an i t g r l r t i o lf c t i o n e a a na un n 168 132 . . App li c t i o o f t hi t h o r m a n d t h d fi it i o of s t ct re e an e e n n a s ru u e of th ( m )t h k i d i e n th r l m of q t i ti A lyt i c n n e ea n u an es . n it n ri e d i fi i t p r o d ct se es C o rg c an n n e u s . a r e gu l a r p o i n t Fo r s u c h a p o i n t t h e r e i s o n l y o n e p o w e r . t h e g i ve n e q u a t i o n s e x p r e ss i n g t h e y s i n t e r m s o f t h e a s ’ 163 ’ 12 7 . Th m t h o r m p ro e sa e d i m or e y m m t ri c m e r ve n a e s e an n e 172 137 . R gi o o f c o e n n ve en e . 140 . 14 1 .l d f cti o an va u e un ns 169 134 . F ct i o o f un r l ri bl F ct i o w hi c h b h ns s e ve a li k va a es .l ef ct i o I fi a e a ns . C ON T E N T S x iii S EC T I ON P AG E 12 4 . A L GE B RA I C D E PE N D E N C E 12 8 .l d f exc t i o t h ro gh e ss n an va u e un ns u on e l d f ct i o va u e un ns 169 135 . na co t i t io n nu a n 1 74 138 . A i m p o r t t t h o r m f o r t h c lc l o f n an ri t i o e e e a u us va a ns 1 71 136 . . w hi c h a r e c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n s o f t h e y s T h e e xi s t e n c e o f ’ . AN A L Y T I C D E P E N D E N CE . ’ i nfi n i t e l y sm all wi t h t h e y s T h e x s a r e c o n t i n u ous f u n c t i o n s ’ . M y . s e r i e s i n x w hi c h w h e n w r i t t e n f o r y m a k e s id e n t i c a l l z e r o y t h e f u n c t i o n w hi c h d e fi n e s t h e a l g e b r a i c s t r u c t u r e 1 77 . n e va u e un ns . u u es t h fi r t ki d e c o d ki d t s n . A L GE B RA I C S TRU C TUR S I N E T w o VAR IA B L E S 139 g eb r a i Al c r d e fi n e d . se n n . e c . A l y t i c t r ct r na d fi d i s ot h r m u u r S t r ct r of es e ne n an e an n e . C o n d i t i on s w hi ch m u s t e x i st b e f o r e t h e o rd i n a ry ru l e s o f d i ffe r e n t i a t i on a r e a ll o w a b le i n t h e m o s t e l e m e n t a ry c a se s 163 MI S C E L L ANE O US PR O BL E MS 164 C H A PTE R V III C E RT AI N F UN D AM E NT AL C O N C E P T I O N S I N T HE T H E O R Y OF ANALY T I C F UN C T I O N S I . 175 II . e en a n 16 7 131 . P o i b ili t y o f ss p r i g m y . f ct i o o f Ra t i o n a l o r m or un ri b l F c t i o d fi d ns on e e va a es .

T h e o re m o f S t o l z w h i c h se rv e s as a c h e ck o n t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e s e ri e s 187 145 . P rac t i ca l ds f o r t h e d e ri va t i o n o f su c h s e ri e s u n d e r t h e m e t ho di fi e r e n t c o n di t i on s t h a t m a y a r i s e 180 144 .l p y S I N U L AR P O IN T G S EC T I ON - 142 148 . ME T H O D O F F I N D I N G LL S ER I S F O R y A E W HICH B EL ON G To A k. An e x a m p l e i llus t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a lt h e o ry 18 7 19 1 .x iv TH EO R Y OF M A XIM A AND MIN IM A III .

OR DI N A RY MAXI M A AND M I NI M A 1 .TH E ORY OF-MAXI MA AND MI NI MA CH APTE R I FUNCT I O NS OF ONE VARI AB L E I . S e e Ge n o c c h i - P e an o . wh ic h m ay be deriv ed a re c alled or d i n a r y . t h e a c c o m p an y in g fig u re ) . Ca l o lc o di fie r e n zi a l e e r c p i n ip ii d i c lc a ol o i n t e g r a te . b u t w h en we h av e t o do w ith f u n c ti on s w h o se deriva tiv es e xi s t on ly on de fin it e p oin t s or with fu n c ti on s w hi c h h av e on e-s i ded deri v a tiv es an d t h e like t h e m axim a . le s t va l u e or a m i n i m u m i f u n der t h e s a m e c on d it i on s th ere exi s t s t h e di ff eren c e h)— ‘ 0 2 [ ] f f( x + o ( o) w 5 . it m ay h av e m i n i m a w h i c h a r e grea ter th an m axi m a ( See .A f u n c ti on f (x) whi c h i s u n i qu ely defin ed f or all v a lu es o f u e o r a m a xi o h av e a g r e a te s t va l “ x in t h e in t er v a l a b) i s s a i d ’ ( . W h e n t h e e xi s t en c e o f c o m l p e der iv a tiv es i n t h e e t e n tire in t erv a l u n der c on s iderat ion i s pres u ppo sed . whi c h d o es n ot v an i s h f or a ll v al u es of h be t ween 8 an d 5 . an d m i n i m a m a be c alled e xtr a o r d i n a r y Th e d i s u ss i on w ill be y c . t m u m f or t h e v a l u e x a s i t u a t ed be t wee n a an d b i f th ere i s o . n o t v an i s h f or a l s a m e ti m e d oes l the se v al u es o f h T hi s f u n c ti o n h a s a sm a l . A f u n c t i on m ay h av e se v er al s u c h m axi m a an d m i n im a w hi c h m ay be d iff ere n t f rom on e a n oth er . . a p o s i tiv e q u a n t it y 8 s u c h t h a t f or al l va l u es of h be twee n 5 an d 3 t h e d iff ere n c e 1 [ ] f( o x ' f i o) h i ) ‘ ‘ x g 0 e xi s t s w hic h at t h e . FI G 1 t he m a xi m a an d m ini m a .

p . while we h av e a p r op er m i n im u m i f th ere s t an ds only t he S ign in Th e m a xi m u m an d m i n i m u m a r e i m p r op er i f in f o r m u l an d [ 2 ] t h e S ig n a ls o a pp e a rs h o we v er s m a ll 8 m a y be t a ke n as [ ] l : . . . so . and of c . . s ta n ds . . Re y ln o n d . 2 If t h e f u n c ti on f (x) h as f or x . . in te rvals a s s m al l a s we w i sh St olz a n d o th ers u se t h e n o tati on . Fo r e xa m ple . i T he a ut h rs j us t it e d .2 T HE O R Y OF M A XIMA AND MIN I M A r es t ric te d at rdi n a ry m axi m a an d m in i m a A m aximu m o f fi rs t t o o . If the n we e xc l u de f rom t h e va l u es o f x th ose t o w h ic h a de fi ni te d e ri va t ive d iff ere n t f ro m z er o c o rres o n d s t h e r e re m a in e i th er ( ) p . V o l XV . ha s ne i the r a m a xi m u m n or a m in im u m . ay e oss . t o th e m app e a r t h e r e l a ti ve m a x im u m or m in i m u m w h i c h en t er . . e xt r e m e o r e xtr e m e va l u e o f a f u n c t ion t o den o t e in d iff eren t ly e ither t he m a xi m u m or m in im u m o f t h e f u n c ti on . o E xt re m ism b y l’ . M . if t he in dep en de n t v a ri able x i s s u b je c t ed t o a res t r i c ti on s o th at h i n t he fo r m u l a s [ 1] a n d [ 2 ] c a n t ake o n ly res t ri c t ed ( an d n ot a rb it ra ry s i t i v e a n d n e g a t iv e v a lu es )p o . c V . who r e ma ks r up o n t he r w e a k t e m in l g y oo t he su b je t . r op e r by S to l z ( C r u n dzug e der D if e r e n ti a l u n d I n te ' i c all ed f( )x s p ra l r ec h n u ng Vol I p 1 9 9) i f i n t h e f o r m u l a [ 1] on ly t h e S ign g . y 1. E ncy kl L e ip z . r . S 2 17 . . E xt re m a W o r th w a s El em us e d d b y R Ba lt z e r a th . p 564 c . I t follo ws tha t if the fu n c ti on f (x) h a s f or x a o a fi n i te de r i va ti ve th a t i s di e r e n t fr o m ze r o th en on thi s o n th e fu n c ti o n fl ’ p os i t i . a t h An n . J u d i/ 18 Vo l 11 p 30 6 a n d i n a rt i u la r . p tho se o f f ( x0 ) a c c ord in g as x is s m a ller or g re at er th a n a o I t i s . . t hey de pe n d u p o n t h e c olle c tiv i t y of t h e v al u es o f f (x) Opp o sed . Bd 1. Be r op ii d i e d e r Ma t h W i s s . . I n thi s c a se t h e f u n c tio n f x h a s f or x ( ) a o n e i t h er a m a x i m u m n o r a m in i m u m Si m ila r (m u t a ti s m u ta n d i s ) c on c l u s i on s a r e dra wn . . y h as t he va u l e 0 wh en x i f or u m ' c on se c u tiv e in t eg ral va l u es o f n h o we v er l a rg e a n d th a t i s f or . M d a lio is . . ~ h su stai n . . . . . i n te rva l i f s u c lim it s a re re a c e d S e e a lso AM 3 . . h . H . . An ti 5 . as s u m ed th a t l ies s u ffi c ien tly n e a r a o . a a p o s i t iv e der i v a ti v e : o t h e f u n c t io n i s be c o m i n g l a rg er on t hi s p o s i ti o n w ith in c re as in g x a n d i t s v al u es a r e res e c ti v ely s m aller or g re a t er t h an . Th e m a xim u m a n d m in i m u m o f a f u n c ti on defin e d a s ab ov e a re o ft e n de n o t e d a s a bsol u te i m a xi m u m a n d m i n i m u m S in c e . . it I . a s a ls P e a n o u n d e s t a n d b t h e a b s olu te m a xi m u m a n d o o r . . ’ if f ( xo) i s n e ga tiv e .

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th e n f( ) x is a de c re a sin g fu n c ti on an d . wh ere :22S it u at ed be tween x0 an d x 1 is . . . I f i t is o f eve n or de r . In fac t if f (x0)< 0 . A Tre a t is e of Flu xi o n s . dd l o i a s M c orr c t . . . . Be e Mac la u ri n . the r e is a m a xi m u m or a m in im u m a c cor di n g as the de r i va ti ve i n qu es ti o n is ne g ti a ve or p os i t i ve . ( x x 0) " c h an g es S ig n ac c o rd in g a s x x O o r x x 0 C o n se q u e n t ly . As h ere f i s a ss u m ed t o be a c on tin u ou s f u n c ti on it re t a in s . to the co n t r a r y . s in c e z ero f or x x0 - it g o es f rom s i t i v e t o n eg a t i v e v a l u es . L a g ran g e . . ti ve for x x0 ( w h en t hi s se c on d der iv a ti v e is di ff ere n t f ro m z ero ) . t d of c n o s i der i n g t h e S i gn o f t h e der i v a ti v e in t h e e g b r n i h o hoo d of x i f we c o n s i der t h e S i g n o f t h e se c o n d der i v a 0 . f ( ) f ( c) has always t h e S ign o f x et I t foll ows th a t f (x0 ) is a m a xim u m o r m i n im u m a c c o rd in g a s i s n e ga tiv e or p o s i t iv e W. T HE O R Y OF MA XIM A AND MI N IM A s 3 I n ea . w e ha ve t h e r u le : The f u n c ti o n f ha s on the p os i ti o n x = x0 f or w hi c h f( ’ x 0 ) 0 a m a xi m u m or a m in im u m a c c or di n g as ” f ( 0) x is n eg a ti ve or os i t i ve I nfi n i te va l u es are a u ded wa y s i n cl l unl e ss i t is s t a te d p . Vo l I p 226 . 0. 0: 0: f =5 : ' 2 7 it foll ows f ro m T a yl or ’ s fo rm u la t h at fi ) x w i r e s . (E u vre s . f ( ) f ( 0) x x a ls o c h an ges i t s Si gn a n d f (x0 ) i s n e i th er a m axi m u m n o r a m in i m u m " If n is e ven t he f a c t or (x x0 ) i s po sitiv e an d . . m e t ho d o f d is ti n gu ish in g m axim a m m in i m a . . e t h ere fo re h a v e t h e th e o re m : If f or x : mo the f i r s t and som e o f th e f ll wi o o n g d er i va ti ves va n is h. If in g e n eral i t is as s u m ed t hat (n O. p 695 . Vo l I I . Vo l 1 p 4 I t was. the n f( 0 ) x i s or is n ot an e x tr e m e a cc o r di n g as the fi r st non va n is hi n g de r i va ti ve is f o e ven or od d or der . p o t he in verse i s t h e c a se if T his r u le le av es on e in t h e l u rc h i f f ( x0 ) ’ : 0 . . a c o n s tan t S ign in t h e n e ig h b o rh o o d o f x If n i s o dd t h e f ac t o r 0 . ac l ri a u n w h o fi s t g a ve r ‘ a e fro . it i s .

FU N C T I ON S OF ONE VA RI A BL E 5 4 . In v ersely le t xO be a r oo t o f t h e e qu a tion f ( x) O s it u a t ed . . h ere li m itin g it t o t h e t erm o f t h e n t h deg ree . f ere n c e i s po sit iv e t h e f u n c ti on f . h) gm ( o+ m eh) < 0 6 1) : 1 [f . On t h e c on t r ary w h e n t h e d iff eren c e f ( x0 + h) f ( x0 ) i s n eg a t i v e . i t i s n e c ess a ry t h en th a t t h ei r . i s s m aller f o r x x t h a n it i s O : f or t h e v a lu es o f x n e ig h b o rin g x0 it i s th e n a p r op er m i n i m u m . . f eren c e c h an g es S ign wi th h. Th ef oll ow in g m ay be reg arded as a ré s u m é o f w h a t h as bee n giv en a b ov e : Th e fu n c ti on f (x) is s u p po sed t o be u n iq u ely de fin ed f or all v al u es of x w ith in an i n t erv a l ( a b) a n d x0 is a . . be t ween a an d b a n d ta k in g t h e g e n era l c a se s u pp o se th a t t h e . th ere is th e n n e ith er a m axim u m . . r a. . . firs t d eriv a tiv e whic h i s n ot z ero f or x x0 i s t h e deriv a tiv e o f ” t h e n t h o rder a n d t h a t th i s deri v a t i v e i s c on t in u ou s in t h e n eig h b or h o o d of t h e v a l u e x 0 Th e g en era l f o r m u l a o f Ta yl o r g iv es . c om m on li m it f x ’ ( 0) be z er o . n is o dd. t a ken we h a v e a n i m p r op e r m i n i m u m or m a xi m u m . we no te th a t t hi s dif . x E f ( x0) If n: has th e s a m e S ign as . S ig n e n t ers in t h e c a ses ju s t m e n tion ed h o we v er s m all 8 be : . i n t o f t h i s i n t er v a l Th e f u n c t ion f ( x) i s a p r o per m a xi m u m p o . p o s i t i v e n u m ber s u c h t h a t a s x v a r i es f r o m x o 8 t o x 0 + 5 t h e a bs o l u t e v a l u e o f e i s s m a ller t h a n f ( 0) x s o t h a t f( 0 ) f( 0) x + h. t h e f u n c t i on i s a p r op er m a xi m u m f or x x 0 If fu rt h er m o re t h e : . : . . re . t ow ards z ero a r e o f d iff eren t S ign .) e ] w h ere e i s a qu an tit y th at i s in defi n it ely s m a ll w ith h L e t 8 be a . W h e n t h e f u n c ti o n f ( x) a d m it s a d er i va ti v e f o r t h e v al u e x0 o f t h e v a r i able t h i s d eriv a t i v e m u s t be z er o I n f ac t t h e t w o qu oti e n t s . w hic h h av e h ere by h y p o th es is t h e s a m e l im it f ( x0 ) w h e n h t en ds ’ . . o r a p r op er m in i m u m f or x x i f we a r e a ble t o fin d a p o s i ti v e 0 n u m ber 8 s u ffi c i e n t ly s m a ll t h a t t h e d iff ere n c e f (x0 + h ) f ( 0) x re tai n s a c on s tan t s ign w h en h v a ri es f rom 5 to 5 If thi s di f .

t h e f u n c t io n is a m i n i m u m if f (x0 ) i s p os itiv e an d a m a xi m u m i f f . 6 T HE O R Y OF M AXIM A AND M I N I MA no r a m in i m u m for x e ven f ( x 0 . o 0 fo r x mo . 3 Fm : 4 FI G . If t he e xpress io n s f0 ” + h> f at f a. If n f ( 0) is x h as t he . is n eg a tiv e I t f oll o ws th a t f or t h e f u n c ti on t o be a m a x im u m o r . . y f ( ) be x un i u f or allv a u l es of b e t wee n 8 an d + 8 c x 23 an d s u ppo se t ha t it is c o n tin u ou s . FI G 2 FI G ' . I n ge o m e t ri c l an gu age t h e p re c ed in g c on d iti on s d en o te th a t t h e ta n g e n t t o t he c u rv e y f (x) a t t h e p oi n t I f. i s pa ra llel t o C X : a n d is n o t an i n fle c t i on a l t an g e n t ( s e e Fi g s 2 . m in i m u m fo r x x it i s n e c ess a ry an d s u ffi c i e n t th a t t h e fi rs t : 0 x be o f e v e n o r d er l deriva tive w hi c h va ni sh es f o r x ae 0 . 5 5 L e t t he fu n c t io n q ely defin ed . x O —l h ) sa m e S ign as f (x0 ) w h e th er h be p os itiv e o r n eg a tiv e . h an d p k f ag) ( D O) .

. L e s so n 7 . F U N C T I ON S OF ONE VA R I A BL E 7 hav e l im itin g v a l u es w he n lim h + 0 e a c h o f th ese express i o n s 2 2 . qu an tit y 8 m ay be so c h o sen th a t f (x) h a s c o m p le t e di ff eren ti al qu otien ts in t h e in t erv al (xo 8 an d i f f x ’ c h a n g es x + 0 ( ) S ign n e ith er in t h e in t er va l ( 230 8 o o x0 ) n or in t h e in t erv al ( 0 x o o x 0 + 5 ) a n d a ls o d o es n o t re m a i n i n va r i a bly z er o i n e i t h er o f th ese in t erv a ls th en f ( x0) i s or is n ot a p r op er e x t rem e o f . th ey a r e n o t a l w a ys s u ffi c i en t . p 2 2 3 . I See Cau . . C a le d i f e r . m u s t n e c ess a ri ly ei th er v an i sh or c h an g e S ign w ith h . - 20 1 2 10 . ’ If f (x) v an i s h es f or x x0 an d if a po s itiv e = . h o we v er a s it wil l be see n in t h e f o ll o wi n g ( ) . . . a n d f u r th er m ore i n t h e fi rs t c a se f ( x ) i s a m a xi m u m or a m i n i m u m o f . a n d s e e in p a t i r ula r S t olz . h an d a n d le f t h a n d d iffere n ti a l qu o ti e n t s o f f ( x) a r e d iff ere n t a t - t h e po in t x x t h ey c a n n o t h av e t h e s a m e S i g n T h e s e re qu i re 0 . regard t o x f o r t h e v a lu e x x0 . " is c alled a on e s i d e d di ff eren ti a l qu o t i e n t f t h e firs t t h e r ight-h a n d - . If t h e t w o on e -Sided d iff eren tia l qu o ti e n ts o f f (x) a r e e q u a l t o e a c h o th er f o r x x0 t h ei r c o m m on v a l u e i s c alle d t h e c om p le te . Re y m n d . s u c h an ext re m e o f f (x) t h e qu oti en t . I t m ay th ere f o re be c on c l u d e d a s in 2 t h a t t h e c o m ple t e . m e n t s a r e u n der t h e e xi s tin g c on di ti on s n e c ess a ry t h a t f (x0 ) be an ex t re m e o f f x . . d iff ere n tia l qu o ti en t o f f ( x) wi th res p e c t t o x f or x x0 . f o r t h e d e term in a ti on o f t h e m a x i m a an d m in i m a For if f ( x0 ) i s . c hy c . o M a t h An n . 0 S e e P d u B o i S- . a n d t h e se c on d t h e l eft ha n d . d iff eren ti a l qu oti e n t f ’ m u s t be z er o a n d t h a t if t h e r ig h t . f( )x a c c o rd i n g a s t h e S i gn o f f( ) x i n t h e firs t i n t er v a l i s d i ff ere n t fro m o r t h e s am e a s it i s in t h e se c on d in t er val . If n ext i t i s a ss u ed t t t h h e v a l u e d f u n c t i o n f x i s c on - m a e o n ( ) t i n u o u s f or allv a lu es of t h e i n t e r v al ( a b) a n d h a s a t le a s t on e . . se e a l s o Pi rp on t e . . Si ded d iff eren tial qu o t ien t s t h e d iff eren ti a l c a l c u l u s off ers a m e t h od . V ol I . 6 . Th e Th e o r y of F u n c t i on s of Re a l Va r i a b l e s . d iff eren tia l q u oti en t of f (x) wi th. pp . V o l XV I . Cr i te r i a as to w he th e r a r oo t x x 0 o f the e qu a ti on 0 fi a er s an e xt r e m e o f the f u n c ti on f T H E OR E M 1 . p 120 . ’ . . . .

in c re as in g va l u es p asses t h r ou gh x0 c h an g es f r o m t h e S i gn to .8 T HE O R Y OF MA XIM A AND MIN IM A n g as f ( x) o n i t s p a ss ag e t h r o u g h z er o f as x w ith ’ rd i ac c o . ’ i s n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e . If h ere t h e e xi s te n c e of a se c on d der iv a tiv e o f f ( x) i s a ss u m ed on ly f or x x 0 t h e n s ince . an d as al s o in di ca ted in t h a t se c ti o n t h e in c on v en i en c e a r is i n g du e . w h en x x ) 0 f ( 0 + pa sses w ith in c re a s in g as f ro m a n egativ e valu e ’ x . f ’ ( 0 x ) 0 . tre m e o f f ( x) be i n g a m axi m u m o r m i ni m u m a c c o rd in g a s f ( x0 ) . . t o t he c o n s i dera tion o f t h e S ign f ( x) m a y be o b v i a t ed i f t h e f un c ’ t ion f (x) h as a c o m ple t e se c on d d iff eren tial qu o ti en t f or x x0 . . say . i t f o ll o ws at on ce t h a t th ere m u st be a po s iti v e qu an tit y 3 s u c h th a t f o r 8 < h < 8 we h av e 3 [ ] i n t o H e n ce f( ' x 0 + I t ) eg a tiv e wh e n I t is n eg a tiv e an d p os i m u st be n ti ve w he n It is pos it ive s o t ha t o n pa ss in g th r ou g h z er o . c o e ffi c i e n t f ” ( 0) x w hi c h i s n o t z er o t h e n f £13 p I S a ( 0) r p p o er e x . ” If . t he S ign o r f ro m t h e S ign t o t h e S i gn T hi s th e o re m i s s ta ted a t t h e e n d o f 3 a n d t h ere p r o v ed . . s i t iv e q u a n t i t y 6 an o th er q u a n t i t y 8 s u c h t h a t if 8< h < 8 po . a p ro per m i n i m u m . un d er the ss u m ed in T h e orem I c on d i t i on s a t h e f u n c t io n f ( x) h as f or x x 0 3 c o m p le t e se c o n d d iff ere n ti a l : . T hi s le a ds t o t h e f oll o w in g t h e o re m : T H E OR E M II If . D u e t o t he defin i ti on of a c o m ple te se c on d deri v ativ e it f o ll o ws t ha t f < ’ [ f ( 95 + 1) w 2 where E ( h) i s a qu an ti t y t ha t be c o m es in defi n i t ely s m all with h . Th e a b ov e t he o re m be c o m es t he on e gi ve n in § 3 if it is ass u m ed tha t the re is a n i n te r val in c l u d i n g t h e v alue x x su ch 0 that fo r allpo i n ts wi thi n it a se con d diff ere n tial q u o ti en t of f (x) . t h ere c o rres p o n ds t o e v: ery .f ( 0) p x i s os i t i ve . we hav e e . t o a po s iti ve val u e A c c o rd in gly i n v ir tu e o f Th e o re m I f (x0 ) i s .

. ( 2 . -l t w h i c h fo rm u la i s t r u e f or al l v a l u es o f h s u c h th a t 8< h < 8 . . qu o ti en ts t h e r e i s a n in t erva l xO 8 o o o x0 + 8 thr ou gh ou t w hic h .) a it i s see n th a t a s f (x) pa sses t h r ou gh t h e v a l u e f (x0) 0 it d o es ’ ’ . . u es o f h s u c h th a t 8 h 8 we h a v e or <0 ac c o rd in g as f ( 0) i (2 ’ 0 x s p o s it iv e o r n eg a t iv e . th en f( x 0) i s n o t an e x t re m e of f For S in c e h ere h2 v h) g i e . . n o t c h a n g e S ig n a n d c on se qu e n t ly f ( x ) i s n o t an e x t re m e o f f ( x) 0 . a b ov e i t i s see n th a t f or v al . If for t h e va u l e x x 0 we h av e k _ . . Tayl o r s f o r m u l a we h av e ’ . x b u t a r e a ls o c o n t in u ou s fu n c t i on s of x A c c o rd in gly in v i r t u e o f . f ( 0 ) x + h i s n e g a t i v e f o r v a l u es o f h i n t h e in t er v a l 8 o o 0 an d po s i t iv e f o r v al u es o f h in t h e i n t er v a l 0 8 . Th e t w o pre c ed in g t h e o re m s a r e s p e c i a l c a ses o f t h e t w o f oll ow in g : T H E OR E M IV. F U N C T I ON S OF ONE V A RI A BL E 9 exi s t s an d i f it is fu rt h er . . (2 1) ( Zk) m f ( 0) x 0’ f 0: ( o) f ( m 0’ o) V 0 ’ t h e n f ( x0 ) i s a p r op er e xt re m e of f (x) be in g a m in i m u m o r m a xi . o o n . t h e d if f ere n t i a l qu o t i en t s f (x) f (x) o o ’ ’ ( 2 k 1) f t ly e i s t ‘ n . m u m a c c o r d in g a s f ( 2 k> ( 0) x i s p o s i tiv e or n eg a t iv e . T H E OR E M III If f u rth er m ore f (x0 ) . For o wi n g t o t h e s u pp osed e xi s t en c e o f t h e firs t 2 h d iff ere n t ial . a ss u m ed th at f ” ( ) x is c on tin u ou s at le as t at t he p o in t x x0 : . i s f or e xa m p le p o s it iv e i t i s c le a r th a t . If th en f . I t follo ws from [ 4 ] th a t t h e d iff ere n c e f (x0 + h) f ( x0 ) f o r a ll val u es o f h w i thi n t h e i n t er va l 8o o 8 ( e xc e p tin g h 0 ) i s in : va r ia bly ac c o rd in g a s f (2 k or ) x ( 0) i s or a n d c o rres p o n d in gly we h av e res p e c tiv ely a pr op er m in i m u m or a p rop er m axi m u m . Ow in g t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f ( 0) x a s in t h e c a se o f f o r m u l a [ ] 3 . ” 0 an d 0. .

. m a d as 6 m a b t ke s h t h t e < c m t h e e x ress i on o n t h e n. “ . . f f ‘2 . sa an d i f A < 8. t he n f ( x0 h) h (cm + e). yl o rs e xpa n s ion we h a v e k m: [ ]a f( r o + h ) ( 2 fro m w h ic h t he t h e o rem i s o b vi ou s . right han d S i de is alw ay s n ega ti ve s o th a t th ere is a m axim u m of . i we c a n n o t de t e rm i n e b y m e a n s o f T h e o re m s II III a n d . an d f ( 0) x i s a m a x i m u m o r m in i m u m ac c o rd in g as cm i s n eg a tiv e o r p o s it iv e . y e a n u c a p . 0. y . as in 3 u e t o T a . 1 Fo r e xa m p l e . . .10 T H EO R Y OF MA XI MA AN D MI N IM A If f it is s d u f rth er u ppo se th a t ( )x e xi s ts f or a l lv alu es o f x z" in t h e in te rv a l (13 0 8 o o 33 0 + 8 an d th a t f )( is a c on ti n u ou s § d ’ fu n c tion a t le as t a t x x0 th e n = . it i s se e n t h at x z: 0 is a m i n i m u m o f f ( x) e 2 37 . f( x) at x 23 0 S i m il : a rly we m ay p r o v e t he re m ai n in g p a r t o f V . I V w he t h e r f( ) x is a n e xt re m e o r n o t W e m u st t h e n a p p l y T h e o r e m I . q u an ti ty 6 > 0 we m a y c h oo se an o th er qu a n t ity 8 0 s u c h th a t . t he n f ( 330 ) is n ot an e x trem e o f f RE M A R K . — F0 ? he re f ( o)x 0 = f (m D whi le f ( 0) x m 1 cm . Th i s the o re m m a y b e p r o v ed di re c tly by m e a n s o f t h e p r opert y o f s e r i es Fo r u n d er t h e gi v e n a ss u m p tio n s c o rres on d in g t o e v ery p . c an be de v el o ed i n p t h e n e ighb o rh o o d o f t h e p oin t xO i n a seri es in i n t e gr a l p o s i ti v e po wers of x x 0 : h so th a t m m +1 = f( x o+ 50 ) 0 t + + 0m + h l th en f ( xo) IS no t an ex t rem e o f f (x) or i s a n ex t re m e of f ( x) a cc o rdin g as m is odd or ev en . . . o o < 6 . If for x x 0 t h e 2 It firs t diff eren tia l qu o ti e t sn of v an i sh a n d i f f f( ) x . If m is a p o s it iv e i n te g er an d cm 0. T H E O R E M V If t h e g iv e n f u n c tion “ . I n e xa c tly t he s a m e w a y we m a y p r o v e T H E OR E M V . I n t he c a se t hat 0 x r x y di ff ecr e n t i l q a u s e s e ve a u o t i e n t of f( )x to v a n sh . f Viz .

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e be tw 0 een d 1 V ri fy t h s m r s u l t w h . o . e e a e e en 1. l J ll [ i m Ii ‘ ( l ea ( e i bil o u nz o ( va r a ea e an an a on rot an e pr f f u d d up W i rstr ss s l ctur s w hi ch i tur . n r. . on . val u e “ in t h e i n t e r v al i n qu e s t i on w h i c h a r e k n o w n a s t h e u pp er . E B W ils . . pos it i v e o r b ot h n egat iv e t h en f (xo) i s a pr op er m i n im u m or . . . Bu t if t h e i n t e r va l w it h in w hi c h a: var ie s i s in de fin it el y l a r ge . e se o o s a re o n e on e e a ’ e e n n.12 T H E OR Y OF M AX I MA AND M I N IM A ?" ided has di f fe r e n t i a l q u o t ie n t s o f o pp o f or - fl 0 x = x o n e s i s te s gni co a n d a s in c l u ded ) t h e n f ( o) x d oe s n ot for m a n . C ’ . 01 00 b) 0 1 ' 00 t h e f u n c t i on n eed n ot h a v e a . .AL V U E D F U N C TI ON W HI C H IS C ON T I N U OU S FOR VA L U E S OF TH E ARG U ME N T W I T H I N A D E FI N I T E I NTE RVAL 8 . . b y g an d k t h e n t h e r e i s a t le as t on e v a l u e c o f as w it h in t h e . an d f u r t h e r t h e . n t s a re b o t h . on e v al u e d w i t h i n t h e s a m e in t e r v a l f or w h i c h t h e s a m e f u n c t i on is eq u al t o k . I 132 . an d l o we r li m i t s o f t h e f u n c t i on in t hi s in t e r v a l . If f( ) x :r n ( 1: and f ( ) x —x ) ( u x sh ow by m e an s of T h e o re m t h t t h r is p r p r m i i m m t x 0 i f p l i s VI a e e a o e n u a . f d l p Abh d B oh m i h Vl pl p i7 o un f B l o u on G ll h d eWi o o o z an o . S P ee d m ti p l ea u o . . e xt re m e o ff I f h o w e v e r t h e s e di ff e r e n t i a l q u o t ie . l i s b tw an . va n e a Th r m 1V § 2 1 d ls D i i F . If fu n c t i on f (as) i s c on t in u ou s an d u n iq u ely defi n ed in t he t he de fin i t e in t e rv a l ( a b) t h e r e ex i s t t h e gr e a t e s t a n d t h e le a st . t h at is if t h e s e li m i t s a r e de n ot ed . eo e an a o n un a en er a i r l i ( G rm tr sl ti b y L ii h d S ch pp . l o w e r li m i t T h is is illu s t r a t ed i n t h e foll o w in g e x a m ple s i ( Se e . Ad o cdC l na un t o ns . e e een 2 k an d 2 k 1 by m ki g f T h r m V II . m - l cu us . . a l so P roo fs i st t m ts f u d f of t h is m p l i H rk a nd ss t he f ol lo w ng a e en are o n or e xa e n a ne d M rl y I t 46 50 . U PP E R AND L OW E R L I MI TS or A ONE. an t A ly ti c F c i o e . {5 as Th . m a xim u m o r a m in i m u m a n d a l s o it n eed n o t h av e an u e r or a pp . t h w rk . . i n te rval a o o b for w h ic h t h e fu n c t ion i s equ al t o g an d at le ast e . f Pva n o . fun c t ion r e ac h e s t h e s e lim it s . . a e e een c 1 and 2 k . sc en e se sc . . ‘ . d b y u si g T h r m a n u se o eo e an n eo e IV s h w th t f ( ) is p r p r m i i m u m w h p is situ t d b tw 2 I o a x a o e n en . n e s a m an n e r as t h e p r e c ed i n g on e did fr om E xa m p l e . T h i h e e f ll w f m 4 [ ] i t h m e ma xi m u m o f f( ) x s t o r m o o s ro . . . er 88 .

is n o t n e c e s s ar il y z er o T hi s m u s t be b or n e in m i n d as w e p r o c eed . a an d d cr s s i t h i t rv l 3 a e ea l w r l i m it o e e ( n . a . ( . The f un c ti o n d s oe n o t h a v e e it h e r a m a x i m u m o r an upp e r l i m it . — . E xa m p le 3 . T h is is l s a o t he ow e r l li m it w h i c h t h e f u n c ti o n a e tk si n the i t rv l n e a 0 ( . h a s n e it h e r a m a x i m u m n o r a n u pp e r l i m it . If we a dd at es e dy m a d e in t h e pr ev i o u s t o t h e p os t u l al r a e r e gar d in g f (x) t h a t it m u st h a v e a c om plet e di ffe r en t ial ar t ic l ’ qu ot ien t for a ll v alu e s o f x b et w een a a n d b t h e n f va n i s h e s . o r 00 . . a m i n i m u m a n d a l o w e r l i m it w ith r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r v a l f ) . and t h e ir p r o d u c t I f w e c o si d e r a s v a ri a b l e w e h a v e / 2 y ( xa ) 2: 3 . a x. - f( ) l ided ’ a i s o n y a o n e s m a x i m u m o f f( )it a n d c on s eq u e n t l yf ( ) a . L et a v e n n u m b e r x a n d a x t h e t w o su m m a n d s be the gi . D ivid e a nu m be r i n to t wo p a r ts so tha t the ir p r od u c t is a C f E X 6 at e n d of m a xi m u m . . t he d ri v ti v e a y siti v e ’ i s po e f or a: 9 2 an d ne a g ti v e f or 12 . it f ll w s t h t t h 2 . the f u n c ti o n y h a s a m a x im u m . for e v e r y v a lu e o f a: be tw e e n a a n d b t o w h i c h on e o f t h e va l u e s 9 o r k o f t h e f u n c t i o n b el on s g I f h o w e v e r f( ) 9 y a s a t h e n p o s s i b ly . . . b e c o m e s z e r o a n d t h e f u n c ti o n w i ll h a v e a t t h is p o i n t b o t h Fo r t h is v a l u e 3 . y x g ’ ‘ . = . . . ho w e ve r . o o a e f u c ti i c r s s i n on n ea e n t he i t rv l n e a oo . FUN C T I ON S OF ONE V AR I ABL E 13 E xa m p le 1 . y x x . wi t h t h e p r o blem of d e t e r m i n in g t h e n u m be r s an d k T h i s is 9 . w h i c h b e c o m e s z e ro f o x a W e f u rt h e r h a v e y 2 so t h a t a ” r . t h is v a lu e b e in g y 5 2 1 Si c e n . ( x 0) T h r o u g h d i ff e r e n ti a ti o n we h a v e 3/ = x x ( 1 + l og Th e fi rst f a c to r is n e v e r z e r o a n d is a l w a y s p o s iti ve s c d f ct r . . co allt h e v a l u e s o f a: c a u s e t h e f u n c ti o n t o b e g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o T h e f u n c ti o n . n 2: . The e on a o b e c o m e s z e ro w h e n lo g x 1 or x 1 e The d ri v ti v p ss s t h r f r f r e a e a e e e o e om ne a g ti v e ( f or a: e t o po siti v v l u s e a e ( for x T h f u c ti e h e n on as a m i i m um n for x l wh i c h is y o . for a: S t h t is . e n e a T h f u c ti e n on has it h r ne e an up pe r n o r E xa m p le 2 . / 3 g m " T he d ri v ti v is z r e a fi n ite v a l u e o f x b u t is i n fi n it e f or a: O e e o f or no . w he n b o th pa rts ar e e qua l . 9 . .

p e t hat t he f u n c t i o n i s n o t d e fi n ed a t s u c h a p oin t I f t h i s i s os . a nd whe n lim 1 ' l 0 th lim 3 . is diff e re n t f r o m 0 D e t e r m i n e t h e u p pe r a n d l o w e r li m i t s o f t h e . o r x a m p s u p . dis ta n c e s o f t he poin t A f r o m a po i n t M o f t h e c ir c u m fe r e n c e . E xa m p l e 1 C o n si d r t h f u n c ti n y 1 . . . I n t he pl an e o f a c i r c le w h i c h i s de sc ri b ed a b o u t t h e p o i n t 0 a s ce n te r w i t h r a di u s r l e t t h e r e b e g i v en an a r b i t r a r y p o in t A w hi c h . 10 S u ppos e n ext t h a t t h e f u n c t i on i di c on t in u o u s a t le as t . a l tho u g h ne it h r is r c h d e e a e . in t he i n te rv al r r . t he ca se o n l f t h lim x t h e n in t h e de r iv a t i on o f t h e y o r e a . ef v a lu e s o f s u c h t h a t e o or a: lo g e It t h t y is ti v de c r s s w it h i c r si va lu e s .H TH EOR Y OF M A XIM A AND MI NIM A e xpla in e d b y t he s im ple e xa m ple ( s e e L i ou vi lle s J ou r n a l F i r s t ’ . i e - L e t t he p o s t iv X a x is be t a k e n p a s s in g t h r o u gh 0 an d s t a n di n g . . wh il e t he l o w e r l i m it is 1 . w h il e 4 2 AM = ( a — 2 ( ) ax . + r I t is s ee n t hat . r c orr e s on d s t o t h e u e r l i m i t d t t h l w e li m i t i i p pp a n r o e o r g v n g . lim 3 . .a xi s T h e eq u at i o n . .o i n t o f t h e a r b i t r a r i e r val b f e le p y n t ( a ) . diff e r e n t ia l q u ot ie n t b ein g a n ega t i v e c on s t a n t equ a l t o 2 a Con s eq u en t ly t h os e .r . f( ) x s s o n a n e n d. se e n a n e ga e and ea e n ea ng ‘1 Fo r he n 0 ' W li m 2: th 0. e is t he n 1 + o f t he c i r c l 2 2 r . .t . 0 z I is . en O. cl ea r t he m e t ho d o f pro c e d u r e ( se e S t olz p . v al u es o f x t o w hi c h t he u ppe r an d l o w e r li m i t s o f 2 A7 17 bel on g f a ll on t h e . p e r pe n di c ula r t o i t t h r o u gh 0 i s e r e c t ed t h e Y . S e rie s Vo l V II p . u s as u p e r a n d l o w e r l i m i t s r e s e c t i v e l p p y [ a r ] an d a r ] . - e n d po in t s o f t h e i n t e r v al FI G 6 . u p pe r a n d t he l o w e r l im i t w e m u s t c on s i d e r i n a r t i c u la r t h e va l u e p o f f ( x) fo r t he lim :1: a O Th e foll o w i n g e xa m ple s w ill m ak e . T hu s t he u ppe r l i m it of y in this i t r v l is r n e a ze o. Th e l i n ea r f u n c t i on (a ) de c r e a s e s w i t h in c re as in g v al u e s o f its . ] en 00 . a As M pas s e s ov r al e lp o in t s o f t h e c ir c u m fe r e n c e :12 t a k e s t h e v a l u e s .

. . . Vol I p 167 . 2 2 8) s y s t h t t h is is t h a a e fi rst e xa m ple of a m ax im um in the h ist o ry of m a t h m ti c s e a . i( ) y r e 50 2 . x 7r Sh t h t t h f u c ti f x 8m ( x 0) 2 . t he u pp e r l i m it of y is 1 . e x +1 r t f c ( ) y a as ( Pi e pon . e a e n 2 7r 2 1 — 4 n +1 = 1 9 4 u +1 He c n e whe n n : 2 00 . V o l II . ’ d 9 6 . c l u ria n. . di a er e s . Ne it h e r 4 n 1 t he u pp r e n or the low e r l i m it f o y is r c h d eal t h u g h ie . “ In v e n ire c y lin d ru m m ax im i am b itu s in dt a a Sph ae r a . p . a ) has its g t t v re a e s a l ue wh e n a: a i B k VI ( E u c l . 1 ( ) e s in ( T h e f u n c ti o n has a x . . . p . 2 P rp o . . D e te rm i ne t he m ax im a an d m i n im a an d t he u pp e r a n d l o w e r l i m its o f 10 g x 0) 1 ( ) a y x ( x > e x _ 1 f ( ) 7 1 b ( ) y = a c os x + b si n x . ” ( F e rm a t . t he a r ea of the gr e a t st e pa rb a o a l wh ich m a y be c u t f ro m a gi v e n c o n e % 4 . FU NC T I ON S OF ONE V AR I ABL E 15 le 1 —x si n ’ E xa m p 2 . f (0) 0 has an i fi it n n e n um be r of m ax m a i an d m i imn a w it h i n t he i t rv n e a l 3 W he n is mp n q a m i im um n w h e re p V 0 2 +y 2 q V ie ? y) 2 ? e ibn iz . a o n e ith r c s e a e th e y ar e fi n it e . ow a e n on 3 . . ( T h e re is no ex d is c o n ti n u o u s d ri v ti v e a e f or tr em e on the po siti on x O) . y = ( ) (I: Fo r th s v l u s e e a e of x v e a l w a y s Iy ]<1 we ha . F in d 5 . 2 By w riti n g 2: it is s een th t t h l w r l i m it is a e o e 1 . 4 . C an t r (G o e s c hi c l zte de r M a th V o l I p . . ( L . . c si d r 2 o n ly v a l u e s o f x s u c h a s x h r is If w e on e ( w e e n an 4 +1 i t n e ge r) w h v . . oo . 82 0 ) 1 2 61 1 d ( ) y 1 x 3 ( Ma . P ROBL E M S 1 .

( S y H u yg e n s po ssi b ly a b o u t 1 6 73 . e o on an . f r m t h fl r Fi d t h p i t o e oo . o . 10 A t f t p l h g s v rti c lly . q I t h is w r k e l s f u d um r u s se . a po i n t P o n AB s uc h th t P Pa 2 l PP 2 2 is m i im um a n . e c . an a n one of its si d s u p t h b s e . e . a . 4 9 0 e t s e q No te t h e . Two po i n ts P I an d P2 — n ot o n t he str ig h t l i a ne AB ar e g i v en F in d o lve d b . g i v On l i A a B t w fi en d p i ts P d P ne D t r mi ar e o xe o n I an 2 . l e t te rs o f De Sl u s e ) . n o ar e a o o n n e o p r b o l m s th t h v e a a e to d w it h r s v l u m s o t ) a ea . e e s 9 Th um b r is t b di vi d d i t t w p rts s u c h th t th ir p r d u c t e n e a o e e n o o a . 8 Of l . e e ne th e f g r t st r one o ( S v ru ) ea e a ea . P P PP 1 2 an d F m t (E er aV lI p . . c u rv y e h e m i im m ( E u l r D ifi x 2 t i l as no n u . u vr e s . 16 T H E ORY OF M A XIM A AND M I NIM A 7 . . o . o . en oo t h t its l w r d is f u r f t o e an e a so a o e en o ee r f r m w hi c h t h p l su bt d s . Vo l . . 13 . e nera T tt t ra P rt 5 f l a o. th fl n e o n on e oo o e o e en t h gr e t st g l ( R g i m t u s ea e an e . pp . ' er en a In r e c hn u n g . o e . l s c ti s w h i c h p ss t h r ug h t h v rt f c a e on d t rm i a o e e ex o a on e . Op e r a Va r i a . e e ne a AP o P B t hi d p i t r th t o n so is m i i m u m ( P pp u s B k V I I Pr p 6 1 a a n . a e o i d i t t h ir d i ff r c s h ll b m i m u m ( T rt gl i G . on e f g i v tri a e o g l ( S i m p s E a l m t Of en an e . a a a. 12 . . De ri v e r t st r c t t he g ea e th t e b d s c ri b d i an g e l d h vi g a c an e e e n . a . e en s Pla n e Ge om e tr y pp 10 6 t . m u l ti p l e n o e e l en e a e a ax . III p . . 1 11 Th . on . oo . Se e H uy ge n s .

We s ay t h at t h e f u n c t i on u = f( z e 1 . I t f ollow s t h a t if u f ( x1 as ) h a s a n e x tr e m e on the. t i on s o f t w o V ar i ab l es 2 0 e t seq ) . on ) . r t i a l de r i v a t i v e s w h i c h a r e c on t in u ou s w i t h in t h e r e i on i n q u e s p a g t i on w it h r egar d t o e a c h o f t h e v a r i ab l es . n . 12 Con s i d e r t h e f u n c t i on o f o n e v a r i a b le x 1 v iz f ( a 1 a 1 . a n w : . an d t h e e x t r e m e s w h i c h m a y be de r i v ed w e s h a ll c a ll or di n a r y I f t h e p a r t i a l de r i v at iv e s . . a ) t h e fi r s t p a r t i a l d e r i va t i ve s of n . o r m i n im u m f o r $ o o h e n f ee o ill be 1 a 1 a : t ( l 1 . . a. T h e s e e xt r em e s a r e p r op e r or i m p r op er a c c o r d in g a s t h e S ign d o e s n o t o r d oe s e n t e r . a 2 o m . o o o a ) I f t h e f u n c t i on u o f t h e pr e c edi n g a r t i c le i s a m ax im u m . u s t be z e r o S i m il a r c o n c l u s i o n s m a y be .m a de f or t h e o t h e r var i a ble s in u . in 1 3 an d i s l a t e r t r e at ed i n i t s g en er ali t y f o r t h e c a s e o f f u n c . p o s i t i o n ” ( 1 2 a . w e h av e f( a p “ 2 : 50 2 : “ i 93m ) or fl a t a t o o . . do n ot h a v e s u c h d e r i v a t iv e s t h e e xt r e m e s m ay be c alled e xt r a or . a 2 . a m a xi m u m o r m i n i m u m f or $ H e n c e se e 2 h de r i v a t iv e 1 a 1 ( ) t e . o . c on s ide r An o t h e r c l a s s o f ext r a o r di n ar y e xt r e m e s i s m en t i on ed . o an ) if f or a su ffi c ie n t l y s m al lr egi on a b ou t ( a 1 . o an ) b e c om e s a m axi m u m or m in i m u m on t h e p o s i t i on ( a 1 . di n ar y S u c h e xt r e m e s i n t h ei r g en e r a li t y w e S h a ll n o t a t t em p t t o . . OR D I NA R Y M AXI M A AND M I NI M A PRE L I MI N ARY RE MARK S 11 . C H AP TE R I I F DNCTI ONS OF S E VE RAL VARIABLE S I . . x 2 . ) é fl wp a . AS in § 1 it i s a ssu m ed h e r e t h at t h e f u n c t i on h a s d e fin i t e . a 2 . . a . u m u s t be ze r o . . 17 .

. i t is n e c es s a r y tha t the followi n g hom oge n e ou s fu n c ti on of the se c on d degr ee in ’ 9 hm v iz» n ( 0) ' I 2 h2 ) v a 2 . xn )h2 + 2f g ( 1 . ' t m2 . x 2 . It ” . Se e al so P e a no . e o o xt r e m e . . We c o n s equ e n t ly m ay w r it e wu )k 2 + ( 33 ’ 33 1 2 ’ 8 93 : 2 H +f i . {13 2 ’ xn h ) n ° n It fo ll o w s fr om 2 t h at an h ) 1+ an fl bn : 0 . an d L agr an ge ( u r . In" ) i s an on t h e p o s it i o n ( a 1. i t y yp fo llo ws al so t h at t he s am e is t r u e o f F ( t) . a + h t. In or de r tha t the fu n c ti on u be an e xtr e m e a t the p os i t i on (u p f or w hi c h the f i r st d e r i v a ti ve s v a n is h . . We t h e r efor e h av e f h( 1 a . an + 2 f dia ( a 1 ’ a 2 : ' 9 an h h ) 1 2+ . 1 1 F a)= f( a 1 h lt . S in c e b h o t h e s i s t h e de r i v a t i v e s o f u ar e c on t in u o u s . an d t \Vr im e xt p u ifi an : an n 93 : l . . . e th n F( ) t i s a n e x t r e m e o n t h e p o s i t i on t 0 : . a n ) : 0) an ) : 0) l as w as j u s t s ee n . ‘ ( x 1 . w h a t e v e r he t h e l es va u of h 1 h2 . ” ” ha ve 3) F ( 0 ) 0 a n d f o r a m in i m u m F ( 0 )E 0 w h at e v e r b e . + ti n t . . Fonc t i o ns .18 T H EOR Y OF MAX I M A AND MIN IM A Th e or ie d es ’ S E le Ca le d ifl " p 64 5 . 2 x 1 . an h h ) 1 2+ If u is t o b e an ide r a t i on t h en e xt r e m e f or t h e p o s it i on un de r c on s . a 2 . We fu r t h e r ha v e 2 $ 2 . t he va l u e s o f h l o o I f f o r t h e t i m e bei n . g w e o m i t t h e . o o . Vo l I I . a n If f( 1 u 22 . s i gn fro m t h e t w o e xpr e ssio n s j u st w r it t e n w e h a v e t h e t h e or e m : . No . ee . 134 . I ( t) m u s t b e a n e xt r e m e f or t 0 s o t h a t f or a m a x im u m w e m u s t ' v .

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1 p ) de e n d s u p o n s. and C a q u ad rat ic form i n h2 . h o wh i c h i s l wa y s po s i t i v e a an d diff er en t fr o m a a . 0 . h3. o Th e a qu a n t i t y It . 2 . I f in ge n e r al < . . . we m ay w r i t e 2 4 ) A h 1 + 2 B h 1 C = . Ne xt wr ite 40 — 8 2 h { : ¢ l( a ha.e v e r a l va r i a ble s h 1 h 2 h a o . an d co n s eq u e n t l t h e s m o f t h e s e t w o e x r e s s i o n s an d a l s o is y u p . — 2 I n fac t if h2 ¢ 0 w e h av e ( AO B )h2 > 0 a n d . h 3. The c o n di t i o n s A — 0 an d A O B > 0 a r e n o t only n e c e ss ar y 2 . if d) is t o be a pos i t i ve de fi n i t e f o r m . h av e A 0. o ar e a l l z r o. If in t h is e xp r e s si on we g i v e t o h1 an d h2 su c h va u l es t h at i . h 3. . o If h 2 . w he r e A is a c o n st a n t . s ( B ) h2 . . == . b u t t h ey ar e also s u ffi c ien t t h a t (I) b e a de fin i t e q u a d r at i c f or m . We m u s t t h e r efor e h a v e A O B 2 0 .0 d 0 T H E ORY OF MA XI MA AND M IN I MA I f he re ct is a posit ive de fin it e f or m it foll ows th at for h2 0 . B a f o rm of the fi r st degr ee in h2 . m . A hl We m u st t h e r efor e . w e w il l h av e B an d 0 e z ro z an d 4 . . )2 l 0 t he n d) . h3. ze ro e xc e pt w he n al l t he v a ri a ble s v an i sh . m a y b e d e te rm in e d so t h a t Ah 1 + B : 0 w it h t he r e su l t t h a t 1 A ? 4 ’ 2 ( C B ) He n ce t he e p e i x r s s on — AO B m u s t 2 be po s it iv e diff e re n t an d f ro m ze ro . Ah [( l ( A C 2 13 mg] . e b u t h1 0 . m ay a l so w r i t e d) i n t h e f or m 1 a : 1. The fo rm m a y b e wr i t t e n 1 t = : j. w h ere is q u a d r at i c a fo rm i n h . po s it i ve .AO 2 2 Ah l Bh.3 een t h a t ( I) t a k e s t h e form 4) 0 i t is . Ah 1 a n d c on s equ e n t ly A m u st be p os i ti ve We 2 = . w he r e AC — 2 8 is q u ad r a t i c f o r m of h2 .

an d f r o m 4 ) Ah 1 i t i s s ee n t h a t A m u s t be p o s i t iv e I n = . ( p i s de fi n it e an d pos it i v e . . II R E L AT I V E . i n t r od u c e t h e t h e or y w e To . . wh e r e t h e i e v ar a b l s x. y . s h al l c on s ider h er e a i m ple s c as e in v o l v in l t h ee i ble L e t it be r equ ir ed to de t e r g on y r v ar a s . t h a t 95 i s p os i ti ve On t h e o t h e r h a n d if w e gi v e t o h2 h3 . Th e s e c on dit i on s ar e also s u ffi c ien t . z ) . . c o n s ide r ed i n e t se q . t h is w a y t h e d e t e r m in a t i on o f t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r a q u a d r a t i c for m is de fin it e a n d p o s i t iv e i s r ed u c ed t o t h e det e r m in a t i o n o f t h e s a m e qu e s t i on i n t h e c a s e o f a n ot h e r q u a d r a t i c f or m o f fe w e r ‘ v ar i a bl e s I f t h en t h e pr oc e s s i s c on t in u ed w e c om e t o t h e f or m s . . t h e fi r s t i s p o s i t iv e o r z e r o w h ile t h e s e c o n d i s p os it i v e I t f ol . o . S u p p os e . 2 z er o . s h all h av e u e xp r e s s ed a s a f u n c t i o n o f a: an d Th e l e ac y v a u s y . F UN C T I ON S OF S E V E R AL VARI ABL E S 21 It f oll o w s t hat t h e n e c e ssar y c on di t i o n s t h a t ct be a de fi n it e s i t i v e f or m are ( 1 h a t A be r ea t e r than 0 an d 2 h p o ) t g ( ) t a t AO B be a p os it i v e d e fin i t e f o r m in t h e v a r i a b le s h2 h3 o 2 . z are e s t r i c t ed r . w h i c h m ak e u a m a xi m u m or m in i m u m c a u s e t h e t ot a l de r i vat iv e du t o va n i sh f or al l va l u e s dw a n d dy . f or exa m ple . f or if w e giv e t o h 1 a n a r bi t r ar y v a l u e a n d t o h 2 h 3 o a r b i t r a r y v alu e s w h i c h a r e n o t . . To de t e r m in e w h e t h e r a qu a d r a t i c f o r m ( I) i s d e fi n it e a n d n eg a ti ve w e h a v e t o de t e r m in e w h e t h e r . t h at t h ey ar e c on n e c t ed b y th e equ at i on f( x’ 9’ I f fr o m l att er eq u at i on z i s e x pr e ssed a s a f u n c t io n o f so the an d y an d if t h i s v alu e i s s u b st i t u t ed in t h e fi r s t eq u a t ion w e . M AXIM A AND M I NI M A 15 . al l z e r o t h e n of t h e t w o s u m m an d s in t o w h i c h ( I) is d is t r ib u t ed . ( S e e P e an o . . . m in e t h e e x t r e m e s o f t h e f u n c t i o n u F ( . in o n e or t w o v a r i a ble s a lr e a d y c on s i der ed T h i s s u b j e c t i s f u r t h e r . . .c . y . sim u l t a n e o u sl y t h e v a lu e z e r o t h e n h m u st b e d i ff e r e n t f r om 1 . lo w s .

and u F de t e r m in e t h e u n k n o w n qu a n t i t ie s X at y z u w h i c h . . . w hi c h i s d e fin ed t h r ou gh t he e q n a t i o n af dzv + g dy + i dz = 0 By 82 If t h is l as t equ at ion is m u lt iplied b y t h e i n de t e r m in a t e qu an t tyi X an d a dded t o t h e eq u a t i on du 0 . whe r e l u a nd w he r e t . } ‘ v0 l 3 * 2 : 1 t 0 WI . y. t i t y a n d t h e n pu t t h e r e s u l . . C ' 1 1 g p» NHg p 2 U a H2 HS t » We e du — d$ + -d / + — dz h av = 3 . 8F 82 y z Ite v i d e n t t h at w e h av e t h e s e e xpr e s s i on s w h i c h ar e s y m is m e t ri c w i t h r e gar d t o t h e t h r ee va r i a b le s if w e f or m t h e t h ree p a r t ial de ri vat i v es o f F Af w h e r e A i s a n i n de t e r m in a t e q u an. . . Fi n d t he m i i m um v lu n a e of u. c o r re s po n d t o t h e v a l u e s o f u f or w h i c h t h e r e e x i s t m a xi m a a n d m i n i m a v al u e s . z. dz If eq u at i on w e c h o os e A s o t h a t t h e c o effi c i en t o f dz in t hi s vani s h e s t h e n c o r r e s p o n din g t o t h e m a xi m a a n d m in im a v a l u e s . whe r e dz d e n ot e s t he di ff e r en t i a l o f 2. Is a m u u m u m w he n x i r 2 r " . P ROBL E MS 1 . 8F fly ab n }B . oo a re c o n n e c te d b y t he e q u a ti o n ax + by + cz + = l c . t in g e xp r e s s i on s eq u al t o z e r o . ' o f u t he c o effi c ie n t s o f dx a n d dy m u s t a l s o b e z e r o a n d w e t h u s . We m a y pr o c eed in t he s a m e m an n e r w it h a n ar b it r ar y n u m b e r o f va r ia b l e s a n d eq u a t io n s o f c on di t i on ( Se e L agr an g e The or i e des ’ . L o. w e h av e — 7\ (l y + A : 0 . . Fonc tio n s p . T he se t hr ee eq u a t io n s t oge t h er w it h t h e t w o eq u at i on s f 0 . . ( M a c l a u ri n ) . . . ha v e t he eq u a t i on s 8F 83: .

0 {9 ’ Se e al os G o u rs a t . . g v e r . We s ay t h a t t h i s f u n c t i on f (x y ) is a m i n i m u m f or a p o in t ( a o yo) . c an on ly r et a in a c on s t a n t S ign f or s m al l val u es o f h if t he d e r i v at i v e 2% is z roe fo r so 33 . L et e = f ( at . 23 .a x i s g e r v u . I f w e ex c lu de t h e S ign i n t h e e xpr e s s i o n s A — E O or A E O . w it h i n t h e i n t e r i or of an a r e a 0 w h i c h i s li m i t ed b y a c o n t ou r C. CH AP TE R I I I FUNCT IONS OF T W O VARIABL E S I . c it . . b y t h e eq u a t i on 2 f ( y) ac t h e a:x i s O z bein . y) be a c o n t n u ou s i fu n c t ion of the t w o va r i ab le s 5e an d y w h en t h e p o in t P w it h c o Or di n ate S (x y ) r e m ain s . O R D I N AR Y E X T R E M E S 16 . . . t i c a l a p p r o e r . A 0 e x is t s f o r c e r t a i n v a l u e s o f h an d k t h at ar e le ss t h a n : 5 in a b solu t e v al u e h ow e v e r s m all 8 b e t ak e n w e h av e i m p r op e r . I f in t h e e xpr e ssi on (i ) w e r egar d y a s c on s t an t a n d equ a l t o y o t h en 2 b e c om e s a f u n c t i on o f on e v a r i a ble to an d . r e vol v in t h e x t r e m e s o f a pl a n e c u e a b o t t h e O x . loc . o f t h e a r e a ( 2 w h en w e c an fi n d a p o s i t i v e qu a n t i t y 5 s u c h t h at w e h av e A fl xfi z y o) 2 O () z f or al l sy s t em s of l es of t h e in c r em e n t s h va u an d k t h at ar e le ss t h an 8 i n a b s o l u t e v al ue i s de fi n ed in a Th e m a xi m u m . i m pr o per m a xi m a C on si de r f or ex a m ple t h e li n e s ge n e r a t ed b y . ext r e m e s For e x am p le in t h e c a s e o f t h e s u r fa c e r ep r e s en t ed . t h e e x t r e m e s a r e s a id t o b e p r op er ( of b u t if t h e eq u ali t y . m a xi m u m c o r r e s p on d s t o a n i s ol at ed s u m m i t b u t if t h e s e s u m . 2) t h e d i ffe r en c e f( 0x + y o) f ( o y o) c o . m it s f or m a l in e o n t h e s u r fa c e t h i s lin e w ill b e a lin e o f . . . s i m il ar m an n e r l ae .

.u t i onzo f t h e = t w o eq u a t i on s ( a ) t h e f or m u l a f o r T a y l or s t h e o r e m giv e s u s ’ . t ha t t he di s c u s s i o n o f t h e s i n o f t hi s t r in o m i a l i s i t g g o n g o e njo e de t O l y a p pr o n ra n r e . to be c o m e p r o pe r e xt r e m e s a r e t o be fou n d a m on g t he so l u t i o n s of t he t w o s im u l t a n e ou s eq u a t i o n s 8f O. e it i s c le a r t h at t he t r in o m ia l 2 l t 2 fl + 2 hl c + k 2 ax d 856 0 89 0 gi ves it s Sign t o t he r igh t -h a n d s ide o f ( i i ) an d it i s e v ide n t . 7% 9 0 + — f( a3 . . . S u ppo s e t he n t ha t 0 is a c i r c le o f r a di u s . c s s z ar y an . ° o . x an d y o . mo 6h y yo oh Fo r va u l es o f h an d k in t h e n eigh b or h oo d of z r o. As on ly o r di n a r y e xt r e m e s a r e c on s ide r ed h e r e t h e p ar t i a l der i va . t iv e s o f t h e s e c o n d or d e r o f f (to y ) ar e s u pp os ed t o be c o n t i n u ou s . fo r s o y o an d f u r t h e r m o r e t h e de r i v at iv e s o f t h e t h i r d or de r a r e . r wi t h t h e p o in t . s u ffic ie n t l s m all w h i c h h as t h e y p o i nt y o) f o r c e n t e r I n .24 T H E ORY OF M AX I MA AND M I N IM A I n t he sa m e w ay it m ay b e sho w n t h a t t h es e va u l es m u st l a so ca u s e t o be z roe . 0) 83: By c on di t io n s w hi c h l n e c e s s ar y f or i m p r op e r e xt r em e s are a so . . It f o ll o w s t hat t h e sy st em s of va u l es 0 3 / w hi c h cau s e f (x y ) . s u p os ed t o e x i s t p I f t h e n w . o 2 2 1+ 2 1 3 3f lI ’ 2 ht H a — i : z 2 8m o bg o by o 8 am 2: .- ( l h y 0 + l) r e m a i n s wi th in a c i rc le w i th r adi u s c . = . f or w e m ay . 1 1) in t h e n e igh b o r h oo d o f t h e v a l u e s mo y 0 an d ar e n o t al lz e r o . . s u ffi c ie n t l y s m a ll a n d c e n t e r ( s o y o) a n d i n v e rs ely . To ha v e a n e xt r e m e fo r v x i t i e e d o y y0 s n . y0 ar e a s ol. s u ffi c ie n t t h a t t he d i ff e re n c e A r e t a i n a c o n s t a n t Si n w h e n g t h e p oi n t ( o Ib -P l t y 0 + h) r e m a in s w i t h in t h e in t e ri or o f a s q u ar e . re lac e p t he s q u a r e b t h i ibed i le d e ip ll y e n s c r c r c a n r c ro ca y . t his cas e t he diff e r e n c e A w il l als o r e t a i n a c o n s t a n t s i g n if t he po i n t .

0 an d wh er e L is an expr e s s i on w hic h r et a in s a fin it e v al u e in the n eigh b or h oo d of th e p oin t ( e w t o ) . 17 . B — 2 A0 < 0 . Fi r s t c a se . 2 2 2 ar v w her e A aw 5 axoay o a 3y . . . F UN C T I ON S OF T W O V ARIAB L E S 25 en t er i We n t e r i or p o i n t s o f h av e al l the t h is i e c rcl y o) as c . I t is ev i den t t h at s ev e ralc a s e s are t o ‘b e di s t i n gu ish ed a c c or di n g 2 — t o th e s ign of B AC ' . it i s een t h at A s w il l be n egat iv e . S e con d c a s e . w h ile if w e giv e t h e an gle 96 a u e s u c h t h at va l ’ a c os ) 4 b ’ S i I n () 0 t h e n A w ill b e p o s i t iv e . o s ( I) k i ) an d c a u s in f r om b y w r i t in g h p c p s n: d g f ( ) t o . By t a k in g t h e i le c rc ien t ly s u ffi c sm a ll we m ay n egle c t th e t e r m s o f t h e t h ir d an d h igh e r degr ee s in p . I t is e v i d en t t h a t A an d 0 m u st h a v e t h e sam e Sign . 2 3 g A — —L c os ¢+ 3! . Mak in g t h is s u b st i t u t io n in A i t be c om e s . Th e t r in o m i a l A c os qs z 2 B c os 4 ) s in ( ) I O s in 2 ¢ [( A c os B s in ( A O B 2 ) s in 2 d] > d oe s n o t v an s i h wh e n 4 ) v ar ie s fr om 0 to 2 7r . . . . 18 . ' ’ [ ( d a c os ( ) i b S in B( a c os ( ) I b i s n ’ ’ w h er e 0. Th e eq u a t ion A 0 0 8n 2 B s in (t) c os 4) 0 S ln c 0 dm it s a tw o r e a l r o o t s i n t a n an d t h e lef t - h an d s i d e m ay be w r it t en a s t h e d iff e r e n c e o f t w o s q u a r e s in t h e f or m 3 A 8 . : v ar y 0 t o 2 n an d b y c a u s i n g p t o a y f — ' v r r o m r to + r ' . f un c t ion f (x y ) h a s n o e xt r e m e f or so a o y y o . I f e xt n t o the an g le 4) a v alu e i s gi v e n su c h t h at a c os d) b s in (I) 0. an d ah ba 0 a > ( ) . I t i s t h e r efor e i m p os sible t o fi n d a n u m b er r su c h t h a t t h e dif fe r en c e A r et a in s a c o n st an t Sign w h en t h e ab s o lu t e v a l u e o f p is in fer ior t o r w hi le t h e a n gle 4) i s ar bit r ar y I t f oll ow s t h at t h e . B — 2 AC > O .

' . F llo o wi g t h n e e o n q u ti s a e a o e e o e e o e a on l t = It lb u 2 at l " "‘ k/ Ck ) Gk O. . 175 9 . . x a o yo 86132 8 2 0 90 t he re is a m a xi m u m or m i n im um a c c o r di n g t o t h e Sign of t he t wo 2 2 8f d e r i va t i v e s by p mum if t h e y are p o s i t i v e . ( my b lk 0 ‘ l Ch 2 a” . 3m L e t r b e a p o s it i v e n u m b e r i n fe r i or t o R a n d t o Wi t h in t he c i r c l o f e ra diu s r the d iff e r en c e A w ill h a v e the s am e Sign as t he effi c ie n t o f p t ha t is t o s a y o f A or C Th e f u n c t i on f (rc co 2 . y ) is q u l t its l w r l i m i t e a o o e m t h d s i d i c t d b v w m u st s l v t h t w . In o d e o . th ere is no ext r e m e . 19 T he a b o v e r es u lt s m a y b e s u m m ar iz ed a s f o ll o w s : I f . e e ne e a e o a: a n q fo r w h ic h ( u x. k= l I t is se e n th t t h d t rm i a e e e na n t o f th s e e e q u a ti o n s is e q u a l to t he su m o f t he u ( n 1) q u r s ( u b a es t . E xa m p le . at t he po in t x0 y 0 w e h a v e . (I t’lk 2 ) (k I 1. . 2 n . . . . ( B) k l au k. l- xI i xc . . 26 T H EO R Y OF M AX I M A AND M I N I M A L e t m b e t he lo w e r l i m it of t he a b s olu te valu e of t h e t r i n o m ia l a nd e t H b e t he l e i r l m i t o f t h e a b sol u t e v al u e o f t h e f u n c t i on pp u L in a c i r c le o f r a di u s R a n d c e n t e r (s o y o) . Vo l I . Ta u /a . m i nan td t o e s no i h it \ an s a m ong t he nom i lsa a ka " My t h r t l e st e ar e a ea See L ag ra nge . . . k t h is d t r l). 2 2 a n By o » . an d e e bi . y) ha s t h e r ef o r e a n e xt r e m e f or :c 93 0 y yo . b u t if O. I n t he t h ry eo of l e a st s q u a re s it is r q u ir d t d t rm i e e o e e ne y so th t t h a e ex p re ss i o n ( J ) W 9) 2 0% 5w ” e Ck ) k= 1 m a y he as sm a ll as p o ssi bl t h r w rd s d t rm i t h v l u s f e . an d it is also s een t h at w e h a v e a p ro p er m a xi m u m or m i ni m u m .

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t o s t u d y t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s s u r fa c e b y t h e coy— p l a n e T h i s . pl ane n o r de r t h a t t h is p o in t s h a ll c o r r e s p o n d t o an e x “ . S u ppo s e t h a t we t ak e t h e s e t w o lin e s f or t h e a x e s o f c oOr din a t e s .l e t h . i ( )i an d p r e se n ts a d ou ble p oin t at the g i nor i . we hav e R ( ac . an d n ot e t h a t t hi s is b r ou gh t a bou t by a lin e ar c han g e of t he var a b i le s . u se ) 16 ’ my w he re it is e vide n t t hat R ( x. a c i s po s i t i v e . the equ at i on l ax - z l2 ba y [ ( dx by ) 2 ( 2 b ac )y ] 2 0 E t r epres e n ts t wo r ea l and dis t in c t s t r ai h t li e w h i h t h h g n s c p as s r o u g t he o r igi n . ar e t h u s led t o t h e s t u d y o f a s u r fa c e w it h r ega r d t o a t an ge n t i a l la n e in t h e n eigh b o r h o o d o f t h e p o in t o f c on t a c t p . y ) 0 . S u p pos e t h a t t h e or igin h as been t r an s p o s ed t o t h e p o in t o f c on ta c t e The t a n g n t a p i l l e bei t k e t h e . s n e c e ss a r y t h a t i n t h e n eig h b or h oo d o f t h e p o in t P 0 t he s u r fa c e S be e n t ir el y on on e s ide o f t h e t an gen t i a l pl an e We . ' tr e m e i t i . is di vi sible 3 um ) by :0 . r . eq u a t i on o f t he s u r fa c e is o f t h e for m z “ 2 + 2 bacy c y + 2 ax 3 + 33 w z 3vx + y 39 3 » i () w h er e a. .7 ‘ H 8 T H E ORY OF MAX I MA AND M I N I M A whi c h s how s t ha t t h e t a n ge n t i al f e S plan e a t t h e t o the su r a c po in t P 0 ( wi t h c oOr din at e s mo y o zo) m u s t be p ar allel t o t he . a n n g a n a s so y p an e . w hi c h r e m a in fin it e w h en so an d y t e n d t o w a r d s z e r o To de t e r . 2 2 1 I f (2 . b. m in e w h e t h e r t h e s u r f ac e S i s s it u a t ed e n t i r ely on on e s ide of t he any. 3 a ct + : 0. . If i n t hi s eq u atio n w e wr it e y uz v. p l a n e in t h e n ei gh b or h o o d o f t h e o r igi n i t i s s u ffi c ie n t . c ar e c o n s ta n t s f u n c t ion s of ac y an d a. 8 ar e . y I . « y. in t e r s e c t i on i s a c u rv e 0 r epr e s e n t ed b y t h e equ at i o n - f( x. 8 . . The eq u at io n ( i t) t h e n ha s t h e fo r m my + R ( w.

ze r o w i t h a c H en c e t h r o u gh t h e o r igin t h er e pa s s e s on e br an c h . . b z ac > 0 . o . f or w it hi n t h e i n t er i or o f a c i r c le w it h s u ffi c ie n t ly s m a ll r a di u s de s c r ibed a b ou t t h e o r igin as c e n t e r t h e r igh t -h an d s ide of ( ii ) . t h en . FUN C T I ON S OF T W O V AR I ABL E S 29 It follow s f r om ( 14 0 eq se e u a t i on l a so Go u rs a t . y a r e t e c o r n a t e S o a o n ei hb or h oo d o f t h e or i in g g . e i s ol a te d p o in t . E qu at i on (i t) be c om e s c 2 2 f( r . . o n l v a n i s h e s a t t h e or i i n i t s elf T o s h ow t h i s w r i t e x y g p c os . If w e gi v e t o e a c h r egi o n of the pl an e in t h e n eigh b o r h oo d of the or i in the Sign of t h e fi r s t t er m i n g as s ee n in t h e figu r e . n t w i th d i s ti n c t t a n gen ts . of i t h a n g e s Si gn a s t h e p o in t p a ss e s t h r o u h t h e o r i i n ( ) c . 2 2 If b . t h e i n t e r s e c t i on of the f e su r ac S by the t an ge n t i a l plan e p r e s en t s di st i n c t b r an c h es two o f c u rv e 0 an d 1 0 2 w hi c h p a ss t h r o u gh t h e or igin a n d t h e t an gen t s . l ow s t h at f (x y) d o e s n ot h av e a n e xt r e m e ( c f § 1 7) at t h e origin . | | w h e n p is le s s t h an a p os i t iv e n u m be r r . § 34 ) t h at i ( ) v h a s o n e a n d o n ly on e r o o t sa y u w h i c h t en d s t o w a r d s . g g I t f o l . If . mi le o f t h e t w o v a r i a ble s x a n d y it i s s ee n t h a t t h er e a l s o . it i s c le a r t h at if a p o i n t m o v e s al o n g ei t h e r of the c u r ve s 01 lef t -h an d or the FI G 7 Side o f (i i i ) an d c on s equ e n t ly al s o . p a ss e s t h r o u gh t h e or igin a s e c o n d b r an c h o f t h e c u rv e C w h i c h is t an ge n t t o t he a xi s 0 y Th e p o in t 0 i s a d ou bl e-p oi . 2 — ac < 0 t h e o r igi n i s a d ou bl . o f t h e c u r v e 0 r e p r e s e n t ed b y a n eq u a t i on y w h ic h i s : t an gen t a t t h e or igi n t o t h e a x i s Ox I f w e in t e r c h a n ge t h e . ( f ) . r S in ( ) h e e so an d h O di f p in t in t h e y I w r . . y) : p ( a c os 2 b S in I ( ) c os ( ) I c s in ¢ p L ) whe r e L f u n c t i on o f p a n d cf) w h ic h r e m a in s is a fin i t e w h en p t en d s t ow ar d s ze r o L e t H be t h e u p pe r li m i t of L . t o th e s e t wo b r an c h e s o f c u r v e a t t h e o r igin a r e r ep r e s e n t ed t h r o u h t h e equ a t i on g 2 aa z + 2 bxy + e y = 0 .

2 3 For e xa m ple y .30 T H E OR Y OF M AX I MA AND M I N I M A Wh e n 4) var i e s fr o m 0 to 2 77 . fu n c t i on f (cc y ) t h e r efor e pr e s en t s a n ext r e m e a t t h e or igin (of . z 23 Wh e n b. . . t h e t w o b r an c h e s o f c u r v e a r e t a n g en t t o t h e :c -a x i s a n d s i t u a t ed o n t h e s a m e Side o f i t Th e eq u a t i on g i v e s u s in f a c t . C on s eq u en t ly the eq u a t i on H 0 a d m i t s o f n o o t h e r s ol u t i o n t h a n a: 0 y 0 0 ) f( c y) P : . The c o m ple t e s t u d y o f t h is t h e o r y w ill b e f o u n d t o r equ i r e a ' so m e w h at d eli c a t e d i sc u s s i on . I t f o ll o w s t h a t f ( x y ) r e t a in s a c o n s t an t Sign w h e n t h e p o in t a y . . “ y n i: Th e t w o v al u e s o f y h av e t h e s a m e s i n i n t h e n e i h g g bo r hoo d o f t he or i gin an d a r e o n ly r e a l w h e n x i s p o s it iv e . . . to t h e s a m e s t r a igh t l in e w h i c h f or m a c u s p . 50 p r e s e n t s a t t h e o r i in a c u s = g p o f t h e fi r s t ki n d . Th e c u r v e y ” 2 fly d 4 a 5 0 pr e s e n t s a c u s p of t h e s ec on d : ki n d . re - t h e O a xi s l y in g t h e o n e a b ov e a n d t h e ot h e r bel o w t h i s t an gen t . . . t h e t r in o m i a l e i r ta n s a c o n s t a n t s i g n L e t m b e t h e . Th e c u r ve 23 + 4 z 6 co y y 0 p r e s e n t s t w o b r an c h e s o f c u rv e w h i c h o ff e r n o t h i n g pe c u li a r b o t h b ein g t an ge n t a t t h e o r igi n . . e xc e pt in g t h e or igin of t h e s u r f a c e S w h i c h m ay be pr o j e c t ed u p on t he c ir c le 0 ar e s it u at ed u pon t h e sa e s ide m o f t h e x -pl e T h e y an . an y po i n t on t h e i n t e r i o r o f a c i r c le 0 w i t h r a di u s le ss t h a n r a n d m h a v in g t h e or i gi n as c en t e r . ac 0 t h e t w o t an ge n t s a t t h e d ou b le p oin t . t o t he o . . . m i n i m u m o f i t s a b s o l ute 2 va lue I t is c le a r t h a t t he c o e ffi c ien t o f p d o e s n ot v an i s h f or . . a xi s . m ov e s w i t hi n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h i s c i r c l e H e n c e a l s o allt h e poin t s . f ro m w hi c h it is s ee n t ha t t he t w o b ra n c he s o b t a in ed wh en w e ta ke s u c ce s s i vel y t he t w o s i n s befo r e t h e ra di c al h a v e i g no s n g u la r it y a t t he o r i i gn . . . . We hav e fr o m t hi s eq u a t i o n . w i t h i n t h e c ir c le . z 3x i a 3 V8 — a ‘ 2 2 1+ z : . c o in c ide an d t h e r e a r e in g en e r a l t w o b r an c h e s o f c u rv e t an g e n t . t h at is o n e w h i c h h as t h e t w o b r a n c h e s o f c u r v e t an gen t t o .

a m in im u m t h e f u n c t i on f (x . No s . t h e s u r f a c e again c u t s i t s t a n ge n t ial pl a n e . 1 15 ) of t he c la ssic e xa m pl e of P e an o ( loc . . t h e c u r v e o f i n t e r s e c t i on s h a l l lie on o n e Side o f t h e xy -p l an e . . . T hi s i s a gene r liz ti a a on d u e t o Go u r s a t ( p . as is t he c as e of t he c u r v e r ep r e s e n t ed b t h e eq t i o y u a n z 3 4= f( x. n ot c r os s it s t an ge n t i a l p l an e . I t is e vide n t t h at h e r e t h e left-h an d s ide p a ss e s t h r ou gh z er o w i t h ou t c h a n gi n g S ign . fu n c t i o n ( M) at b ei n g z e r o f o r to 0 I f f( O 0 ) i s t o b e . . To S i m plify t h e c alc u la t i on su pp ose t h a t w e h a v e c h os e n t h e . be an e xt r e m e ( in t h e l a t t e r c a s e j u st giv e n an i m p r op e r e x t r e m e ). * t h e s u r fa c e . L et b e t h e t r a c e o f s u c h a c y li n d e r u p on t h e xy p la n e t h e . i t i s e c e s sar y t h at if w e c u t t h i s s u r fa c e b y an y n c y li n de r h a v i n i t s ele m e n t s p a r al lel t o Oz a n d p as s in t h r o u h Oz g g g . s ay o u gh t t o b e a . a xe s o f c o O r di n a t e s so t h a t t h e eq u at i on o f t h e s u r f a c e i s o f t h e ' f“ m wh er e A is a p o s i t i v e q u an t i t y . 1233 . . . as i s p r e s en t ed t h r ou gh t h e c u r v e r + e + r = o at the or igin . I t m a y a l s o o c c u r t h at t h e p o in t a o. g a i s c om p o s ed o f t w o c o in c i de n t b r an c h e s t h e f u n c t i on f ( x y ) w ill . — 2 — 2 2 z = (v e )(v x ) . b u t if t h e in t e r s e c t i on i s c o m p o s ed o f t w o di s t i n c t b r a n c h e s w h i c h as s t h r o u h t h e o r ig in t h e r e w il l i e e r al be n o e xt r e m e f o r p g n g n . w hi c h c u ts i t s t a n gen t i a l pl an e a lon g t w o p a r a b o l a s of w hic h the on e is in t e r i or t o t h e ot h er T h a t t h e s u r fa c e m ay . t h a t i s . F r om th e a b ov e een t h a t if t h e o r igin is a d ou ble i so l at ed it i s s n t o r if t h e in t e r s e c t i on o f t h e s u r f ac e w i t h t h e t an e n t p l ne p io . . . c it . m in i m u m f or re 0 w h a t e v e r t h e f u n c t i o n ( Ma ) : . (y x2 2 ) = 0 . y) : y 2 a y + x O. . FUN C T I ON S OF T W O V AR I AB L E S 31 I t m ay a so l h a ppen t h a t t h e c u rv e is c o m p o s ed o f t w o c oi n c iden t b r an c h e s . 2 4 T ak e f or ex a m ple . y0 i s a d o u b le i so l a t e d p o n i t .

it i s s ee n t h at W m e) 0 F ” 0 ( ) 0 Ba g 2 3 8 ( w) 2f 4 8f II 0 I 0 2 . the valu e of T h e s e c o n dit ion s a r e n ot i ed s at s fi fo r t h e su r ac f e — 3a32 + 2 2 a ' 4 z = y y c on s ide red a b o ve . w h il e t h ey ar e sa t i s fi ed f or th e f u n c t i on 2 4 z y + 73 . 5 1 9 ( ) > w . 8x 8 5 2 a 1 g % 3w H ma 2 5 W ) e ) . etc F o r ac O y t h e se f or m u la s b ec om e 2 3 5 " F 0> ' < 0. in or der t h a t F ( x) be a m in i m u m . w h er e B z —A O ’ = 0. 0 . I t is t h u s s ee n th at i n th e am b igu ou s c as e . the f u n c t io n F ( x) ev iden t l y h as a m in im u m f or 2: . . w hi le W W a 6 M O) 3 g 28 are : 832 9 0 0 By m us t b e po s it i ve w h at e v e r . i t i s n e c e ssa r y t hat :3 : 8 O be ze r o . F 0 <> 5 0 0. but if 0 . Hen c e . n a n e c a o f t h r ee o r m o r e v a ri ab le s t h e s e diffi c u l t ie s w ill be c o rre s po n d in gly au g m e n t ed . t he de ri va t io n o f t h e n e c es s ary an d s u ffi c ien t c on dit i on s f or t he e xt r e m e s o f f u n c t i o n s o f on l t w i ble i s o i n g t o be y o v ar a s g acco m pa n ied b diffi l t ie I t i l e ide t t h t i t h se y c u s s a s o v . .

- T o dh u n t er (pp 2 2 7 2 2 9 o f t h e 1 864 a n d 1 881 e d it i on s of . ” T h e s e fa ll ac i o u s c on c l u si on s a r e f ou n d f or e xam ple in Be r t r an d . . n th a t t h e qu a n tity c o m p o s e d o f te r m s w h e re h1 h2 o o ( c f 5 1) f o rm f o u r 1. wh o w r it e s : T h e m a x i m a o r m i n i m a e x ist i f f o r t h e v a l u e s h1 h o o w h i c h c a u se d f e ff h a s i v a ri a b ly t h e m i n u s o r p l u s si gn . e 42 w h e r e R. . w h en t h e f u n c t i o n f . or de v el op m en t f or f u n c t i on s o f s e v e r a l va r i a b le s t h e r a t i o o f t h e r e m a in de r a ft e r an a r b i t r a r t e r m t o t h i s t e r m h a s a li m i t z e r o w h en t h e y in c r e m en t s o f t h e v ar i a ble s a ppr o a c h z e r o T h i s t h e or e m i s in . a s o . i n t h e r e m ar k s t o No s 133 1 36 — . . i s expa n ded b y T a y lor s t h e or e m ( of ’ . . h i s Calc u lu s f or t h e s e m i de fi n it e c a s e w h e r e B — A O . 2 . . . . i s t h e r e m a in de r t e r m . e n e r a l f a l s e w h en t h e t e r m i q e t i i t de fi n it e for m g n u s o n s n o a w it h r e s p e c t t o t h e in c r e m e n t s o f t h e v a r i a ble s an d w h en i t i s a . 2 0 wri t e s ) . 3 . H er e d f d f o o d en o t e t h e h o m ogen e ou s in t egr a l f orm s o f 2 . . i n r r t ( C e . t h e T a y l o r e x p a n s i on f o r a f u n c t i o n o f t w o v a r i a b le s i n t h e form ( se e i ( )t of 1 6) 2 k h A L “ t l lR ‘ ' 2f . . f ou n d in t h e Appen dix t o h i s Oa l c ol o. 2 . w r o t e : “ Th e p r oo s f f or t he e i c rit r a b y w h i c h t h e m a x im a f u n c t i on s o f an d m in im a of s e v e r a l v ar i a ble s a r e t o be r e c o gn i z ed an d w hi c h a r e gi v e n in . de fi n it e f or m t h e t h e or e m n ee d s p r o o f . . F UN C T I ON S OF T W O V ARI AB L E S 33 II IN C ORR E C T NE SS . If a ll t h e t e r m s o f t h e fi rst a n d s e c o n d d i m e n si o n s [ s e e f o r m u l a ( i ) o f t 1 6] v a n is h it is n e c e ss a r y f o t h e e x ist e n c e o f a m a x i m u m o r m i n i m u m r th a t a llt h e t e rm s o f t h e t h ir d d i m e n si o n i h h o s h a ll d is a p pe a r a n d . ’ C al cu l D ifi l l S e e al p ‘ ( e r e n ti e p a n d. d im e n si o n s sh a ll b e a l w a y s p o siti v e f o r t h e m in i m u m a n d a l w a y s n e g a ti v e f o t h e m a x i m u m w h e n hl h r h a ve a n y v a l ue s w h a te v e r . 2 . . D E D U C T I ON S M AD E OF BY E AR L I E R AND MANY M OD E R N W RI T E R S 25 . t h e s e c on d t h i r d o o o degr ee s in h l h 2 o . F ollo w in gL a gr a n g e . a llw r i t e r s on t h i s s u b je c t m a de t h e s a m e in c o r r e c t d ed u c t i on s u n t il P e a n o . a n d d f t o v a n is h t h e d e ri v a ti v e d f ‘ n . Th e or i e de s Fon c ti o n s p w r it e s : ’ ( . . On e of t h e gr e a t e s t m a t h e m i i t im e s L a gr a n ge at c a n s o f a l l . m o s t b oo k s dep e n d u p on t h e t h e o r em t h a t i n t h e T a y l .

. . I t is s ee n t h a t t h e fu n c t ion f (z y ) i s p os i ti ve in t h e n eigh b o r ~ . an d if t h e t e r m s o f t h e s e c on d dim e n s i on are ze r o f or t h e po s i t i on o r p o s i t i on s in q u e s t i on t h e n a l s o t h e t er m s o f . . . g o f t he s e fa c t s ” . O u r En li s h a n d Am er i c a n a u t h o r s s ee m t o be ign o r a n t sa s y . y v( ) x = 0 de n o te t wo c u r v e s t h r ou h g t he or igi n . g . w ill ha ve po s i t i v e va l u e s f o r v al u e s o f z t h B A f i le y o n e a r c o a c. w he r e t h e c o n di t i on s j u s t m e n t i on e d e x i s t a l t h ou gh t h e r e i s n o . We m ay f u r th er ill u s t r a t e t hi s as f o ll o w s : L e t t h e eq u at io n s (b 623 . . . Wr it e P e an o s ex am ple in t h e f or m ’ 2 z “ f ( y) x.34 T H E O RY OF MAX I MA AND M I N I M A The di t ion w hi c h i t a ppears t hat h e c on s ider ed as s u ffi c on c ie n t fo r an e xt r em e i s t h at A an d R4 m u st h av e t h e sa m e si n g . The f u n c t i o n FI G f( “ cv O y) (P E. e x t r e m e a t t h e o ri gin a s a l r e a d y s ee n in 2 4 . val u e s o n a l ls t ra igh t li n e s t h r o u g h t h e o r ig i n t h a t c u t t h e a r c B A a n d m a xi m u m v a l u e s o n t he l i n es t h ro u gh t h e o ri g in t h a t c u t t h e a r c AD . x . ho od o f t h e o r igin u p on e v e r y s t r a igh t l in e t h r ou gh it . y) : y 0. . a y + 2 bx y cx . t h e t h i r d di m e n s i on m u s t be z e r o . W e . . 2 u po n t h e p ar a b o l a y m s§ t h e f u n c t i on in t h e n eigh b or h o o d o f = t h e or igi n i s p o s i t iv e z er o . . . or n e at ive d i g a c c or n g as 2 am 2 bm c is pos it i v e . z e ro or n e a t i v e . Pr o fe s so r Pi e r p o n t ( Bu ll of th e Am Ma th S oc Vol I V p 5 36) . . T hat t h is is n o t t r u e i s s een a t o n c e b y o b s er v in g P e an o s ’ cl as s i c e xa m ple 2 2 2 2 f( x ( y p )(y 9 ) x . h o w e v e r . r c wi t h origi n a t t h e c e n t e r a n d r a di u s s u ffi c ien t l s m alla n d n e at iv e y g val u es o n t he a r c AD H e n c e t h e f u n c t i on f ( a) y ) h a s m in i m u m .

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n ega t i v e . a o am . 1 i z -e y) y s n a. 1 . w e h av e t w o e s de fin ed t h r ou gh t h e equ at i on s c u rv y) O an d 0 hi h h e h i i h -a x i s a s a c om m on y) w c av a t t e o r g n t e zc t an ge n t an d a c on t ac t o f a n i n de fi n i t el y h igh or der . T he r e i s c on s eq u e n t ly n o c u r v e o f t h e for m w h i c h m a y be l aid b e t w ee n t h e s e t w o c u r v e s . We m ay t he r efo r e de s i s t f ro m fu r t h e r r equ i r e m en t s in t hi s di rec t io n a n d we s h al l n e xt c all a tt e n t i on t o t w o m et h o d s t h e . y): i s p os i t i v e i n t h e w h o le p l a n e e x c e p t in g t h a t p a r t o f t h e pl an e t h a t is s i t u a t ed b e t w ee n t h e t w o t r an s c e n de n t a l c u r v e s in w hi c h i t i s .36 T H E ORY OF M AX I MA AND M I N I M A ei b i t t i t w ld be a t u r al t o r a i s e t h e a . g e n e r al in c h ar ac t e r w h e n t he di s c u s s i o n h a s t o do w i t h t w o va r ia bl e s a n d whi c h lea d t o c r i t e r i a w h i c h a r e o f u s e i n p r a c t i c e . On t h e o t h e r h an d t h e f u n c t i on f (x y ). . H e n c e a t t h e o r igi n t h e r e i s n eit h e r a m a xi m u m n o r a m i n im u m f o r t h e f u n c t i o n f m y ) a l t h o u h f o r t h i s f u n c t i o n u p o n ( . 8 8 o i t b ei n g o f c o u r s e as s u m ed t h a t al l 2 . g . z s in 9) v x. t h e q u an t i t ie s d an d 8 ar e n ot Si m u lt an e o u s l y z e r o . B b n g a r t r ary c n o s a n s o u . n qu es tion w he t h e r w e c o u ld n ot de t er m in e t h e s u ffi c ien t c on dit i on s e fo r su c h xt r m e e b s t u d i y gn t h e m o r e g e n e r al c u r v e s e x p r e s s ed s y t h ro g u h t h e a lg e b r a i c eq u a t i o n s k k h 3 + o o + a mk m 513 ( ) : a l + a 2 (0 o o we ” an d m a k e t he r eq u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n x k f ( ( ) y ( )) k s h all . . . v a lu e s t h e r e m a y be a ss i g ed n t o th p e o s i t i v e in t e g e r s m a n d n a n d t o t h e m n q u a n t i t ie s a 1 . e ve r y c u rv e i () t h e r e e n te r s a m in i m u m . be de r i v e d i n t h e m an n e r in di c at ed For if w e w r it e .2 . . for c le ar ly an y s u c h c u r ve m u st h a v e w i t h eit h e r o f t h e s e c u r v e s a c on t ac t o f in de fini t ely h igh o r de r w h i c h i s i m o s s i b le f o r a n al eb r a i c c u r v e p g . ha v ane e x t r e m e f o r h 0 w h a t e v e r . o n e du e t o S c h e e ff e r a n d t h e o th e r t o Vo n D an t s c h e r w h i c h a r e . I t m ay h o w e v e r b e sh ow n t h a t s u c h s u ffi c ien t c on di t i on s c a n n o t . . . . .

. ly if t h e l a s t c on d i t i o n exi s t s t h e n fi r s t d e r i v a t iv e s o f r oc a l . qu an t it ies a n an d 3 m ay be s o c h o s en t h at f or all v a l u e s o f as . i s i n t h e i m m edi a t e n e i hb o r h o o d o f so 0 lle t h b i t p w e “ g s m a r a n a n y a r r a r y o r a c e . w i t h in t h e i n t e rv a l 8 to 8 t h e a b s ol u t e v alu e of f (x) i s r e a t e r t h a n t h e a b s olu t e v al u e of a m e x c e pt in g t h e v a l u e so 0 ” g . F UN C T I ON S OF T W O V ARIAB L E S 37 27 . t h en f or m u l a (a )) u n ( se e w it h in t h i s in t e r va lt h e dit i on f I ) an i s s a t i s fi ed c on R e c ip ” . t h a t i s p os i t iv e ” . . lo c . f or w h ic h s u c h q u a n t it ie s n a 8 do n ot . Fo r Sin c e 0 w e m a y s o de t e r m i n e 8 t h a t f o r valu e s o f . . : . . S c h ee ff e r ’ s m e t h od . f or e xa m ple e ( cf Pie r p on t . V ol . . h ow ev e r . (n ar e z roe for x 0 w h ile 0 f o r :13 0 Fo r s u c h f u n c t i on s t h e c h a n ge : . p . W e m ay n ot e t h at t h e c h ar a c t e r is t i c pr op ert y o f t h e ab o v e r eq u ir e m en t c on s i s t s i n t h e f ac t t h a t t h e b e h a v i or o f t h e f u n c t i on in t h e n eigh b or h o o d o f t h e or ig in m u st be m a r k ed w i t h a c e rt a in d egr ee o f d i s ti n c tn ess . w o u ld h a v e (n f — f( ) x : ( n an d fr o m t h is it f o ll o w s t h a t hm f( ) a? O m= o a m ” w hi c h c on t r a d ic t s th e as s u m p t i o n t h at f( )as ax ” 1 T h er e ar e fu n c t io n s . v al e of f in t h e i n t e r v al 3to 8. ac s u c h t h a t Bé x é 8 t h e f u n c t i on ‘ i s diff e r en t fr o m ze r o . fa c t t h e ab solu t e valu e o f e In . I x" e xi s t .I f t h en w e c h oo s e t h e qu an t it y a sm aller t h an t h e a b s ol u t e . . in v a lu e i n t h e n eigh b o r h o o d o f t h e p o s i t i on to 0 on ei t h e r s i d e i s f a s t e r t h an t h a t o f a giv e n q u a n t i t y a m . f( )a c an n o t a l l v a n i s h f o r cc 0 F o r i n t h e l a tt e r c a s e we : . . c it . I . . We h av e s ee n t hat f u n c t i o n s o f on e i ble w h ic h h av e o r di n a r y e xt r e m e s va r a c an be exp r e s s ed t hr ou gh t h e T a y l o r de v el op m e n t in t h e f or m (n ) 6 f ( ) 33 0 6 f( ) ( ( ) ” x so a n ! w h en f( ) x an d the f de r iv a t i v e s f (x) o .

k O .38 T H E ORY OF MA X I MA AND M I N I MA The foll ow in g c o n s ide rat ion le a d s to t he gen e r a liz at ion of t he a b o v e c o n di t i on f o r f un c ti on s o f t w o v a r i a b le s : I t i s c le ar t h a t a fu n c t i on f (:c y ) w hi c h van i sh e s at t he o r igin if it i s Con t in u o u s . has u po n t h e c i r c u m fe r e n c e o f e v e r y c ir c le w h i c h i s de sc r ibed a b o u t t h e o r igi n a s c e n t e r w i t h a n a r bit r a r y r a di u s r a gr ea t e s t a n d a le a s t v al u e p r o vided t h e fu n c t i o n d o e s n o t r ed u c e to a . As e xa m ple s o f t hi s k in d a r e t h e f u n c t i on vi r T he b e ha o o f t h e fu cti n on f (x at a ny pit o n 2 0. For in t hi s c as e t h e v a lu e w i t h w h i c h t h e f u n c t i on f ( y ) in t h e n eigh b or h o o d o f t h e p o s i t i on ( 0 0 ) eit h e r a p x. k) fo r t he ' v lua e sh 0. yo k) F ( h . . m a y b e m ad e b y t he b o 2: )1. . t e r m in e w h e t h e r t h e v al u e is a li tt le on t h e o n e s ide or o n t h e o t h e r s ide o f z e r o . m a r k s t h e be h av i o r o f t h e f u n c t i on a t t h e o r igi n i s c h a r ac t e r iz ed t hr ou gh t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p ow e r a r w i t h t h e p r o pe r t y t h at f or ’ ” e v e r y v al u e o f r W it h in a c e r t ain lim i t g b ot h f 1 ( r ) a n d f 2 ( r ) a r e i n a b s ol u t e v al u e g r e a t e r t h an M ” . . . Th e de v el op m e n t in s e r ie s c an n o t t h e r ef or e s e r v e t o de . to de en on e e a o o f t he h. m a xim u m e x i s t s a t t h e or i gin Th e d egr e e of di s ti n c tn ess w h i c h . o ff e r fo r s u ffi c ie n t l s m a ll r a dii r a c r i t e r i o n r ega r din g t h e a ppe ar y an c e or n o n a p pe ar an c e o f an e xt r e m e a t t h e or ig in * For if t h e . f u n c t ion o f on e v a r ia b le r V a + y Th e s ign s of t h e s e gr e a t e s t z = 2 . t w o q u an t it ie s f 1 ( r ) a n d f 2 ( r ) a r e p os i t i v e t h e r e w ill be a m in i . yoth r th t h ri g i o e an e o n su stituti n p d up t h b h vi r . . t h is v al u e c a n n ot be e xp r e s sed t h r o u h a po w e r e v e r s o hi h g g of r . . I f t his r equ ir e m en t is n o t sat i sfi ed w e c an n ot c ou n t u pon de ri vin g s u r e c h ar a c t e r i s ti c s o f ext r e m e s t h r ou gh t h e e x p an s i on in s e r ie s. . an d le as t v a l u e s w h i c h w e de n o t e b y f 1 ( r ) a n d f 2 ( r ) r e s p e c t i v el y . . p ro ac h e s t h e v a l u e z e r o fr o m t he on e s ide or h avi n g pass ed . t h r o u gh ze r o di ff e r s f r o m it o n t h e ot h er s ide i s s o l it t le t h at . m u m o f f ( : y ) a t t h e or ig i n w h ile if t h ey ar e b o t h n egat i v e a c . y y0 + k .

a ble t o f or m a n c on c l u s i o n s r egar din g t h e e x t r e m e s o f t h e f u n c y Von D a n t s c h e r s m e t h o d c on s i st s in ’ t i on f ( cc y ) a t t hi s p o in t . ” I sh a ll giv e l at er t h e m e t h o d of Von D an t s c h e r a s it i s . up t o t he l e c ( f or y 0 ) w h ile t h e l at te r app r o a c h e s t h e v a l u e va u r = ze r o fr om t h e n ega t iv e di r e c t i on b y t h e s a m e a m ou n t . 2“ . fir st f u n c t i on a pp r oa c h e s t h e va l u e ze r o f r om t h e p o s i t iv e di r e c t i on . 2 9 Th e S t olzi an . . We h av e s een t h a t b y . < 8 (se e 36 a n d Bel o n gin g al so t o t hi s c a t e go r o f f u n c t i on s a r e t h e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h r e a c h y t h e v al u e z e r o b u t do n o t a s t h r o u h i t f or e v e r e i b i p s g y r g o n a r t r a r ily s m a ll w h e r e 8 . at t h e or igin an e xt r em e of t h e f u n c t i on e xi s t s m ay a l w ay s be an sw e r ed b y a de v el opm en t in s e r ie s an d b y a fi n i t e n u m b e r o f o b s e rv a t i on s H ow t hi s i s a c c om p li s h ed i s f ou n d in t h e . 2 13 . va n i s h f o r r e a l p a i r s o f v a l u e s so y i n e v e r y r e gi on a r b i t r a r il y . We sh all a t fi r st a s s u m e t h a t t h e f u n c t i on f (z y ) is c on t in u ou s w it h r e spe c t t o b o t h va r i ab le s in . St lz o . 2 8 Th e m e t h od of Von Dan t s c h e r . . t h e or ie s ( se e 42 . c on s ide r in h e r e m e s o n e v e r y lin e t h r ou gh 0 0 g t e x t ( ) w e ar e n ot . e ver y p oin t ( x y) o f a r e c t an gle t h at in c l u de s t h e p o in t ( 0 O) t he . . . n e x t c h a pt e r . FUN C T I ON S OF T W O V AR I ABL E S 39 wh i c h h a s nei t h e r a m a xi m u m n or m in im u m a t t he origin Th e . of in t e r e s t in i t s elf a n d be s ide s i t i s w e l . l t o c om par e t h e t w o . To t h i s c l a s s of f u n c t i on s bel on g a l s o t h os e f un c t i on s w h o s e i n it i a l t er m s c on s t it u t e a s em i-de fin it e for m a n d w h ic h c on t a in a s a f a c t o r a n e v e n p o w e r o f a s e r ie s P x y h e r m s of w hi c h ( ) t e t . l on g a s w e r em a in w it h in a c e r t a in li m it g i s a l w a y s s m aller t h an . p . s m a ll w h e r e 0 < <8 0< . Al t h ou gh Von D an t s c h e r h i m s elf fi n d s t h a t t h e r e is “ n o n eed o f a n e xt e n s i on or i m p r o v e m e n t o f the S c h e e ffe r m et h o d . e st ab li sh i n g c r it er ia n ot on l y f or t h e e xt r e m e s on s u c h lin e s b u t a l s o f o r al l p o in t s in t h e pl an e in t h e n eigh b or h o o d o f t h e p oi n t s on t h es e li n e s an d a l s o in t h e n ei h b or h oo d a n d on b o t h s i d e s o f g t h e p o in t ( 0 . t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s o f f 1 ( r ) a n d f 2 ( r ) t h e n t h e q u e s t io n w h e t h e r . I f o n t h e ot h er h an d t h er e ex is t s a p ow e r a r w h os e v a l u e s o ” .

c g re ater th a n 0 f( . w hi ch l i m i ts are r e a c he d thr o u gh th e va l and « e c ti ve l u es x y2 (y ) pl (y ) r es p y . and f or a p p ro er m in im u m we m u s t h a ve i n va r i a bl y f( x. ( ) x . T hi s n e c e ss a r y con di ti o n i n qu es tio n f o r ro er m a xi m u m a p p FI G . 0) wi th c or r es p o n ding con d i t i on s f o r a m in im u m p ro p er . The s a m e c on d i ti o n s m u st be t r u e w i th re g ar d to th e ppu er an d l o we r l i m i ts o f f( x. x ( ¢ 0 ) l i es . I n t h e fi rs t c as e the u pp e r l o w e r lim it s o f f (x y ) ar e b ot h an d . a n d s u ch th a t the u pp er w he n t a kes lim i t f f( o x. 0 ) be a p ro p er fl is er e d t hr o u gh th e e xi s ten c e o f i n te r v a l e xt r e m e f f( o y) x. Not e t h at lim 0 s in c e . The fu l f i l lm en t o f al lth e c on d i ti on s m a de a bove is su fli c i e n t th a t f(O 0 ) be . 10 is th a t f ( x. t. Th e s am e i s t ru e of ta ) x . II .) i s a p ro p er m a xi m u m if th e r e e xi s ts a p os i ti ve q u a n t i ty 8 s uch th a t w e h a ve sim u lta n eou s l y [ ] 1 f or 0 :2: <8 . We s h a ll s t a t e a n d t he n p ro v e t h e f o ll o w in g t h e or e m s : T H E ORE M I . be i n va r i a bl y l es s th a n 0 f( . a nd th e l o we r l im i t thr ou g h y a.4O T H E OR Y OF M A X IMA AND M I N I MA s ides of t he e c t a n gle be in g par allel t o r t he c ob r din a t e ax s e . or a co n s t a n t v a l u e. o an 8 8. 0 ) a n d in t h e s e c on d c a s e t h e y a r e b ot h gr e a t er . . a p ro p er e x tr e m e o f f ( x . Ac c or d i n gly f (O O . les s t h an f( 0 . a nd [ ] 2 f or 0< 3 / < 5. y) w i t h r e s pe c t t o y t he f u n c t i on . y) w i th con s t a n t y su c h th a t [y 8. the va r i a bl e y bei n g c on fin e d to the i n te r va l x x. the va r i a bl e x be i n g l i m i te d to the i n te r va l y o y . i s h a d thr ou gh the va l ue y ( ) x . . w i thi n wh i c h . f (x . T H EORE M . A n e c es s a r y con d i ti o n th a t f(O. To p ro ve t he t wo t he o re m s j u st st at ed we r em a r k fi r s t t h at on a cc o u n t o f t he i i ty of c on t n u f( r . y ). f ee s ) 9 ) < f ( 0 .

y) i t is n ecess a r y and s ufli c i en t th a t th e r e e xi s t a p os i t i ve q u a n ti t y 8 s u ch th a t f or an y x w i th a bs o lu te va l ue le s s th a n 8 the va l ue f ( x. whi l e a t th e sa m e ti m e c or r e s p on di n g to e ve r y p os i ti ve q uan ti ty 8 w h i c h i s l ’ e s s th a n . 8 th e r e is a t l ea st va l bs o l va l e s s th a n 8 on e ue f o x or y w h os e a u te ue is l ' a nd f or whi ch e i ther f( x. in v ir t u e of the d e fi n it i on of a pr o p e r m ax m i um of f( x. F e u r t h r m or e . If the r el at ion [ 4 ] be is t o t r u e f or al ls y st em s o f va u l e s (x . FUN C T I ON S OF T W O V ARI ABL E S 41 f( x. an i m p r op e r m a xi m u m o f f( x. x f( x. . O) and f or an y y w i th a bsol u te va l ue l e ss th a n 8 th e va lue y) is not g r ea ter th a n f O ( . y) w i t h c on s t a n t x a n d w it h t h e a ssu m p t i o n t h at y t a k e s al l v alu e s o f t he in t e r val x o o x h a s fo r all t h e s e v alu e s a fin ite u ppe r li m it an d a fi n i t e l o w e r l im i t an d fu rt h e r t h at f (x y ) re ac h es . 0 4 [ ] f ( a r) f ( 0 . t h es e li m i t s f o r v a l u e s y an d y (t 1( ) ( x s ee H en c e f or v a lu e s o f y s u c h t h at Iy é i t is c l ar e t h at f( x. y) f (0 . . if x 8 an d xs b 0 an d if w e s u b st it u t e y : ( x ) i n 4 l1 t h at f e a s»e. is not g r e a te r th a n f ( O. W e h a ve c or r e sp on din g c on dit i on s f or i m p r op er e xt r e m e s : T H E ORE M III . w h er e [y § | x <8 . 0 0. y) w h er e | x an d ( e ar e ler x c ep t in g x sm al 0 an d y t h an 8 t h en in a d di t i on t o [ 1] w e m u s t h av e t h e c o rr e s p o n d in g p a i r of i n equ alit ie s w h i c h m ay be de r iv ed w it h ou t t r o u b le . I n or der th a t f (O 0 ) be . y) f( x. The con d i ti on s f o r an i m p r op e r m i n i m u m fo llow a t on c e . It f oll ow s . w hi c h i s in f a c t t h e in equ ali t y Re c ipr oc ally f r o m [ 1] an d [ 3] ar e ob t a n i ed the in eq u al it ie s 0< <8 an d — O) < 0 . y) t h e re m u st be a p o si e q u an t i t y i t v 8 su c h that if on l y x an d [y ar e s m al lr e t h an 8 w e m u s t h av e . or y) is e q u al to f O ( . 0 ) . — t < ) o.

t h a n 8.42 T H E OR Y OF MAX I MA AND M I N IM A T H EORE M I V T h at f ( O 0 ) m a y n o t b e a m i n i m u m (pr ope r o r . su c h t hat 8 [ ] f(i n > f 0 ( . . w it h a b so l u t e v a l u e le ss t h an 8. < 0 an d t ha t f( 0 . ’ o si t i v e q ua n t i t y 8 t h e r e e i t h e r e xi s t s a q u an t i t y x w i t h a b s ol u te p . 0 ) m ay n o t be a m a x im ( um i p m r o p r pe r o pe r)or of i i s n e c es s ar y a n d s u ffi c ie n t t h a t c o rr e s on din f( x. va lu e le ss t han 8 s u c h t h a t . y) t p g t o e ve ry po s it i ve q u a n t it y 8 t h e r e m ay b e f ou n d ei t h e r a q u a n t i t y x ’ wi t h a b sol u t e v alu e le ss t h an 8. 42 W » f > ( 0 . ’ or t ha t t h e r e e xis t a q u an t i t y y . f ( : w ' <f ( 0 [ ] 5 . im p ro pe r) o f f ( x y ) i t is n e c e s s a ry a n d s u ffi c ien t t h a t t o e ve r y . . ” or a q u an t it y y . su c h t h at " 7 [ ] f( w . w it h a b s olut e val u e le s s s uc h t ha t [ ] 5 f (i nWH O f( .

.

S i n c e R +1 ( x y) . n . an d d en o t in g t he c o r r e s p on din g v al u e o f 8 ’ b y 8. CD2 + . g . 0 ) G" (x. y ) y y a H e n c e w r it in g (n 2 )e [x ’ e an d ( i i 2 )e ’ e . y) h a ve th e p os i ti on 0 0 e i th e r a xi m u m t a n eo u s l s im u l y o n ( . e x an d f ro m an d t ha t fo r valu es o f x. is a h o m og e n e ou s i n t egr a l f u n c t i on o f t h e (n + 1)t h di m en s i on in x y a n d c on s i s t s o f n + 2 t e r m s w e n o t e t h a t c or r e s p on din t . 6 3 / n <f ( x) y) — i ’ 0) y . ) a p p r o er m or a p r op e r m in i m u m . (x. the n th e tw o fu n c ti on s f (x . y) and On ( x. . g . d (y ) y ) . r) — f ( 0 . y ) < e y " I t f o ll o w s t he n f r o m [ 1] an d 2 h es [ ] t a t f o r v al u of x. l ow e r an d u p pe r lim it s of G” ( x. e t the l For . w it h c on s t an t x and with é I ]xbe .o ’ a n y po s i t i v e q u an t i t y 6 w e m ay alw a y s fin d a n ot h e r p os it iv e q u an t it y 8 s u c h t h a t if ’ an d t h en Rn +l ( x. l an d a s o s u c h t h at if an d <5 " t h en Rn + 1 ( az. y su c h t ha t l x <8 an d w e hav e [ ] 4 <f ( 90 . G. a whe r e y h a s c on s t a n t v a l u es and i es w i thi n wh er e x l th e i n ter va l y y.44 T H E OR Y OF MA X IM A AND M IN I M A ow e r l the and l i m i ts f ln G ( y) lpl n th a t u pp er o x. and On ( x. . y) . su c h t hat 0 < y < 8 y and [x é y| w e ha ve [ ] 5 (y ) y ) . i t i s s een t h at t h er e i s a l w ay s an i n t e r va l 8 8 su c h t h at if 2 [ ] 0< x <8 an d y A “ x t h en <6 x an d if 3 [ ] 0< y <8 an d x A “ y t h en Rn + l( x. ( 13 2 ( see an d w it h c on s t a n t y an d w it h é le t t h e u p pe r an d lo w e r li m i t s of y) be G ‘I/ ( 2 (y ) y ) a n . x x n ..

0 ) i s a m in i m u m i t i s e v ide n t f or s m a ll v al u e s of x an d y t h a t O ( x ( 1 1 ( )) 3 x an d (y ) y ) n ar e p o s i t . it h at f x y 0 0 i s p o s i t iv e an d c o n s eq u en t l h 7 [ ] t ( ) f ( ) . an d f r om [ 5 ] f or l es va u [ ] 7 an d | x § | y t h a t ( a S in c e 6 m ay b e m a de f ollow s in b ot h [ 6] an d s m al r le t h an a . th e follow i n g c on d i ti on s fi a r e su c i en t to m a ke i t i m p oss i bl e th a t f (O. . I f G ( 0 0 ) i s a pr oper m a xi m u m of O (x y ) t h en w it h s m all n . p 2 18 . a dded t h eore m I f Gn (0 . d l x an d f or v alu es an d | | y| w e h av e x n x § . an d w e h a v e Gn E ( | n y x x. w e h a v e Gn ( x. H en c e du e t o t h e p o st ulat e s f or v alu e s . a t l ea st on e o f th e two u p p er l i m i ts o f Gn ( x. y) d efi n ed a bove i s pos it ive a n d n ot l e s s th a n or S to lz . v a l u e s of x a n d y t h e e x p r e s s ion s O (x an d (y ) y) u . i v e . qu an t it ie s an d fr o m t h e p os t ula t e s i t fo ll o w s t h a t f or val u e s . n ot an e x tr e m e o f G” ( x. 1 ( )f o r al lp os i t i ve va l u es o f x and y s u ch th a t 0 < | | x <8 a nd O< or f or a l l ne g a ti ve v a l u es wi thi n the sa m e l i m i ts . 0 ) is a O (x y) an d t h a t t h e t w o p os t u l a t e s of t h e t h e or e m h a v e bee n n . 0 ) i s a p ro p e r m a xi m u m of f( x. . x < 8 0<1 | an d y| é [ ] x . . 0 ) s hou l d be an e xtr e m e of f x y ): if ( . S t olz ’ s . l Ac c o r d in gly i t f oll o w s fr o m [ 4 ] f or v al u es 6 — — [ ] an d | l y § x l t h at ( a e ) x y) f (0 . y) . n . . . sa t i s fi ed t h en if . TH E S C H E E FFE R T H E ORY 45 If n e xt we as s u m e t ha t pr o pe r ext r em e o f Gn ( 0 . . x an d f or v al u es an d | w e h av e (y ) y ) i 7' x 2 l y a y l . 0 ) i s * 31 . y t a t f ( 0 0 ) . y). m u s t be n ega t iv e . an d in a s i m ilar m an n e r as a b ov e i t f oll ow s t hat f( 0 . . ’ i s a pr op e r m in im u m o f f (x y ) (se e St ol z e s e c on d t h e or e m .

a t le a s t o ne of t h e t w o lo w e r l i m i t s of n ( . . . Th e S c h ee ff e r t h e or e m ot h e rw i s e st a t e d . f or e xa m ple t o t h e i n t e rv al 0 o o o 8 an d if w e . be an y fu nc tion as a l r ea d y d efi n e d of x. o lo w s f or y (1 an d (1 h Fr o m [ ] 1 an d 2 [ ] it f l ( ) 3 x 1 y : 2 3 2 ( x ) t at fo r va l u es of x w it h in t h e i n t e r v ali n q u e st ion — f ( . . ne gat i ve . If we i m it l x. . y ) in t h e p e en d isc u ss io n . ra r s mal le r th a n a def in i te u a n ti t th t t and th e l ea s t va l q y g e . the s a me l i m i ts. is p osi t i ve a n d On (x. . e e . th a t i s . y) G x th a n ll yl l “ ne ga t i ve a n d n o t “ defi n e d a bove is g r e a te r d x or d a de . p . ( x. . w h i ch v a n i s hes a t th e o r ig i n " y a nd l e t i ts be h a vio r i n t he g h bo r ho o d o n ei f th i s p o i n t be s u ffi c ie n t l l i cit y ex p f or the de te r m i n a ti on r eg a r di n g the a p p e a r a n c e of e x tr e m es by m e a n s of p ow e r s e r i es to be p oss i ble in o th e r w o r ds .46 T H EOR Y OF MAX I MA AND M I N I MA " l d 2 f l l i t i l f d h | | a y r esp e c t i ve y a n ( ) o r a . 0 ) is n o t an e xt r e m e of f( x. un de r th e r e s tr i c ti o n s j u st m . 32 . we a ss u me tha t the r e e x i s ts a ow e r ” h t h t p ar s u c a u p on eve r y ci r cl e des c r i be d a bo u t the or i i n as c e n t er w hose di u s is n ot g . Th elyt i c pr o o f gi ven in § 30 of t h e S c h e e ffe r t h e or e m an a is es s e n t i a lly du e t o St ol z Ow in g t o i t s i m p or t an c e w e s h a ll gi v e . w ( a fil m — an d f( : f 0 ( . " fo llow i n g in equ alit ie s G (x l an d 7 s u ppo s e t hat t h e E a x n . - n eg at ive an d in t h e e s c on d c as e p os i t i v e s o t h a t f ( 0 . . ( ) l ” w a 3 ‘ m : S in c e w e m a y t ak e e < a . it i s s ee n t h at i n t h e t w o e xpr e ss i on s j us t w r i tte n t he di ff e r en c e on t h e left h an d s ide i s i n t h e fi r s t c ase . . i f. é ex is t it i s s ee n t h at t h e s e t w o e xpr e s s ion s . . n a f (x . L et f( y) x. a l l p oi n ts o f the if 0 ) at 0 w m ust w rit — y) f ( O 0 ) i t h e p l c e of rs t . y) i s p o s i t i ve a nd y) ne g ti ve a . or i f Ou (y) . Sc h ee ff e r s s t at e m e n t o f t h i s t h e or e m w i t h h i s g e om e t r i c ded u c t i on s ’ M a th An n V ol X XX V ( . i v an s h o n l y f or x 0 . G” r esp ec ti ve l y. y) ( se e St olz s ’ f o u r t h t h e or e m . a u e s o x a n y s u c 8 f ll i l w i thi tha t 0 < 8 a nd 0 < | y| o r o r a n e g a t ve v a u es n . p o s ve v . g r e a e s u es o f the fu n c ti o n f ( x y ) viz f 1 ( r ) a n d f 2 ( r ) f o r .

f y. r a di u s r w hi c h i ve f nd f c au s e G an d f l( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( a x y x y) g r r . i n the fi rs t p l a ce th e r e a tes t a n d th e l e a s t va lu g es o f f bo th u n c ti on s c o r r es on d w i th r e s e c t t o s i n p p g f or e ve r y s m a ll r a di u s r a n d fr om th i s i t fo l . y) a an up per li m it Ar r “ . . low s th a t th er e a pp e a r s i m u l ta n e ou s l y a t t h e o r i i n e xt r e m e s g f o r bo th f u n c ti o n s i f s u c h e x tr e m e s . q i t a is a ny u an and a . . then u p on the c i r c u mfer en c e of e ve r y c i r c l e w i th r a d i u s r ( w i th i n u e s of the fu n c ti o n ' a c er ta i n l i m i t g ) the g r e a tes t a n d the le a s t v a l a n d fr om ’ O (x y ) a r e i n a bsol u . for t h os e va l u e s o f x y w h i c h pr o d u c e f l ( r ) a n d f 2 (r ) . . n . TH E S C H E E FFE R T H E ORY 47 c i r cu m fe r en c e of the ci r cl e w i th ra di u s r. a s w e sh a ll s ho w. t o h av e t h e s a m e s ign I f f 1 (r ) an d f 2 ( r ) h av e t h e sa m e s ign it . x. . a n d . We sh a ll t ak e t h e ra di u s r sm a lle r t h an A t h at Ar +1 ’ ” so ar > n . i t fol lows a l so th a t th e d egr e e of d i s ti n c tn es s th a t m a r ks the beha vi or of G (x y ) i s the s a m e a s th a t of f (x y ) n . I t is e v iden t t h a t w e m ay r e pla c e x an d y in t h e r e m a in de r t er m Rn + 1 (x. u te v a l u e g r e a te r th a n a r th i s ” . it f oll ow s fr om t h e eq u at i on v) a) t h at t h os e l e s o f x y on t h e p e ri ph e r y o f t h e c ir c le w i t h va u . a . Th e n in the Ta y lor -L a g ran g e de ve lop m en t g i ve n a bove f( x’ ‘ Gu c x’ y )? whe r e Rn +1 ( x. a n d g p o n t ( x. Sin c e f 1( ) r an d f2( ) r ar e b y h y p ot h e s e s gr e a t e r in a b so l u t e va u l e t h an ar ” . w h e r e r i s t h e r a diu s o f t h e s m all c i r c le a b ou t t h e or i in w it h in w hi c h t h e i i s s i t u a t ed . F g t g ( or . are in a bs ol u te va l ue " g r e a te r th a n ar . fo ll o w s f r om t h e a b ov e e xp r e s s ion t h a t t h e gr e at e st an d le a st val u e s of O ( y) x h a n v e t h i s s . f 1 ( ) an d f 2 ( r ) h av e c on t r ar y s ign s t h e s am e is t r u e o f r ( x y) . . y) c on s i s ts f o l al ter m s be y on d thos e of th e n th d i m e n s i on th e i n tegr a l r a ti on a lfu n c ti on Gn ( y) beh a ve s i n th e ‘ . n eihb o r h oo d of h e o r i i n a s d oes the fu n c ti on f x. a m e s i g n I f t h e t w o q u an t i t ie s . ’ e xi s t a n d sec on dl t i ty s i u a te d be tw een 0 . y ) b y r . I n t hi s w ay w e h av e f or t h e a b solu t e va u l e of Rn H ( x. y ) at t h e s am e t i m e w e m a r e l a c e al l c o e ffi c ie n t s b y t h ei r a b s o l u t e y p va u l es .

. co n di t io n s o f S c h e e ff e r s t h e o r e m ’ e xi st i t i s s een t h at t h e i n ve s t i a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n h b ee e ed h f g f ( y) x a s n r d u c . B u t t h e . sa m e m u s t a f or t i or i be t r u e o f t h e gr e a t e s t an d t h e le a s t v al u e s o f G ( x y ) n . . w h ile f ( x y ) m ay b e a l so n egat i v e . I f w e pu t g equ a l to an d A ta k e r le s s t h a n g I t i s t h e n e v i den t t h a t t h e v al e s of x y ’ . . y) m a y b e b o t h pos i t i v e a n d n e ga t i v e w h ile f x y r e t a i n s a c on ( ) ‘ . a n d in so m e c a s e s . w h i c h p r od u c e f 1 ( r ) a n d f 2 ( r ) w h e n w r i t t e n i n th e e xpr e ssi on Gi te v) f < n v) = Rn +1 ( x’ a) ’ " ca us e t he r igh t-h a n d si l e v alu e gr e at e r t han a r de to be in ab s o u t w h e n f l ( r ) an d f 2 ( r ) h av e t h e s a m e Sign . t o t a t o t he f u n c t i o n y ). r egar d in g t h e be h a v i or o f t h e f u n c t i on f x y b e n s o f p ow e r s ( ) y m a . s t a n t s ign E 3 p if ( s e e x p 6 1 . 33 I f h o w e v e r w e c a n n o t fin d an in t ege r n a n d a q u an t it y a . u . . s h all S h o w b m e an s o f s im ple e x a m ple s w h i c h f o ll o w t h i s c h a p y t e r t hat i n so m e c a s e s t h e f u n c t i o n G (x y ) i s i n v a r i ab l y p o s i n t i v e . . an d P r. se r ie s a n d b y u s i n g t h e m e t h o d in d i c a t ed For in t h i s c a s e w e . Th e s e co n d p a r t of t he t h e or e m f o l ' low s in t h e sa n i e w ay if we t ak e t he ra d i u s r not on l y sm a lle r t h an i ’ but al so a s o s m al a l ' t ha t ar ” t h at i s. y) ha v e c on t r a r y ign s s . ’ w hi c h sa t i s fy t h e c on di t i on s ab ov e w e c a n m a k e n o c on c l u s i on s . . in o t h e r w o d s t h e i e t i t i h as r n v s g a o n .48 T H E OR Y OF MAXI MA AND M I N I M A q e l for e e r at r e t he at e est an d le a s t va u l es co n e s u n t y a g r as o n gr of ( x. a r . y) are a ue gr e a te r th a n ' ” a r ? An d ho w can we e ve n tu a l l y fi x the si g ns o f the se g r e a te s t a nd l e a st va l u es a n d th e r e by d e te r m i n e the e xt r e m es f fu nc tion y )? o the T he se qu es t io n s we s h al l n ow an sw r e . . . re s ol ve d i t s elf in t o t h e q u e s t i on : H o w c a n w e r eco n i ze w h e th er g ' a li m i t g a n d a qu a n ti ty a e xi s t s u c h th a t ’ u p on c i r cl e ve r y e w i th r a di u s r < g the ' e a te s t a n d the l va l i g r e a s t u es o f a g ve n i n tegr a lfu n c ti on f the n th degr e e in bs olu t e va l o ( x.o b 2 . a n d w h en t h e s e t w o q u an t it ie s h ave c o n t r ar y s ign s t h e c or r e s p on din g v alu e s of ’ x y ) w il l i n a b s ol u t e v a l u e be gr e at e r t h a n an d t h e ” ( .

n e a tive or z ero g . or th ese fa ctors ar e all lin e a r if w e allow i m agin a ry coeffi cien ts t h e . w h ere Q I u R an d 9( ) ais a n in tegr a l fu n c t i o n o f t h e n t h degree in u O wi n g to . m y is p ositive ) . if t h e de gree of G (x y ) is o dd th e n G1 an d G2 m u st be e q u al n . qu adra tic f a ctors br e a k in g u p in t o two i m agin a ry lin e a r c o m p o n en ts I f. y ) ya ng (u ) . i = 0 it is seen t h a t y) c h an g es u p on ever y str a i gh t lin e t h ro u g h t h e ori gi n p ro p ortio n a lly to t h e n t h p ow e r o f I f then G1 an d 0 2 a r e the gre a test a n d t h e le a st v a l u es of G ( x 9 ) u p on the n . n . tio n is a defin i te for a m n i n n m . e xpan sio n of f ( y ) f ( 0 0 ) s u pp os e t h a t th e first I n t he x.t h ese f a ctors a r e m u lti p li e d b y t h e r e s p ective p ow e rs of x w e h a ve t h e corres p on din g de co m p osition of G (x y ) i n to . ter m s th a t a ppe a r for m a ho m oge n e o u s f u n ction of the n t h degree in x a n d y w h i c h is t h e f un c t i on G (£B Wit h resp ect to s u c h a n . . y) W here . b y solvin g a n eq u a tio n of the n t h degree For we m a y write . . t h e f u n d a m e n t al t h eor e m of a l ge br a 9 (a ) m ay be deco m p os e d . . f u n c t ion th e re a r e t h re e c a ses to con sider a c c o r d in g a s t h is fu n c . — . . ch an ged in t o ac Fu rth er m ore n ote t h at G ( m x m y ) . T H E S C H E E FFE R T H E ORY 49 II . H OM O G E NE OU S FUNC T I ONS 34 . . G (x y ) is p ositive n e ga tive or z ero th en n . its lin e a r an d qu a dra tic f a ctors At the o u tset it is cle a r th a t . a) is a p ositive q u an tit y It follows t h a t if . “ ” a n d le a st v a l u es u p on a n y a rbitr a ry circle Th e sign s of G1 an d G2 m ay be obt a in ed directly th ro u gh deco m p osin g G (x y) i n t o its li n e a r f a ctors which m ay b e fo u n d n . . . p eri ph er y o f t h e u n it circl e t h e n G 7 I a n d G ? a r e t h e gre a t e st 2 . b u t of o pp osite sign sin ce G ( x y ) ch an ges sign whe n cc y a r e . ( se e I f we write 2 i i Gn ( n fl x: = a ix y . . a m - defi ite for or se i de fi n it e for m . n . Q Gn (x. in to fa ctors which ar e lin e a r an d q u a dra tic with n ega tive dis c ri m in a n t s if we restrict a l l t h e coefficien ts to re a l q u an tities . n . .

the b e h a vior of f ( x y ) a t t h e origin c an n o t be r e cogn iz e d W ith . . ( x y ) . n . . c it . . . . l oo .ce we m ay de t e r m in e t he sign of G1 an d 0 2 b y l C I S t o z p 222 . n . If . y) . is a defin i te for m an d the q u an tities G1 an d G2 h a ve the s a m e sign If s e c on dly t h ere a r e r e a l lin e a r f a ctors a n d if at le a st o n e . o u t f u rther disc u ssio n . s y s te m s of v a l u es x y withi n t h e s am e i n terv a l for wh ich . . . . y) c a n n ot c h a n g e sign n or v a n is h n It .50 T H E ORY OF M AXI M A AND M I N I M A If y) in de fin it e for m is an there a r e v al u e s as y whic h . is n ega tiv e Accordin gly t h e v a lu e G ( 0 O) is n o t a n e xtrem e o f . for we n e e d o n l ” y t a k e a ’ s m a ller t han the a bsol u te v al u es o f GI a n d 0 2 I n th ese c a ses (aga in . . . . I n thi s c as e O) is a n i m p ro p er ex tre m e of G m s y . . ’ a bs ol u te v a l u e g r e a ter t h an a r . an d ) u . . y w h ere 8 an d 8 s u ch th a t y) is p ositive an d other . The deco m positio n of G m i to its li e r f ctors is ( y) n u n a . I n al l ca s e s ?e x ce pt t h e l a st a p ositive qu a n tity a m a y b e s o ’ d e ter m i n ed th a t u po n every a rbitra ry circle 7 the g re a test an d ' leas t valu e s of the f u n ction y) v i z G ? a n d a r e i n “ I . o n ly t o an ev e n d e gree t h e for m G (x y ) m ay v an ish b u t it. . t h an zero a n d sit u a t e d with i n the in terv a l | x | < 8 a n d l yl < 8 . a m a xi m u m or a m in i m u m of t h e f u n ctio n G x or there do s ( y) e . e xtre m es G an d G is z ero I n this c a se b a ro er choice of 1 2 y . . . it a n ega tive v alu e Let 8 be a p ositive qu a n tity however s m a ll . n o t e xi s t s u ch a n e xtr e m e . . o i T h e d is c u ss i n is f o r t h e m o s t p rt da uo t o S c h o e ff e r . h owever . . . a n o t n ece s sa r y s i n. It is see n th a t b y a p rope r ch oice o f m we m ay fi n d v a l u es of :13 . . n . n . c ot c I - an n h a n ge sig n t is a se m i de fin i t e for m an d on e o f the . is t h e n a n in defin ite for m a n d t h e sign of G1 is diff e ren t fro m that of 0 2 If thi r dly th ere e n ter re a l lin e a r f a ctors b u t e a ch . ev e n an d fi r s t if t h e lin e a r f a ctors of G m n is . e xce pti n g t h e las t) th ere a r e fo u n d in a s u fficien tl y disti n ct m a n n e r ( in t he revio s r cise s se of h wor d see 2 7 eit h er p u p e e n t e ) . a r e al li m agi n a ry th e n G . e n ters to an odd degre e t h e n G ( x y ) t a k es both sign s G (x y ) . . p p m a bove it is s e e n th a t y) v a n is h es for v a l u es o f x y ot h er . ive ositive v alu e a n d ot h er v a l u es 70 y whi ch giv e g G t y) p s u a . . s y) u .

.

52 TH E ORY OF M AXIM A AND MINIM A

Bu t if AC criterion regardin g an extre m e o f f (x y)
“:
B 0, a ,

with the help o n l y of the ter m s o f the se c o n d di m en sion cann ot be
hi d f h

ha d .
We m u st the n ta ke i n a dditio n ter m s of the t r o u r t , ,

degrees in the above e xpan sion of f y) in order if p ossible to , ,

sa tisfy the postu l ates of Sc h e e ff e r regardin g the f u n ction G (cc y) n , .

I n th is ca se we m ay write if A is diff ere n t from z ero , ,

f( x, y)

f 0
( . i ( Aw mu s
e . y> +

where 13 ,
de n ote the collectivity of t h e term s res p ectivel y
of the th ird fo u rth ,
di m en sion s in ac y
, ,
.

If in this e xpression we write x B t y At it is seen tha t , ,

f ( ,
Bt — Ai )— f ( 0 ,

an d if con st an t A3 is differen t from z e ro it i s seen th a t b y
the ,

g ivin g p ositive a n d n e ga tive v a l u es to t t h e a bove e x ressio n
p ,

m ay t a k e both positive a n d n ega tive v a l u es so th a t th ere is n o ,

e xtre m e o f f :e y ) on t h e p ositio n ( 0
( , ,

Bu t ev e n if t h e first ter m th a t a pp e a rs on the right of the
e xpa n sion in t is o f even degree we c an n ot con cl u de th at there
,

is an e xtrem e as is il lu stra ted b y the cl a ssic e xam ple of P e an o
,

( see v i z
f ( y)
5c A
.
y,
2
+ 2 B ,
x2
y + 0=x4
.

Fu rt h er in vestigatio n is therefore n ecess a r y whe n t h e ter m s of
the se co n d degree con stit u te a se m i-de fin it e form an d this c ase ,

is co n ti n u ed in t h e followin g sectio n s .

111 E XT RE M E S O F T H E FU N C T I ON I NT E G RAL
y)
.
,

IN :1: AND y , W H I CH IS NOT H OM O G E NE OU S

35 . We m u st n e xt deter m i n e whether or n ot the v al u e G ( 0 0 ) n ,

is a n e xtre m e of y ) whe n this f u n ctio n is n o t ho m oge n eo u s
in a: an d y an d whe n t h e ter m s of t h e lowest dim e n sion in
( y)
cc ,

c o n s tit u te a s e m i-de fin ite form We m u st again r a ise the q u estion
.

' "
r e ga rdi n
g the e xiste n ce o f a n e xpression a r which for a ll s u ffi
c ie n t l s m a ll v al u es of r is t o be s m aller th a n the a bsol u te v a l u es
y
of t he gre a tes t v alu e a n d o f the s m allest v al u e of G (a: y ) u pon n ,

the pe ri phe ry of a circle of ra di u s r W here r is s u fficie n tly s m all
,

T H E S C H E E FFE R T H E ORY 53

In order the n to a cqu ain t o u rselves with the d iff eren t p ossi
, ,

b ilit i e s which m ay e n ter in the beh a vior of the f u n ctio n y)
a t the p oin t ( 0 we t ake a s m all circle with ra di u s r an d see k
,

u o n it the two p osition s a t wh ich the f u n ctio n G ( x t k es
p y) a n ,

its gre a test a n d its le a st v al u e C all these v al u es the e xtr em e
.

u e s of G The fo und b solvi
va l
( ) ( § ) y
1 5 t h

x y y a re se e
n ,
. n g e

th re e e q u a tio n s 8G
Xx

0,
3x

8G,,
M/ 0,
By

By elim in atin g 7t fro m t h e first two of th e s e eq u ation s we h a ve
an eq u a tion o f t h e n t h degree
8Gn 8Gn
3
’ O
ax 8y

an equ ation which is s a tisfied b y all v alu es of x an d y which
offer e x tre m e v a l u es of G (x y ) u pon a n y a rbitrary circle r
n , .

It is k n ow n in t h e th eory of algebra ic f u n ction s th at every
bran ch of an algebraic cu rve of the n t h order w h ic h con ta in s t h e
origin m ay be ex pressed in the n eighborhoo d o f t h e origin thro u gh .

a n in de en de n t v a ri a b le i i h e for m
p ( s sa
y) n t ,

2
y = b1h b2 k + u

an d thi s e xpression for t h e c u rve m ay be m a de in an y n u m ber of
di ffer e n t w a y s s u ch t h a t in e a c h of t h e s e ries for x an d y t h e first
coefficien t which is differe n t fro m z ero (in ca se th ere is on e ) h a s an
e xp on en t w hi ch is E n It follows tha t both th ose bran ch es which
.

i n c lu de the origin of t h e cu rve (i) an d whose p oin ts of in tersectio n
,

with the circl e s of s m all r a dii off er the e xtre m e v al u es of G (x y ) n ,

u p o n these circles m a be e x ressed in t h e for m ( i i ) thro u gh a n
y , p
in de pen den t par a m eter It s o lon g at le a st a s we re m a in i n the
, , ,

i m m ediate vicin ity of t h e origin ; th a t is s o lon g a s very s m all ,

v al u es ar e a scribed to h W e sh all c all th ese t wo bran ches t h e
.

two e xtr e m e c u r ves of t h e fu n ctio n G ( x y) n , .

34
: T H E O RY OF M AX I M A AND M I NI M A

36 We m u st n e xt distin gu is h betwee n t h e c a s e s ( 1) wh e n
.

( e xc ti
e p ng for isol a t e d v a l u e s of r
) t h e e x tr e m e v a l u es of ( y)
x ,

ar e bot h diff ere n t fro m z e ro a n d 2
( ) whe n on e of t h ese e x tre m es
is zero .

If both e xtre m es a r e diff eren t fro m z ero the n t h e expression ,

if w e writ e for x a n d y t h e two series ( i i ) which corr e
y) ,

s o n d to a n e xtre m e c u r ve will begi n with a ter m Ah
m
whic h for
p , ,

s m a ll v al u es of h d e t e r m in e s bot h t h e S lgll a n d t h e ord e r o f m agn i

t u de of t h e e n tire e xp re ssion T h is order is t h e m t h ord e r if w e .

Wl
co n s id e r k a q u a n tit y of t he first or de r an d it is of t h e — th order if
,

I“
" “
we co n si de r k t h e fir s t or de r w h e re k is t h e s m a lle s t e x p o n en t ,

t ha t a ct u a lly a ppe a rs in ( i i ) Th e n u m b e r p a s we s a w a bove c an.
, ,

a t m ost b e eq u a l to n W e h a ve si m ila r qu a n tities A m u for
.
’ ’ ’
, , ,


t h e seco n d e xtre m e c u rv e If t h e two n u m b e rs m a n d m ar e n o t
.

b o t h e v e n t h e r e c an b e n o m a x i m u m n o r m i n i m u m o f G (x y ) a t
, ,, ,

t h e orig i n sin c e t h is f u n ctio n i n t h is c a se ch a n ge s si gn with
,


u o n a n e x tr e m e c u rve T h e s a m e is tr u e if m a n d m ar e e ve n
p .

e A a n d A h a ve o p p osite si n s for t h e n the f u n ctio n

n u m b e rs w h il
g , .

y) s h ows d iff e r e n t si g n s u
p o n t h e two e x tr e m e c u rv e s .

If fi n a lly m a n d m ar e both ev e n w h ile A an d A h a v e t h e s a m e
, ,
' ’

s i n t h e n w e h a v e a m a x i m u m or m i n i m u m of G ccor d i
g ,
( y)
x a n g ,, ,

a s t his si n is n e a tiv e or ositive
g g p .

I n a ll th re e c a ses it i s cl e a r th a t a q u an tity a a n d an u pper


li m it g of r m a y be so de t e r m in e d th a t for r < g t h e v a lu es o f

y ) u po n bot h e xtre m e c u rv e s a re ever y where i n a bsolu t e
va lu e g re a te r th a n a r l w h e re p is t h e g r e a t e r of t h e two
’ ’
,


m m
m b e rs and
"
nu
s I
If how e v e r t h e v al u e of
,
(
, x y is i n v a ri a bl
) y z e ro u p o n on e of
,

the e xtre m e c u rves t h e re c a n n ot be a m a xi m u m or m i n im u m at
,

t he orig i n no r is th e re a n e x r e ssio n a ’r P of the ki n d req u ired
,
p
a bo v e Bu t this c a n o n l occ r w h co t i s sq red
.

y u e n G ( y)
x n a n a u a ,, ,

fa cto r which whe n p u t eq u a l to 0 d e fi n es a re al do u ble c u rve
th a t pass e s thro u gh the origi n ; for oth e rwise with t h e v a n ish ,

i ng of g) p
u o n cro ss i n t h irc m f r ce of circ l wit h
g e c u e e n a n y e

TH E S C H E E FFE R T H E ORY 55

ra di u s r th e re m u st be a cha n ge o f sign in G ( x y ) Th e sq u a red
, n ,
.

fa ctor e n t e rs a s a f a ctor t o t h e first p ower i n (i i ) s o th at poin t s ,

o n t h is c u rve m a k e G ( x y i d e n ti c a l l ro
) y z e ” ,
.

I n the s e qu el we s h all a ss u m e th a t s u c h fa ctors h a v e b e e n di
v i de d o u t of G (x y ) s o th a t the c a se i n q u estio n does n o t e n ter
n , , .

U n der th is ass u m p tio n wh ich m u st be teste d i n every i n di ,

vid u al c a se th ere e xists in virtu e of t h e con sider a tion s alre a dy
, ,

la id dow n a lw a y s a s m allest n u m ber p a ssoci a ted with w h ich a
,

’ ’
con st an t a an d a n u ppe r li m it g o f t h e r a di u s r m ay be s o de
'
t e r m in e d th a t u p o n e ver y circle o f r a di u s r < g the two e x tr e m e
’ ”
v alu es o f G (x y ) a r e in a bsol u te v alu e gre a t e r t h a n a r ; an d in
” , ,

fa ct thi s n u m b e r p (if t h e order of r i s ta k en a s u n ity ) e x p re ss e s
,

t h e degree o f t h e m agn it u d e of t h e f u n ction G ( x y ) u p o n t h a t o n e n ,

of t h e two e x tr e m e c u rv e s u p on w h ich this or de r is t h e h igh est .

I f p is at m ost equ al to n then a r for s m a ll v al u es of r is n o t
’ p
,


s m aller th an a r an d t h e two e xtrem e v a lu es of”
, ( x y ) a r e t h e re ,


fore c e rt ain ly gre at e r in a bsol u te v alu e t h an a r b u t if p is gre at e r ”

th an n th e n for s m all v alu es of r a t le a st o n e o f the e x tre m e
,

v alu e s of G (x y ) is in a bsol u t e v a lu e s m alle r t h a n a r h ow e v e r
'


n , ,

t h e co n st an t a m a y be ch os e n .

It is t h u s se e n t h a t in virt u e of t h e fu n d a m e n ta l th eore m t h e
fu n c t i on ( y)
x m a
y b e u sed a s a crit e rio n for de ter m i n i n
, g t h e

e x iste n ce of a m a x i m u m or m i n i m u m of t h e f u n ction f (x y ) , ,

wh e re G (x y ) con sists of t h e t e rm s o f t h e first to t h e n t h ord e r
” ,

of f (x y) on ly wh e n t h e ch a r a cteri s tic e x p o n e n t p is a t m o s t
,

e q u a l to n .

37 I f in a n e x a m ple w e wish e d to discu ss t h e f u n ction G ( x y )
.
,, ,

in t h e m a n n e r i n dic a ted a bov e we m u st c alc ula te t h e co e fficie n ts ,

of (ii ) which in ge n era l is a so m e wh at co m plic a t e d ope r a tio n
, , ,
.

Th e followi n g m e t h o d le a ds h owever in directl y to t h e s a m e , ,

r e s u lt vi z t h a t of fi n din g t h e e xtre m e v alu e s of G (x y ) an d th u s
, .
, ,
” , ,

offers an e a s y m ethod for t h e crit e ri a in q u e stio n Th e m etho d .

i n q u estio n is first t o m a k e u se of the S t olz ia n th eore m s of 29 ,

a n d th e n b l i t h S h ff i t h eore m w e m ay r e a c h t h e
y pp y g
a n e c e e e r a n

desired co n cl u sio n s Accordin gl y w e m u st de ter m i n e t h e u pp er
.

an d lower li m its o f G
( x y
) wit h co ,,)|
n st a n t x a n d y é ,
a s well

L et these () z 38 . Whe n th ey fall with in t h e in t e rv al sin ce G (x y ) is a con tin u ou s . th e n to rbitra ri ly chos e n e > 0 th er e corres p on ds a q u an tity any a u h s c t h at th er e a r e v a l u es | x | < 5 for which x R (x) < e . . . x or y x m ay o ffe r t h e desire d li m it or li m its . f u n ction whi ch h a s a first de riv a tive with res pect t o y i t is se e n . . We ex t s e e wh ich of th e se f u n ction s m ay be n eglected m ay n fro m the in ve stiga tion I f P (x) den otes an y of t h e fu n ctio n s . . 1 ( ) W here p > O an d a ' > 0. . it is . n . ( . 8G t ha t y (D ( ) x an d y ( ) x ar e sol u tion s of t h e equ a tion 0 a . ( se e ( )x ( ) x x = 0 x = 0 see n th a t no co n stan t ter m c an en ter t h ese e xpression s .v l s — x or + x + 3: u p on o n e o e e n a u e y y = = . It is per m issible th ro u gh o u t t h e whole disc u ssion to fi x a p osi tive q u a n tity a 1 a s t h e u pper lim it for Ix ] wh ere a is taken s o . 1 I n t he s e co n d c a s e w h e n t y f ll po . oin ts of t h e in ter he a u n the e n d- p va l th e n y . an d y . R(x)(i 1 2 a n d if P x) h as the for m . h e in terv a l —x or f t h d . The v al u es of y v iz . 8G w h ich wh e n s u bstit u ted in the equ ation O iden tic a ll y s atisfy it Fu rth er m ore sin ce l im an d lim 0.56 T H E ORY OF M AXI MA AND M I NI M A as the u pp er low e r li an d m its of this f u n ctio n wit h co n sta n t y an d [x é F o r brevit y p u t G G ( x y ) n . " an d for s u ch v a lu es of x w e h a ve 2 ( ) {l a — e } . Th e m eth od of deter m in i n g t h e diff ere n t v a l u es o f y whi ch s a tisfy t h e v al u e s be e q u a tio 3 n : y 0 is fo u n d in 139 e t seq . W hich off e r : t he fi r s t - m e n tio n ed p a ir of li m its f a ll either w i t h i n t . . s m all that y ( 132 an d y a r e co n verg e n t series in x : . If p lie s within t he i n t e rv a l 0 < p < 1 a n d if x is f u rthe r s o di m i ni shed t ha t | a | the n fro m ( 2 ) it is se e n th a t an d co n seq u e n tl wo ld f ll witho t h y y P ( ) x u a u t e = fi xed in t erv al r x We s e e t h er e fore th a t a n y s e ri e s w hi ch .

TH E S C H E E FFE R T H E ORY 57 beg in s with a ter m a x P + o wh e re O p 1 m a y be n e gle cted . ll a c > l a n d co n sequ e n tl . de n t l n d s u c h a series m ay a ccor di n gl b e n e l ect d y a y g e from t h e in vestigation . . 9 % w e ) : a (wr f ) x » “ G an d we h a ve t o de te rm i n e w h ich of th e se f u n ction s p resen ts t h e u pp e r an d t h e lower li m its o f t h e f u n c t i o n G x y for t h e in terv al ( ) . p roceed in t h e s a m e w a y i n deter m in i n g G ( x . 39 Th e re m a in in g series in (i ) together with the v a lu es whic h . coeffi ci e n t offers the lower limi t These observ a tion s m u st be . . . wh ile if two f u n ction s h ave first ter m s with the s a m e e xp on en t the on e with s m all e r . . a n d if t h e seco n d ter m h a s the s a m e si gn a s t h e first th e n e v i . al l begi n with a p ositive ter m th e n G (x ( 19 1 0 etc We . of the fu n ction s (i i ) h a ve th e ir in iti al ter m s t h e s am e it m ay b e . y [ ( )l P x so th a t s u ch series m a y a lso be n eglected . Fu rth er m ore if on e of t h e series ( i ) b e gin s with + 1 x or — 1 o x . of th ose f u n c t ion s whose firs t term s a r e positiv e th a t on e with h igh est e x p o n en t offers the low e st li m it . m a de with both p ositive a n d n egative v alu e s of x wh e r e . off e rs the lower lim it If there is n o f u n c t i on in (i i) w h ose first . an d if two s e ries h a v e . . t e rm is n egative th e n in deter m i n in g G (x . . n ecess a r to i n trod u ce their seco n d a n d h igh er t e r m s to deter m in e y whi ch fu rn ish the req ui red lim its . . . in q u estion . the s a m e n egative ex pon en t t h e on e with gre a ter coefficie n t . fro m t h e n u m ber of fu n ctio n s giv e n in (i ) . e e n d- corr s p o d to t h e p oi n ts v iz y + x an d y x ive n g = = . wh e n s u bstitu ted in G (x y ) t h e followin g f u n ction s : . If on e of the fu n ction s in the series (i i) is zero wh ile t h e oth er s . . . . . If n e xt p 1 an d | a | > 1 we m ay t ak e 6 s o s m a ll in ( 2 ) th a t . . we n ot e th a t . By t a kin g a ( < 1) s u fficie n tly s m all the first ter m in a n y of t h e f u n ction s (i i ) is a s a r u le s u ffi cie n t in deter m i n in g w h ic h will give the r e qu ir e d u pp er a n d lower li m its Of co u rse if two . Oi those f u n ction s whose first ter m s a r e n ega tive t h e o n e with s m allest e xp o n en t gives the lowest lim it . .

a s) . Th e two li m its in q u e stio n ar e to be fo u n d am on g the f u n ction s G( W a y) . Wh e n e a ch of t h e fo u r lim i ts G ( <I ) 1 ( x) x) etc h as been deter . H I a n d H 2 v a n ish for A n d. om . y) s a y . If the fu n ction G (x y ) con t ai n s fa ctors . theore m is at on ce a pplic able If the e xpan sion s ay of G (x . tio n in y a n d with a rbitr a ry x t he fu n ctio n G (x y ) h a s a re pe a ted . y ): 0 an d 0 m ay be s a tisfied b y t he sa m e series y I n t h is c a s e con si dered a s an in te gr a l fu n c . (x y ) a n d H 2 ide tic al . . t he equ ation s G ( x. follows th at the coeffi cie n ts of like po wers of y in these two . ( y) x . in y for a n i n d e fi n it e l y l a rg e n u m b e r of v a l u es s u ch a s x x it ] . . p p is i n de pe n de n t of y Bu t a s I ] . stan t we li m it x to t he in terv al y o o y . . 4 1 E x c e p ti on a l ca s es . . . o o a. . ma c r o . a s» .a l k +l x k +1 + o a n d if k é n we m a y a t o n ce fi n d a . co n stan t e su ch th a t a x ( % . Ne xt s u pp ose that G (x y ) is deco m posed i n to its irre du cible fa ctors H 1 (x y) . . n 2 0 . fa ctor sa y Q ( x y ) which v a n ishes for . root it is seen th a t two of t h e fu n ctio n s H 1 (x1 y ) . i n g . .n d give to x s u ch a v a l u e x l th a t e a ch of these f u n ctio n s is also irred u cible w h e n con sidere d a s a f u n c t ion of y . . m in ed for v al u es of x within the fi xe d in terv a ls the St ol z i an . D e n ote b y . l . sin ce b y h y pothesi s these f u n ctio n s a r e both irred u cible with rega rd to y the y a re id e n tic al e xce t a s to a m u lti lica tive fa ctor which . . 1 . an dif t he s am e is tr u e of t h e th re e oth er li m its t h e Sc h e e ff e ri an th e ore m is a t o n ce a pplica ble . . . . the of p roced u re b e in g t h e s am e as a bove m ethod . y c on . y) a re n .58 T H E ORY OF M AX I MA AND M INI MA 40 To d e te r m i n e G( I ‘’ (y ) y ) an d G( I ‘’ 2 (y) y ) t a k . . is a kx k. Fu rther m ore si n c e b y hy poth e sis G ( x y ) 0 co n t a in s a re pe a ted . . those valu es of x wh ich e xp ressed in p ower series in term s of y 8G sa ti sfy the equ a t i o n 0 5. . sa y x i y th e n G (x I x) iden tic ally v a n ish es More g en erall y .

.

e e e ee li m i t s are ll p o i ti v Ia th i c G ( 0 O) is e . e e e . s nce e e e ns a e a t g t r th 3 t h dd d th or m o f § 31 i t p p l i c b l re a e an . s a t he a d d d t h or m i e e e s n ot a pp l i c b l W c tat h r f or e . z . We o b se r v t h t ch o f t h e a ea e f c ti o un ns 2 3 “ r) as ” an d G(i y y).60 T H E O RY OF MAXI MA AND M I NI M A If I) at 0 t he l tt r v l a e a ue m ay b e l ct d neg e e si n ce t he e xp o n e nt of y li es be tw een 0 an d 1 . + 2 59 + 09 is p o i ti s v e . cx x c . . m k get i v an no . 2 b ( ) 0 w hi l ot r t hr x ( 7) b ac 0 F ro m b ov G 2 : . s e en a 2: a e n su en sm ll t h a two l i m i t h v c o tr ry i g e se t h t G ( O O) i t str m a e n a s n s. ( S tol pz. az / . . s a e n m m u f G o ( y) . e a e e e s no a a e . th a h e x. ( 2 x. s a e n u x. d i x. a W h v h r G ( y) y ( 2 2 2 e a e e e 2 b y y )y x. u e e. Proc d i g f rt h r d t k i g y c o t t ee n d u w h v e an a n n s an an e a e as a sol ti o o f u n w 0 2 y( by ) ( c y t k co t t) ax si n 0 e is a en n s an a t I y w h ch c ot b c i d r d 38) : x . i mp p n m i im m s d a se . . Ex m pl 2 f ( R 2 ( y) ( 2 2 a y) e 3 1 .b y y ) y ax x c 4 x. e c ee er e e s s t h t f ( 0 0 ) i p ro p r m i i m m o f f ( a . If b 0 thi v l c ois a ue n ci de s w i t h t he fir st . e n as a s u n 3 / 2 Fo rm in g t he fu n c ti o n s - an d - l i t is t h t t h fir t f r i h t h low r li m i t w h i l se e n a e of th l t s u n s es e e .c t h p ow anr o f or y t h s n r i g h e t - h d i e d o f e x on e an s e an y o f t h f o r l iem i t i t u g r t r t h 4 t hs S h ff s no t h or m h ow ea e an . a 2 . T ki g c o t t d y E | lw fi d a n x n s an ol ti o o f an x . so n as e e a 5 x. a e a ne a e a sse r t io r g rd i g t h n e a n e ex tr m o f f ( y ) ( S tol ) e es x. . s an ro er n u an t h e S h c ff t ee h or m i er t pp l iec b l e lo g w r s no g r d R ( y) a a e . s o a . a s an a rb i t ry pow r ri w i t h i i t i l t rm o f t h fi f t h or hi g h r di m i o ra e se es n a e e e en s n. It f ollow s f ro m t h or m t h t G ( O O ) i ro Sto l p p z r m i i ’ s e e a . e on e e as f c ti o o ff r t h pp r li m i t I t i vi d t t h t wi t h t k un ns e s e ffi c i tly u e . i an n e on s e e a l u n e ss [ b a F orm i ng t he f u n c ti o n s b II ( i t is th t b th t h se e n a o e u p pe r d low r l i m i t an p o i t i v I t f ollow e t h t s ar e s e . s no an e x e e o f G ( y ) F rt h rm or i t h low r lim i t b gi w i t h p ow r o f x.

n o n e o f t h e a b o v e s e r i e s h a s a n i n i t i a l t e r m w i t h e x p o n e n t gr e a te r t h a n 4 i t . h a s n e i e a m a x 2 i m u m n o r a m i n im u m . a) 135 03. o s t h S h ff e c t h or ee er e e m th t f ( O 0 i ) at tr m o f f ( y) . . an as e n a e s on t h ri g ht h v e a e ex p o t t h tnen s t g r t r t h 4 i t a f oll w f r o m ar e no ea e an . W i th c o t t x d y n s an an we have as t he s ol t i o o f u n 2 8G 2 x y + x y 8y 2 We th h vus a e t he fu n c ti o n s 3 Wi th y c o t t n s an an d x § |y we h a v e f ro m 8G g x z z — — o ax It f ollow s at o c th n e at The v a l u e G ( O 0 ) i s c o n se qu e n tly a p rop e r m i n i m u m o f G ( x y ) a n d a s . It f ollow t h t G ( 0 s a . TH E S C H E E FFE R TH E ORY 61 E xam p l e 3 . f( x. r: s h ow n t h a t G x y t h r 2 ( ) y x y . Alt h o u g h t h e r e i s a p ro p e r m i n i m u m f or f ( x y ) y x } 2 2 . . . d t h i iti l t rm s no an e x e e o x. W h e re G y 2 (p 2 ( 2 1 )x y 2 19 9 2 2 4 23 . Pe a n o s c l a s si c ’ e xam p l e : f (x . p . y) a ( x. Wi th c o t t as n s an an d [ y g x we h a ve aG 2 = 2 1 ( 1’ + q ) 5y : 2 th t : p 0 2 so a y x . i t m ay b e . y ). . . y) y 2 x z y x 4 R5 y) . For m i ng the f u n c ti o n s 2 2 4 ( : ) i ) ( 0 a w j x 2 : “ — (p 2 7 2 y . e e e s ne a e . S c h e e fi e r lo c c i t ( . . Got . f ollow s f ro m S c h e e ffe r s t h e or e m t h a t f ( O 0 ) i s a p rop e r m i ni m u m o f f ( x y ) ’ . 2 x 2 y 93 4 . In th i m pl w h v s e xa e e a e G ( x y) y . . . it x ) 55 2 3: it i s th t t h se e n a e u pp e r lim i t i o i ti v w h i l t h low r li m i t i g t i v s p s e. . O) i t tr m f G ( y) . E xa m p l e 4 . s no an e x e e x.

( S tol z .62 T H E ORY OF M AX I M A AND M I N I M A Exa m p l e 6 . a” - _ l t hat 3 ’ 0 so or y 7k s whe re A an d p . \Vr i t i n g G ( x. P ROB E MS L 1 . y ) y $ 9 x y . c . y) has an e x tr m e e on the p o siti o n x z: 0 y 0 (S h fi . 0 ) is a m in im u m of f( x. f( x. p . Sh ow t h t f ( O a . y) : 33 + y x . i 6 an d ) 1° G ( x. let t he strai gh t li n es thro u gh ( x0 y o) b e de n ote d b y . o n . ) ? 2 2 4 4 2 . y) . p 89 . t hro u gh t he poi n t P (xo yo) we m a y derive t h e crite ri a for m a x im a . x + x : x 3. . e n e a e ex e ss n c h e e ff e r 3 y x . . y) y “ x 6 10 8 x y 5 x 8 R 9 ( x . V ol XL I I . c ee e r. l e Wit V D h “ ( 0 y o) ’ p n x n t e xy p a n h on an t sc. ( 1) w= wo + 7\e y = vo + e e . T HE M E T H O D OF V IC T OR V ON D ANT S C H E R I n ste a d of co n siderin g t h e e xtre m es u p on the stra ight lin es 42 . y) 1) 3 wh r e e C ( x. s h ow t h a t 0 ) is a m in im u m f or fir t f c ti o b t t h t f ( O O) t he s un n u a . . ( 2 3 4 x y x y = 1/ as a s ol ti o u n ( se e 4 9 2 y : 2 11 + 56 + say F orm i ng t he fu n c ti o n s —4 G ( x. is n ot a m i n im u m f or t he se c o n d fu n c ti o W r i t i t h l tt r p r i o n . nor f( x. a re re a lv a ria bles s u ch th a t 7 9 + p 2 1 a n d w h ere p : is a re a l v a ria b le which m ay h ave both p ositive an d n ega tive v a lu e s . e r . ( S ) IV . y) :e g 4 g 3x y ‘ 3 3xy 7 y a ) 10 x lo y 5 x 12 \Vi t h a: c o n s ta n t and y| é x we h a v e f ro m 0 — 1 0 x1" : 7 2 6 2 1 xy 6 8y ) 0. . 4 4 — 6 f( x. . . lo c i t . w h ich ( s e e a ga i n 1 45 ) o ff r t h e e u pp e r an d low r l i m i t o f G ( y ) it f ol e s x. . a n d m in i m a i n t h e n e igh borhood of t h e oi ts n t h ese lin e s on both p n o s ides of t h e oi t i h . low f ro m s Sto l z ’ s t h or me e and t he S c h e e ff e r t h or m t h t i t h r G ( y) e e a ne e x. ‘ Sce Ma th Am u .

T HE S C H E E FFE R TH E ORY 63 Fo r e x tr e m es o f f( x. f ( y) x . i n vestiga tion as to w h eth e r t h e q u an tity p is di ff ere n t fro m z e ro or n o t . . w h ic h p o i n t t h e first p a rti a l d e riv a tives wit h r e spe ct t o x an d y both v a n ish is con sequ e n tl y re du ced to t h e . we h ave 4 ( ) 9 0% K. k z up . . Th e d eci s io n a s to w h e th e r a m a x i m u m or m in i m u m e x ists for a giv e n f u n ctio n f x y on a p oi n t x i w h os ei h bor h ood ( ) 0 y0 . " Th e th e s is of Vo n D a n t s c h e r m ay be st a ted a s follows : If t h e lo wer li m it r s a y of p in t h e r e gio n 7 + # . If iii t h e su pp os e d dev e lop m e n t t h e n t h di m e n sio n is t h e first wh os e ter m s do n o t all v a n i s h w e writ e . y) a t t h e p oi n t I . p 0 y0 n e a. p ro p er or i m p r op er in c a se o f a m in i m u m f( 33 0 + 7( P a “ Pl f( x o ’ y O) 0 p r op e r or i m p r op e r f or al l va l u es o f p f o a cer t a i n i n te r v a l P < P < x whi l h bove dif e r e n c e n o t on l v a n i s h es f ef or v a l u es p p or p g t e a y bu t ch a n g es si g n . we m u s t h a ve a xi m u A 0 in c a se o f a m m f( x + P’ y 0 + p p) f( x y o) I 0 o . m p s z e ro t h e n o n t h e ositio n x t h e re is it h er m x i m m . den otes t h e su m of the ter m s of the n th di m e n sion in h an d k . y yo h : a n d o n . etc . a u n o r a m in i m u m o f t h e f u n ctio n f x ( . If we writ e in th i s r e xp e s s io n 2 3 ( ) h z k p. a) . x u t t e e . = 1. n e i h bor h oo d of t h e i b if h low r li it of i g p o nt ( 0 y o). . c a n b e dev e lo p ed i n i n t e g r a l p ositive p ower s of x x 0 h : . 9 2 1 is di ffe re n t from : z e ro th en f ( xo y o) is a m a xi m u m or m in i m u m for t h e s u rfa ce . u . k — ( ) 2 f 7 ( o l % 90 + l m ‘ ‘ f( x o’ 9 0% kl u +l + ( h ? k l 11 + 2 + ( 71’ g wh ere (h . n e n g .

for p < 7 w e h a v e x ( ’ p )n + lp Th e equ a tio n ( 5) h a s th erefore n o root p whose a bsolu te v a l u e is ' n ot gr e a ter th an T t h e q u a n tit y r i s ther e fore diff ere n t fro m z e ro . : . Fro m th is t h e fo llowin g is a t on c e evid e n t : C AS E 1 If (h . . . . regio n x + p 2 2 1 deter m i n e a p ositive q u an tity 1 s u ch th a t . a nd the r e i s con s e u e n tl m a xi m u m m in im u m a c c or d i n q y a or g as ( h. cordi l n othin g other t h a n the lower li m it o f the a bsol u te ac n gy v al u es of t he real roots of t h e equ atio n ¢ (P . tive v al u es th e n also (X . ” is diff e ren t fro m z ero for all v alu es X u w hi ch a r e difi e r e n t . . . is a defin i te for m . It )” i s a ne g tai ve or p os i ti ve for m .64 T HE ORY OF M AX IM A AND M INIM A The fa ctor be o m itted s in ce to the v a lu e p 0 there p " ma y . h a s a lower lim it l . whi ch is differe n t from z ero We m a y con s eq u e n tl y for t h e . e u e n y n . C AS E II If (h . . . th a t is o n e where (h 1c) v an ishes for pairs of v al u es . . t a k e s t h e v a l u e z ero for t h e o n e an d o n ly p a ir of v a lu e s h 0 . . o 0 ( ) 5 : . g g . fro m z ero a n d con sequ e n tl y (7t . It co n ta in s n eces sa rily re al li n e a r fa ctors an d in fa ct e a ch . th a t is on e w hi ch . . co rr es po n ds t h e positio n h 0 k 0 itself The qu an tity r is : . o ne to a n eve n ower T h m ber is co q tl eve p e n u n n s . . is an i n defin i te for m . is ne i the r a m a xi m u m n or a m ini m u m . th a t is on e . 43 C AS E I I L We co m e fi n ally to t h e sem i-defi n i te c a se . . is s u ch a form It i s th en e a s y t o . w hi ch for re al pa ir s o f v al u es (h It ) tak es both p ositive a n d n ega . k 0 w h ich c a s e c an o n ly en ter w h en n is even th e n (7t p ) . a re d i ff ere n t fro m z e ro a n d con sequ e n tly r 0 a n d a lso f ( x0 y o) . “ It ir which a re d iff ere n t fro m zero b u t does n o t c h a n e si n . ' l ' in an y i n terv al as s m al l a s w e ple a s e e < < h a s roots t h at p e . show t ha t in t h i s c a s e t h e eq u a tio n 0 ( X M) ( t + : K I .

” i s p os i ti ve . th ere corr es p on ds a li n e a r f a ctor u k R y of (x . kzh hzk. 0 7t 0 . To e a ch s u ch lin e a r f a ctor h h h le (0 1 2 o u a ' = . o. . to squ a red ter m s in (h If 7x a app roac h a p air of v a l u es . 1 ) si m u lt a n eo u sl y v an is h . . ” s m all there a r e r e a l roots or n o t I f n o r e a l r oo ts a pp e a r the n . . Wh e n th e re app ear re a l roots t h e i n ve s tiga tio n m ay be c a rrie d o u t as follows : I n ord e r to co n sider t h e f u n ctio n ( Mp . is n ecess a ril y a lso a se m i— de fin i te for m . . whe n i t doe s n o t v a n i s h i s n eg a ti ve w h i l . A # z pa wh ere u an d v a r e v a ri a ble q u an tities . w h ere h. l n ( l 2 lm h ( m h hm k) h ( . is a d e fi n ite for m or a con sta n t . i n te g ers a n d (h . ) . where l 2 l m a r e p ositive . . X a) 0 . a a . TH E S C H E E FFE R T H E ORY 65 an d it follows th a t ( )t . . X n for which ( 7t 0 . so th at is of t he form h k k h w h i kl ‘ ( kzh [1 2 7 0 2 12 ( . on e or several b e co m e in defi n itel y s m all . n e i hbor hood of t h e p o in t X g n we write 0 . We h a ve n e xt to see w h eth e r a m on g t h e roots of ( Mp . ( ) 6 klh h lk. w h ich becom e i n d e fi n it e ly s m all wh en (X a ) beco m es i n d e fin itely . . is n either a m ax i m u m n o r a m in im u m . s ay . . : . 7t 0 /i 3+ a? ' x/h 3 3 + k x with a rbitr a ry sign of V hf + hf sin ce t hi s con stan t e n ters on ly . whose fa ctors ar e . m of ) ( h . Of cou rs e we m a y e x cl u de t h e c a se w h ere al l t h e qu an tities (X . for t h e n (1 5 0 . e i t i s a m i n i m u m if h It ( . 0. v an is h es th e n o f t h e roots of t h e eq u a tio n . o. hm h hm l c. )t u ) in the . = for every a rbitra ry s m all v al u e o f p an d con seq u en tl y f (x0 y o) . r 0 and y o) i s a m a x i m u m if th e s e m i -d efi n i t e f or m ( h . .

we m u st h ave 3+ 2 12 2 + 2 7t a u + 2 p a v = 0. . Sin ce ( K m 0 it is see n th a t . p ). If p st 0 we h a ve at on ce fro m the equ a tion j u s t writte n a where t he positive sign is ta k en with t h e root sin ce fro m (i ) u . has e xa ctl y p roots p which be co m e i n de fi n itel y s m a ll with u or v . p)v ishes ide n ticall y an m ay be e xcl u ded a s ha s a lre a d y . + v p+ +1 ’ ' o u whic h for s u fficien tl y s m all v al u es o f a re ce r t a in l u ] an d p or of M a n d Pl y co n verge n t a n d m ay be a rr a n ed i n g p o w ers of v . be e n re m arked . where it is c ertain tha t on e of the qu an tities 7x or a is diff eren t . . If p ’ l is the low e st power of p in the eq tio p) u a n p) 0 . i 0 . n. v = o itis see n th a t K“ l 2 K“ 8 ( ) v u u u 3 an d if x. . _ ’ v a a "W M — A o . . an d t an e o u sl y Fu rther n otin g t h e develop m e n t v v a n ish si m u l . W e m u s t n e xt s e e wh e t he r t he re a r e re a lroots a m o n g th e s e root p s . fro m zero . . K we h ave 7t ¢ ( 0 u ’ ‘ l or -u A l _ — # u ' ' ’ a ) o “a n +1 an d p0 % ( ). #“ 9 ( ) u v v * o Writin g these v al u es in ¢ ( p . a n d p or of v a n d p . the c a se th a t O) : 0 .66 TH E ORY OF M AXIM A AND MINIM A Sin ce k + p 2 1 an d X }} a 1.

.

#1 . w hi l e i t is a m in im u m i f ( h It ). beg i n s w i th an i n defi n i te for m . . p o n y . k)” E 0 . g ( h. p an d to s e e whether the t er m s of lowest dim e n sio n for m a defin i te or in defi n ite form . p) . ’ A M) 2 (P 2 q z a . is n e i the r a m a xi m u m n or a m in im u m . has or has n o t o n t h e ositio n h O k O m i m m or m i i p a a x u n . . so a e e A‘ = 1 p. . o. a m ax i m u m w h e n t he sem i- defi n i te for m (h . 4 2 . b e aga in a ppl ie d We do n ot a ffi r m th a t b y u sin g th is m ethod .68 T H E ORY OF MAXI MA AND MI NI M A We h ave therefore to a pply the criteria of C a ses I an d I I of . If the de ve l o m e n ts p o f th e fu n c ti on s ¢ 1 (u p) ( p2 (u . a deter m i n a tio n m a m o ll co ditio s be m de b t V y a n g a n n a . E xa m p l e 1 Pe a n o s c l a s s i c e x a m l : ’ p e . In th is c a se for every s u ch f u n ction t h e a bove p roc e ss m u st . . . . The r em a i n s u n de t er m i n ed f a m on al l th e fu n c ti on s ‘ c a se i g ( u p) . a . th e n f (xo y o) . s i m u lt a n e o u s l i n de fi n itel s m a ll for th ose lin e a r f a ctors in w hi ch y y . regio n a rbitra ril y s m a ll 0 8 O 8 ( see ” . . . 0 1 ' Al z —l = 0 . . . whether a s e r i es g (h k) which begin s with a se m i-de fin i t e for m . t he f u n ctio n s ( f) ( u p) or d ) ( p) v . . p) a l l begi n w i th defin i te for m s the n f (x0 y o) i s . a n other it bei n g evide n tly s u fficie n t sin ce u a n d v becom e (p . g( t ) n a n an n p a . . If on l y on e o f th e fu n c ti on s ( I) (u . . . m u m f a ils t h e f u n ctio n h I co t i s eve ower of . seri e s P ( h lr whi c h v a n is h e s for re a l ) a irs o f v a l u es h l i ever . . lowin g r u le for C a se 111 : . ” 2 0 . 44 We h a ve t h e n t h e fol . w hi l e on e or s e ve r a l o f the m beg i n wi th a s em - i de fi n i te for m . p ). f n on e o th e m begi n s w i th an i n defin i te for m . ' “ ) k (p 2 ” q) W 2 P 9 “ 6 2 We ha v h e e r e 4 (P . u on Dan t s c he r s ay s if t h e m e th od wh ich h as been develo e d to s e e “ p . T his s a m e process m u st be a ppli e d to e a c h of t h e m r e al lin e a r fa ctors y k a 1 2 o m ) th a t a r e differen t fro m on e . # p T he se m i- d e i n i te f f o rm “ h a s t he l in e a r f c tor p th t ith r p . A a n d p a r e both diff eren t fro m z ero to con sider o n l y on e of . = 0. th a t is to a rran ge ( t in di m en sio n s o f u a n d p or of v an d .

d cc or di g ly g ( O 0 ) i an a n . 1 1 —u A vs vs We th h v us a e —u 2 + — 2 + 6 vp p) = v — %p 2 u + u It is se e n th t a al l thr ee of the f u n c t i o n s 4) b e gi n W i t h d e fi ni te r ti f orm T h m i -d fi i t a o s . M a th An n . k) h k 3h k 4 h l e 3 hk k 10 h l c 5 11 ( S e e E x 5. . O. . = v. 5 . 80 th t a p) v ’ (p 2 q 2 ) v p fi i n sh » 2 (( v. 3 If 2 2 a 2 x 2 2 c os a y sin find m a xi m u m an d m ini . . p . are ( se e [ ] 7 and A z l t v a p. p 6 1 . . L et g( h. = v. 2 . E xa m p l e 2 . T he t e m r s o f t h c o d di m i o e se n ens n in v an d p f orm an in d e fi n i te q u d a r tio f orm a . so t h t g ( O 0 ) i i th r a . Ass A. v0 1 . : e m . It f ollow s t h a t 1 1 A1 — 1. . e se e n e i n i t i a l f or m i s n e g a t i v e w h e n i t i s n ot zero . P ROB E M S L 1 Sh ow t h t g ( O O) i a . 3. Ma a i M 2 M L “ 5 We ” 3 Vs “ M e g s 6 A1 09 6 H . y mum valu e s o f v e t h e ge o tr c te rp r e t a ti o n z and gi m e i in . Fi n d m i n i m u m v a l u e o f w h e re u ( x2 mi u. p t = 1 n A — 1 + v2 + u . 2 . s a m ax im u m . A3 = O. l s ) ( h l a ) 2 2 h ie “ 5 h l c z 5 3 Mi d 5 2 8 h k 4 3 7h l c 6 h% 10 h h k6 2 3h l — 4k‘ 4 3 th t We en h a ve . s ne e a m a xim u m n or a m in i m um . T H E S C H E E FFE R T H E ORY 69 T he c orre sp o n d i n g v a l u e s o f Aa n d p . p . s nei th r e a m a xim u m n or a m ini m u m of t h e f u n c ti o n 2 4 3 s z ’ 3 1° 12 g( h. 4 . a = #2 = : #3 T o t h e s e v a l u e s c orr e sp o d n the e x p e s si r o ns : A - l 2 = u. e1 = 1. s h ow t h a t t h e re a e i m p ro p e r e x tre m s a n d g i v e ge o m e tr i c s i gni fi c a ti o r e n .w k M a sk = = e l 1 . ‘ We h a v e h e re to c o i d r t h t h r l i ns e e ee nea r f c tora s — A K . . . A a) . If 2 2 a V x y 1 3 + y fi n d m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m v a l u e s o f 2 2 2 2 . Ap p y l thi s m e t h o d to E x . ( V o n D a n t s c h e r .7 35 “ t ( p . XLI I .

t hre e k in ds of re al m s : * 1 ( ) a lway s with [x 3. . x y z for which x . a r e s m a ller th an 8 ( e x c e p tin g E 0 n (if) we h a ve : . . w . a z ) f (0 . m in ed th a t for a l l s y ste m s of v a l u e s E 17 if whose a bsol u te v a l u es . z m . o . . . x con stan t . . y t e e u a n = 0. = 0 . 0. vo + n . FU NC T I O NS OF T H RE E V ARIABL E S T RE ATME NT IN P ARTI C UL AR or TH E S E MI -DE FI NI TE C AS E 45 . . The ca se wh e re ( y x . z é x - f( x. S tol loc z. e v e r y p ositio n of a fi x ed re a l m R the c ob r di n a t e s x0 y o zo of . theore m s an d p roofs given The z an c ee e r for b y S tol d S h ff f un ctio n s of two v a ri a bles m a y be e x ten ded a t o n c e to f u n ction s of th re e or m ore v a ri a bles Fo r e xam p le f (x0 y o 2 0) is a pro per . . p 2 37 . m a xi m u m of f (x y 2 ) if a positive q u a n tit y 8 c a n be s o deter . l| ll| y z ar e l e ss th an 3 a r e distrib u ted in to . 2 0 C) f (e o — . . . y o. to a position 22 0 O y o 2 0 th a t the collectivity of p osition s : : . To ly the S t olzian th eore m we observe if we li m it o u rselv es a pp . = 0. . . c it .70 T H E ORY OF MAXIM A AND M I NI M A V . t hos e p osition s (if an y ) in R which off er e xtrem es of the f u n ction u st s a tisf h q tio s f( y ) x . z) is a defin ite or in defi n ite for m is trea te d f u ll y in C h a pter V . G M . If t he pa rtia l deriv a tives o f f ( x y 2 ) h a ve d e fi n ite va l u es a t . . . . . a a as in 30 . . f( e o + E . an d y l ll ll ll é .

x. With t h e re m a in in g f un ctio n s w e for m the e xp ression s G (x. x )) . The c a se w he re G (x y z) i s a n o n h o m oge n eo u s f u n ctio n . a ( ) Fo r t h e p oin ts w i thi n t h e squ a re w e ha v e to de ter m i n e y an d z in t e r m s of x fro m the eq u a tio n s 8G ( x’ y ’ z) 8G ( x’ z ) . Fo r p oi n ts on the sides we h a ve to s olve for y t h e e q u a tio n s 8G (x. x. b e in g Th e p ositio n s a t w h ich G (x y 2 ) re a ch es o n e of i t s li m its m ay . x ) 8G ( x. G ( x. By 82 . . G (x. x. . . in which the ter m s of t h e lowest di m en sio n co n stit u te a se m i de fin i t e for m m a y be tre a ted in a m an n er a n a logo u s to th a t - ive n in 3 7 4 1 a s fo l lows : g . We h ave con seq u en tly to for m t h e e xp ressio n s corres p on din g . lie ( 1) on t h e v e rtice s or ( 2 ) on t h e si de s or ( 3) with i n t h e . 8y ay an d for z t he e qu ation s (3) Let the sol u tio n s of the eq u ation s ( a ) be y z lg fx)’ an d le t the so lu tion s of be 2 2 Q2 Th ose f u n ction s P ( x) a n d Q (x) which c au se y a n d z to fall with o u t t he giv e n sq u a re a r e to b e n e glected ( of . th is re alm con stitu tes a sq u a re whos e c e n t e r is the ori gin a n d wh ose s i des a r e pa r a llel to t h e y -a xis a n d t h e z— a x is t h e len th g . in terior of the squ are . to the fo u r vertices G (x. . with con sta n t x a n d | y é | x | | z l ‘ E Geo m etric a l ly in t e r pr e t e d .. We first d e term in e t h e u pp er a n d lower lim its of G (x y z) . x ) ( ) a 0 an d 0. )x . 0 an d 0 . . T H E S C H E E FFE R TH E ORY 71 46 . y . x . x. G (x. x. . y . »w e . x ) . .

P ROB E MSL 1 .72 TH E ORY OF M AXI MA AND M I NI M A If we eli m in a te z fro m th ese two eq u a tio n s we m ay e xp ress y as . (f (x p ower series in :1: w itho u t co n st a n t ter m s a y y . . an d G (x. F in ally wit h z co n st a n t a n d x . are n ow a bl e t o deter m in e th ose two w h ich o ff er t h e u pp er an d low e r l im it s o f t h e fu n ction G ( x y 2 ) withi n the in terva l in . With th e se v al u es o f y -a n d z we for m the e xp ression s G ( Jv» G ( x. 2 y l l I z w e de rive t h e u pper an d low e r li m its G (s an d z ) ’ 2 ) The St olz ian a n d S c h e e fi e ri an th eorem s a r e at o n ce applica bl e ' to these s ix f u n ctio n s i n three v ari ables the m ethod of procedu re . be in g a n evid e n t ge n er aliza tion of these theore m s for the f u n ction s in two v a ri a bles . . . ) y ( x ) . If . 42 W) 9 » ( 75 75 75 ) Am o n g fu n ctio n s th at ar e fou n d in (i ) (i i ) a n d (iii ) we l t he al . 2 . A2 (x)) . . . in a s i m il a r m a n n e r t h e u pp er a n d lower li m its y M z(y )) . . o o To e a ch s u ch p ower s e ries for y say y there . an d y . é l yl we m a y d e rive . writte n in t he two equ a tio n s (7 ) c au se th e m to v an ish ide n tic a lly . Ma k e t he t e x e n si o r li tio ofn an d g e n e a za n V o n D a n t sc h e r ’ s m e th o d to t h e tr tm t o f f c ti o i th r v ri b l ea en un ns n ee a a es . q u estio n T hese li m its m ay be de n ot e d b y G(x . I th li n e o f i t r c ti o o f two gi v p l ne n e se n en an e s fi n d t he r tp nea es oin t t o t he o i gi o f c o or di t r n na e s . ne xt we t a k e y co n sta n t a n d x | é | y . co rres pon ds o n e for z in ter m s of x say 2 Mx) which two series .

. a bles ar e li m ited to a defi n ite c o n t in u ou s regio n h a ve withi n t hi s . Regu la r fu n c ti on s a r e defi n ed i n t h e followin g m an n e r : A fu n c ti on f (x) i s reg u l i m i ts of x if the fu n c a r w i thi n c e r ta i n fi xe d l ti on i s defi n e d f or a l l va l u e s of x w i thi n thes e l i m i ts a n d if f or ever y va l ue a o f x i m i ts the deve l w i thi n thes e l op m en t L — o re ( ) a is p oss i bl e . p . ORDI NARY E X T RE M E S 47 It will be p res u pp osed in t h e followin g disc u ssio n u n le ss . region every where t h e ch a ra cter of o n e -v alu ed regu l a r f u n ctio n s . . . . t h at appe a r a s a rgu m e n ts of the fu n ction s b u t also the f u n ction s th e m selve s ar e r e a l an d t h a t the f u n ction s a s s oon a s t h e v a ri . are p os i ti ve i n teger s or ze r o.2. it is expressly st at e d to t h e co n tra ry th at n ot on ly t h e qu an titi e s . : . h i s p os i ti o n w e m an ) if in ghb o r h ood of th e n ei t a y ex p r es s the fu n c ti on thr ou gh a s e r i e s of the for m E A _ ( ( y /n x xn an V ! I v2 : yn 1 . . . . CHAP TER V MAXI MA AND MI NI MA OF FUNCTI ONS OF S E VE RAL VARI ABL E S ‘ THAT ARE S UBJE CT E D T O NO S UBS I DI ARY CONDI TI ONS I . o o . 73 . a bl e s be h a ves re g u l a rly o n a d efi n i te p os i ti on (x1 d l x 2 a 2 o : . v 2 . wher e 22 1 . the s er i es m u st be c on ve r g en t a n d m u st in r ea l i ty ( see p re r e s en t f f u nthe c t i o n w i thi n th i s n e i h bor hood va l u es o g th e . A on e -v a lu e d a n a ly ti c fu n c ti on f (x1 x2 o o of s e v e r a lv a r i . . a ss W e ce V ol II rl . . and wh e r e the i i e n ts AV coe fl c }. . . . W are qu a n ti ti es th a t a r e i n de p en den t o f the va r i a bl es . ( C f Weierstr . I n ot h er words : A fu n c ti o n f ( x ) i ar i n s reg u l t h e n e i h bor g hood of the p os i ti on x h e fu n c ti on i n h i s n e i h bor hoo d a i f t t : g h a s eve r y w h e r e a defi n i te v a l u e w hi c h ch a n ge s i n a con ti n u o u s m a n n e r w i th x C f Weierstr a ss W e r ke V ol II p ' ( . .

x" ) of n va r i a bl es h a s a t a defi n i te p os i ti on x : a x : a a 1 1 . re e : P d u B is o B y r Ak d V ol XI I d l o v ol rt . dli h ft an illis d. 2 2 . ’E in vestiga tio n . . Re y m o nd Ab h d er a p 8 Pa II. o o . . 1 a 1 . a . .. x 2 : a 2 . . On ly for s u ch f u n ction s c an we derive g en er al t h e oTe m s sin ce . is e xpressed b y f (x)— f ( a ) ‘ a p p r o e r 0 In the s a m e w ay we say a fu n c ti o n f (x. . . 4 8 We s a y ( se e . Se e . 9 81 ‘ e u ne n c o Os c re n e n u n d u n s t e t ig e n P u m lio ne n ' Lip c hit C ll V ol LX I I I p 296 s z. . P h ys C l a us e . for other f u n ctio n s eve n the r u les of the differen ti al ca lc ulu s a r e n o t a pp lic a ble . (2) m b r of m an im n d m i im n e nu e ax a an n a. . m a an a s sa e um e Ma th - . x 2. . . e . fo r e xa H H e di . is r es p e c ti ve l y g r e a te r A f u nc i to n m a y ha v e inwi h an in t rv l e a a s sm al la s we s (I ) i fi it m b r o f d i co ti an it i n n i fi it e nu e s n nu e s. 1) th a t a fu n c ti on f ( x) of on e va r i a bl e ha s a p pr o e r m a xi m u m o r a p p r o e r m i n i m u m a t a d efi n i te p os i t i on x a i f t he va lu e o f t h e fu n c ti on f or x a i s r es e c t i ve l p y g r e a t e r or l e ss tha n i t i s f or al l o the r va l u es o f x wh i c h a r e s i tu a te d in a ne i g h bo r hood l x a | < 8 a s n ea r as w e w i s h to a . . . a si m le series or thro u gh other a lg ebr a ic e x p ressio n s an d which p va ry in a co n ti n u o u s m an n er h a ve an in fi n ite n u m ber of m a xi m a . n m a xi m u m m in i m u m the va l t he a p ro p e r or a p ro p er f i ue o f fu nc ti o n f or 3 : .74 TH E ORY OF M AXI MA AND MI NI MA The disc u ssio n is th u s li m ited to s u ch fu n ctio n s as a r e a n aly t i c stru ct u res of the n a tu re described m ore in deta il in 1 30 1 31 . is e xp ressed b y f (x) f ( a ) 0 for x_ a 8 m in i m u m . tio n s which in s pite of t h e f a ct th a t they m ay be defi n ed thro u gh . Th e ana ly tic al con ditio n th at f (x) sh a ll h a ve for the p ositio n a a p ro p er m a xi m u m . . The proble m of fi n din g those v a lu es of t h e a rgu m e n t of a f u n ctio n f (x) for w h ich the f u n ction h as a m axi m u m or m in i m u m v a l u e is n o t s u sce p tible of a ge n e r a l sol u tio n for besides . a n d s t il lb e e x pr d t hro g h e ss Fo r i r ri e u a u e se es m pl k ] "5 . . - t he ca ses of the e xtra ordi n a r y e x tre m es o f 5 7 there a r e f u n c . an d m in i m a within a n i n terv a l wh ich m a be t a ke n a s s m a l l y as we w ish I Su ch f u n ction s do n ot co m e u n der the presen t . i n oth er w ords we sh a ll co n sider o n l y the o r di n a r y e xtre m es . . .

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— " ( x a) f") x + 9 (x n f ( S in ce f ( x) is re gu l a r a n d con seq u en tly co n ti n u o u s f u n ction a . e ve r y va l u e of has either on e sign or the o pp osite sign . y a y g a u a n g as . x an d write a i n the p l a ce of x . . Accordin g t o t h e ch oice o f h which is a rbitr a ry the diff er . the y the n beco m e f( lfi an d — —a 2 — x a ( x ) x( ) xc ) x : 1. f ( ) a is e it h er a p ositive q u an tit y or a n e ga tive q u a n tit y . fro m eq u atio n we h av e the form u l a (u ) m + 6 673 n ! f ( a » ) an d with s m all v al u es of h x — a owi n g to the con tin u ity of = . tive is the first o n e th a t do e s n ot v an ish for the root x a then . . t he q u a n tity will li k ewis e be differen t fro m ze ro a n d w ill h a v e t h e s a m e s i n a s If therefore i g ( ) a n s . . We there fore h ave t h e th eore m : E xtr e m es of the fu n c ti on on l ’ f ca n y en te r f or thos e va l u es f o x f or w hi c h f( ) x va n i s he s ( see It m a y h app en th at for the roots of the eq u a tion f (x) 0 ’ : so m e of t he fo llowin g deriv a tives a lso v an ish If the n t h deriv a . ta ke n po sitive or n e ga tive th a t the di ff ere n ce f (x)— f ( a ) with . . . ’ a + 6h is if ere n t fro m z ero a n d h a s the s a m e sign as f ( a ’ f( ) d f ) . a n odd in t e e r we m a l w a s br in it bo t ccordi h is g . 2 . fro m ze ro then with sm a ll v alu es of h x a the v a l u e of . H e n ce t he fu n ctio n f c a n h a ve n either a m a x i m u m n or a m in i ’ m u m v al u e a t the p ositio n x a if f( ) a g 0 . ’ the s am e is tr u e of all its deriv atives If f ( a ) is differen t . e n ce f (x) f ( a ) c an be m a de t o h ave o n e sign or the o ppo s it e ’ si n g if .76 TH E ORY OF M AXIM A AND MINI MA In two t he for m u l ae l a st writte n i n ste a d of x + h write . co n se qu e n tly the f u n ctio n f (x) w ill h a ve a t the po sitio n x a = n either a m a xi m u m n o r a m i n i m u m v a l e u . .

If a is a r oo t o f th i s e q ua ti on . a m in im u m if i t i s p os i ti ve . . ) n . h r e s p ect to . . how e ve r . 3 [ ] ni —l u < m e ( m a n d. . = . . con sequ e n tly t h e diff eren ce f ( x) f ( a ) is p ositive or n ega tive a ccordin g as ( ) a is p ositive or n egative . “ z . . - s t art a a i n with t h e T a lor L a r a n e theore m * for s ch f ctio s g y g g u un n . n ) x. The o r i e d e s Fo n t i o n s . f i . “ . Th is theorem m a y be derived b y first writin g in f (x1 x2 o o x ) . an d xk . wh atever the choice o f h m ay h ave been . t h e deriv a tive of f x ( . 2 x x . . 2 x o o with res p ect to x . then th e fu n c tion ha s a xi m u va l f o r th e i i the der i va ti ve a m m ue p os t on x = a i f f or x : a is n eg a ti ve . o o . n f( . NO S U BS IDI ARY C ON D ITI ONS 77 If however n is a n eve n in teger the n h is alw ay s positive . Se e L r a g an g e . I n t h e first c a se t h e f u n ctio n f ( x) h a s a m in im u m v a l u e a t t h e p ositio n x a . th a t is . . vi z : . th en a t th e p os i t i on x a th er e is n e i th e r a m a xi m u m n or a m i n i m u m if the fir s t of th e der i va ti ve s th a t does n ot v a n i sh f or th i s va l ue is o f an o dd degr e e . ( h = 1 2. . in the l atter c a se a m a x im u m : . 50 To derive t h e a n alog for f u n ctio n s of severa l v a ri ables w e . . the degr e e i s e ven . aA . fi n all y in thi s e xpression writ e i t 1 a s fo llows . . Ta kin g thi s i n to con sider a tio n we h a ve t h e followin g th e or e m for f u n ction s of on e v a ri a ble E xtr em es f o the fu n c ti on ca n on l y e n te r f or th e r oo ts o f ’ th e e qu a ti o n f( ) x : 0 . Fo r brevity d e n ote b y f k ( xl x2 x ) the first d eriv a tiv e of . . . where u is a q u an tit y t h a t varie s betwee n 0 an d 1 we then a pp ly to t h e f u n ctio n “ ( al l “ 2 + d 2 lr an ' l“ ' ( xi i an » Ma c la u r in ’ s theore m for f u n ction s of on e va ri a ble . o o w it . . xk a n d b y fk k ( l 2 x x o v 2 . p 15 2c .

1 1c2 ( d l. m n n k1 k m ( k m t _ “ 10 1 ) (k —1 _ w h a t u . a 2 : a n )( xk _ 1 ak )( 1 xk _ 2 ak 2 ) m -l u L —i ( a l a a ) ( 2 ’ .78 T H E OR Y OF MAX I MA AND M I NI M A It follo w s the n t ha t . a n 71’ ( xi i an ) ak )( k l w : _ f( a l : a 2 ) an ) I ( a 1 . a 2 ) an )( k w ak } ) } 2 u 2 k . .: {fk . k . n {f k ( I ¢ a l+ a l l ’ d a + “ ( xn _ WE ) “ u ( x l a 1 ) .

7t ” . M Fu rth er m ore . o xn I . . as es s m od f pr e o i o to A M y r ( ex e ss n a e se e p ap er b y h im in t h L ip e B e p z . . writi n g xk ak = h k w e h a ve . o . th a t u p on p erform in g the in dic ated s u m m a tion s e a ch of t h e in dices kl k2 o o o in de pen de n tly t h e on e fro m the other takes all . an d N is the ber of p erm u t a tion s of num 7t ele m en ts of wh ich xl. ’ j u s t give n . a 1. d e . . an ) . . to derive this theore m as it is u s u all y given obs e rv e . th a t is . ’ e as e se n e e e s u nd in e e s a ss s e u es e e e at eas ten y r b for t h M y r p p r ea s e e e a e a e . NO S U BS IDI ARY C OND I TI ONS 79 ’“ 51 We ar e n o t a cc u stom ed to Ta y lor s theore m in the form . x a. be writte n in t h e for m 1 D N ( x1 ° _ a l( ll x _ 5 l 2 wh ere D is the defi n ite di ff ere n ti a l q u otien t A A A a 2 . a h o m oge n eo u s f u n ctio n of the Xt h degree in xl a 1 x2 a 2 . .. 9 0 71 Aq + A2 + o o + An = m + 2 o o o ’ a n + 6hn l ) tol ( G d iig d D iff * S z ru n z e er e r e n t i a lu n d I n te g r a l e r ch g p 247) c rib thi nu n . fi n ally . val u es from 1 to n s o th a t t h e nt h ter m i n t h e developm en t is . 4 — [ ] f ( D w 56 ’ 2 xn l ff a lr “ 2 ’ ’ r an ) Ic = n hie 1 2 A2 + hf h" 6x 8xP a 19 a 2 am ”! r ! r A: A" h 1 h2 h 1. . T h form pr t d h r i fo W i r tr l ct r d l i v r d l t . er . a 2 O o o a n) ’ xl q x2 i . . . o 0 . Th e gen er a l ter m of this ho m og e n eo u s f u n ctio n m a y n . res p ectively a r e alik e . .

. . . . an ) is either a p ositive or a n egative q u a n tity an d con seq u en tl y a t . choose all the h s z ero with the e x ce ptio n of on e which m ay be ’ . s o n di n g deriv a tive h a s either sign we m a y a lw a s brin i t bo t p y g a u . 2 {f ( k a 1 + 6h 1 . ) 6 f 3 = 0 8f 8f O n I t m a y h appe n th a t for t h e co m m o n root s of t h e s ste m of y eq u a tio n s [ 6] still high er deriv a tiv e s a lso v an ish I n th is c a se .. x” ) w a sa m e e tisf y the ti o n s sa n e q ua ( p 1 7 . n a s ar e . these deriv a tives will a lso be of the sa m e si n as th e g y w e re for x 1 a 1 x 2 a 2 o x a If n o w we : . . : . a . . n bee n tak e n s u fficie n tl y s m all . + 0 17 m . . : . ” : n . at pleas u re t h a t the diff e re n ce f ( l 2’ w ’ w mu d— f al l . . [ ] 5 f( xl’ 562 9 wai l “ 2’ a n ) m} k . The f u n ctio n f (x. . i n p a rt.80 TH E ORY OF M AXI MA AND MI NI M A ’ This is the u s u alfor m of T ay lor s theore m for f u n ction s of several va ri a bles I n pa rtic u la r whe n m 1 the a bove develop m en t is . w e c a n i n ge n e ra l o n l s a t h t if for s ste m of roots of the y y a a y e q tio n s [ 6] a ll t h e deriv a tives of several of the n e x t higher u a o rde rs v an ish a n d if the first deriv a tive wh ch does . t i v e s of f( . ta ken either po sitive or n egative it is seen th a t when the corre . . i n o t v an ish for the se v al u e s is of a n odd order the f u n ctio n as m ay be . o x ) is r e g u l a r a n d co n tin u o u s . W e th ere fore h a ve t h e followin g th e ore m E xtr e m es of the fu n c ti on f (x1 x2 o x ) c a n on ly e n t er f or . n tho s e s ys te m s o f va l f ( 1 o o h i ch t the ti m u es o x . x 2 . u e of t h e fu n ctio n is . . a 2 . t h e n they will a lso be diff ere n t fro m z ero for x1 a 1 + 6hh : o x “ a + O : hm where t h e a bsol u te v al u es of h 1 h2 o o o h h a ve n . . n per m issible . ce rta i nl y n o m a xi m u m or m in i m u m v a l u e . ar e a ll or . 2 x x o o . the positio n a 1 a 2 a n o e x tre m e v a l . £ 0 for x l a 1 o . co n s eq u e n tly all i t s d e riv a tiv e s If therefore t h e first deriv a . sh o w n b y a m ethod of r e a so n in g sim il a r to th a t a bove ha s .

. an h ave alway s t h e s a m e sign an d we m a y t h e refore con fi n e . h. NO S U BS I D I ARY C ONDITI ON S 81 52 If however th is deriva tive is of a n eve n order then in the . n. ou r selve s to t h e in vestigation of t h e l atter f u n ction . us u se v b e gi e n t h e sa m e s ig n a s f i g ( a 1+ 9111 . o o x n) do n ot a l lv a n i s h f or the s y s te m o f r e al r oo ts a 1. . h. p rese n t st a t e o f the t h eor y o f for m s of t h e n t h order in sever a l va riables the r e i s n o gen e r a l c r i te r i on rega rdin g t h e beh a vior of the fu n ction a t t h e p ositio n in q u e stion W e the r efor e lim i t ou r . va ri ables in v a ri abl y p ositive or in v a ri a bly n ega tive . s el to th e w he r e the de r i va ti ve s th e ve s c a se f o s e co n d o r de r o f the fu n c ti on f (x1 .. o a n fo th e e q ua tio n s In th is ca s e we h a ve a criterio n in t h e form u la VI f ( x p 56 ’ 2 ‘ ff a v a 2. . w e m ay r pl e ac e 0 0 an ) whi ch m t o f c o r ’ it b y o an . . x 2 . . 8x. axxaxp . 2 M i 8x.. n trem e v al u e on the p ositio n a 1 a 2 a sin ce we m ay determ in e . . . be c om e s ze ro . hAh in t h e v a ria bles h 1 h z n h is for a rbitr a ry v alu e s of th ose . 0 an + 6 A. whether the in tegral ho m ogen e ou s f u n ction of t h e secon d degree . 6x. a 2 .. by which w e m ay deter m in e wh eth er f ( x1 x2 o x ) h a s a n e x . . D e n ote this f u n ction b y f. n On a ccou n t o f t h eir p res u pp osed co n tin u ity t h e q u a n tities an d with v al u es of h 1 h2 o h t ak en s u fficie n tly s m all differ fro m . . and -9 h » an d 8x. n o . . de n oti g i fi it im lly n an n n es a s m allq u an i y tt . a n ) i 2 Am h.. ( a 1 + 6h1 o a + “ . . e a ch oth er a s little a s we wish a n d a r e o f t h e s a m e sign * h e n ce 9 with s m all v alu es of t h e h s t h e f u n ction s ’ h. . . .

82 T H E ORY OF M AX I M A AND MI NI M A If it is fo u n d th at t h rou gh a s itu a ble ch oic e of h 1. hn II . . . o o . o a ) th . an can be m a de a t ple a s u re eith er p ositive or n ega tive the s a m e will . . . t h e h o m ogen eo u s q u a dr a tic for m l. . ( 1 2a o o a ) . . . do n ot allv an is h a t this p osi t i on . no m ax i m u m or m in i m u m i s p er m is s i bl e for t he o t o o p s i i n ( 1 2 a a . f( x l’ 33 ’ 2 xv ) f(“ a li a 2 ! a n ) 18 n egat i v e s o th a t th e re fore . T H E ORY OF T H E H OMOGE NE OU S Q U AD RAT I C FORM S 53 . co n seq u e n tl y also the differe n ce . . c o o . the defi n itio n of the in defi n it e q u a dra tic for m s we c an fin d in t he i m m edi a te n ei hborhood of t h e first s ste m a s e co n d s ste m g y y of v al u e s of t he h s for w h ic h t h e righ t-h a n d side of t h e eq u a ’ tio n [ 7 ] is n e ga tive . . . a 2 . n . h a s on t h e p ositio n a . g e n e o u s f u n ctio n is a n i n defi n i te for m t h e f u n ctio n f( 1 2 x x o . a d e fi n ite s ste m of v al u es of t h e h s th e n in a ccord an c e with ’ y . has n e it h e r a m a xi m u m n or a m in i m u m u p o n t h e p osition ( a a 1 2 . h2 .The three kin ds of q u a dra tic for m s v i z defi n i te s e m i . t h e p ositio n ( a 1 a 2 . . We th e re fore h a v e as a seco n d con dition for t h e e x isten ce o f a m a xim u m or a m in i m u m o f t h e f u n c t i on f ( x 1 x2 o on . an m us t be alwa y s n ega tiv e or alw a y s p ositive for a rbitra ry v alu es of h 1. o hn the e xp ressio n a 1. defi n i te a n d i n defi n i te were defin ed in § 1 3 . a2 d o o o . a t in c a se t h e s e co n d deriv a tiv e s n of t h e fu n ction f (x1 x2 o o . . . o — b e the ca se wi t h t h e di ff ere n ce f ( x. . As we h a ve a lr e ady i n di c ated in 1 3 i t is see n th a t if t h e h o m o . for if t h e h - rig t h a n d m e m b e r of [ 7] is p ositiv e sa y for . . 2x x ) f( l 2a a . . . ” n o e xtre m e v al u e . a n d co n seq u e n t l y f( 1 2 x x o . . . h z . .

.

. 2 3 x71 . .84 TH E ORY OF M AXIM A AND MINIM A To fin d the con ditio n for thi s write 1 8 o 2 ( 7t 1. 0. 2 . E u ler ’ s theore m for hom o ge n e o u s f u n ctio n s : [ ] 18 E f¢xl x v x 2 : U xn xA ) } = It isl o e as y to sho w reci procally th a t if a s a bove the eq u a a s . e . Owin g to e qu ation s [ 12 ] th is m e a n s th a t t he determ in an t of t he giv e n q u a dr a tic form v an is h e s th a t is . F an d co n seq u e n t ly 2 [ ] 1 7 53 . . . so th a t c on s e l g r i q u e n tly — 0 t h e n. 0 . O ti o n [ 15 ] is tr u e the f u n ctio n 4) con sists o f less th an n v a ri a bles . ) = 2 {4 ( i % x : l wz r } mA ° There e xis ts f u rther the well -k n own . fro m the n eq u a tio n s l 13l 2 TA gam e M ay“ l at at we m ay e li m i n a te the n 1 u n kn ow n qu an tities 39 2 o o We th u s h ave am on g the gb s an equ a ti on of the form ’ ay n —l S an “ 1 [ 14 t . . [ ] 15 z i A H Az. ’ wh ere t he 10 s ar e con st an ts . [ ] 1 = If f is i » in de p e n de n t of o n e of the y s sa y ’ . We n ote h ere t h e followin g form u l a s : xn ) Z Axu wu xl v }g a m 0 : ‘ l t )a a . A.

+ th. re m a i n s i n v a ri a n tive if x. wh er e t is a n a rbitr ary q u an tity . k h [ ] 1 9 ¢( x l’ mi r " ' r mu ): l Ic —l kn y a3 0. . n p l a ce o f x. . It follows when we t ak e in to con si dera tion t h e eq u a tion s [ 14 ] . k ( 1 2. C on sequ en tl y it bei n g p res u p p osed th a t h § 0 i f t is so . i s i n va r i a bl y p os i ti ve Th e seco n d c a se w h ere p( 1 2 < x x . . i s writte n for . xv _ I _l o w +1 k V V wh ere (f) is e xpress e d a s a fu n ctio n of less th a n n v a ri a bles . . 55 We re t u rn to t h e qu estion p ro p osed at the e n d of § 5 3 . . A1 1 A2 2 is th e n e c e ss a r y a nd su fi ci en t c o n di ti on th a t a hom og en e ou s qu a dr a ti c fu n c ti on x o xA x e a s a fu n c be e xp r e ss i bl 2. 2 2 ' lt ' i ‘’ k . . an d sin ce the equ ation [ 14 ] is tr u e for every s y ste m of v al u es (xl x2 . . x. . . s am e thi n g an iden tic al rel ation of the form [ 14 ] e x ists an d if . + tie. a n d to h a ve a defi n ite c a se befor e u s a ss u m e th a t t h e p roble m is : De te r m i n e the con di ti on u n der whi ch the fu n c ti on x 2 o . . . . is to b e in v a riably n ega tive is h ad at o n ce if — d> is written in the pl a ce o f d) . . th at . " xn l fi ) ¢( 1 e ' ‘ n : x ’ Hen ce if t h e equ a tio n [ 1 5 ] e xists or if the k s s a tisfy t h e equ a . ’ tio n [ 14] for every sy stem of v a l u es (x1 x2 o o th en . . . we s u bstitu te in x 2 o x ) the q u a n tities x. d e te r m in e d th a t t h e a rgu m e n t x tic 0 we h a ve . We therefore h ave t h e th eore m The va n i s hi n g o f the de te r m i n a n t 2 j. x 2 o . . 7t ( 1 2 o o n ) an d develo p with res p ect to p owers = . of t we th en h a ve . in the . = . NO S U BS I D I ARY C OND I T I ONS 85 Forif we a ss u m e th at equ ation or wha t a m o u n ts t o the . “ ti on o f n 1 va r i a bl es . ' r xn + t ku l 56 : 2 ' 2 $71 ) 2 t 33 .

' ' I h ma e o f ' om b ’ . p 27 1 .86 T H E ORY OF M AXI MA AND M I NIM A We s ha ll first sho w followi n g . g . . . I . 2 m ya be e xp r ess e d as an a gg re g a te f o s q u a r es of l in ea r fu n c tio ns of the v a r i a bl es . I Vol . and Mé ca n i q u e . Din a sol L gr a ang e . so th at the e qu atio n i 2 = 1 k. 2A ki t 1 2 / m u ste xi s t T his is the o n ly r e strictio n p l a ced u p on . p 18. y is a lin e a r f u n ction of the xs ’ h a vin g the form [ ] 2 1 y = c x l 1 + c x 2 2 + o 2 an d g if is a cert ai n co n st an t t h e n t h e e x p ressio n qt gy ( . v a ria ble s . 2 [ ]4 Z AA“ . If t h e n . Z i AI I AZZ ' Au n g O is tru e an d th at th er efore it is n ot p ossible to determ in e c on t= u ste n ts It .. 0 e x ists iden tic ally . . . 56 I t he roof of t h e a bove t h eore m it is a ss u m e d t h a t . p 31. th e ’ os . m a y b e s o de t e r m i n e d th a t :Z i i kr ‘l ’r = k f d ¢r 0 l l ‘ 01 A= n A 2 [ ]2 x= 1 E kx¢x _ gy z A= I kxc x = 0 Fro m t h e ss u m p tio n m a d e rega rdin g [ 2 0 ] it follow s a . on t he one h a n d t hat t he in eq u ality . On the other h an d in vi r t u e of t h e n lin e a r eq u a tio n s . . e tc . Ar i !h m .1 : l ( b 1: 2 : n ) Se e ( m ums . . p a c a n p a s . p 3. Mis c . a f u n ctio n of o n l y n — l v a ria b les if t h e con stan ts k2 . n p c an n ot be e xpressed a s a f u n ctio n of n 1 — x 2 . To m a . = sa y ) a ft e r t h e t h eore m roved bove be e x ressed . Ob s e r v . . a m ethod du e to Weierstra ss) “ tha t e ve r y hom ogeneo u s fu n c ti o n f o the s econ d degr e e x . it follow s th e r e fore th a t the in e qu alit y . V ol .

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ch ose n b u t with t h e restriction j u st m en tion ed an d if g i s . . . n 33n -l’ ¢( x ’ x » l 2 mu ) 99 . n othe rwi s e g wo u ld beco m e i n fi n ite . . . ) - yy 3 e 6 6 6n -l — x k . . . Addin g t h e s e prod u cts a n d n otin g [ 2 6 ] a n d we h a ve a 3 ’ 2 en l = E eA ¢A y The e xp ression on t h e righ t-h an d side is z ero fro m Hen ce n co n sta n ts m a y b e c h osen in s u ch a w a y th a t t h e s u m of t h e p rod u cts of t h e se co n st an ts an d the deriv a tives of t h e e x pressio n d gy is ide n tic ally zero a n d a lso ( Me l : ’ 0 ( cf . . e a ch of t h e re s u ltin g qu an tities b y t h e co n st an ts e 1 e 2 o o . 2 : d a -ll f . e a r e i n co n s e qu e n ce of t h e eq u a tio n . . e a r e a rbitr a ril y . w.. . 8 6k ck k or if the ne w a rgu m e n ts a re re prese n te d by x ' ' . 5 7 Reci proc all y if t h e qu an tities e 1 e 2 . . . f u n ctio n qt c an n ot v an ish for the sy ste m o f v a l u es (c l e 2 o e ). . 1 . + tc . if on e of . 5 8 S u b s tit u te x. . Ma c a w .a s t h e for m m a y be e x p ressed a s a f u n ctio n o f o n l y n 1 v a ria bles For for m the deriv a tives of . . 2 o n ) i n ( I) . . the s e a rgu m e n ts is m ade e q u a l to z ero w e h a ve a s in § 5 4 . for . dete r mi n ed th ro u gh it m a y be p roved th a t t h e e xp re ssio n z gy ) w h e r e y h . co m p letely a rbitra ry with t h e on e l i m ita ti on res u ltin g fro m v iz the . thi s e xpressio n with res p ect to t h e diff ere n t v a ri a b les an d m u ltiply . . e 2 o o . t h e o n e restrictio n e xp res se d b y t h e i n eq u a lity the q u an titi e s c l .88 T H E ORY OF M AXI MA AND M I NIM A C o m pa rin g t his res u lt with we h a ve cv : ¢ ( v 6 1 ’ 6 2’ 6n ) ( V 1’ 2 : n ) : an d con seq u e n tl y l 9 ' A= u 2 A= 1 6A ¢ ( 6 A 1 ’ 6 2 ’ en ) 1 or fro m . g 6 2 ’ 6 11 ) Si n ce qu an tities t he c 2 o a r e p erfectl y a rbitra r y e x ce p t .. .

squ ares of lin ea r ho m og en e o u s fu n ction s of the v a ri a bles If t h e . ’ . . . . t co ti o n it is of in e e s n t r t to ot e t h e Th e o r e m of I n e t i a l Ma t h P ap e s . ( E u v r e s . 60 I n order to h av e in a s defi n ite for m a s possibl e t h e e x . p ressio n of ( p a s a s u m of sq u a res we s h a ll g iv e to t h e e x p r e ssio n . Recip roc all y t h e con ditio n o f g1 g2 . § 50 2’ + 9n yr is to be in v a ri a bly p ositiv e for re a l v al u es o f t h e v a ri ables an d equ al to z ero on ly when t h e v a ri ables the m selves allv an is h th e n . coefficie n ts o f (I) ar e re al a s a lso the qu an tities e t h e coe ffi cien t s g . . al l t h e q u a lities g 1 g2 o o g m u st be p ositive . .. . in dep en de n tly of on e a n oth e r lin e a r hom ogen eo u s fu n ction s o f t h e . . . . . were z ero th a t allt h e y s wo u ld v an ish ex ce p t y . p p 380 . . i n which a t le a st n o t a l . . the secon d degree i s itself a squ a re H e n c e w e h a ve the g iv e n . . n ot t h e c a s e b u t g 1 s ay were n ega tiv e th en sin ce the y s ar e ’ . . . an d con s e qu e n tly . . 511 S e e a s H e m i e . . N O S U BS IDI ARY C OND ITI ONS 89 ’ ’ E m ploy in g t h e s am e m eth od of p roced u re with d) x 2 x _ 1) . h o m ogen eo u s f u n ction x 2 e x p ressed a s t h e s u m of . c . o o wou ld be n ega tive Fu rth er m ore n on e of the g s c an v an ish . lo r t I . 2 o . ’ for if g1 say were z ero we m ight s o ch oose a s y ste m of v al u es . Co l r of l v t r . x 2 . . . t i on of o nly on e v a ri a ble w h ich bein g a ho m ogen eo u s f u n ctio n of . . x x l . . l the q u an tities x 1 x 2 x . . p 42 9 V ol . 6 5 9 If n ow t h e e xpressio n . 2 [ ] for g still a third form 6 . a r e also re al a n d sin ce the q u an tities e m ay with a sin gle l . a lso s u ffi cie n t for ( to be i v ri bl ositive for re a l v al u es of p n a a y p the v a ri a bles an d for (I) to be equ al to z ero o n ly when all the . . S y e s e . for if this were . . v an ish an d con sequ en tl y con trary t o o u r a ss u m ption . . . . . . n a s w a s do n e with 4 ) ( 1 2 x x o o we co m e fi n a ll y to t h e f u n c . . . s u ch a k in d th a t the res u lt sh all be a r e al o n e m ay be p erform ed in an in fin ite n u m ber of w a y s " . The or y of E q u a t ions p 430 I n h i s nn ec . r Vol . im i t at i on be a rbitra ril y chosen it follows th a t a tr a n sform a tion of . . . g bei n g al l p ositive i s .x 2 o . 4) co u ld t h e n be z e ro wit h o u t t h e v an is hi n g o f a l l t h e v a ri a b les x l . . . v ariables v an ish . . x s we co u ld s o choose t h e x s th a t a l l the y s e x cep t y 1 wo u ld ’ ’ ’ . r to S e e Bu n si d e a n d P a n n . .. I ..

. 2 . is n o t ide n tically z ero th a t is . Of co u rs e t his de ter m i n an t m u st b e di ff eren t fro m ze ro .90 T H E ORY OF M AXIM A AND M I NIM A In co n n ectio n with [ 1 2 ] it follows fro m [ 2 7] th a t u = n o o c. g f x be e x p ressed as a f u n ctio n of n — 1 v a ri a b l es we m ay choose for g the v al u e . o . . 61 It is s h ow n n e x t t h a t we m ay sep a ra te fro m ( f ( xl x2 . Fro m this it is s e e n t h a t A __ fi 9 ’ 8A A. . o o n . . . after w e h a ve writte n i n thi s e x pression 0 ( 7t 1 2 = . the sq u a re of a sin gle v a ri a ble in s u ch a w ay t h a t the re s u lti n g f u n ctio n co n t a in s o n l 1 v a ri a bl e s y n . . De n ote b y A the deter m in an t of these eq u a tio n s which fro m [ 2 0 ] . i A11A2 2 An n : We h a ve as t he so lu tion of t h e p recedi n g eq u a tio n It fo llows fro m thi s in con n ection with [ 2 6] th a t A 31 2 A. For e xa m ple i n order th a t the e xpression 4) . whe re Al isthe de te r m in an t of t h e q u a dra tic for m ¢ ( xl x2 . w h i le to c is give n t h e v al u e u n i ty . . . a M A“ an e xpre ssio n in whi ch the os ’ ar e s u bject on l y to the on e c on ditio n th a t 6A 2 2 A. 0 c is n ot ide n tic a lly zero . = E u = 1 ( v = 1. .

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se e als o C c hyau . . i f . in other words the r e w i l l be a m in im u m the p os i ti on o on ( a 1 . if . th a t the a gg re g t ae o f th e ter m s o f th e sec on d degr e e f o th e e q u a ti on 4 [ ] be a defi nite * q u a dr a ti c for m . In virt u e o f the theore m st ated in 5 3 a n e xtrem e will e n ter . are al l p os i ti ve . o . is o the r va l u es o f es g gn g n ( t se m i defi n ite ). m i n ed th r ou gh the e ua q ti o n s i t is su fii c i e n t. e d ifi lr Ca l . 283. m a y in a ccordan c e with t h e defi n itio n s give n i n 5 2 be e x p ressed a s follows : I n or der th a t a n e xtr em e of the fu n c ti on f (x. the va r i a bl w i thou t cha n i si h a t i s. “ ( a n “ 2 : ' s an h ) uxh } : is a defi n ite q u a dratic for m . i f the s e c on d de r i va ti ve s o f the fu n c ti on do l va n i s h a n ot a l t thi s p os i ti o n . a 2 . how e ve r . th e for m v a n i s hes f or . . for a s y ste m o f re al v al u es o f t h e equ a tion [ 6] if the hom ogen eo u s fu n ctio n of t h e secon d degree th a t 18 . . the qu o ti e n ts F1 F2 Fn -l whe r e F“ : 2 . f n w ’ n w . . ’ I M or ie ' de s Fonc t io m . x2 o . then a de ter m i n a ti on as to w h e th e r an e x tr e m e in r ea l it y e xi s ts is n ot e j ec te d i n the m a n n er i n di c a te d and re q u i r es fu r the r i n ves tig a tio n . pp . m a y in r ea l i ty e n te r on the p os i ti on ( a 1 a 2 o o o whi c h i s de te r . esta blis hin g the criterion of the p revio u s section the orig in a l in vestigatio n rega rdin g t h e m a x i m a an d m in i m a o f t h e f u n ctio n f (x1 x2 o is fi n ish ed Th e res u lt est a blis h ed in 57 .92 TH E ORY OF MAXIM A AN D M IN IM A II I . . as is s een be l ow . a m a xi mum i f the y are a l l n ega ti ve . I n bo th c a ses the qu o ti e n ts m u s t be difl er en t fr om ‘ ze r o . . APP L IC AT I ON OF T H E T HE ORY OF Q U ADRAT IC FO RMS T O T H E P ROBL E M OF M AXI MA AND MINIM A — S T AT E D I N 47 5 1 63 By . La gra n g e . 286 .

th a t Zt . . 2 .. i s com pl e tel y tre a ted . n ha ) : 2 712 . k w n) hr kI t i = 1 Now i n t h i s expression the a rbitr a ry qu an tities h m ay be so chosen th a t k f Ii . -— h 1. We sh all con sequ en tly t ak e u p the s am e s u bj ect aga in in the . . Neglectin g thi s c a s e it is see n th a t t h e p roble m of this ch ap ter . with o u t a ll t h e h s beco m in g sim u lt an eou s ly z ero This cas e w e ’ . ( i = 7b an d co n s e qu e n tly the fu n ction d> (hl hz o o wo uld v a ni sh . n e xt ch a ter p . . . however t h e co n dition s t h at a qu a dr atic . Fo = z i f 1 1f 2 2 ' f nn : 0: th e n the s u m m a tion bein g de n ot e d b y h h ¢( 1 2. If therefore k s ay is differen t fro m z ero we m ay write . where t h e It a r e con stan ts which do n ot a llsim ult an eo u sly v a n ish . NO S U B S IDI ARY C OND IT I ONS 93 This l as t co n ditio n is on ly other for man of wh a t w as s a id a bove v iz . n. . For if s a y . = ] . for m sh all be a defi n ite on e appe a r in a less s y m m etric for m than we wish It is du e t o t h e fa ct th a t we h a ve given S peci al . h A “ m u st n o t be a se m i » de fi n i t e form . v= n -I 1 ( fin : kn v g l k u ‘ b w an d with t he help of thi s rela tio n we h a ve fro m t he equ a tion A = u A I I 1 S hz r ' 2 kn ) : 2 A= 1 h ’ h ¢ A( 1 z : hi gh“ : c’ n hn l ' l ' \ I 1 9t 6 the follo w i n g rela tion A n —l [CA w ho 702 . o 0 . A: P : t hi s eq u a tion wou ld directly im ply the e x iste n ce of a rel a tio n of the for m h2 . . . . pre pon der a n ce to cert ain v a ri a bles over the others . o . c a n n o t tre a t i n its e n e r a lit g y . . .

q u estio n a n d write U ( a a d " : x lx z xu a o o o l z We mu st then deter m in e wh e n U or wh a t is the s a m e th in g . . a i n to n 1 s u m m a n ds s o t h a t the p rodu ct of t h e a lt h p ower . 1 p a The q u an titi e s a 1 a 2 o a + 1 a r e to be positiv e n u m ber s . . . . it s n a t u r al lo ga rith m h a s its gre a test v a l u e . of t he first t h e a 2 t h p ow e r of the secon d etc an d fi n a lly the . . For exa m ple let it be req u ired to distrib u te a p ositive n u m b e r . a. Let xl x2 . .94 T H E OR Y OF MAXI M A AND M IN I M A 64 The q u estio n is ofte n rega rdi n g the g r e a tes t a n d the le a s t . I f w e pu t t h e partial deriva tives o f log U eq u al to z ero we will . .. t his val u e corres p on ds to a sy ste m of v a l u es wi thi n the give n regio n the n for th is s y ste m t h e fu n ction will a lso b e a m axi m u m . . ower of the l a st s u m m an d wil l be a ". ha ve a x” . val u es ( t he u pper an d lower li m its ) w h ich a f u n ction m ay t ak e whe n its v aria b les v a ry i n a g iven fi n ite or in fi n ite region If . 0 8xi i mu a £13 xn 1 The se eq u a tio n s m a y be writt e n a 3 “ “ an 1 2 u +1 the last ter m bein g ha d th ro u gh a ddition of t h e pre ce di n g ro p p o r tio n s . or a m in i m u m i n the sen se derived a bove . x l x 2 o o x be t h e s u m m a n ds in . If we c a ll o o h e v a lu e s of t h e v a ri a bles w h ich t sa ti s f y the s e e qu a tio n s w e h av e . n .

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x. x" to h a ve m a xi m u m a nd m inim u m va l u es and w hi c h a t th e sa me ti m e sa ti sfy the e qua ti o n s o f c on di ti o n s : I -m < n ). t o re prese n t i n r e a lit y m v a ri a bles a s f u n c t i on s of t h e n — m re m a in i ng v a ria bles A m ore p ra ctic a ble m eth od m u st therefore b e sou ght . fu n ctio n wo u ld th en de p e n d o n ly u p on t h e n m v a ri a bl e s w h ich are in de p e n de n t of o n e a n oth er a n d s o t h e p r e sen t p roble m . o and F ( x1 . . 1 2 o o in 47 . CH AP TE R VI THEORY OF MAXI MA AND MI NI MA OF FUNCTIONS OF S E VE RAL VARI ABLE S THAT ARE S UBJE CTE D TO S UB S I DI ARY CONDI TI ONS . th a t is we m u st h a ve . the eq u a tio n s [ 1] m ay b e co n s i de re d . .i x" : a il in the n eighborhood of (a 1 o o n ly those w hich s atisfy . 67 If ( d l a 2 o o . x 2. . 66 . o o . x 2 . t ra lw ay to solve t h e p roblem is to e x pre ss b y m e an s The na u of e q u a tio n s [ 1] m of t h e v a ria bles in ter m s of t h e rem ain in g n m v a ri a ble s a n d writ e th eir v a l u es i n F (x1 x2 o T hi s . We n ow ro p p ose t he p roble m : A m on g al l s y s tem s of va l u es fi n d th ose w h i c h th e fu n c ti on F (xl. wo u ld be red u ced to t h e o n e of t h e p r e cedi n g c h ap ter . [ ] . we re co m plete ly in depe n d e n t of on e a n oth er . form ed s in ce it is n o t alwa y s p o s sible b y m e an s of e q u a tio n s [ 1] . o o ) ( x l. m w he r e f ( . x l .. are fu n c ti on s of the sa m e c h a r a c te r as f( x . I n ge n er al th is m e th od of proce du re c an n ot be re a dily pe r . . c a u se x 2 . x 2 . x . is an y sy ste m of v a l u es of t h e q u a n tities . a l+ l t 1 . f ( A a l+ ’ h l’ a 2 + h2I ' 1 O ( x : 1’ 2 : ' I 96 . 33 2 : h2 . RE LATI VE MAXI MA AND MI NI MA 65 I n t he p rec e din g in vestiga tion s t h e v a ri a b les . . x l.

A ge o . Th e eq u a tion o f con ditio n f ( x. . x2 x3) 0 re p res e n ts th e n a . se ries as follows : hA = k ( l 2 : k . 69 Th e con dition th a t o n e o f t h e de t e r m i n a n ts in t h e p r e ce di . w h e r e [ h1 h 2 o o . F (xl x x is to h a ve a m a x i m u m or m i n i m u m v al u e . RE L ATI V E M AXIM A AND MIN I MA 97 Hen ce by Tay lor s th eore m the ’ h ’ s s a tisfy the equ a tion s n= u 3 [ ] m E m y d a. equ a tio n s . 2 3) . in dica ted i n 136 . h o w ev e r s peci a l c a ses w h ere t hi s is n o t t h e c a se . t h e y s a tisfy iden tic al ly t h e e qu a tion s [ 2 ] a n d fu rn ish if t h e q u an tities k1 k2 o . di m e n sion s in t h e r e s p e ctiv e v a ri a b les . . 2 . 2 . h. th er e ar e. L e t F a n d an equ a tion o f c o n dit i on f 0 co n t a in on ly th r e e : v ari ables xl x2 an d x3 . a r e t ak e n s u fficie n tl y . 68 It bein g a ss u m ed th a t a t le a st o n e of t h e de t e r m i n a n ts . o o . . . of t h e m t h order w h ic h c an be prod u c e d b y n egle ctin g n — m colu m n s fro m t h e s y ste m o f m n q u a n tities f ll f m ’ ’ ° ’ f1 n’ 4 f 21 f 22 ° f2 [ ] ’ ’ ’ n ’ fml fm2 ’ ’ ° ’ fm 7t ’ is diff e ren t fro m zero th e n (s e e 1 35 a n d 1 36) m of t h e q u a n . ( A : 1. . m e tric a l i n t e r r e t a tio n wi l l x l a in t h e se e x ce tio n s p p e p . wh ere t h e u pp er i n dices de n ote t h e di m e n sio n s of t h e term s with w h i c h t h e y a r e a ssoci a t e d T h ese serie s con v e rge in t h e m a n n er ‘ . de n otes t h e ter m s o f t he secon d a n d hi gh er . : 0 2. kn k2 . tities h m ay be e xpre sse d th ro u gh the rem a in in g n — m q u an titie s (whic h m a y be de n ot ed by k l h 2 o i n t h e for m of p ower . . . in g a rticle be di ff e ren t fro m z e ro is in ge n e ral s a tisfi e d . : s u rfac e u p o n which the p oin t (xl x2 x3) is t o lie an d for w h ich . . hi . s m all all v al u es of t h e m q u a n tities h which s a tisfy t h e s e . . o o 0 ’ m ). .

t he first di m e n sio n v a n i s h a n d co n seq u e n tl y . that is all the ter m s of the first di m e n sion c an n ot v an ish the . . . ' I an ) p = tt — I ll 1 p 2 = l Cp kp - i — 2p . di ff e re n ce F ( x1 x2 o o — F a . F 6131. . . sin gle ter m s bein g these determ in an ts . o t his e xpression the n dep e n ds o n ly u p on t h e n m v a ri a bles k l k2 . . x” ) ( a p a 2" ‘ 3 an ) I n n 1 H ’ # ‘ I MM ’ w e s u b s tit u te i n the ter m s of the first di m e n sio n the v al u es o f the I n q u a n tities fro m [ 5 ] a n d a rran g e t h e res u lt a ccordi n g to t he . . xn l “ ' F (a v “ 2 . an d this m e an s th a t t h e s u rfa ce 0 c an n ot h a v e a si n gu l a rity a t t h e p oin t in q u estio n f . a c u rve a n d t h e co n ditio n th a t the corres p o n di n g deter m in an ts of . o n the p ositio n ( 1 2 a a o o a ) it . . . 7 [ 1 —m > . o ‘ 0 W kp k. m an n er . .98 TH E ORY OF M AXI M A AND MI NI M A The deter m i n a n ts of the first order in t h e deve lo p m e n t f( a 1 + h l’ “ 2 + “ 3+ a i » a ) s wi th res pect to p owers of h1 h2 an d h3 c an n ot allbe equ a l to z ero . 70 If t h e v a l u es of the m qu an tities hA a r e s u bstitu ted i n t h e . + It w as see n 5 1) th a t i n order to h a ve a m a x i m u m or m in i m u m . n . T ak e n e xt two eq u a tion s of co n ditio n f 1 0 an d f 2 0 betwee n : t h ree v aria bles xl x2 an d x3 C o n sidered together the y rep resen t . 71 T his co n ditio n m ay be e a sil y ex p ress e d in a n other . th a t a r e i n d e p en den t o f on e a n oth e r an d m a y co ns eq u e n tly for s u fficien tly s m a ll v al u es of these v a ria bles be de v e lo pe d in the for m [ ] 6 F ixv x 2 . 2 . —F x 2 . the seco n d order c an n ot all be zero m ea n s here th a t the c u rve a t t he poi n t in q u estion c an n ot h a ve a sin gu l a rit y . ( l 2 a . is n ecess a ry th a t t h e ter m s of . We m ay obtai n the q u an tities e if i n the develo pm e n t .

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x 2. dete rm in e all sy ste m s o f v al u es of the h s n ot e x ceed in g certa in ’ li m its tha t s a tisfy the e qu ation s the equ a tion s [ 7] together with the eq u ation s [ 1] a r e s u fficien t in n u m ber to deter m i n e t h e n q u a n tities a a a 1 2 . . i m u m on a n y p os i ti o n ( a 1 a 2 o i t i s n ec e ss a r y th a t the. . We m ay ofte n in thi s ca se p roceed a dv an t ageo u s ly b y in trod u cin g i n the pl a ce of the ori gi n al v a ri a bles a s ste m of n m n e w v a ri y a b l e s s o chose n th a t whe n the a r e s u bstit u ted in the ive n y g e q u a ti on s of co n ditio n the ide tic ll s tisf t h e m y n a y a y . t he s y ste m of v a l u es ( 1 2 a a h a s a lre a d y bee.10 0 T H E ORY OF M AXIM A AND M I NIM A fro m the first on eq u a tio n it bein g of co u rse p res u pp osed th a t . f. t ha t a t le a st on e o f t h e deter m i n an ts of t h e m t h order whi ch c an be for m ed ou t of t h e m n q u a n tities 4 [ ] thro u gh the om issio n of n m colu m n s does n ot v an ish Th is con dition w as n ecess a ry . 2 . m u m o r m i n . . e em 2 . 25 7 . e qu a tio n s an d also for the deter m in a tio n of the m f a ctors c l . Tak in g every thin g i n to con sider atio n we m a y s ay : I n or de r th t t a h e fu nc t i o n F ( l 2 x x o h a v e a m a xi . 2 . (e : n ). both for the deter m i n a tio n o f t he qu an tities h whi ch s a tisfy th e . n co n ditio n is n o t s a tisfied For if it is p ossibl e i n an y w ay t o . which serve ’ to dete r m in e the h s be gin with ter m s of t h e seco n d di m en sion . m) l th e a n t i ti e s be sa ti sfi e d by a s y s t em o f r e a l va u es f o u + m qu x 1. Se e S tol z . . mm 3 . 1 em . Wh e n the a bove a ss u m ptio n is n ot s a tisfied t h e equ ation s [ 8] . . It m ay h a pp en th a t a m a xim u m or m in i m u m o f the f u n ction ’“ F e n ters o n the po s i t i o n ( a 1 a 2 o a ) even w h en the a bove . These ded u ction s were m a de u n der t h e on e a ss u m p tion 72 . p . o . e xis t ide n tic all y an d co n seq u en tl y t h e eq u ation s . n m e ua q ti on s + e 1 + e 2 = 0 x‘ 8x“ l [ ] 1 0 1. . . . tha t the eq u a tio n s [ 1] a r e s a tisfied . 0 ( x = l. n s o chos e n . x 2 . n . ( x 1.

RE L AT I V E M AXIM A AND MINIM A 10 1

73
. To m ake cle ar wh a t h as bee n s a id the followin g exa m pl e ,

will be of service ; i t s g en er al sol u tio n is give n in the sequ el
Fi n d th e s hor tes t lin e whi ch c a n be dr a wn fr om a gi ve n p oi n t to
i ve n s u rfa c e U o the s u rf a ce there a r e cert a in oi ts of
a
g .
p n
p n

s u ch a n a tu re th a t the lin es j oin in g these p oin t s with the give n
poin t h ave the desired p ro p erty a n d besides stan d n or m al to the , ,

s u rface a t these p oi n ts .

If b y ch an ce i t h app en s th a t on e of these p oin ts is a do u ble
p oi n t ( n ode
) of the s u rfa ce so th, a t a t it we h a ve f
1
0 f2 0 :
,
:
,

f3 : 0 the
,
n i n re a lit y for thi s p oi n t the ter m s of the first d i m e n

sio n in the equ atio n s [ 2 ] dro p o u t an d w e h ave the c a se j u st
m en tio n ed .

If t h e s u rfa ce is t h e right co n e
— 22 ’

we m ay write
x = 2 un

z— 2
11
[ ] y = u v ,

Z- 2
z u lv .

The equ ation of the s u rf a ce is iden tic ally s a tisfied an d it is e a sily ,

seen th at we m ay exp ress the qu an tities hl h2 h3 thro u gh t w o , ,

qu an tities h, an d k2 in de p e n den t of e a ch other eve n in t h e c a se
where the requ ired p oin t of the s u rfa ce i s the verte x of the con e ,

th at is the p oin t x 0 y 2 or u 0 v ; a n d i n fa ct i n s u ch
,
: :
,

a w ay th a t n o t o n l
y in defi n itel
y s m a ll v a l u es of h
i h 2
h 3
corre , ,

s on d to in defi n itel s m ll v l es f k h b t lso th t l
l
p y a a u o
1 ,
u a a ,a

syste m s of va l u es hl h2 h3 ar e h ad which s a tisfy t h e eq u a tion
, ,

r< t c
+ v
x + v..
z h
+ 3> = 0 .

The v ariables however m u st be give n a t on e ti m e re al at an other
, , ,

ti m e pu rely im agin a ry v alu es if the eq u a tion s [ 1 1] ar e t o r e pr e
,

sen t the e n tire s u rfa ce o f t h e con e ; b u t in this m an n er the
u n avoid able tro u ble h a s t a ke n s u ch a directio n th at the ro osed
p p
p roble m f a lls in to two sim il a r p a rts w hi c h m a y be tre a,
ted i n f u ll
a fter the m ethods of Ch a ter V I n other c a ses we m a y p roceed
p .

in a lik e m ann er Th e s peci al p roble m w ill e a ch ti m e of itself
.

off er the m ost prop itiou s m ethod of proced u re .

10 2 T H E ORY OF M AX I M A AND M I NI M A

74We m u st n o w esta b lis h the cri t eria fro m w hi ch o n e c a n
.

determ in e whether a m a xi m u m or m i n i m u m o f F (x1 x2 o , , ,

rea lly e n ters or n o t o n a defi n ite p osition ( a 1 a 2 a
) wh i ch , , n ,

h as bee n deter m in ed in 7 1 a bove .

On e m ight co n sider thi s s u p er flu ou s sin ce in virt u e of the cri ,

te ria giv e n in the previo u s ch apter a m a xi m u m or m i n i m u m wil l
ce rt amly e n ter if the aggre ga te o f ter m s of the seco n d di m e n sio n

in [ 6] is a defi n ite qu a dra tic for m of the n a t u re in dic ated .

It is however desira ble to determ in e t h e e xisten ce of a m axi
, ,

m u m or m i n i m u m witho u t h a vin g p revio u sl y m a de the develo p

m e n t of the f u n ctio n in the form for in order to obt a in the
coefficie n ts w e m u st p ay a tte n tio n n ot on ly t o the te r m s of
the first d im e n sion b u t a lso to the term s of the seco n d di m e n sion ,

whe n the val u es of [ 5 ] ar e s u bstit u ted in the develo pm e n t of

1
=
§ 1
Ffl hfl
EE Ffl v h -
hn y l

75 .The a bove diffic u lty m ay be a voided if we m u ltipl y b y
the q u an tities e ( u 1 2 o o m ) res pectively e a ch o f the expres
“ , ,

sio n s [ 2 ] which v an ish ide n tica lly a dd the m th u s m ultip lie d t o ,

the above di ff eren ce a n d the n develop the whole e xp ression with
,

r es ect to the owers of h
p p .

O wi n g to eq u a tion [ 9 ] ter m s of the first di m e n sio n c an n o
lo n ger a ppea r in thi s develo pm en t an d we h a ve if we write , ,

[ ]
1 2 F+
ie
P
M
= G,

[ ] ( ,,
1 3 F x x
2 ,
— F a
( 1, a
2, x2 , o

_ G a 1
( l,

We h ve a c cordi n gl y the ho m oge n eo u s f u n ction of the seco n d
a , ,

de gr ee
E ON /ep ic of the for m u l a 6 if we s u bstit u te in
Po ”
,
[ ] GM hJL
S ,

# "
t he
9

v l e [ 5]
a u s an d co n sider o n l y the term s of t he first di m e n sion

TH E ORY M AXI MA A_ND MINIM A
10 4 OF
]
1
s a ti sfy —
Fu rther m ore if ,
x
l ,
x,, the n, a lso ,

sa tisfy these eq u ati on s ,
w hi l
e , sm ce q
'
) — 1 o o :

5
m 5

the sign s of the two q u adr atic for m s ar e the s a m e .

It is therefore in every res p ect ad m issible to add the eq u ation
, ,

We h ave however thereb y ga in ed a n essen ti al a dv ant ag e :
, ,

for owin g to the co n dition [ 1 6] n o n e of the v a ri a bles c an lie
witho u t the in terv a l 1 o 1 ; f u rther m ore sin ce the f u n ction ,

va ries in a co n tin u o u s m an n er it m u st n ecess a rily h a ve a n u pper ,

a n d a lower li m it for th ese v a l u es of the v a ri a bles x1 x2 , ,

th at is a m on g all sy ste m s of v a l u es which s atisfy the equ ation s
,

*
a n d [ 1 6] there m u st n ecess a ril y be on e which ives
[ ]
1 5 g an

u pper li m it an d on e which gives a lower li m i t of 4 ) see
(
We li m it o u rselves t o the deter m in ation of th e l a tter By trial .

we ca n e a sily determ in e whether 4) re a ches its lower li m it o n the

bo u n d a ries th at i s whe n on e of the x s i 1 while the others a r e
, , ,

all zero If this lo w er li m it is n ot re a ched on the bo u n d a ries then
.
,

ct ha s a m in im u m v a l u e w i th i n the bo u n d a ries ( of .

78 T h ro u gh the a ddition o f eq u a tio n [ 16] t h e theore m of the
.

recedi n g a rticle i s red u ced to a p roble m in the theor of m a xi m a
p y
a n d m i n i m a ; for if t h e m i n i m u m v al u e of x
2
o o is , ,

p ositive 4) is cert a
, i n l y a defi n ite p ositive for m .

C on seq u en tl y if we write ,

I\ = n


(2
2
[ ]
1 7 c =
c e e,
A= l

th e n in order to fi n d the p osition a t which there is a m in i m u m
,

v al u e of t he f u n ctio n we h a ve to form the s y ste m of equ a tio n s
,

8G
— O 1, 2 ,
axk
( 7t = o

T hi s ve s I
8<>

gi
3xA
e
9
8x,
= 0 ( h = 1, 2 , , n
)
,

l
.

p
or a

-
,

u u
p a m

[ ]
18
2 A ,, e , 2, n
)
.

pa l

J o u r na l. Vol LXX I I
.
, p 14 1 ;
. se e a s l o S rr t e e , C a le d i h
.
'

. e t in t .
, p p 17
. e t se
q .

An n 6. . . . al l” . s atisfy the s y ste m of equ ation s [ 1 9] th a t s y stem is also to be . Th e m in i m u m v al u e of i s n ecess a ril y con t a in ed a m o n g the roots of th is equ ation . A= n 2 A= l x § = 1 the n m 1 qu an tities xl x2 o o e 1 e 2 o e ma y be . 2 [ ]1 x 2. . the fu n ction ( I) in re ality e xists on on e p osition we ar e certa in . An " 62 A12 . for if we m u ltipl y t h e eq u a tion s [ 1 8] respectively b y xl x2 o o x a n d a dd t h e res u lts we h a ve . RE L ATI VE MAXIM A AND MIN I MA 10 5 Fro m the n m 1 eq u a tio n s u . their determ in an t m u st therefore v an ish an d we m u st h a ve . n p -m 0 ( 7 t 1. m ). An z. . 2 . .. 0 a a m 1. tha t thi s sy ste m o f equ a tion s m u st determ in e at le a st on e re al sy ste m of v al u es . . C on sequ en tly the first n m lin e a r hom oge n eo u s equ a tion s o f 1 9 ar e co n siste n t with o n e a n other a n d m a be so lved wit h [ ] y res pect to the u n k n own qu an tities x1 x2 o o o o ' c e em . . together with the qu an tities e 1 e 2 em s a tisfies the s y s t e m of . . . a 0 . 2 . l 2 . mu ): 6’ it bein g pres u pp osed th at the s y ste m o f v alu es (xl x2 . m 2’ The equ a tion Ae 0 is cle a rl y o f the n m t h degree in e . a n » “ 12 2 0. . determ in ed Sin ce we k n ow a p riori th a t a m in i m u m v a l u e of . . . . equ ation s w hich is o n l y p ossible if e is a root of the eq u a t i on A e 0 Fu rt h er m ore a m on g the s y ste m s of v al u es x which . o o o . . n ) . Aln ’ a ll: m1 A2 1 : 1 422 9: ’ 2 A2 7» : “ 12 ’ 0‘ m2 E An l . . u = l p = l p = n 1 [ ]9 s z fl = a k xu 1 p ‘ : O (p 1. . .

p 2 73 XLV to . As t r o n o m Na c h r .2 o o e m for w h ic h a s see n fro m . S e e . i Bu rn s id e a nd Pa n n .m -2 _ —m e n B le n + B2e n l) n Bn _m = the n if a ll t h e roots of t his eq u a tio n a r e r e al a n d p ositive the . 4 ) is lik ewis e n egative . . . I I I . i n o r de r tha t ( p be c on ti n u ou s l y p os i ti ve f or a ll s y s te m s o f va l u es f o th e x s ’ w h i ch s a ti s fy th e e qu a ti o n s i t is n e ces sa r y a n d s u i ci en t fi th a t the e qu a ti on Ae 0 h a ve on l y p os i ti ve qu e s tio n n ext a rise s Wh en does t h e equ a tion Ae 0 Th e . 1873 . va lu es xl 2 x o . roots of t h e e q u a tio n Ac 0 ar e all p ositive Th e for m is the n : . r b u t t h e in ve s ’ ’ t iga t ion is so m ew ha t diffi c u lt . . C r e lle . For develo p t h e deter m in an t a ccor din g t o p owers of e a s fo llows : -m _ — m -1 . a s o Ric h e l o t . . I p 5 8 1. = ha ve o n l y p ositive roots ? It m a y b e a n sw e r e d i n a co m p letely rigoro u s m an n er b y m e a n s of S t u rm s t h e o r e m . . c c XI I ( 186 7 ) s e e C c V ol l Vol . Al . f u n ctio n which be lo n gs to s u ch a s y st e m o f v a l u es is a lway s a root of eq u atio n it follows also th a t t h e requ ire d m in i m al val u e of (f: m u st be co n ta in ed a m o n g t h e roots of this eq u ation . n e a tive the n for t h is root we co u ld deter m in e a s y ste m of g . K . c Fe b r ua r y . . a defi n ite q u a dr a tic for m Th e n ec e ss a r y a n d s u ffi cie n t co n ditio n . ’ an d fro m th is it follows th a t Ae m u st . . . S e e Za j a z k c ow s k i . Be r l . of th is eq u a tio n a r e re al a n d the B s ar e a ll gre a ter th an 0 t h e ’ . th a t the for m b e n o t a d e fi n it e on e is t h a t e 0 be t h e s m a lles t ro ot of t he e q u a tio n a bove . is to be co n tin u o u sl y p ositive for t h e s y ste m s of v al u es of t h e r s u n der co n sider a tio n . H e m i e . . g eb r a S u p . An n a l s of th e S i e n t ifi S o c i e t y o f r a ow . . L II. . The o r y of E q u a t i o n s h a p ix . i n Mo n a ts b e r i h t .10 6 T H E ORY OF M AX I M A AND M I NI MA fo u n d w h ich ca lls for t he m in i m u m a n d s in c e t h e v a l u e of t h e . ha ve on l y p ositiv e roots For if on e root of thi s equ a tio n w a s . . c r t Vol rr t V ol ro c r . es peci ally wish to p reserve wo u ld be lost when we applied . coe ffi cie n ts B m u st be a ll p ositive a n d reci p roc all y if the roots . p 43. e 1 e. . . an d the s y m m etr y which we . H e n c e. n e k e . S t u r m s th eore m ’ . As alre a d y re m a rk ed this m in i m a l v a l u e m u st be p ositive if ( I) .

.

. w h e r e an d t hat w e have f ou n d ' W e as s u m e t h a t e k z = V 1. ¢A( E1 E2 9 : l ‘I’ A O : 77 : h 2 0: ¢l ( l 72 ’ n ’ 7 77 22 E2 : E) n : 82 . 71 2. ta ke t he s u m m a tion ov e r th e m fr o m 1 t o n a n d s u b tr ac tin g on e . 7 72 . an d EA ex . o f t he re s u lt in g e qu ati on s fr om t h e o th e r t h e n s in c e (se e [ 1 7 ] o f . t he pre ce d in g c h a pt e r ) Z d ( El E2 nA JA E) EEA‘PA ( 771 nn ): = 77 I . n W 51 62 . it f ollo w s wh e n w e o b s e r ve th a t (I) . n ) . fi are l in e ar f u n c ti on s of t h e v a r i a b l e s t h at . If we fo r m t he s y s te m of e q u a ti on s ( se e [ 1 2 ] of p r e c e d in g c ha pte r ) 2 [ ]4 t he n t h e s e e qu a t i on s m ay alw ay s be s ol ve d if th e ir d e te r m in an t v an i s h e s . 71 ’ 2) mm o E a o. ’ . Sin c e t he r e a lan d t he i m agin a r y p art s of th e s e e qu a ti on s m u st of t he m s e l ve s b e ze r o. . 50A = Ea + mi as a s y s e m t th a t s a ti s f y of v alu e s the eq u ation s We m u s t c on se qu e n tly h av e 52 + 77n d) E2 + 0 ( 7t = 1. . w e ha ve 771)+ 7 E EAWA ( E1 £ 2 ) : ’ 9 0 : 0 1 ‘ 2 [ ]5 “W m . an d « t . u 0 . .10 8 T H E OR Y OF MAX I MA AND M INIM A 81 . N t m ulti ply t h e se e qu ati on s r e s p e c ti v e ly b y n. T hi d s e t e r m i n an t is e xa c tly the sa m e a s th a t in 2 [ ]3 i f w e w r it e n [ \r A= l [ 2.

313 2 . l l n . H e n c e w e h av e t h e t h e or e m : I n or der th a t a q u a dr a ti c for m an ) be i n va r i a bl y os i ti ve . . ” a n d in st e a d o f x w r i t e in « r t h e a r g u m e n ts E + e k 1 x 2 ca (. vi z . . . ‘ . " 2 [ ]6 e 0. i t is and i ci en t th a t th e dev e l p n e c es s a r y su fi o m en t p o f the de ter m i n a n t 2 3 hi ch a dm i ts f on l a l r oo ts . L e t t h e fu n c tion «y v an i sh f o r t h e sy st e m o f v alu e s £2 o o E ) . Th us f or t h e c a se wh e r e the v ar ia ble s ar e ub j e c te d t o n o s c on dition s v e d e r iv e d t h e c rite r i a as t o . th e n \b m a y b e b o th p o s i ti v e g ativ e it an d n e . . whe n a n de d [ ] w o y r e ex p i n p ower s o f e . D e v e lo pin g w i th r e s p e c t t o p o w e r s o f k w e h av e c k l : E2 + 0 k 2 : Eu + cn k ) z 50 k 2 k z ca v ( E1 E2 ra : : 7 + ‘’ dl lc ’ 0 2 ’ on )' l . ac” ) c an ze ro an y s y s e m ues of t h e a r i a bl es v wh ic h ar e n ot al l z e r o. co n s i s t o th a t thes e te r m s be al f n + 1 te r m s and t e r n a te l y p os i ti ve and ne g t i a ve . 83 L e m m a . t hen the e qu a ti o n 2 [ ]6 m u s t be c om p l e te and ha ve c on t i n u a ti on of s ign . R E L AT IV E M AXIM A AND M IN IMA 10 9 I f it is p o s si ble t o fin d qu an titie s a l s y s te m s of value s of t he . b u t s in c e a fte r ou r h y p oth e s i s t h e qu an tit y with in t h e b r a c k e ts c an n o t v a n i sh it f oll o w s t h a t l m u s t b e e qu al t o z e r o . x . th a t i s e v e r y v alu e o f e for w hi c h t h e d e t e r m in an t v a n i sh e s . If a h om oge n e ou s fu n c t ion of the s e c on d d e gr e e o o b e c om e f or t of r e al v al 3( 1 2 1 r x . w h i c h s a ti s f y t h e e q u a ti o n 2 [ ]4 u n d e r t h e a ss um pti on th a t e lc + li th e n th e s e v alue s m u s t s a ti s fy a t t h e sa m e ti m e = . b e in g p r e s u p p o se d th a t t he d e te r m in a n t of \ { i s d r iffe r e n t from ze r o . n . we ha wh e th e r or n ot a h o m o g e e ou s qu a d r a ti c f or m i s a d e fi ni t e on e n d ir e c tly fr om t h e c oe f fi c ie n t s of the fu n c ti on an d in a f or m th at i s p e r f e c tly s m m e t ric y . 52 + c 2 k o § u + c k w h e r e t h e o s a r e in d e te r m in a te c on s tan t s ’ . I f the fu n c ti on i s to be i n v a r i a bl y ne gati ve . . is r e al .

. the n as in 82 it m a y b e p r ov e d th a t . n ) ar e a r b i t r ar y c o n s an s . t he d e t e r m in an t of « » I d h 1. val u e o f e b e e k + li . c a n gi v e t o t h e v a r i a b l es x x v al u e s t h a t a r e n ot a l l 1 2 . o. is n ot e qu alt o ze r o . fr o m ( x 1 . Op os ite v a l p ue s ( a n d t h e n i t is p r o v e d w h a t w e w i s h t o s h o w . x 2 . . . . t he n if l: 0 i t m ay b e s h ow n th a t } = . o o nu . ze ro a n d in s u c h a w a h h i i L h y t a t t e n e qu a t o n s ( )i e x i s t e t t i s . . 2 . Sin c e fu r the r m or e . ) . . n . t hat is . £2 . No w b y t ak in g k s u ffi cie n tly sm all w e m ay c a u se t h e sig n o f t he e x p re s s i o n () i t o d e p e n d o n l y u p on t h e fi r s t t e r m on t h e h an d s i d e o f th a t e xpr e s s i on r igh t . b e i n g i ff e r e n t f r o m z e r o i t f o llo w s t a t I . ( a : 1. t he t w o va l u e s o f t he fu n c t io n a re b o t h z e r o n d th e n f ( a ro m w h a t was se e n in t he p re c e d in s e c t io n \ r c a n t ak e b ot h po s iti v e g [ a n d n e g a t i v e va l u e s) . . t h e f u n c ti on \ c an h a ve b ot h si t i v e a n d n e g a ti v e v a l u e s r p o . 52 o . fr o m t h e par tial d e r i v ati v e s o f ¢< x r l {13 : 2 xn ) _ $ 2.t t we ma y so c h o os e th e m t ha t a - l r l (§ a x a l.1 10 TH EO R Y OF M A XIM A AND M IN I MA By h y p o t h e s is t h e 6 s a e t a l l z e r o ’ an d r no . . am " m b y m a i 1 2 + n ( a a : n ). o o o . . 2 . 2. o o. 84 The d e te rm in an t o f t h e s y s t e m of e q u a tion s [ 2 4 ] i s f or m e d . 50 +1 7 72 ’ "u n : Si n c e b y h y p ot h e s i s l i s n o t u a ti on (i ii ) c a n o n ly ze r o .w . t he eq h e xis t e it e r w h e n £2 o E") a n d 172 o h a v. 1 84> 1 but w e re I () an [ \r eno e t an d re s p e c t n e l y I f thi s 2 8% 2 8% de t e r mi n a n t is e qu a l t o z e r o it f ollo w s t h a t w e f or a v alu e of c . «ra ( a = n ) c an n o t al lbe z e ro . : . t ha t 4r c a n h av e b ot h po s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i ve v a lu e s ) o r w h e n . ) t ( e xr a x 1 .e . . n ) . 0 ( a = 1. He n c e if w e c h oo s e k p os i tiv e or n e g a ti ve w e h av e s y s te m s . . o h i c h m a k e «Ir p o s iti v e o r n e g a ti v e o f val u e s (ml 13 2 x . 2 . D e n o te th e s y s te m o f valu e s (x1 x2 o w h i c h s a ti s f y t h e . . 70 .

.

o o o .s h a v e . 2 . 86 . q . e 2 . t io n s 1 [ ] 5 in te r m s o f t h e re m a in i n g n — m o f t h e a s w h i c h ’ . a 2 . H e n c e the de te r m i n a n t o f th e n e q ua ti on s b g a t e xr a : 0 ( a = 1. u . i t be i n g a ss u m ed th a t the de ter m i n a n t o f I f t ( ) or o «r is n o t ze r o . V -. Sin c e t he r e s u lt o f t h e e li m in a ti on is in d e p e n d e n t o f t h e w ay in wh ic h it ha s b e e n e ff e c t e d w e m a fi r s t c on s i d e r m of t h e y .1 12 T H E ORY OF M AXIM A AND M I N I M A He n c e e ve r y k whi c h c au s e s t hi s las t d e t e r m in a n t t o v a n i s h m us t al s o c a u se t he fi rst d e te r m i n an t to v an i s h Bu t th e l . we f or m f r o m t h e m the n e xpre s s ion s km #0 )t o t he se q u an titi e s m u s t also b e r e al . c l . n an t [ 2 0] w as t h e r e s u l o f e lm n a t i i tin g t h e qu an titie s a 1 . an. em f r om t he n m e q u a ti on s u = n p = m 1 [ ] 8 Z Am cc fi e x. on e ca n p or y the n the de te r m i n a n t f d o ) l l e xr w il h a ve on l y r e a l r oo ts . n ) . We m ay t h e r e f or e sa y : If a m on g al l th e qu a dr a ti c for m s whic h are co n ta i n e d i n the for m ) 4) (x1 . 2 . Th eh e or e m t in 80 i s ac c or d in gl y p r ov e d i n it s g r e a te s t ge n e rality . o o . . + p 2 = l ( )t 1. x2 . [ ] 1 5 afi z u = a l w x fi o (p = 1. n ) ha s a l w a ys it r e a l r oo ts e . m ay be d e n o te d b y £ £ W 1 2 g _ m e t h u. qu an t it i e s s ay : 33 a m e x p r e s s e d b y m e an s o f t h e e u a 1 . mn )+ ( x 1) 33 : 2 xn ) : the r e i s whi c h h a ve on l y os i t i ve on l n eg a ti ve va l u es . 2 . c s ar e ’ l r e al I t fol al lo w s th a t if . fl m [ ] 2 7 m u 2- v l ON E" (p 1. The ca s e wh e r e e qu ation s dition ar e pr e se n t m ay of c on be e as ily re d uc e d t o th e c as e r e ad al y c on s i d e r e d Th e de t e rm i .

. an d t he e qu a t ion in t o ‘l ’ Kgl E2 ’ : ° Th e f u n c tion i s in v ar iably p ositiv e an d is on l y e qu al t o ze r o w he n t h e v ar a i b le s t h e m s e lv e s all v an is h . t h e y e t r e m a in in g £ 5 E M " T h e r e s ult o f thi s e lim i n a ti on 1 2 . Now gi v e u a llv alu e s fr o m 1 t o n m an d w e h av e a s y s te m o f . we h a ve t he f ollo win g e qu a ti on s : " Egg n 1 84> 1 a = 2 2 0 1. a 2 . . 2 . + 2 e n ) . y th e se equ ati on s r e s pe c ti v e ly M ultipl in g by ( h 1. Th e eq u a tion s [ 1 8] m ay b e w r itt e n in t h e f or m : p m 1 = — e x. 6 % ( 1’ n )o 1 o 2 85. 2 as. u —m ) . an A = laxk afy af t ! A= n A= n 333" 1 a w“ x 2. 8x. an ) be t ran s for m e d in t o ‘ 62 . A= n € 82 6‘ 86 2£ —3 axA 85v af l A= l ’ E r as as . n —m l in e ar h om og e n e o u s e qu a ti on s fr o m w h i c h w e m ay e l i m in a t e . o o. A as. 2 agy 1 85V Th e l as t te r m of th i s e qu ation d r op s o u t if w e su b stitu te in it t he e x p r e s se d in t h e E v h i de n t i ’ e xpr e s s i on s s in c e t h e an i s s cal l y . i s an e qu a t i o n in e an d m u s t gi v e t h e s a m e r oots i n e a s The . an d we h av e t h e e qu a ti on s 2 [ ]8 e gg — 0 o . le t ( Ml a . 95v an d a dd in g t h e r e sult s t h e n s in c e . RE L A T IV E M AX I M A AND MIN I MA 113 Th g h t h e s u b s t i t u t i on rou of t h e se v alu e s . . n ). 2 .

. . i t is n e ces s a r y and su fii c i e n t th a t th e for m of q t he e u a ti o n op e d wi th de vel r esp ec t to p owe r s o f e a n d w hi c h h a s on l y r ea l — m + 1 te r m s ed r oo ts . We e xa c t c on d it i o n s n e c e ssa r y f or a h m og e ne ou s qu ad ra tic f m t o b e o or de fi n i t e f o r t h e c ase w h e r e t he va r a b l i es a r e t o s a ti s f y e q u a t io n s o f c o n d i t i on a n d i n a m an n e r y sy m m e t ri c in t h e c oe ffi c i e n t s of t he give n f u n c ti on e n t ir e l toge th e r wi t h th o s e o f t h e g ive n e u a ti o n s o f c o n d i ti on q . m ). A P P L I C A T I O N OF T H E C RI T E R I A JU ST F OU ND TO T H E P R O BL E M OF T H IS HAPTE R C 88 have d e te rm in e d t he . a n . be on l y a c on ti n u a t i on o f si g n if 4 . su ffi c ie n tly em p h a s i z e t h e i t y of t h e r e al r oo s t of e q u a t io n II . whi c h s a ti sfy th e m l s i n e a r ho m oge n eou s e u a ti on s q 1 2 of co n d i ti on ” F o 09 : 2 n : a 1 pfl x fl z 0 (p = 1. allr ea l . c on s i s t f o n an d th a t t h e s ig n s a ss oc i a t wi th thes e te r m s be te r n a te l al y p os i ti ve a n d n e g t a i ve . 2 . The r e m u s t. x . . who did n ot . “ AAMxA$w AAu z Ap V L/ be i n va r i a bl i al l e m s of va l u es of the u a n ti ti e s y p os i t ve f or s y s t q x . ho we ve r . At t he s a m e ti m e w ith t he s olu ti on o f t h i s p r o ble m t h e . pro b le m o f m axi m a a n d m in i m a whi c h w e h av e p r op o se d in t h is c ha t i sol ve d p e r s . 87 . i s to be i n v a r i a bl y ne a ti ve g . The a b ov e m e th o d w as first d i s c ov e r e d by La g r an ge . in e xa c tly t he sam e m a n n e r as t he e q u a t i on s I f th e n Ae . h o w e ve r .1 14 T H E ORY OF M A XIM A AND M INI M A e qu a tion s [ 2 8] a r e h o w e v e r c r e a t e d . is t he d e te r m in an t o f th e se equ a ti o n s i t fo llow s th a t t h e r oo t s of the e qu a ti on Ae O are = . As t he sol u ti on of th e t h e or e m p r opo se d in § 77 t h e fi n al re s ult is [ a or de r tha t the hom ogen e ou s fu n c ti on of th e s ec on d deg r ee x 2) xn ) = 2 A.

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p g wi th r e sp e c t to p ow er s f o e. . b e c a u se t h e qu a n ti tie s Gm v an i sh f or t h e p os iti on ( a 1 a 2 . a 2 . z : 0 . y y s p va n i she s w ith o u t t h e h s b e in g all i de n ti c ally z e r o ( s e e ’ « I n t he l d ‘ a tt e r c as e t h e fu n c ti o n 3 i i fi n ite o r a se m i g( ) x s a n n e d e fin ite fo r m I n b o t h o f th e se c ase s t h e d e v e l opm e n t d b e gin s w it h te r m s [ ] o f t he thir d or h ig h e r d im e n s i on s a n d f or t h e s a m e r ea s on . If the fi r st i s the c a s e. . . 0) o f11 . and F ha s on the p os i ti on ( a 1 . o an ) a minim um va l ue . . as t ha t s ta te d a t t h e e n d of 6 3 w e c ann o t a ss e r t th a t in g e n e r a l a m a xi m u m or m in i m u m w il l e n t e r on t h e p os iti on ( u ‘ . 90 . PR OB L EM I . a 2 .116 T H E OR Y OF M AX I M A AND M I N I M A To do this we for m the de ter m i n a n t fm e . . a nd th e fu n c tio n F ha s on the p os i ti on ( a 1. a ). T hi ite r i o n fa ils h o w e v e r w h e n 4) v an ish e s i d e n t i c ally s cr . 7 m [g] Gn l’ Gn 2 ’ Gn n _ e ’ fl u o ’ ’ c 1 fm fm 0. th e fu n c ti on 4) i s i n va r i a bl y p os i t i v e . f 12 . n a n d it a l so f a il s w h e n t h e s m al le s t or g r e a t e s t r o o t of Ae 0 is h o o se t h e h s t h a t ’ ze ro s inc e in t hi s c as e w e m a a lw a s o c . y r . De te r m i n e the g r e a te s t a n d the sm a l lest c u r v a tu r e t ul i a a re g ar p o n t of a s u r f a c e F ( y ) x . a t te r i s tr u e . ne g tai ve . fm2 fm 0 0) 0 fml ’ t ’ n’ ’ r a nd this de t e r m i n a n t t e q u a l to O is an e qu a ti on o f the m n p u deg r ee i n whi c h h a s on l e a lr oo ts D eve l o in th e de t e r m i n a n t e. th e n the l 4 ) i s i n va r i a bl y o . . a 2 . if on the c on tr a r y . w e h a ve to see w h e the r th e de ve l op — m + 1 te r m s w i th ter n a te l al os i ti ve and m en t con s i s ts o f n y p ti o n si ne g tai ve si g n or wi th on l y con ti n u a o f g n . an ) . . o an ) a ma xim um va lue . W e gi v e n e xt t wo g e o m e t r i c al e xa m ple s illu s tra tin g t he a b o ve p r i n c i ple s .

If at a re gular p o in t P of a pla n e u r v e we d r a w a tan ge n t c t h e c u r v e w e d r o p a pe r pe n ’ an d fr om a n e ig h b or in g p o i n t P on P ' o A —¢ di c u la r P Q ' u pon th is t an ge n t th e n . z ) in t he d ir e c tion of the tan ge n t w h ic h i s de te r m i n e d th r ou gh t h e n o r m als e c ti on in qu e s ti o n . Th e ar c of ’ t he c ir c le PP m ay b e p u t e a lt o th e qu ’ ’ ar c PP of t he c u rv e . an d t h e c e n Th e qu an ti t y r i s c a l t e r M of t h e c i r c l ie s o n t h e n or m a l r a w n t o t h e c u rv e e w hi c h l d t h e p oi n t P i s k n o wn th e f the p oin t P ' at as c e n te r o c u r va tu r e a t . I f w e h a v e a g iv e n s u r fac e a n d if t h e n or m a l a t a n y r e g u la r poi n t of t h is s u r fa c e i s d r a w n th e n e v e r y pla n e d r aw n th r o u gh . I f th e c ur ve is a c ir c l e with 1 ra di us r . 7 the r e for e . when P an d P ar e t ak e n ve ry n e ar e ac h ot h e r . the t c u r va u r e of the c u rve is d e t e r m in e d th r o u gh the f o r m u la ’ 2 P Q 1 [ ] 1 z f p q F1 e . . the v alu e tha t 2 Pr o As ap pr o a c he s . Now t c on s ru c t t he os c u l a ti n g c rcl i e whic h p a ss e s th r o u g h the tw o n e i gh b o r in g p o in t s P ’ an d P of th e g iv e n c u rve . the s am e f or al l p o i nts of the c rcl i e . if w e l et P ’ c om e in d e fin ite ly n e ar P . or . y. r is t he ra di us of thi s c ir c l e. RE L AT I VE M AXI M A AND M IN I MA 117 ' . I P ha s t h e JV sam e or o pp o si e di t i o n a s t h a t d i r e c t i o n o f t h e n o r m al w h i c h h a s t re c be e n c ho s e n p o s i t iv e . is c al le d t he cu r u r e of va l the c urv e at t h e p oin t P . wh at am ou n s t t o the sa m e t hi n g . Th e c u r va tu r e of th i s c u r ve at the p oi n t P is c al le d the cu r v a tu r e of the s u r fac e at t h e p oi n t P : ( as. Th e c u rva u r e t is c ou n e t d p os itiv e or ne g a ti v e a c c o r d in g as t h e ' lin e P Q . an d c on s e qu e n tly if . thi s n orm al will c u t t h e s u r fa c e in a c u rv e w hi c h h a s a t t h e po i n t P a d e fi n i t e t an g e n t a n d a d e fi n i t e c u r v a t u r e in t h e s e n s e gi ve n a b ov e . 11 d le t h e r a di u s of c u r va tu r e . t he ab ov e ra t io a pp r oac h e s " as a lim i ti n g v al ue an d is .

2 [ ] 0 = F1 (x 2 l 2 ’ 2 33( x l+ F2 2 (y 30 + F z 2 2 ’ ’ ’ 2 F12 ( w ’ 00 )(v a) 2 Fe e (r a)( z z ) 2 F31 (z ’ 2 )( v . if w e w r i t e f o r b r e v it y [ ] 4 a nd t a ke as t h e p os it i e v d ir e c ti on of t h e n or m al o f t h e s u r f a c e at t he poin t P th at d ir e c tion f or w hi c h H i s os it iv e . Th f e re o re .1 18 T H E OR Y OF M A XIM A AND MIN IM A Fol lo w in g t he d e fi n iti on s give n a b ove it i s e as y t o fi x t he y tic an al con c e pti on o f u r va tu r e o f a s u r fa c e an d t h e n t o the c for m ula te t h e in a n an al pr oble m y ti c m a nn er . t he e q u a t i o n o f t h e s u r f ac e m a y b e w r itte n i n t h e f or m : . r an d fl H H H C n se o q u e n tly t he d i sta n c e f r om P ’ t o the t an g e n tial pla n e is [ 1 5 ’ P Q — = z > . The ne g a ti ve or itiv e si gn is t o b e giv e n t o t he p r e s s i on po s ex on t he r ig t -a n h h d s id e di t he l ’ ac c o r ng a s e n gt h P Q has the sam e . t h e n t h e p dire c t io n - c os in e s of th i s n or m a l a r e 1 L 3 1 52 . s a n e igh b or i n g p oin t o f P o n t h e s u r fa c e ' If y ’ z ) i . C ar e t h e ru n n n i g c o or din a te s ' . . ’ o 8F 23 F 8F w he r e PI F2 ax 89 oz 2 2 8F2 6F 8F Fm “ ’ F2 2 : F33 2 z 2 333 ay 82 2 2 2 8F 8F 8F F12 F2 3 away ey es Be ats The e qu a t io n of t he t an g e n t ial plan e at t h e p o in t P is 3 [ ] F1 ( E w he re E .

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a m ax im u m v al u e f or a d e fi n i t e s y s t e m of v al 8 an d u es ( a 7 ) . . . . . y is t o l ' i e in t h e tan ge n ti al pla n e o f t h e s ur fac e a t t he po i n t P w h ile t he se c o n d e q u a ti o n i s t h e w e l . an d s i n c e it i s a r e g ul . . p 25 9 . th e r e for e . . W e ha ve al so to o b s e rv e th at the v ar a i b le s a . t he fir s t of w hi c h s ay s th a t the d i re c ti o n w hi c h is d e te r m in e d th rough a . . S u ppo s e th at t h e n or m al plan e w hi c h i s d e te r m in e d th r ou gh t h e dir e c ti o n a 8 y i s t u r n e d a b ou t t h e n o r m al u n t il it r e t u r n s . . . . ' t o i t s or igin al p osit i on Th e n while a 8 y v a r y in a de fin ite . we se e th a t t he po s itio n of t he cen er t of c u r va t u r e is in d e p e n d e n t of the c h oi c e of t he di re c ti o n of the n o r m al . e v e r y in s ta n c e . j has t he sa m e v al ue f or al l n or m a l s e c tion s a id t hr ough t h e s am e ' tha t are l n or m al . a r f u n c ti on i t m u s t h av e .12 0 T H E OR Y OF MAX IM A AND M IN IM A x — x = o Fn a + F2 W3 + z 2 2 F317 a [ ] 8 3 / yo “ : 2 Flla + F2 2 3 + 2 z — z = o F11 a 2 + F2 2 . 8e e S a lm o n . [ ] 9 2 — 1 a + B+ 2 7 2 . se e k th e sy ste m s o f v al 8 . u e s at . 8 y m us t . * W e h av e . . 8 . A Tr e a t ° is e on th e An a ly ti c Ge o m e t ry of Th re e D i m e ns io ns ( Fo u r t h Ed l tlo n ).8 + 2 o 2 F31'ya S in c e H d oe s not a ppe a r in th e se e x p r e s s i on s . l-k n o w n a ti o n a m o n g t h e d i r e c ti on - re l c o s i n e s o f a s t r aig h t l i n e in s pa c e . sa ti s fy t he e qu a ti o n s o f c on d ition Fla 0 . . . lik e w i s e als o a m in i m u m v a l u e f o r a n ot h e r d e fin ite sy s te m of v al ue s (a 8 y ) . . m an n e r t h e f u n c tion x o f a 8 7 a s s u m e s d iff e r e n t v a l . F11“ + F2 2 3 + F337 + 2 F1 2 a l8 + 2 F 37 2 2 2 2 F317 “ 23 as s u m e s it s gr e a te s t an d it s le s s m al t valu e . Th e qu a n t ity . 'y) for w h i c h t h e e xp r e ss i o n to u es ( a . . .

fr om [ 7 ] we h av e 1 e 4 — [ ] 1 x H o p . Th ro ugh e lm n ai i ti o n w e h av e F11 “ 6’ FI 2 . an d c on s e qu e n tly giv e s u s t w o v alu e s c1 a n d e 2 w hi c h are m a xi m u m an d . F2 12 0 [ ] F31: F32 » Fss 6: F3 . F1 . F2. m in i m u m v alu e s s in c e b oth m axim um a n d m i n im u m v alu e s . F3. ’ f r om w h ic h w e m u s t e lm in a e i t a. . Th e se e qu ati on s ar e F137 0. an d e . 1 [ ]3 Fu a 2 + F2 2 8 2 + F33 y + 2 F12 a 8 r 2 2 F2 38 }! 2 F31 rya 6 . 8. an d we t he n hav e 8 9. e n te r . REL AT IV E M AXIM A AND M IN I M A 12 1 Fol lo win g t h e m e t h o ds in di c a t e d in 8 9. w he r e FM : FM ( . to for m t he e qu a t i on s 3G 8G 3G 80: dry Fla + F2 B+ F37 0. . by a. y ' . l F2 1“ + e = or 11 F31“ ‘ lF32 8 ' ' + ( F33 Fla: F2 8 F37 0. w e w r it e 10 [ ] G = 2 F11a + F2 2 8 + 2 o 2 F31rya ? ’ + [3 + y z 2 ( c a « 1) 2 e ( 1 F a F2 8 + F37 ). He n c e . F1 F2 1» F2 2 “ 6’ F2 3 . as sh o wn a b o v e Mu l tiply i n g t h e fi rs t th r e e e q u a ti on s [ 11] . 0 T hi s is an e q u a t i on of the se c on d de gr e e in e. 8. 7 r e s p e c ti v e l y an d a ddi n g t h e r e sult s w e h ave . u 7t 1. 2 . F13.

I o c . v iz . . . w e h av e Z Z— 1 [ ]7 H e L e +M = 0. p . W he r e 2 F12 F1F2 l ‘ ‘ 2 F31F3F1 an d M — F — = F ( 2 2 ss F 2 gl f i 33 11 F + F F F 2 31 ) 2 F 2 _ 2 2 _ F F + ( F1 1 F2 2 F12 l F3 + ( 12 ls F F 2 3 11l 2 F F3 + ( F2 3F2 1 — F F F 12 sl 1 2 ° Fr o m [ ] 1 7 w e h a ve at on c e t he v alu es of the su m an d t he pr o du c t of t he t w o p r i n c ip al c u rv a t u r e s . * in t h e for m 2 D 2 3F2 F3+ 2 D 31F3F1 == 0 D e v e lopin g thi s ex p r e s s ion w i th re s p e c t t o p ow e r s of e . ( se e e qu a ti on 1 1 L PI P2 H [ ] 18 l M 4 P1P2 H S e e S a lm o n . le t us w r it e 2 D 11 : ( 22 F 3 )( ss F 6 ) F2 3 : D 12 : F2 3F13 _ F12 ( F33 an d for m fr o m the se t h e c or r e sp on d in g qu an titie s th r ou gh t h e i c in te r c h a n g e o f t h e in d i c e s E qu ati on [ 12 ] m ay b e w r itt en c yc l . c it . T H E OR Y OF M AXIM A AN D MIN IM A Co n se q y u e n tl t h e t w o p r in c ipal c u rv a t u r e s at t h e p oin t P h av e t he v alues 1 31 PI H [ ] 1 5 1 6 —2 P2 H an d t he c oor d in a tes of the c or r e s p o n din g c e n e r s of c u r v a t tur e are fou n d fro m t he f or m u lae F1 F2 _ F 3 _ — P x : 9 m ’ 71 ‘ e 1 1 16 F1 _ F2 x " ' x ‘ " 55 — 2 02 02 6 e 2 2 2 In or de r to d e te r m in e e. 25 7 .

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