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(Christendom, the free world, or whatever they call it); There is the question.

It has to do with the Labour
or to the nihilistic onslaught that we call fascism; or to Party’s ability to confront a capitalism capable of success
Socialism expressed in thought and action. And Socialism in its own terms. It has to do, very precisely, with the
is a total rejection of the practice and values of the next election. It has to do with the social and moral
existing society, combined with a comprehensive ad- leadership of a generation. It has to do with the future
vocacy of a new society with new values and new of Socialism as an idea and as a movement. And it has to
institutions. do with the survival of the Labour Party.

C.N.D. After The Election I
Frank Allaun
“WHAT SHOULD We do now?” asked the secretary of a the expense of their rivals. They have never reached
live Lancashire group of the Campaign for Nuclear agreement in this way and I fear they never will.
Disarmament. Such a breakdown may occur before long. In which
“We’ve held a public meeting. We’ve been to see our case the alternative paths will become even more stark
M.P. We addressed five trade union branches. Now we and clear: one Government having the courage and
feel at a loss to know what to do next.” sanity to cut the vicious circle or else the acceleration of
To which my reply was—and is: “Keep on as you the arms race.
are doing. You are succeeding far better than you Even limited nuclear action, e.g. unilateral stopping of
realise.” all tests immediately, should be welcomed. For the first
It is less than two years since the CND held its first step is always the most difficult. If Britain declared she
public meeting in Central London on a cold February were ending her tests forever it would, I believe, force
night in 1958. Yet look at the movement today, with its the hands of America and Russia to do the same. This,
350 active groups. Think of the two Aldermaston in turn, would create the atmosphere in which agree-
marches, the greatest demonstrations in Britain since ment to go further along this road did become possible.
the Hunger Marches. Make no mistake, the CND is going to be very much
Then there is the tremendous impact on the Labour in the news in future.
movement, the majority vote at the T.U.C. for ending I feel that the Campaign should be directed against
U.S. missile bases in Britain and the huge minority vote the Government and its policy. It’s no use appealing to
for stopping H-bomb manufacture unilaterally, and the arms workers to give up their jobs. That only diverts
137 resolutions on the agenda of the postponed Labour attention from the real guilty men.
Party conference urging unilateral action. The result of the General Election hasn’t really
Remember, too, that what we are seeking is no small altered the situation. All it means is that whereas the
thing. To ask that a nation should give up the most Conservatives had a majority of 60 they now have a
powerful weapon in its arsenal is almost a revolutionary majority of 100. We’re not much worse off.
demand. Frankly, I believe that the CND has made I regret to say there is little chance of converting
astonishing progress—far greater than I ever expected Conservative M.P’s. I have listened to them carefully
in so short a time. inside the House of Commons. There is not one I can
I hope that no New Left Review readers will be misled name who will publicly support unilateral nuclear dis-
by the reopening of the Geneva talks on stopping tests armament. (This applies to Conservative candidates too.
or by the prospect of a Summit conference, into thinking Not a single Tory candidate said “yes” to the CND
that the campaign is now less urgent. Naturally there questionnaire on the eve of the election). The Govern-
are few things I’d rather see than the success of these ment will only respond to pressure.
conferences. But I am pessimistic. In the course of the struggle against the Government’s
Ever since 1922, Disarmament Conferences have policy we shall be educating the public and simul-
come—and gone—without reaching agreement. More taneously influencing the Labour Party. And this is
recently the UN Disarmament Sub-Committee— what matters most. Our main hope is to convert Labour
Britain, America, France, Canada and Russia—has met —partly by the CND activity challenge to Whitehall;
in London. They held 173 sessions, and failed to agree partly by CND members using the rights they possess to
on a single point! The Geneva talks started in the autumn fight for their point of view inside the Constituency
of 1958 and are still without a successful conclusion. Labour Parties and the trade unions.
Why? Because suspicion between the Governments is I have referred earlier to some sensational changes
so great that they are not really seeking agreement so in this direction which have already taken place. If the
much as an excuse by which they can blame their T&GWU can vote as they did by 700 to 50, why not
“enemies” for the breakdown of the talks or else some the AEU, the NUM and the NUR? The Labour Party
formula which will give them an advantage in arms at is ultimately a democratic organisation. You do not

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normally change the policy of a big organisation over- I conclude by returnin got the opening question. I
night. Provided however, sufficient numbers of workers can understand the fear that the CND, having reached
want a thing badly and determinedly enough, they can a certain height, may, like other movements, peter out.
get it. I estimate in about 18 months from now. I don’t think that will happen. As long as the threat of
What an impetus that will give to the Campaign! nuclear war lasts so long will the Campaign continue to
And what an impetus it will give to the Labour Party grow. For what is almost unconsciously manifesting
too! We talk about the apathy of youth. Youth are not itself is the instinct of the human species to avoid
interested in such questions as municipal sewerage. They extinction.
can be moved by great issues—such as the Bomb. There There were some doubts about the second Aldermaston
were more young people on the Aldermaston marches march. Might it not prove an anti-climax to the first,
than there are in the whole of the Labour Party youth and thus mark the decline of the movement? In fact it
sections in Britain. Let the Labour Party adopt the was more than twice as big. I hope there will be another
courageous CND policy and they’ll inherit its youth Aldermaston and that it will show we have doubled in
following as well. strength once again.

C.N.D. After The Election II
Christopher Farley
IT IS a new situation for the Campaign for Nuclear hands of the Party; the cynical Labour “peace” cam-
Disarmament. The General Election marked the end of paign rushed forward after the first Aldermaston march
the Campaign’s first phase of life, and further meaning- (one Strachey pamphlet, two meetings, silence); the
ful existence depends considerably on whether the new phoney “non-nuclear club” proposals when there was
situation is recognised as such. In less than two years the a hint of revolt in the unions; and the sickening recall
emphasis in the CND has changed markedly from that conference of the National Union of General and
of a moral and anti-political movement to that of a Municipal Workers after it had spoken out of turn. All
pressure group on the Labour Party. One doesn’t easily these kicks in the Campaign’s teeth indicate that the
forget the applause in the Central Hall in February 1958 dessicated calculating machine and his colleagues that
for A. J. P. Taylor’s denunciation of the politicians. control the Party are more than gentlemen—they are
“Cynical references to the Labour Party,” J. P. W. ruthless.
Mallalieu observed in that week’s New Statesman, “were They are also spineless. In the language of The Times’
applauded as heartily as references to the Tories.” By Political Correspondent, the result of the Parliamentary
contrast, a speech a few weeks later from Frank Allaun Party’s ballot, announced on November 5,
at the close of the first day of the Aldermaston march “has given to Mr. Gaitskell a Shadow Cabinet that
showed how far some people had anticipated the mood neatly balances intellectuals and trade unionists and
of the Campaign. His invitation to marchers to “come contains no Left-wing extremist. It is a Shadow
on in” and join the Labour and trades union movements Cabinet with most of its weight in the centre of the
met with a coldness bordering on contempt. But all that Party.”
was long ago. From then until the Election, the CND In other words the Parliamentary Party will continue to
became increasingly concerned wich the Labour Party. make very little use of the many occasions, particularly
The aim was to “convert” the Party and return a Labour in foreign affairs, on which the Government acts mon-
Government, preferably in that order but not necessarily strously. There is no reason to suppose from this sort of
so. Many rank-and-filers believed that the arrival of a Shadow Cabinet that the Parliamentary Opposition will
Labour Government would be half the Campaign’s shake the Tories out of power—or their nuclear stance—
victory won. Well before October 1959 the CND was in the coming five years.
seeking first the kingdom of Labour in the hope that all Considerations such as these raise crucial and im-
Campaign things would be added unto it in office. mediate questions for the CND, and though nobody has
Indeed, those who dared to suggest that Campaigners all the answers it is surely absurd if some Campaigners
should vote for their own policy and not that of are not even trying to locate the right questions. It will
the Party received negligible support and much be a very different nuclear world in five years’ time,
abuse. even if the arms race has not come to fruition. The
We now have continued Tory rule, probably for Bombs will have spread, the tactical weapons will be
another five years. This has been a serious defeat for shared out and installed and the latest obsolete weapons
Labour—the fourth consecutive set-back since 1950— will be coming off the production lines. What do we
and its significance has yet to be appreciated in some want the CND to do meanwhile? “Keep on as you are
quarters of both the CND and the Party. There has doing”? Is it going to be a Campaign solely “directed
also been a series of defeats for the Campaign at the against the Government” (which inherited Labour’s

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