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Bryce Pilkey, Cap Holley, Andrew Fowlkes

Waylon Ross, Michael Macheski

Honors Social Studies

11 December 2016

Annotated Bibliography

Primary Source:
"212 S. Elm Street S.H. Kress Building." City of Greensboro, NC : 212 S. Elm Street S.H.

Kress Building. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2016. <http://www.greensboro-

nc.gov/index.aspx?page=1006>.

In 1960 high school students took part in a sit-in at a Kress Department Store lunch

counter. Their actions inspired many men and women to take part in their own Civil

Rights movements in the future. We will use this by showing what one of the Kress

stores looked like. This is relevant because it shows the location of past sit-in. This is

credible source because it was taken at a Kress Department Store.

"African American History." Knowitall.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

<http://www.knowitall.org/collections/african-american-history>.

This picture from knowitall.org shows the Charleston Hospital Strike where women and

African American staff protested for equal pay. This picture is important because it

shows the staff protesting and because it shows the determination of the workers. The

picture is related to our project because it is about equality. We used this picture in our

project on the timeline page. This picture is credible because it was found on an .org

website.

"Background - Mendez v. Westminster Re-Enactment." United States Courts. N.p., n.d. Web. 11

Dec. 2016.
This is a primary source that is an image showing a picture of a girl on a poster saying

“Toward Equality in Our Schools,” This source is important because the case of Mendez

v. Westminster it was the first time the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in a state

school was unconstitutional. We plan on using this source to demonstrate a case that

was a result of the case of Plessy v. Ferguson and that it led the way for the Brown

decision. This is a credible primary source because it came off of a website containing

information from that time period.

"Blackballing Brown v. Board of Education." Intellectual Conservative. Jonathan Henderson, 5

May 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

This picture from nps.gov is of a newspaper stating that public schools would no longer

be segregated. This information is important because it marks the end of unjust

school segregation. The case is also related to our project because it the accomplishment

of one of the major battles against segregation. We will use this picture in our project

when explaining about the Brown v. Board court case. This picture is credible because it

comes from a .gov website.

"Briggs vs. Elliot Civil Rights Case, African American Monument." Briggs vs. Elliot

Civil Rights Case, African American Monument. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

This is a primary source that is a statue with the cases of Brown v. Board of Education

and Briggs v. Elliot on it. This source is important because it presents two of the main

court cases the challenged segregation in schools. We plan on using this in our project to

explain the stand taken by Harry Briggs in the case of Briggs v. Elliot and also the stand

taken in Brown v. Board of Education. This is a credible primary source because
it comes from a website that presents a lot of information regarding this

subject.

"Briggs v. Elliott." South Carolina's Equalization Schools 1951-1960. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec.

2016. <http://www.scequalizationschools.org/briggs-v-elliott1.html>

This is a primary source that is an image showing African American children getting off

a school bus on the side of the road. This is an important source because in the case of

Briggs v. Elliot they originally wanted a school bus, and then later challenged

segregation in schools. We plan on using this source in our project to demonstrate how

the case of Briggs v. Elliot led to the equalization of schools. This is a credible primary

source because the image was taken at the time of the case of Briggs v. Elliot.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Implementation Decree; May 31, 1955; Records of the

Supreme Court of the United States; Record Group 267; National Archives.

This is a legal document written that contains information regarding an appeal to the

United States Supreme Court regarding the court case of Brown v Board Of Education.

This is important because it has information recalling what has already happened in the

case. It is relevant to our research because it supports our thesis that states that Homer

Plessy’s stand leads to other court cases going against segregation laws. This is a

credible primary source because it contains the actual appeal to the Supreme Court.

"Charleston Race Riot..." Charleston Race Riot... - RareNewspapers.com. Timothy Hughes,

2017. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.

This a newspaper article that highlighted an event that happened in Charleston during

the time of Jim Crow Laws. This event is known as the Charleston Race Riot of 1919.

We will use this in our website as a picture that can give the viewer more information.
This is relevant to our project because it shows an example of a violent racial attack. We

used this in our project as a picture that can give the viewer more information. This is a

credible source because it was an article that gave correct information.

"Charleston, S.C. Riot (1919) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed." Charleston,

S.C.Riot (1919) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. Cooper, Weston W., n.d.

Web. 11 Dec. 2016. <http://www.blackpast.org/aah/charleston-s-c-riot-1919>.

A horrific racial riot took place in the Summer of 1919. It started because of a rumor of

African Americans killing white sailors. The sailors lashed out and began to beat and kill

African Americans and also raided businesses and restaurants during the riot. This is

relevant to our project because the riot was done to challenge the racism that was created

by white sailors. We will use this to show what was going on at that time period. This is

a credible because it shows how many people died fighting for equality.

"Dizzy Gillespie." Biography.com. A&E Networks Television, 08 July 2014. Web. 11 Dec.

2016. <http://www.biography.com/people/dizzy-gillespie-9311417>.

This picture from biography.com is of Dizzy Gillespie. This picture is important because

it shows viewers what he looks like. Mr. Gillespie of one of the most famous examples

of African AMericans leaving South Carolina to escape the legacy of Plessy v. Ferguson.

He is important because his music inspired people in the South who were being

discriminated against to take a stand against segregation. We have used the story and

music of Dizzy Gillespie to explain that some people protested by leaving the South and

many protested through art and music. We will use this picture in the timeline part of our

project. This picture is credible because it is from a website containing many factual

pieces of evidence.
Ellis, G. "The Great Migration Archives - A Blog Called Wonk." A Blog Called

Wonk. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2016. <http://ablogcalledwonk.com/tag/the-great-

migration/>.

After Plessy v. Ferguson many African Americans who had enough money left the South

and moved to the North in hopes of escaping “separate but equal”. They did this because

they thought it was their best possible chance to escape total racism. We will use

information to explain how people felt about racism in the south. This is a credible

source because it comes from an author with background experience and expertise on

the subject.

EndPlay. "Nine Things about the Friendship Nine." WSOC. N.p., 28 Jan. 2015. Web. 11 Dec.

2016. <http://www.wsoctv.com/news/local/nine-things-about-friendship-

nine/52933835>.

This picture from wsoctv.com is of the remaining members of the Friendship Nine. It is

important because it shows us what the Friendship Nine did and the consequences that

they faced due to their actions. It is related to our project because it is about segregation.

We will use this in our project when adding pictures in for the timeline. This picture is

trustworthy because it is from the archives of a well-established television station.

"G) Education Continued (redirected from G)." Unceduc415 / G) Education Continued. N.p..d.

Web. 11 Dec. 2016. <http://unceduc415.pbworks.com/w/page/25001543/G>.

This is a primary source that is an image showing an integrated school during the Civil

Rights Movement. This image is important because it shows an integrated school after

the court case of Brown V. Board of Education which led to the integration of schools.

This is relevant to our research because in our thesis statement we stated that Homer
Plessy’s stand led to other court cases in the future and the court case of Brown V. Board

of Education led to the desegregation of schools which is demonstrated in this image.

This is a credible primary source because this image was on a website created by a

historian showing no bias.

Feedback, Constructive. "Blood On The Sidewalks & Water Hoses - Then And Now."

Politics, Priorities, Psychology and Hope WITHIN The Black Community. N.p.,

24 June 2010. Web. 11 Feb. 2017.

This is a primary source that is an image demonstrating actions done to African

Americans that took a stand against segregation. This is relevant to our project because it

shows African Americans being hosed down by whites due to the fact that they were

protesting segregation. We used this in our project as an example of the horrors of

segregation and what happened to those who did not abide to it. This is a credible

primary source because it comes from a website that contains other factual information

regarding segregation and what blacks suffered because of it.

New Ulm review. (New Ulm, Brown County, Minn.), 20 May 1896. Chronicling

America Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress

<http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89081128/1896-05-20/ed-1/seq-2/>

This source is a newspaper article written by the New Ulm that contains information

about the court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson and the reaction of different political leaders

and influential people in the area. This is important because it provides information

about people’s reactions to the court ruling which explains how many people viewed the

decision as either acceptable or unacceptable due to their viewpoints. This is relevant to

our research because it provides information about the case Plessy v. Ferguson which
was the legal foundation of the “separate but equal” doctrine. This is a credible resource

since it was from a newspaper found on a credible site.

"Plessy v. Ferguson." Can the US Supreme Court Settle Moral Issues? N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec.

2016. <http://usscmorals.weebly.com/plessy-v-ferguson.html>.

This image from usscmorals.weebly.com is drawing of two railroad cars, one for whites

and one for blacks. The black railroad car was ugly and dirty and the one for whites is

very clean and nice, therefore this picture is important because it shows how races were

separate but not equal. This information is related to our project because our thesis is

about the struggle against separate but equal and we used this information in the

timeline. This source is a credible because it contains lots of factual information.

Supreme Court of the United States. Plessy v. Ferguson. New York: Banks & Brothers Law

Publishing, 1896. Law Library, Library of Congress (014.00.00)

This source is an excerpt from Banks and Brothers Law Publishing that contains

information about court rulings in the past and the outcomes of those rulings. This

information is important because it has background information on the case Plessy v.

Ferguson and the ruling of the case that comes in a caption with it. It is relevant to our

project because it involves the court case of Plessy v. Ferguson and other cases similar to

it that we could use in our project. We will use this research to provide the official ruling

in the court case and show how it inspired other people in the future to bring their cases

to court. This is a credible primary source because it comes from an official book of

court cases that is featured in the Library of Congress.
The Saint Paul Globe. (St. Paul, Minn.), 19 May 1896. Chronicling America: Historic American

Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

<http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90059523/1896-05-19/ed-1/seq-1/>

This is a newspaper article in the “Saint Paul Globe” that contains information regarding

the “Jim Crow” car court case. This is important because the “Jim Crow” car case was

actually the court case of Plessy V. Ferguson and the result of that court case. This

information is relevant to our project since it explains the stand that Homer Plessy took

against segregation laws. We will use this research to explain the court case of

Plessy V. Ferguson and the result of the case and what effect it had in the future. This is

a credible primary source as it is from an established newspaper called “The Weekly

Messenger.”

The St. Martinsville [i.e. St. Martinville] La.), 23 May 1896. Chronicling America: Historic

American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

<http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88064454/1896-05-23/ed-1/seq-1/>

The source states information about the background of Plessy v. Ferguson which will

later be used to help with the description of the source. This information is relevant to

the project because it provides information about the ruling in the case of Plessy v.

Ferguson. This is a primary source. This is a credible source because it is a newspaper

that can be found in the Library of Congress.

"Thurgood Marshall." Haiku Deck. N.p., 20 Nov. 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

This is a primary source that is an image showing federal judge Thurgood Marshall

standing alongside two other men in front of the United States Supreme Court. This

source is important because judge Thurgood Marshall helped make many key decisions
in the Supreme Court regarding racial differences. We plan to use this in our project to

develop how Homer Plessy’s stand led to other court cases challenging segregation and

the “separate but equal” doctrine. This is a credible primary source because it is an

image of Thurgood Marshall during his term in the Supreme Court.

"Who Was Jim Crow?" National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 6 Aug. 2015. Web.

11 Dec. 2016.

This is a primary source image showing a picture of African American carrying a coffin

with a banner above it stating “Here Lies Jim Crow.” This is important because Jim

Crow was the name given to laws that created segregation. These laws were protested

from the Plessy case (1896) through the 1960’s. My group plans on using this

information in our project by incorporating this as an example to show how people

protested segregation laws during the Civil Rights Movement. This is a credible primary

source because it comes from a website that is accepted worldwide.

Secondary Source:

"Arrested for Sit-In, 'Friendship 9' Convictions To Be Overturned." NBC News. N.p.,n.d.Web.

08 Nov. 2016.

In January 1961, a famous South Carolina sit-in took place in Rock Hill. Nine African

Americans attempted a sit-in at a local shop. Before some of them even got into the

store, they were arrested. This interview is relevant to our project because it shows an

example of civil rights protest taking place in South Carolina. The interview also shows

how the people that took part in the sit-in feel about the issue of segregation. We will use

this source to show how racist and how segregated the South was in the 1960s. This is a

credible source because NBC is a well-respected television network.
Brief of the Attorneys for the Plaintiffs (Charles E. Bledsoe, Charles Scott, Robert L. Carter,

Jack Greenberg, and Thurgood Marshall) in the case of Oliver Brown, . . .delivered in

the United States Court for the District of Kansas, June 1951. Page 2. NAACP Records,

Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (54) Courtesy of the NAACP

This is a written document in the case of Briggs v. Elliot that contains information about

the case for the attorneys and plaintiffs. This is important because it is the briefing

provided in the court case of Briggs v. Elliot which explained the whole reason for the

event and why Briggs wrote his petition which started the operation. It is relevant to our

project because it is a court case against segregation laws and we will use this research

to support our thesis statement. Homer Plessy’s stand led to other court cases which

attacked segregation laws. This is a credible primary source because it is featured in the

Library of Congress.

Brown v. Board of Education: The Supreme Court Ends School Segregation Mazzarella

Educational Media, 2001. Video Segment Discovery Education. Web. 1/11/2016.

http://www.discoveryeducation.com.

This video from Discovery Education is about how segregation began and ended and

how Brown v. Board of Education played an important role in it. It is important because

it’s about the rise and fall of segregation and how Brown v. Board played a role in the

end of segregation because the case officially ended segregation in schools. This source

is relevant to the project because it is related to the fight against segregation. We used

this in our project in both the beginning and the end to explain how this relates to our

thesis. This information is credible because it comes from Discovery Education, a very

credible educational source.
"Brown V. Board Of Education Of Topeka, Kans." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th

Edition (2016): 1. History Reference Center. Web. 16 Oct. 2016.

This is an article from the History Reference Center about the Brown v. Board of

Education court case and how segregation violated the 14th amendment. It is important

because the case ends separate but equal laws and starts desegregating public schools.

This source is relevant to our project because it is about separate but equal laws

becoming illegal where as in the Plessy case they were deemed perfectly legal. We will

use this in our project by comparing how the public's view of segregation was changed

between 1896 (Plessy) and 1954 (Brown.) This source is reliable because it is from the

History Reference Center, a well-respected research provider.

Craven, Julia. "6 Things You Should Know About The County Where Sandra Bland Died." The

Huffington Post. Huffington Post, July 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2017.

In this article there is a picture of a lynching. It accurately depicts what a common

hanging looked like and what some citizens thought about the violence. We used this in

our website to show how evil segregation could be. This is relevant to our thesis because

it deals with the unjust act of segregation and the retribution taken against those who

tried to end it. This is a credible source because it comes from the Huffington Post,

which is a highly respected news organization.

Crittenden Press. (Marion, Ky.), 13 Oct. 1892. Chronicling America: Historic American

Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

<http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86069457/1892-10-13/ed-1/seq-1/

This is a newspaper article written by the Crittenden Press that contains information

regarding the Jim Crow Car Law in the state of Texas. This is important because the
“Jim Crow” car law is the law that Homer Plessy took a stand against. This information

is relevant to our project because it contains the penalties if Whites or Blacks were not

sitting in their designated sections of the train car. This is a credible primary source

because it is a newspaper article featured on chroniclingamerica.com which contains

newspaper articles in the Library of Congress.

Charleston Hospital Workers' Strike. 30 Apr. 1969. Avery Research Center, Charleston,

SC.Web.

This photograph was originally published in the Charleston newspaper, The News and

Courier. It shows Coretta Scott King marching with a number of female hospital

workers who were on strike. The workers were protesting unfair treatment and unequal

wages in their jobs in several local hospitals. Mrs. King, the widow of Martin Luther

King, Jr., went to Charleston to show her support for the people involved. This

information is important because it shows everyday citizens taking a stand for equality.

It also shows that the strikers garnered the attention and support of people all over the

United States. Although this was fifteen years after the Brown case and five years after

the Civil Rights Act of 1964, discrimination was still a very real thing. This is relevant to

our research because we plan to illustrate the long struggle for African American liberty

in South Carolina. We used this picture to show that it was a long, hard-fought struggle.

This is a credible source because the Avery Center is devoted to preserving the past of

African Americans and the Center also focuses on teaching modern-day students about

the many sacrifices that were made to promote equal rights.

Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2016.
This is a secondary source that contains information regarding the court cases of Brown

v. Board of Education and Briggs v. Elliot. This information is relevant to our project

because the source explains the events that took place during both of the court cases and

why the court cases took place. This is important because the court cases of Brown v.

Board of Education and Briggs v. Elliot both challenged Plessy v. Ferguson and both

challenged the “separate but equal” doctrine. This is a credible secondary source because

it comes from a website that was created by the government for informative purposes.

"Expeditionary Diplomacy." MountainMornings. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.

This is an image of a landmark of the Kress Department Store sit-in in Charleston, South

Carolina. This landmark was made because of the sacrifices many high school and

college students made when they acted in a sit in. This is relevant to our project because

it is an example of a protest on segregation. We will use this image as an example of

what the students earned as a result of their protests. This is a credible source because

accurately highlights what happened during the sit in.

Friendship Nine Sit in. 31 Jan. 1961. Rock Hill.

The Friendship 9/ Rock Hill 9 was a defining moment in the fight for civil rights. The

image shows African Americans illegally sitting in a whites-only café. They were

protesting segregation in the south. This is relevant to our project because it shows an

example of a major civil rights movement in South Carolina. We will use this to give a

visual example of what the sit-in looked like. These men and women took a stand by
sitting down were they were not supposed to. This is a credible source because the

image was taken and the sit-in.

Gillespie, Dizzy. Pickin’the Cabbage. Cab Calloway Band. Vocalian. YouTube. 10 Mar. 2014.

Famous jazz musician, Dizzy Gillespie, was born and raised in Cheraw, SC. Much of his

music was written about his experiences growing up in the rural, segregated South.

Pickin’ the Cabbages is one of those songs. This song will be used for background music

as it shows that African Americans stood up to oppression by making their own music

and, in Dizzy’s case, by leaving the South entirely. This is a credible source because the

song has been published and performed in many formats.

History.com Staff, History.com Staff. "Plessy v. Ferguson." History.com. A&E Television

Networks, 2009. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

The article stated that Plessy v. Ferguson was a civil rights case that took place in

Louisiana. Plessy lost, making “separate but equal” legal across the United States. The

source relates to our topic because Plessy took a stand in 1896 challenging the “Separate

but Equal” doctrine. Over the next six decades, thousands of other Americans would

have to fight to end the legacy of this Supreme Court decision. We will use this source to

show the beginnings of legal segregation. This source is credible because it was created

and published by History.com which is recognized by many historians to be a credible

source.

""Jim Crow" Street Car." "Jim Crow" Street Car. Library of Virginia, 2016. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.
This is a newspaper article during the time of the Jim Crow Laws. The sub heading for

the article was “How it Works in Richmond.” It highlighted how a White man got away

with something he shouldn’t have and how and African American women got fined for

something she shouldn’t have. This is relevant to our project because it highlights the

problems of the Jim Crow Laws. We will use this in our by providing a visual of what a

newspaper article looked like in the past. This is a credible source because it was made

during the time of its subject.

Kress Department Store Sit-In. 2 Apr. 1960. Charleston, SC. Low Country Digital History

Initiative. Low Country Digital History Initiatives. Web. 16 Oct. 2016.

In 1960, a number of students from Burke High School in Charleston, SC, enacted a sit-

in at the Kress Department Store lunch counter. This picture shows the students sitting

respectfully while waiting to order. Although they were never served, the sit-in impacted

the entire state. Boycotts of white businesses followed the protest and eventually

Charleston businesses were desegregated. This is relevant because even teenagers were

willing to take a stand against unequal treatment. The Low Country Digital History

Initiative is used by historians across South Carolina and so we trust it as a credible

source.

Langston, Hughes. "One Way Ticket." N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2016.

During the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes wrote a poem named “One Way

Ticket.” The poem highlighted the reasons why African Americans wanted to leave the

South. This relevant because it puts focus on how many black men and women felt

about racism in the South. We will use this poem to show what African Americans
thought about the South. This is a credible source because it was originally written by

Langston Hughes.

Lawrence, Jacob. Jacob Lawrence's Migration Series. N.d. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag.

Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Jacob Lawrence is a well-known artist who painted during the Great Migration. His

paintings were descriptive of the Great Migration during time time in the South. The

paintings are widely accepted in many museums in the North and South. This is relevant

to our project because it shows illustrates how many people left the oppression of the

South. We will use this to show how some people protested segregation. This is a

credible source because it was painted by Jacob Lawrence.

NBCNews. "Civil Rights Activists 'Friendship Nine' Exonerated | NBC Nightly News."

YouTube. YouTube, 29 Jan. 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2017.

This is a secondary source that is about the stand taken by the Friendship 9

when they did a sit-in. This relates to our project because the Friendship 9 took

a stand against segregation and “Separate but Equal” which was what Homer

Plessy had originally challenged. We used this in our project to provide

information about what had happened at the sit-in and why they were arrested.

This is a credible secondary source because this comes from a news website

that only provides factual information and has their information checked often.

"North by South: Charleston to Harlem, The Great Migration." Http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/.

Kenyon College, 1998. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.
This website shows the movement of African Americans from South Carolina to New

York during the days of Jim Crow. After Plessy, almost every aspect of life in South

Carolina was segregated by race. Many African Americans moved away from the South

if they could afford it. This was one way that African Americans dealt with their unequal

treatment. We will use this source to show that the results of the Supreme Court case

were so horrible that many people were forced to flee their homes. This is a credible

source because it was published by the National Endowment for the Humanities which

is a well-respected educational organization.

"Orange County." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and

Records Administration, Web. 09 Oct. 2016.

This is the description and background of the decision from a case in California that

challenged the idea of “separate but equal” schools. In 1947, the California Supreme

Court decided that Orange County could not segregate Hispanic and White students.

Thurgood Marshall was one of the lawyers for the Mexican family who filed the suit. He

would become one of the lead attorneys in the South Carolina desegregation case of

Briggs v. Elliott. This was an important case because it set everything up for the U.S.

Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education which eventually helped to

desegregate schools. This is a credible source because it is from the National Archives.

We will use this document to show that segregation was happening all over the nation.

Plessy v. Ferguson had a widespread impact.
“Parade for Victory” Humanities. The Grainger Collection, 14 Feb. 2014. Web 16 Oct. 2016.

https://www.loc.gov/item95517725.

This image shows a civil rights parade in Detroit, Michigan, in 1944. The men are

carrying a coffin and signs that say “Bury Jim Crow.” Protests that consisted of people

carrying around objects that challenged Jim Crow were common throughout the nation.

We will use this picture to show that African Americans stood up against segregation;

they did not simply accept unequal treatment after Plessy v. Ferguson. This is a credible

source because the Library of Congress has one of the most respected collections of

historical documents in the nation.

“Plessy and the Era of Jim Crow”. California Newsreel , 1990. Video Segment

Discovery Education. Web. 26 Sept 2016.

This video from Discovery Education presents information about the Plessy v. Ferguson

court case and the Jim Crow laws that followed it. This information is important because

it shows how blacks were treated and how the separate but equal laws were corrupt. This

information is relevant to my research because it relates to Plessy v. Ferguson and

segregation. I will use this information to explain what the court case was about. This

source is credible because it comes from Discovery Education.

"Plessy V. Ferguson.(2009): 1. History Reference Center. Web. 16 Oct. 2016 .
This is a transcript of the original Supreme Court case of Plessy v. Ferguson from the

History Reference Database in Discus, and includes the judges’ opinions. It is important

because it demonstrates the jurists’ legal perspectives of the case and of the final ruling.

It is relevant to the project because this court case legitimized separate but equal laws

and allowed segregation to flourish in southern states. We used this in our project when

we explained the judges’ opinions on how Homer Plessy’s Fourteenth Amendment rights

were not violated. This source is credible because we found it on Discus, which is

curated by the S.C. State Library.

Plessy v. Ferguson Case Upholds Segregation Ambrose Video Publishing, 2005. Video Segment

Discovery Education. Web. 1/11/2016. http://www.discoveryeducation.com.

This video from Discovery Education is about the Plessy V. Ferguson court case and

how the Supreme Court sided with Louisiana and did not make segregation illegal. It is

important because it shows how “separate but equal” laws became more popular as a

result from the court case. This source is relevant to my project because it’s about

segregation and Homer Plessy and the stand that he took regarding segregation. We will

use this in our project in the beginning when we explain how separate but equal laws

came into play. This source is credible because it is from Discovery Education.

“Plessy vs. Ferguson and Declaring "Separate but Equal" Media Rich Learning, 2010. Video

Segment Discovery Education. Web. 26 Sept 2016.

This video from Discovery Education is about how the Plessy v. Ferguson case led to the

creation of separate but equal laws. It is important because this is demonstrating the

effects of the Plessy v. Ferguson court case, the foundation of our project. We will use
this in our research to explain the effects of the court case. It is credible because it comes

from Discovery Education, a well-respected educational organization.

"Prison Culture » They Burned Down Harlem in ’64…." Prison Culture RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11

Feb. 2017.

This website has an image that shows what a “segregation riot” looked like during the

Jim Crow era. The image showed what looked like a white police officer about to fight

an African American in the street. We used this photo to highlight what evils segregation

brought to America. This relates to our thesis because it deals with the evils that used to

be in the United States. This is a credible source because the book was written by an

established historian.

Richmond planet. (Richmond, Va.), 17 Nov. 1917. Chronicling America: Historic American.

Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

This is a newspaper article that has information on the Supreme Court case: Plessy v

Ferguson. It states that though the public facilities Whites and Blacks could use were

separate, the Supreme Court recognized them as being equal in services provided. We

will use the information in this newspaper article to show that powerful people

interpreted the constitution at the time in their positions in the government. This

information is relevant because it explains the effect of Plessy v Ferguson and it shows

that even authoritative people interpreted the Constitution in a way that would not be
accepted today. This source is credible because it is a well-respected newspaper in a

major U.S. city.

Themaddprof. "The Charleston Race Riot of 1919." YouTube. YouTube, 2014. Web. 16 Oct.

2016.

In 1919, there were riots all across America. One of them took place in Charleston, SC,

after a group of sailors began harassing and injuring black citizens. Many of the African

Americans retaliated with violence. One historian has said this event was the beginning

of the Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. We will use this story to show that

black citizens took a stand against abuse through the use of force. This lecture is credible

because it is written by a history professor who has researched a book about race issues

in our state.

“WESTMINSTER SCHOOL DIST. OF ORANGE COUNTY Et Al. v. MENDEZ Et Al.

UCLA, Web. 9 Oct. 2016.

This is the actual court decision from a case in California that challenged the idea of

“separate but equal” schools. In 1947, the California Supreme Court decided that Orange

County could not segregate Hispanic and White students. Thurgood Marshall was one of

the lawyers for the Mexican family who filed the suit. He would become one of the lead

attorneys in the South Carolina desegregation case of Briggs v. Elliott. This was an

important case because it set everything up for the U.S. Supreme Court case of Brown v.

Board of Education. This is a credible source because it came directly from the court.

We will use this document to show that segregation was happening all over the nation.

Plessy v. Ferguson had a widespread impact.
Wormser, Richard. "Plessy V. Ferguson." PBS. PBS, 2002. Web. 01 Sept. 2016.

This is a website that comes from PBS that contains information on the issues

surrounding the Supreme Court case of Plessy v. Ferguson. This information is

important because it describes what happened during the court case. This information is

relevant to our research because it explains what was going on during the process of

Plessy v. Ferguson such as the decision in the case and the process that caused this to

happen. We will use this information in our research to provide details about the specific

events that led to this important decision.The information will provide a foundation for

our entire website. This is a credible source because it was made by PBS, a highly

respected educational channel.

Young, Joe. Dizzy Gillespie. 9 Sept. 2010. Dizzy Gillespie Park, Cheraw, SC. Cheraw,

SC.Roadside America.com, 9 Sept. 2010. Web. 16 Oct. 2016.

Famous jazz musician, Dizzy Gillespie, was born and raised in Cheraw, SC. He moved

to Philadelphia at the age 18, to escape racism. Jazz and the Blues were two genres of

music that came out of the Black experience of the Jim Crow south. Musicians and

artists used their art forms to stand up against the injustices they had seen. This picture is

of a statue that now resides in Cheraw, SC. The person who was once discriminated

against is now celebrated. This is a credible source because the photographer took the

picture in the Dizzy Gillespie Park.