The detection of enemy submarines is one of the is a watertight unit that is used to convert electrical
Navy’s major problems today. There are many types energy into acoustical energy and acoustical energy
of equipment in use that aid in the detection and back into electrical energy. The transducer acts like a
tracking of submarines. As an aviation electronics loudspeaker in an office intercom system, alternately
technician, you will need to understand the principles converting electrical energy into mechanical energy
used in these equipments. Once again, every effort is and mechanical energy into electrical energy. The
made to discuss as many different platforms and transducer acts like an underwater loudspeaker during
equipments as possible. transmission and an underwater microphone during
reception. The sound waves produced by a sonar
SONAR PRINCIPLES transducer are represented by the circular lines shown
in figure 4-1. Refer to this figure as you read the
following text.
Learning Objective: Identify factors that
affect the behavior of a sound beam in water. When the diaphragm of the transducer moves
outward, it moves the water next to the diaphragm.
The word sonar is derived from the initial letters This produces a high-pressure area or compression in
of SOund, NAvigation, and Ranging. The word sonar the water. When the diaphragm of the transducer
is used to describe equipment that transmits and moves inward, the water next to the diaphragm moves
receives sound energy propagated through water. inward. Thus, a low-pressure or rarefaction is
Airborne sonar equipment is commonly called produced in the water. As long as the diaphragm is
“dipping sonar,” and is used aboard various vibrating, alternate compressions and rarefactions
helicopters. Sonobuoys, also a form of sonar, will be travel outward from the transducer in the water. The
discussed later in this chapter. distance between two successive rarefactions or two
successive compressions is the wavelength of the
The operating principles of sonar are similar to
that of radar, except sound waves are used instead of
radio frequency waves. When the sound wave strikes
an object, some of the energy reflects back to the
source from which it came. Since the speed of the
sound wave and the time it takes to travel out and
back are known, range can be determined. By
knowing the direction from which the sound echo is
reflected, the operator can determine the bearing

The type of sonar equipment that depends
primarily on a transmitted sound wave and the
reception of an echo to determine range and bearing
of a target is known as echo-ranging or active sonar
equipment. Another type of sonar equipment is
referred to as listening or passive sonar. This type of
sonar uses the target as the sound source. Although
most sonar equipment can be used in either mode of
operation, surface ships and aircraft generally use the
active mode, and submarines use the passive mode.

In echo-ranging sonar equipment, the source of
Figure 4-1.-Sound waves produced in water by a transducer.
the sound wave is a transducer. The sonar transducer


sound wave. The frequency (in hertz) of the sound Reflection
wave is the number of wavelengths that occur every
Echoes occur when the sound beam hits an object
or a boundary region between transmission mediums
FACTORS AFFECTING THE SOUND in such a manner as to reflect the sound or to throw it
BEAM back to its origin. Reflection of sound waves
sometimes happens when a wave strikes a medium of
The particular sound waves of interest to the different density from that through which it has been
sonar operator are the waves that leave the sonar traveling. This will occur in cases where the two
transducer in the form of a beam and go out into the mediums are of sufficiently different densities, and
water in search of a submarine. If the sound beam the wave strikes at a large angle. This happens
finds a target, it will return in the form of an echo. because the sound wave travels at different speeds
through the two different densities. For example, a
The use of sonar equipment depends on the sound wave traveling through seawater is almost
presence and the recognition of an echo from a target. entirely reflected at the boundary of the water and air.
Detection of the echo depends on the quality and The speed of sound in seawater is about four times
relative strength (loudness) of the echo compared to greater than the speed of sound in air, and the density
the strength and character of other sounds, since they of water is more than 800 times greater than that of
tend to mask or cover it. air. Therefore, practically all of the sound beam will
be reflected downward from the sea surface.
The sonar operator should know what factors can
weaken the sound beam as it travels through water,
Similarly, when a sound wave traveling through
what factors in the seawater determine the path and
the seawater strikes a solid object like a submarine,
speed of the sound beam, and what factors affect the
the difference in the density and the sound velocity in
strength and character of the echo. Any signal
the two mediums is such that all but a small amount of
strength lost during the beam’s travel through the
the sound beam will be reflected. That portion of the
water is known as “transmission loss.” Some of the
beam that strikes surfaces of the submarine
factors determining transmission loss are discussed in
perpendicular to the beam will be reflected directly
the following paragraphs.
back to the origin as an echo.

Absorption and Scattering In calm seas, most of the sound energy that strikes
the water surface from below will be reflected back
Some of the sound energy emitted by the source down into the sea. A scattering effect occurs as the
will be absorbed while passing through the water. sea gets progressively rougher. In these
The amount absorbed this way depends on the sea circumstances, part of any sound striking the surface
state. Absorption is high when winds are great is lost in the air, and part is reflected in scattering
enough to produce whitecaps and cause a directions in the sea. In water less than 600 feet deep,
concentration of bubbles in the surface layer of the the sound may also be reflected off the bottom. Other
water. In areas of wakes and strong currents, such as factors being equal, the transmission loss will be least
riptides, the loss of sound energy is greater. over a smooth, sandy bottom and greatest over soft
Therefore, echo ranging through wakes and riptides is mud. Over rough and rocky bottoms, the sound is
difficult because of the combined effect of false scattered, resulting in strong bottom reverberations.
echoes, high reverberations, and increased absorp-
tion. Absorption is greater at higher frequencies than
at lower frequencies.

Sound waves are weakened when they reach a When sound waves echo and re-echo in a large
region of seawater that contains foreign matter, such hall, the sound reverberates. Reverberations are
as seaweed, silt, animal life, or air bubbles. This multiple reflections. Lightning is an example of this
foreign matter scatters the sound beam and causes from nature. When lightning discharges, it causes a
loss of sound energy. The practical result of quick, sharp sound; but by the time the sound of the
scattering is to reduce echo strength, especially at thunder is heard, it is usually drawn out into a
long range. prolonged roar by reverberations.


In seawater. These small objects varying temperature differences in the sea. The sound beam called the salinity of water. In that same sound beam will travel at approximately shallow water. This results in bending. the range at which a 1. Salt content in seawater is roughly the same at all depths. Pressure (caused by increased depth) The farther the target is from the sonar transducer. away from the area of higher temperature (higher There are three main types of reverberation. 3. An example of this is a Reverberations from nearby points may be so loud sound beam traveling from an area of warm water into that they interfere with the returning echo from a an layer of cold water. The density of seawater is approximately 64 pounds per If there were no temperature differences in the cubic foot.700 to 5. the difference in salinity is too small 4-3 . so does sound. There is reverberation from the mass of water. The curved paths.000 yards. with a different temperature. and reflections of sound waves from the sea surface and distorting of the sound beam. in terms of slopes. There are three main characteristics of seawater that affect the speed of the sound wave traveling Divergence through it.700 feet per second to 5. Unfortunately. A similar case often arises in connection with are not as extreme as the large effects produced by sonar. the sound beam would travel in a straight line. contribute to it. Such a change in salinity is second as the temperature increases from 30°F to considerable at the mouth of a river emptying into the 85°F. follows: As a result of refraction. but follows small echo. the y seem to be a continuous sound. and this range may change completely known. the weaker the sound waves will be when they reach it. although fish and other objects sharply with changing submarine depth. especially over rocky and rough bottoms. Near sea increased roughness of the sea surface.080 feet per second. Sound waves often strike small objects in the temperature changes in the sea. it is said to be echoes from all these disturbances are called refracted. A sound beam is refracted when it passes “reverberations. while fresh water has a density of about water. The speed of sound in seawater varying salinity. splitting. This Speed of the Sound Beam is most intense immediately after the sonar transmission. The intensity As mentioned previously. 2. level. the speed of sound is not constant This means that as the sound travels through water of at all depths. sound travels much of the reverberation increases markedly with faster in seawater than in the atmosphere. intense of the three. 62. The combined When the sound beam is bent. increase in the speed of the sound beam in the water. it then decreases rapidly. Elsewhere.300 feet per with more salt content. Each object produces a beam does not travel in a straight line. the sound cause the waves to scatter. such as fish or air bubbles. would spread and become weaker at a relatively The overall effect of increasing the salinity is an constant rate. Temperature (the effect of which is calculated This is known as spreading or divergence. it travels faster through the water increases from 4. They are as sound velocity). These characteristics are as follows: Just as the beam from a searchlight spreads out 1. submarine can be detected by sound may be reduced Causes of this type of reverberation are not to less than 1. Salinity (the amount of salt in the water) and becomes weaker with distance.” Since they are reflected from from a medium of a given temperature into a medium various ranges. 2. or gradients) Refraction There is a high mineral content in seawater. This difference is caused This happens because the speed of sound would be by the salt in the seawater. which may return to the transducer. There is reverberation from the surface.300 feet per second. the sea bottom also create echoes. sound travels through the atmosphere at approximately 1. There is reverberation from the bottom. Because of the sea. this type of reverberation is the most 4. The sound beam will bend target. or sound velocity) toward the lower temperature (lower backward scattering of the sound wave. Salinity and pressure effects on sound speed sea. 3.4 pounds per cubic foot.

high-pressure area. When the surface of The temperature of the sea varies from freezing in the sea is cooler than the layers beneath it. the beam upwards. the and has little effect for the operator. Figure 4-3 shows what happens when temperature depending on the temperature. the temperature gradient is isothermal Figure 4-2. and the water has a temperature can also decrease by more than 30°F positive thermal gradient. Thus. The pressure effect is always present and always acts in the same manner. speed of the sound increases with depth. In this temperature increases. When the sea gets colder as the depth increases. the the polar seas to more than 85°F in the tropics. with depth. The Notice in figure 4-2 that the sound beam bends speed will increase with increasing temperature at the upward. and the sound beam is refracted Depth and Temperature downward. the extreme differences and variations. temperature. but when it does happen. Except at the mouths of great rivers where salinity If the temperature remains the same throughout may be a factor. situation. the path of the sound beam will be the water.-The effect of a positive thermal gradient. This difference in speed is also very small Even though the temperature does not change. the speed of sound in water increases as the the water has a negative thermal gradient. the effect of temperature far outweighs the effect of affect the rate of travel of the sound beam determined by the pressure effects of depth and by significantly. This is an unusual from the surface to a depth of 450 feet. and may be ignored. increases steadily with depth. Figure 4-2 illustrates the situation the speed of sound in the sea increases proportionally when the temperature does not change with depth.-Bending of a sound beam away from a Figure 4-3. the condition. rate of 4 to 8 feet per second per degree of change. The speed Temperature is the most important of the factors increase is due entirely to the effect of pressure. Remember. 4-4 . it tends to bend Since sound travels faster in water under pressure. The temperature increases with depth. it causes the temperature is the most important factor because of sound beam to be refracted sharply upwards. affecting the speed of the sound beam in water.

The thermocline. 3. This structure consists of three layers as follows: 1. Under positive 4-5 . Remember.-Isothermal conditions. which a submarine gains when it submerges below layer depth. The rest of the ocean. which is a region of relatively rapid decrease in temperature. and that the echoes received are often weak and sound “mushy. Layer effect is the partial protection from echo ranging and listening detection. A surface layer of varying thickness with uniform temperature (isothermal) or a relatively slight temperature gradient. (constant temperature). the layer depth is the depth of maximum temperature. Under normal conditions the sea’s temperature structure is similar to that shown in figure 4-5. The surface layer of water in the figure is isothermal. the path of the sound beam through the water will change. the temperature may be uniform. If this arrangement changes. thermal gradient condition. the sound beam bends away from the warmer water. the sound beam refracts upward due to pressure.-Normal sea temperature structure. with slowly decreasing temperature down to the sea floor. or a weak positive or negative gradient may be present. 2. when no temperature difference exists. Refer to figure 4-4 as you read the following text. Above layer depth.” Figure 4-4. top of a sharp negative gradient. but beneath this layer the temperature decreases with depth. Reports from surface vessels indicate that effective ranges on submarines are greatly reduced when the submarine dives below a thermocline. Layer depth is the depth from the surface to the Figure 4-5. When the temperature changes with depth. This causes the sound beam to split and bend upward in the isothermal layer and downward below it.

as the train goes off in the The Doppler shift works both ways. decreased. the emitter is moving When the source of wave motion is moving towards towards the listener (closing). The third sound is the most important one.) When the energy is transmitted from a stationary source. This apparent decrease in frequency is depends on the relative velocity between the receiver known as DOWN Doppler. This apparent hand. they were heard as a high-pitched sound because The sonar equipment deals with three basic of the shorter distance between waves. (Because of sounds to deal within the discussion of Doppler effect space limitations. The second sound is the resulting in the lower pitch. The factors that and the source. it occupies less distance in space. the pitch of the horn would have changed. 4-6 . This means there are only two and has a definite physical wavelength. encountered. just as a If that cycle is emitted while the source is moving. Relative velocity is the resultant determine the amount of Doppler shift are the velocity speed between two objects when one or both are moving. Thus. an increase in frequency. etc. sent out by the equipment. Most of the equipment signal is composed of many cycles of acoustical is designed to blank out this signal so that it doesn’t energy. compressed ahead of the train. the pitch of the signal at the receiver and the frequency of the Doppler whistle is high. One of these sounds is the sound actually train went by. the received as illustrated in condition (1) of view B. is used in a was. cycle is being radiated. only every 10th wave is illustrated in sonar. it will not change the pitch of the sound. When there is relative motion between the source of a wave of energy and its receiver. Consider just one of these by the time the trailing edge leaves the source.” The amount of change in wavelength decreased. If you examine 1 second of the audio signal The sound sent into the water (the actual ping) is radiated by the train whistle. If the particle is source will move a small distance while the complete stationary. view B. pitch that it had when it went out. known as angle 8. Refer to figure 4-6 as you reverberations that return from all the particles in the read the following explanation of Doppler effect. As the train passes you. When the sounds. seems to drop. away from the receiver. Then. An example of this is what you hear at a railroad formula to determine the velocity of the emitted crossing. The wavelength occupies more distance in space. The emitter is moving away from the listener This change in wavelength is called the “Doppler (opening). crossing. and the angle between the direction of motion of the You have heard the term Doppler effect many receiver and the direction of motion of the sound times. the ball would if thrown against a wall. but may not have known what the phenomenon emitter. The Doppler on the train and had listened to a car horn at the effect causes the changes in the pitch. the pitch shift. more waves per second are received than compressed. As they came toward you. The effect at the the wavelength of the audio signal has been receiver is an apparent decrease in wavelength and. frequency differs from the transmitted frequency. the pitch of the whistle is low. This angle. you will see that the seldom heard by the operator. fish. the sound waves were drawn out. If you were distance. a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y h a s b e e n therefore. When the cycle is the receiver. the leading edge Reverberations are echoes from all the small will move out in space the distance of one wavelength particles in the water. fewer waves per second are The opposite is true in condition (3) of view B. in view A of figure 4-6. The trailing edge of the cycle The sound will return from the particle with the same radiated will be closer to the leading edge. transducer hits the particle and bounces back. On the other proportionately increased (shifted). As a train approaches. water—seaweed. when the source remains stationary.DOPPLER EFFECT Figure 4-6. the velocity of the receiver. of the sound emitter. which gives the effect of a longer wavelength and an apparent decrease in frequency. The effect is the same because the relative motion is Sound waves generated by the whistle were the same. the echo from the submarine. A sound wave from the cycle will then occupy its exact wavelength in space. when the source of wave motion is moving increase in frequency is known as UP Doppler. In condition (2) of view B. Notice the wavelength of the sound from the stationary emitter. The particles for a moment. Each cycle occupies a definite period of time distract the operator. and the frequency has been proportionately effect. shows the effect of relative motion on a radiated audio signal.

Therefore. B. Remember. and the particles transducer in this example is pointed dead astern. Figure 46-Doppler effect. It is just as if the detect a higher note than the one sent out. If the transducer were the oncoming train. In the same way. Now suppose the particles “hear” a higher note and reflect this that the transducer acquires forward motion and a higher note. that as the lower note than the one sent out will be heard. back a sound that has the same pitch. a were occupants of the car. A. the pitch of the whistle sounded and sends out a ping of 10 kHz. 4-7 . the sonar equipment will ping is sent out dead ahead. the particles all send higher to the occupants of the car. One sine wave of the audio signal. One-second audio signal. If the sonar transducer is stationary in the water train came forward.

Figure 4-8. the sound beam sounds higher to the toward nor away from the transducer. When the submarine is neither going manner. The horn sounds shown in figure 4-8. It is as though the submarine is the train heading toward the car that is Now consider the echo from the submarine. (See figure 4-7. it reflects the same sound as the particles in the water.-Comparison of echo frequency and effect is absent when submarine is stationary or moves at reverberation frequency when submarine moves away right angles to sound beam. the particles in the water will echo the same note sent out because the transducer is neither going toward the particles nor away from Suppose that the submarine is going toward the them.) transducer. If it is in either condition. the transducer is shown higher as the train approaches the car.-Transducer supported by helicopter. If the transducer is aimed perpendicular to the Figure 4-9. as shown in figure 4-9. In the same stationary. Figure 4-7. direction of motion. from transducer. Consequently. 4-8 . it must be either submarine as it approaches the transducer. Again. the submarine echo has exactly the same pitch as the reverberations from the particles.-Transducer installed on a moving ship. blowing its horn at the crossing.-Comparison of echo frequency and reverberation frequency when submarine moves toward transducer. Doppler Figure 4-10. stopped or crossing the sound beam at a right angle.

Therefore.) stationary. and operating principles of an airborne This figure shows 12 submarines traveling at various sonar system. a submarine moving at 6 knots directly at the transducer returns an echo of higher frequency than one moving Learning Objective: Recognize components only slightly at the transducer. the submarine’s wake is reverberations. its wake returns an echo with a frequency different from that of the Doppler shifted The degree of Doppler indicates how rapidly the submarine echo. Refer to figure 4-11. the reverberations. The submarine reflects an echo of higher pitch speeds and courses with respect to a stationary than that caused by the particles in the water. Relatively speaking. For example. a submarine moving directly toward the transducer at 6 knots returns an echo of higher AIRBORNE SONAR SYSTEM frequency than one moving at only 2 knots. which transducer supported by the helicopter. Figure 4-11-Varying degrees of Doppler effect due to differences in course and speed of submarines. 4-9 . In this case. Notice how are not moving. (See figure 4-10. Also. The opposite form of Doppler shift will occur when the submarine Doppler also makes it possible to distinguish the is heading away from the transducer. submarine is moving relative to the transducer. When the echo from the oncoming the Doppler of each submarine is influenced by its submarine is higher in frequency than the echoes from speed and direction. the Doppler is high. the difference between a wake echo and a submarine pitch of the echo is lower than the pitch of the echo.

and is protected by a waterproof outer video signal applied to the CRT. components that makeup the AN/AQS-13E sonar detecting-range set. This meter displays the opening or closing speed of the Dome Control selected target. The DISPLAY switch selects raise and lower the transducer (dome). The cable contains 30 INTENSITY controls the brightness of the overall shielded conductors in a braided steel strength CRT. The bearing and range indicator (fig.-Azimuth and range indicator. There are either sonobuoy signals or sonar signals to be shown three switches and two indicators on the face of this on the CRT. The TEST switch a lightweight. This information is supplied when the sonar operator sets The following text will discuss the various the receiver TARGET switch to VERIFY. The range is displayed Azimuth and Range Indicator on a five-digit display that shows yards to target. There is also a dimmer switch that controls the The azimuth and range indicator (fig. aspect.-Bearing and range indicator. It is initiates the built-in test functions and analyzes the capable of detecting. press the control box. Figure 4-13. 4-12) is intensity of the display illumination. To activate the sonar set. The DEPTH-FEET indicator advises the POWER switch. and presents the MAJOR COMPONENTS pilot with target bearing and range information. and controls the brightness of the cursor. The Sonar Detecting-Range Set AN/AQS-13E is the exception of the dome control. Figure 4-12. It provides the means for the operator to track targets. The VIDEO GAIN controls the level of the member. this sonar set provides capabilities for underwater voice Bearing and Range Indicator communication and generation of echo-ranging. positioned at the sensor station. The CRT is pretensioned on the reel. This activates the entire system with operator on how far the transducer is lowered in feet. and stationary underwater objects. echo-ranging. There are colored bands switch controls the level of the audio signal. The MTI THRESHOLD switch selects the range rate threshold of targets to be This control box (fig. 4-10 . dipping sonar set. 4-13) is mounted on the instrument panel. meter called the RANGE RATE-KNOTS meter. 4-14) allows the operator to displayed on the CRT. and classifying moving results. spaced along the length of the cable to aid in checking The right side of the indicator face contains a the amount of cable payed out. Also. The bearing is displayed on a three-digit display that shows degrees magnetic. and bathythermographic recordings. tracking. There are four Cable Assembly and Reel controls on the left hand side of the indicator for operator comfort. The CURSOR INTENSITY switch The special purpose cable is 500±5 feet long. The AUDIO GAIN covering of polyurethane.

The SEAT indication. 4-15) uses a hydraulic motor to raise and lower the dome. This recorder is used for both the sonar system and the magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) system. A standard one-half inch. square-drive speed wrench. Recorder The RO-358/ASQ-13A recorder (fig. When the operator selects the AUXILIARY RAISE switch. a level wind assembly. and it resets the SAD machine to either raise or lower the dome. PULSE switch enables the operator to select transmit pulse duration while in the aspect mode. 4-11 . PATTERN SHIFT knob shifts the information to the left. The REFERENCE switch enables the s witch/indicator is used to raise the transducer from operator to select a new stylus during MAD the trail position to the seat position. The RANGE RATE switch compensates for target range rate when in the aspect mode. which comes with the reeling machine.-Dome control. The SAD indicator/switch indicates when a SAD The RAISE/LOWER switch activates the reeling signal is being processed. which are electrically and The hydraulic cable reeling machine (fig. The reel rotates to pay out or retrieve the cable. The level wind is chain-driven from the gearbox assembly. indicates that the transducer is in the seat position. 4-16) is located at the sensor operator’s station and displays information on chart paper. MAD will be discussed later in this chapter. The sequence of raising or lowering is accomplished by energizing solenoids on the hydraulic control package. which programs hydraulic pressure to release or retrieve the dome. Figure 4-15. When the handcrank is used. can be used to manually release or retrieve the cable. the transducer will be electrically raised in the Sonar Hydrophone and Sonar Projector event of a hydraulic malfunction. mounted on the frame. As the cable goes out or comes in. and then operations. A Figure 4-14. moves laterally to wind or unwind the cable evenly. The MODE switch selects the mode in which the recorder will operate. while the operator of the transducer’s position.-Hydraulic cable reeling machine. The combination of these two components. The recorder contains the following switches and indicators on its faceplate: The CHART MOVE switch provides for rapid chart movement. the electrical circuits are disabled. The CONTRAST control allows the operator to control The TRAIL/UNSEATED indicator advises the the intensity of the recorded trace. The underwater transmitting and receiving element consists of a projector (transmitting array) Hydraulic Cable Reeling Machine and a hydrophone (receiving array).

mechanically connected. and a pressure the water. transformer. The flux gate compass forms a portion of potentiometer. providing an output to 4-12 . 4-17). The projector is composed of six the display stabilization loop. The projector converts the electrical pulses from the sonar transmitter to acoustic pulses The projector assembly of the dome contains a that are radiated in an omnidirectional pattern through projector. is referred to as the DOME matched ceramic rings (barium titanate) and a tuning (fig. a flux gate compass. Figure 4-16.-RO-358/ASQ-13A.

Sonar Receiver The sonar receiver (fig. end bell. located on the front cover of the transmitter. 4-13 . A three-digit BEARING display that indicates filled with oil. an indicates the range of the cursor circle in yards. The hydrophone assembly consists of 16 stave 6. An AUDIO switch/indicator for selecting sealed. A MODE switch for selecting the operating mode of the sonar. and and range indicator. These signals are amplified and selected by the cursor circle position. 4-19) develops the signals to located on the end bell. The staves. A five-digit RANGE-YARDS display that assemblies bolted to a cork-lined fiber glass barrel. A POWER circuit breaker. The output of each stave is applied to a preamplifier. The following switches and indicators are mounted on the front panel of the receiver: 1. A temperature sensor for measuring temperature of the water is The transmitter (fig. 2. projector is covered with a black neoprene boot that is 5. convert the received acoustic pulses to audio from all eight sectors. A RANGE SCALE-KYDS switch for selecting the desired operating range. applied through the special purpose electrical cable to the receiver located in the helicopter. indicate the sonar dome azimuth deviation from 4.-Sonar receiver. The azimuth and range.-Sonar transmitter. each containing 12 bearing and range information to the pilot’s bearing matched ceramic rings with trimming capacitors. be transmitted by the system. Figure 4-18. and an electronic package. 3. or only the sector low-level ac signals. cursor circle bearing in degrees from magnetic north. a temperature sensor. A FREQUENCY switch for selecting the Figure 4-19. The stave 8. A dual CURSOR POSITION control for magnetic north. Sonar Transmitter which is on the electronics package. The pressure potentiometer provides controlling the cursor circle on the CRT in both an output to indicate depth of the dome in water. The dome requires no adjustments. 4-18) consists of all electronic circuits required for the processing of input signals of the sonar set. filled with oil and hermetically 7. they are mounted on a printed-circuit board. Figure 4-17. All inputs and outputs are made through the special electrical connector on top of the electronic housing. A TARGET switch/indicator for applying housings are stainless steel. desired frequency.-Hydrophone and projector.

is The COMM mode is used for two-way under- used to determine that the sonar set is in operational water voice communication with other appropriately status. A fourth mode. If a sampled Variations of the speed of sound in water due to the function exceeds preset limits. A Voice communication operation is activated by fourth recording mode. transmission is accomplished by depressing a foot switch and speaking into the microphone. the audio representing the CRT sector in voltage is being used. Target and range are presented During normal operation. half-beam for each sector. The opening or closing speed Sonar Data Computer of the target within the cursor circle is displayed automatically on the RANGE RATE-KNOTS meter. reception of 35. Releasing Echo-Ranging Mode the foot switch permits monitoring voice signals from other similar underwater communications systems. or submarines operating low (25°F to 75°F) or high (45°F to 95°F) BT within range. TEST. presented in this mode of operation and appears in the form of a noise spoke on the CRT. PASSIVE. These sonobuoys will be discussed later in this In the passive mode. and bearing. Bearing of the target is resolved from the The test modes check the operational status of the edge of each of the eight 45-degree sectors scanned. display on the CRT. the HV indicator will be lit. The sonar data computer is also used to disabled. major system functions and voltages. applies 115 volts ac to the transmitter. (bathythermograph). Returning target echoes are received by spoke appears and by regulating the AUDIO GAIN the hydrophone and processed into a left and right control. the FAULT indicator temperature of the water surrounding the dome are illuminates for the length of time that the fault exists. There are also STANDBY and The nature of the object causing the echo can be FAULT indicators to show when there is a determined by the outline and intensity of the target malfunction in the transmitter. Voice that the recorder is in operational status.5. of the target echo. system as a whole and the various components of the Target range is determined from the elapsed time system as individual units. These signals are applied AUDIO switch is in the ALL position. RANGE. TEST. speed. Passive Mode and CASS sonobuoy signals on the sonar’s CRT. active echo-ranging is chapter. as well as by the quality and intensity of the audio. When high position. and COMM. The sonar set provides three operational modes of Communication Mode operation: echo ranging (LONG and SHORT). Target bearing is determined by the phase difference existing between Test Modes the left and right half-beams formed for each sector seamed. the test circuits sample simultaneously as a single target pip on the CRT. Temperature and depth earphone. and underwater sounds may be received and provide a more accurate fix on the target by providing displayed on the CRT. These test modes use between transmission of a given pulse and the return internally generated signals. Bearing information is a digital readout of target range. A different nonharmonic tone is generated signals obtained from the dome are processed by the for each of the four sectors in each CRT half when the receiver and dome control. and the appearing beneath the surface of the surrounding signals for the right four are applied to the right water to depths of 450 feet. The sonar set produces recurrent 3. compensated for automatically. and ASPECT. These audio signals are applied to the helicopter’s intercommunication system in such a The recorder bathythermographic (BT) mode is manner that signals representing the left four sectors used to obtain graphs of temperature gradients of the CRT are applied to the left earphone. The sonar data computer is used with the sonar set to provide processing and display of LOFAR. which the cursor is positioned is applied to both The READY indicator shows when the transmitter is earphones. In the ONE to the recorder circuits when the recorder MODE 4-14 . ships. is used to determine placing the MODE switch to COMM. DIFAR. An audio signal is developed for each returning Recorder Bathythermographic Mode target echo. Audio is presented MODES OF OPERATION in the same manner as in the echo-ranging mode.(SHORT) or When the audio switch is set to ONE. ready for operation.(LONG) millisecond acoustic pulses that are underwater voice signals is accomplished by placing radiated through the water from the projector portion the cursor circle in the CRT sector in which the noise of the dome. Three recording modes are also available: equipped helicopters.

Target echo video signals there was no direct contact between the fast-moving are applied to the styluses when they appear in time. The function of the MAD equipment is to detect this anomaly. slave the receiver timing circuits to alternate permeability of water and air are practically the same. an object train of received target echo video pulses is applied to under the water can be detected from a position in the the recorder styluses. lines of force in a magnetic field are able to make this Timing and control signals. During each receive sweep ramp. field. As the submarine was surfaced. the undiminished in strength. the lines of force in the earth’s magnetic During each transmit sweep ramp. and to the receiver. Learning Objective: Recognize components Recorded scale marks on the chart paper denote the and operating principles of magnetic temperature scale being used for each temperature recording. If TEST mode effectively checks the operation of the traced along atypical 100-mile path. Specifically. the field twists at recorder stylus drive. and sound energy cannot pass from air into water and return to the air in any degree that is The recorder ASPECT mode is used to obtain usable for airborne detection. all front panel controls on the with the horizontal. range scale marks are recorded on detecting submerged subs from an aircraft was the chart paper to denote the range scale being used needed. continuous strip-chart displays of target echo ranges. and chart drive places to east and west. generated within the transition almost undisturbed because the magnetic recorder. By the beginning of World War II. Consequently. making detection of submarines possible at night or Range scale control signals from the receiver RANGE under conditions of poor visibility. PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETIC DETECTION Recorder Aspect Mode Light. The development of radar extended The recorder RANGE mode is used to obtain the usefulness of airborne antisubmarine measures. Thus. radar. The MAGNETIC ANOMALY DETECTION recorder chart drive circuits automatically position the chart paper to provide correct chart registration. Angles of change in the east-west recorder can be checked by the operator for direction are known as angles of variation. it had become apparent that the aircraft was a deadly antisubmarine weapon. while operational compliance and accuracy. a train of short field pass through the surface of the ocean essentially keying pulses is generated. A submarine has permits varying intensity recordings (highlights) of sufficient ferrous mass and electrical equipment to target structural characteristics for optimum target cause a detectable distortion (anomaly) in the earth’s classification. angles between the lines of force and the horizontal 4-15 . the earth. On the other hand. Recorder Test Mode Magnetic Anomaly The lines comprising the earth’s natural magnetic The sonar operator uses the recorder TEST mode to check the operational status of the recorder. visual SCALE-KYDS switch are accepted by the recorder or radar detection was possible only when the sweep circuits to correlate the range sweeps. some method of chart paper moves. The chart advances a small to detect its disturbance of the local magnetic field of increment for each stylus sweep. sweep ramps between transmit and receive cycles. aircraft and the surface of the water. This pulse train is applied undeviated by the change of medium. continuous strip-chart displays of target echo signals. The use of sonar wasn’t feasible because for each range recording. This distort the earth’s magnetic field. and pulsewidth is regulated in the recorder. stylus write. and assumes different angles operations. The video signals are feasible way of detecting a submerged submarine was recorded each time a stylus passes over the range position of a target. vertical axis and depth on the horizontal axis of the moving chart. The recorder plots temperature on the anomaly detection (MAD).selector switch is moved to the BT position. However. The field do not always run straight north and south. The most as related to the range sweep. Target echo signal level is air above if the object has magnetic properties that neither limited nor affected in the system. In addition. This was true even though the ability to Recorder Range Mode search and detect submarines was solely dependent on visual sightings.

4-20).-Dip angles. This is shown in figure 4-21. This angle is determined by drawing an imaginary line tangent to the earth’s surface and to the line of force where it enters the earth’s surface. At any given point between the equator and the magnetic poles.-Simplified comparison of natural field density and submarine anomaly. short-trace variation and dip in the area of a large mass of ferrous material. The angle thus formed is called the DIP ANGLE. are known as angles of dip (fig. though still extremely minute. View B represents an area of undisturbed natural Figure 4-21. the relationship of the angle between the earth’s surface and the magnetic lines of force is between 0° and 90°. If the same lines are traced only a short distance. 300 feet for instance. However. The dashed lines represent lines of force in the earth’s magnetic field. Note that the angles of dip are considerably steeper in extreme northern and southern latitudes than they are near the equator. are measurable with a sensitive anomaly detector. View A shows the angular direction at which natural lines of magnetic force enter and leave the surface of the earth. Figure 4-20. 4-16 . their natural changes in variation and dip over such a short distance (short-trace) are almost impossible to measure.

The strength of a complex magnetic field (such as that associated with a submarine) varies as the inverse cube of the distance from the field's source. the inferred strength of a Submarine Anomaly submarine’s anomaly has been exaggerated for purposes of explanation. Therefore. is very sensitive. alignment in the earth’s field. but only very slightly. Anomaly Strength Up to this point. C. is normally very weak. Sample anomaly record. The thorough searching of the prescribed area so that no density of the natural field is decreased in view C and existing anomalies are missed. MAD equipment.000. represents a contour map which it is detected.-Submarine's magnetic moment. This ensures systematic and magnetic field distorts the natural field as shown. view A. MAD equipment must be operated at a very low altitude to gain the greatest proximity possible to Figure 4-22. the submarine’s estimated search pattern. Degree of anomaly. 4-17 . increased in view D. First. but the submarine’s anomaly. 4-22) determines the intensity of the lines of force is rarely changed more than one-half of anomaly. Anomaly stylus. Second. The straight line is approximately 800 Figure 4-23. It is dependent mainly on the submarine’s 1 degree in a submarine anomaly. The natural angle of dip is also affected. at least two facts should be clear. the latitude at Figure 4-23. submarine. 60. If the detectable strength of a field source has a given value at a given distance and the distance is doubled. This fact is made apparent by pointing out A submarine’s magnetic moment (magnetic that the direction of alignment of the earth’s magnetic intensity) (fig. the detectable strength of the source at the increased distance will then be one-eighth of its former value. B. In views C and D. the enemy submarines. the searching aircraft should fly at a predetermined speed and follow an magnetic strength. its size. even at a short distance. and the degree of its permanent showing the degree of anomaly caused by a magnetization. Its actual value is usually so The maximum range at which a submarine may small that MAD equipment must be capable of be detected is a function of both the intensity of its detecting a distortion of approximately one part in magnetic anomaly and the sensitivity of the detector. in proper operating condition.-A.

view B. its composite permanent field remains is a sample of paper recording tape showing the aligned with it. From that point it decreases to zero at point D. and thereafter the signal rises back to its because of currents that flow in the aircraft’s skin and normal. The stylus is swung in one direction for positive γ. the permanent field and the detector magnetometer during a maneuver produces a changing magnetic In the illustration just given. The aircraft Therefore.) All When the aircraft maneuvers. the search aircraft’s field. control cables. At a lower altitude the anomaly detect. If the submarine were not present. (The gamma is the measure of magnetic intensity and is symbolized by the Greek letter γ. or undetectable. and ordnance. The resulting current magnetic noise. magnetic field at the detecting element. Starting with the may be caused by induced magnetic fields. view C. Its intensity then The variations in the induced magnetic field increases until a peak value of +45γ is reached at point detected by the magnetometer are caused by changes C.000 Maneuver Noises gammas. struts. of the aircraft is changed. 60. when the submarine is present. as the aircraft intensity of the anomaly signal. any noise or standard practice in aircraft design of using a disturbance in the aircraft or its equipment that could single-wire dc system. The structural parts of the aircraft exhibit The magnitude of its swing is determined by the permanent magnetic fields. undisturbed magnetic intensity in the area due to its assumed natural characteristics would be 60. the earth’s field concentration decreases to an intensity of 2γ (59. Whenever the equipment. bandpass of the MAD equipment. leaving an ink trace. where the anomaly is undetectable. which the detector magnetometer is designed to altitude was 200 feet. Figure 4-23.feet in length and represents the flight path of a be employed to compensate for “magnetic noise” searching aircraft through the area of the submarine fields. and. Consequently. would have been stronger. the effect of the eddy current field is tip of the stylus rides against the moving paper tape. anomalous values in this zone are considered as Eddy current fields produce maneuver noise minus quantities. 4-18 . negligible. similar to a permanent magnetic field. in the aircraft’s heading. Many of these fields are of dc electrical load of the aircraft is abruptly changed. some means must detector. a magnetic field is As the varying degrees of intensity are generated. current fields. sufficient strength to seriously impair the operation of there is an abrupt change in the magnetic field at the MAD equipment. The noise sources fall into two major anomaly. maneuvers. with the aircraft skin and produce a signal on the recorder is classified as a structure as the ground return. When an aircraft’s maneuver causes an eddy current flow. A peak minus intensity is reached at point E. causing a change in the total would then be above or below this natural intensity. or the permanent field. loop from the generator to load to generator serves as In an aircraft there are many sources of magnetic a large electromagnet that generates a magnetic field fields. another zone of what amounts to present a varying size to the earth’s magnetic field. The angular displacement between approximate trace caused by the anomaly in view A. as shown in figure 4-23. The earth’s field and only the portion of the aircraft parallel to the field is less intense than its normal value.998) at point B. the magnetic field variations in the field. it would have been weaker. intensity at point F. Maneuver noises Refer to view A of figure 4-23. The eddy current field is a function of the encountered. eddy aircraft at point A. and at a higher altitude. and the other for negative γ. This causes the aircraft to After point D. they are amplified and used to drive a rate of the maneuver. If the maneuver is executed swinging stylus. magnetic rarefaction is encountered.000 gammas is the zero reference maneuver rates are such that the signals generated drawn on the moving paper tape shown in view C of have their major frequency components within the figure 4-23. is available for magnetic induction. Consequently. The slowly. structural members. such as engines. DC Circuit Noise MAGNETIC NOISE The dc circuit noise in an aircraft comes from the For the purposes of this discussion. the categories: maneuver noises and dc circuit noises.

Additional 232. Cable-deployed towed detector. B. 4-24. The aircraft constant. detecting system will not be limited to the magnetic Helicopters tow the detecting head by use of a cable signal associated with the aircraft itself. view C). Regardless of its source. provided significant heading. (fig. it must act through any or head) in a relatively quiet magnetic area. view B). and the same type. 4-19 . strength. view A). the difference in fields is negligible. magnetic moment is measured. In some all of three possible directions—longitudinal. This is done by enclosing the Compensation for magnetic noises is necessary to detecting head in a fixed boom (fig. aircraft the detecting head is placed at least 8 feet or vertical—in relation to the magnetometer detector. lateral. Eddy current field compensation is usually any magnetic field may be defined in terms of three achieved by placing the magnetometer (detecting axial coordinates. or direction. and Permalloy strips are oriented near the structural changes are not made. C. from one aircraft to another of the is rotated to different compass headings.179 Figure 4-24. That is. 4-24. from the fuselage. In view of these detector magnetometer to compensate for field factors. 4-24. or provide a magnetically clean environment so that the in an extendable boom (fig.—A. Experience has shown that the induced fields and Induced magnetic field compensation is eddy current fields for a given type of aircraft are accomplished by using Permalloy strips. Stationary detector boom. it is present practice for the aircraft changes due to aircraft rotation. The polarity and the These fields may be expected to remain constant variation of the magnetic moment are noted for each throughout the life of the aircraft. That is.COMPENSATION manufacturer to provide compensation for induced fields and eddy current fields. Extendable detector boom.

production changes have been made to use element. and the compensation control is direct current that flows through a particular coil. The aircraft is rotated in 5-degree and 10-degree changes representative of those caused by any nacelle steps around its three axes. correct compensation. the equipment is compensated under operation conditions. tend to act on the magnetometer head would be vertical. the com- pensation of MAD equipment is usually performed in flight. all magnetic fields that loops. Direct current of the proper intensity and direction has been set to flow through the com- pensation coils. Thereafter. a shift in ANY of the balanced forces will be indicated. In this way. Electric or electronic circuits are not turned on or off during compensation. Adjustment of the field load. and they are adjusted to 1. and they are adjusted completely counterbalanced.-A. it should be clear that the objective of compensation is to gain a state of total balance of magnetic forces around the magnetometer. which closely resemble those of actual ASW search flights. depending is provided for by the development of outrigger upon the number of distribution centers. AN/ASA-65 magnetic compensator 4-20 . In this state the effect to be equal and opposite to the dc magnetic field on the magnetometer is the same as if there were no caused by the load current. For example. view B. To approximate these conditions. and it is pensation system makes use of straight and level accomplished by three compensating coils mounted flight on the four cardinal headings. ground return wires to minimize loop size. This state exists only when the are connected across a variable resistor for a following ideal conditions exist: particular distribution center. MAJOR COMPONENTS The MAD system consists of the AN/ASQ-81 Figure 4-25. and longitudinal fields. The load is energized. Unfortunately. Arrangement of compensating colts. Shift in any of the forces other than the earth’s natural field are regarded as noise. view actuation of a cowl flap motor will cause dc field A). From the foregoing. 4-25. The compensating loops magnetic fields at all. This imbalance is indicated on the recorder. Compensating coil circuit. the size and polarity of strength is accomplished by controlling the amount of the signal are noted. Adjustments are compensating coil. The load is reenergized. shows a circuit for a single pensation control is adjusted again. any sudden shift in one of the balanced forces (such as an anomaly in the earth’s field force) upsets the total balance. 3. The loops are arranged to provide horizontal. Compensation for the dc magnetic field is accomplished by using electromagnetic compensating Under ideal conditions. Permanent field compensation must be done in The procedure for adjustment of the dc com- three dimensions rather than in two. and the com- Figure 4-25. continued until the resulting signals from the dc field are minimized. Different types of aircraft 2. The aircraft is flying a steady course through a allow current flow proportional to the load current for magnetically quiet geographical area. In newer compensators of Permalloy near the detecting aircraft.compensation is needed for the longitudinal axis and have several sets of compensation loops. MAD set. mutually perpendicular to each other (fig. so that all stray fields are balanced. well at sea. AN/ASA-64 submarine anomaly detecting B. (SAD) group. adjusted.

4-27) contains the operating switches regardless of aircraft attitude or direction of flight. It selects power supply. When this door is closed. troubleshooting. The two circuit breakers provide circuit protection for the dc Figure 4-26. 4-26) serves two READY indicator illuminates when the system is purposes. On the maintenance magnetic detector. The FAIL DETECTOR and the FAIL AMP PWR SUPPLY lights indicate failure of the magnetic detector or the amplifier-power supply. The indicator labeled 3 indicates a amplifier-power supply is not affected by aircraft magnetic detector failure when lit. the AM-4535 amplifier-power panel there is a RES OSC ADJ switch that is used to supply. Figure 4-27. There is also a detection element includes six separate helium MODE SELECT switch that selects various system absorption cells and six IR detectors. power to the amplifier-power supply. This switch applies power to the There are three fail indicators on the amplifier. AN/ASQ-81 MAD Set there is a hinged door that covers a maintenance panel. The ALT COMP dial is used to vary the amplitude of the altitude compensation signal. Across the top of The signals from all three detector pairs are combined the faceplate are five indicators that indicate faults in in a summing amplifier.-C-6893 detecting set control. with the pairs oriented at 90° to each other. This section provides the necessary power to warm-up. and the power to the magnetic detector and the 115-volt ac RO-32/ASQ MAD recorder. arranged in configurations necessary for proper maintenance and pairs. The BUILT IN TEST switch provides a self-test of quick replaceable assemblies in the amplifier-power supply. The one on the right is the from the detector output signal. manually adjust the resonance oscillator frequency DT-323 MAGNETIC DETECTOR. The FAIL light comes on when there is the calibration signal for use. The middle switch is labeled CAL. AN/ASA-71 selector control group.— indicators indicate a control box fault. and indicators for the MAD system.— The detecting set pairs is at least partially in line with the earth’s field control box (fig.-AM-4535 amplifier-power supply. and the C-6983 detecting set control box. The amplifier section contains There are three toggle switches across the middle the necessary electronics to detect the anomaly signal portion of the control The final output to the the other units. The indicator maneuvers because of the arrangement. the MAD subsystem. the equipment The AN/ASQ-81 set consists of the DT-323 operates in the normal mode. This configuration ensures that one or more of the C-6983 CONTROL BOX.— T h e during maintenance procedures. system. labeled 2 indicates amplifier failure. power switch. The switch on the left is a fault in the assembly being tested with the BITE switch. The first purpose is the power supply ready for operation. The SYS The amplifier-power supply (fig. This indicator will blink during portion. On the right side of the amplifier-power supply. The next two AM-4535 AMPLIFIER-POWER SUPPLY. 4-21 .

The potentiometer outputs are routed back to the ECA to be amplified. This signal illuminates the SAD In the OFF position. letting DT-355 MAGNETOMETER ASSEMBLY. The magnetometer assembly contains three coils oriented to sense magnetic strength in each of the AN/ASA-65 Magnetic Compensator Group basic longitudinal. The RATE self-test. a SAD inhibit signal. the indicator will generate +/OFF/– switch provides voltage to the servo system. The other six (labeled 1 to 6) provide frequencies. and maneuver signals from the magnetometer. C-8935 COMPENSATOR CONTROL- INDICATOR. L. This knob must be in the OFF sensitivity ranges (from 0. CP-1390 magnetic field computer. The two on the left side are labeled They are labeled T (transverse). The counter indication will increase or decrease which is correlated with the roll input. and vertical axes. and BANDPASS. 4-22 . This The magnetic compensator group consists of the AM-6459 electronic control amplifier (compensator ECA). transverse. The UP-DOWN switch from the ECA. The bottom portion of the control box contains longitudinal. These provides voltage directly to the servomotor selected. The top three provide the adjustment index for the potentiometers in the transverse. four knobs. the servomotor is operated only INHIBIT lights on the selector control panel and the by the UP-DOWN switch. Across the bottom of the faceplate there are four AN/ASA-64 SAD Group toggle switches. From there they are sent to Figure 4-28.1γ to 40γ full scale) or position unless compensation is required. These knobs select the high and low V (vertical). This ID-1559 magnetic variation indicator (MAG VAR switch must be in the OFF position unless indicator). pilot and copilot’s navigation advisory panel. In cases of depending on which way this switch is toggled. the slowest and 4 the fastest. The ECA provides compensation currents. along with roll attitude signals. and V dual-purpose knob. L (longitudinal). operator compensation adjustments. Turning this knob controls the magnetometer circuits. the compensator coil as compensation signals. the self-test function knob selects the speed of the servomotor with 1 being will be initiated. The bottom right knob is The MAG TERM knob selects the magnetic term labeled gFS. index counters. In the TST position. and ID-2254 magnetic field indicator. which are sent to the MAD boom compensation coils. The POWER-OFF switch provides power to the unit.— The electronic control amplifier (ECA) processes standard magnetic anomaly detector signals from the MAD subsystems. DT-355 mag- netometer assembly. Depressing the knob inhibits system output. 4-28) contains potentiometers for adjustment of the maneuver and correlated signals into compensating terms. pen deflection on the recorder. This indicator receives the MAD signals recompensation is required. signals are processed and a SAD mark is generated. The SERVO-OFF switch provides The SAD group consists of only one unit-the both ac and dc power to the servomotor system. C-8935 control-indicator.-Compensator control-indicator. and is used to select one of nine to be compensated. and vertical magnetometer circuits. This switch is used to connect On the face of the control-indicator there are nine the altitude compensator to the system.labeled ALT COMP.— the operators know the SAD mark is unreliable.— This control-indicator (fig. The knob labeled REC ZERO is a compensation adjustment for the T. AM-6459 ELECTRONIC CONTROL AMPLIFIER. The excessive aircraft roll rate. three compensating coils.

MAD signals. and weapon deploy. auto compensation. computerizes the compensation the most recent computer-calculated term difference procedure. after selecting 2A5 board in the ECA. The two knobs labeled BLACK PEN and RED PEN Figure 4-29. The PANEL. nine-position switch labeled 0-8. it The FAULT indicator illuminates whenever a computes the adjustment values for the nine magnetic fault condition exists. In the COMP position. The magnetic field computer receives the button must be pressed. and the potentiometer outputs. The WD position enables the longitudinal fields. along with the magnetic accuracy is initiated.— to compensation. AN/ASA-71 Selector Control Group ment programs. These units are the MAD selector control panel and The PWR/OFF switch accesses aircraft power. vertical. From these signals. Figure 4-30. The selector control group consists of two units. a digital value CP-1390 MAGNETIC FIELD COMPUTER. These coils are located in the MAD boom. The other nine positions report field indicator. The DISPLAY indicator is a four-digit numerical display and a polarity indicator. The WPN LOAD switch is a terms simultaneously. the EXEC computer. that provides computer identification and control of fixed compensation functions. or calibration values. Remember. In the CAL position.— measurement of the magnetic coils for calibration The magnetic field computer.— This selector control (fig. which are sent to the The MODE switch is a 14-position rotary switch ECA. four-term weapon deployment compensation program. maneuver signals.-C-7693/ASA-71 selector control panel. the value via the DISPLAY. It shows the various C-7693/ASA-71 SELECTOR CONTROL BITE codes. It also displays the most recent computer-calculated term difference value. 4-30) selects the EXEC push button initiates all commands. 4-23 . MODE switch. pressing the EXEC button conducts the nine-term There is one coil each for the transverse. the selector control subassembly. The number of weapons being carried is selected on this switch prior ID-2254 MAGNETIC FIELD INDICATOR. aircraft-generated noise fields for compensation. This signal to be recorded on the MAD recorder and button must be pressed after each selection of the adjusts the threshold voltage for the SAD system. These coils BITE position conducts a built-in test and reports the generate the magnetic field that opposes the results via the digital readout. This provides compensation for at The magnetic field indicator (fig. becomes redundant to the any of the positions on the MODE switch. The OFF position COMPENSATION COILS.-ID-2254 magnetic field indicator. 4-29) allows the least 80 percent of the weapons interference field. The compensating coils located in the boom. operator to select various weapon loads and initiate the self-test. term values. The correlation portion of the system. and compensation program.results in three output signals.— There are three means that there are no functions processed.

The detection. here were 31 complete this mission is dependent upon the different channels used within the 162. handling. Transmitter frequency is designed of change in the past 25 years. and classify a submerged styluses. here are three knobs on the faceplate. of sonobuoys currently in use. such as MAD control and the SAD mark from the MAG VAR submarine noise and fish sounds. Even though different manufacturers. The selector modulate an oscillator in the RF transmitter portion of control panel selects which one goes to which pen. the R position. The chart drive is removable to enable the operator to remove and replace the paper Each sonobuoy type is designed to meet a specific tape. the red pen traces along the zero line.5-MHz band.— The MAD signals from the The sonobuoys detect underwater sounds. The use of several sonobuoys operating on different VHF The RO-32 recorder makes a hardcopy of MAD frequencies in a tactical pattern enables the ASW contacts and SAD marks. The signal is received by the subassembly to be supplied to the ICS system for the aircraft. inhibit signal from the SAD system. the the intensity of the internal lights. These sounds indicator are routed to this subassembly. the red pen should swing to the +4 line. When it goes to the +. This recorder has two operator to localize. between the two. When this knob is switched to should refer to this manual prior to storing. track.25. These improvements to be within ±25 kHz. Sonobuoy Frequency Channels SONOBUOYS Certain sonobuoy designs are equipped with an electronic function select (EFS) system. A SAD mark 1-kHz tone is generated by the from the antenna. the black Instruction Manual. The first set of specifications that is unique to that particular switch is the ON/OFF switch. NAVAIR 28-SSQ-500-1. Both pens are adjustable to these settings. The output of the transmitter is a and the subassembly routes the signal to the proper frequency modulated VHF signal that is transmitted pen. localization. one black and one red. calibration modes. The EFS Learning Objective: Recognize the system provides each sonobuoy with a selectable 99-channel capability. the black manufacturer to another for the same sonobuoy types. sonobuoy sonobuoy. The second controls sonobuoy. and then detected and processed by a SENSOR operator. The operator must reset all three settings any time any of the three are changed. The INHIBIT light indicates an an area of the ocean thought to contain a submarine. By analyzing the detected sounds. There are differences in the methods used for prelaunch selection of life and depth settings from one When B is selected on the mode knob. the transmitter airborne ASW forces. temperature extremes in hot or have provided the fleet with large numbers of very cold storage adversely affect these tolerances. especially in sonobuoys that are older. the ASW operator can determine various RO-32 MAD Recorder characteristics of the detected submarine. OPERATING PRINCIPLES The MAD AUX POWER-OFF switch supplies primary ac power to the SAD system and the selector The sonobuoys are dropped from the aircraft into control subassembly. SUBASSEMBLY. These differences are found in the Sonobuoy When the mode knob is switched to the +. 4-24 . The ability of the Navy to frequency is preset at the factory. pen should trace along the zero line on the paper tape. The pattern in which the sonobuoys are dropped MX-8109/ASA-71 SELECTOR CONTROL usually involve three or more which signal goes to which pen on the recorder. The third knob specifications and operational performance selects the operate mode along with the pen characteristics are the same for all manufacturers. The sonobuoy has undergone a great deal 173. and identification of submarines is the primary mission of the Navy’s With the older type of sonobuoy. reliable sonobuoys that perform various missions. EFS also provides each classifications and the operating principles sonobuoy with 50 life and 50 depth setting selections. You pen should go to +4. to differentiate submarine. the sonobuoy. or disposing of sonobuoys.

Passive cartridge. channel number. a mechanism Sonobuoys with EFS will have no RF channel number allows seawater to flood the flotation section in the markings because the channel will be selected by the buoy. transmitter is deactivated. weight. displayed. a descent-retarding device is used to Active sonobuoys are used in CASS and DICASS increase aerodynamic stability and to reduce systems. manufacturer’s code number. along with their meanings and relation- device. feet per second. as is most common. the spacing of the tactical pattern will not be right and Passive Sonobuoy submarines might be missed. RF an electronic RF OFF timer. the flotation balloon is deflated operator. an improved passive acoustic sensing system. system. The sonobuoy has either serial number. At the end of the sonobuoy life. In cold water and/or water with low salinity. active. and against the duration of the sonobuoys in the fleet today are equipped with sound emission. This data can be displayed on a video screen and printed out. and follows the motion of the waves. initiates the deployment or jettison of-the various sonobuoy components. The basic acoustic sensing system that uses the passive Water Entry and Activation sonobuoy for detection and classification is known as the low-frequency analysis and recording (LOFAR) The force of water impact. the hydrophone that has been lowered from a passive antenna is erected. a seawater. Special-purpose sonobuoys are used in water-entry shock. Either way. These sonobuoys and assembly (rotochute) is used as the descent-retarding acronyms. and the transmitter is deactivated when the buoy is prelaunch setting. The basic LOFAR display plots the frequency of the sound waves against the intensity of suspension cable isolates the hydrophone from the wave action on the buoyant section. are discussed below. Because descent velocities can exceed 120 sonobuoys are used in LOFAR and DIFAR systems. processed. characteristics of the parachute and rotochute. or passive. transmission from the buoys usually begins within 3 minutes after the buoy enters the water. to scuttle the unit. or. A termination mass and/or transmitted by the sonobuoy antenna to the receiving drogue stabilizes the hydrophone at the selected station. Because of the different descent ships to each other. the sonobuoy the following information: nomenclature or type. do not intermix the two.— The directional low- might be increased. With intermixed sonobuoys. normally on the aircraft. Most of the their acoustic energy. Data regarding the frequency and amplitude of these sounds are then activated battery fires a squib. while the buoyant sonobuoy section or float sound data is analyzed. and special purpose. In some sonobuoys. Sonobuoy type and RF channel scuttled. the depth. types of sonobuoys upon RF command. the unit fills with seawater and sinks. Some sonobuoys now have frequency analysis and recording system (DIFAR) is nonwater-activated lithium batteries. Data recorded on magnetic tape for storage and retrieval when desired. At this station. which deploys a float containing the antenna. In some cases. or battery activation. or for some number are also stamped on each end of the buoy. contract lot number.External Markings Sonobuoy Operating Life Each sonobuoy has marked on the sonobuoy case At the end of the preselected time. A section of elastic recorded. emitted by the submarine are detected by a Upon the release of the parachute or rotochute. free-fall. the activation time DIFAR SYSTEM. Jettisoning of the bottom plate allows the hydrophone and other internal LOFAR SYSTEM.— With this system. The data is also seawater-activated batteries. Deployment SONOBUOY CLASSIFICATION The sonobuoy is aircraft deployable by any of Sonobuoys are grouped into three categories: four methods: spring. Using 4-25 . omnidirectional sonobuoy. pneumatic. which provide the power required for the sonobuoy electronics. The passive sonobuoy is a listen-only buoy. A parachute or a rotating-blade missions other than ASW. sounds components to descend to the preselected depth.

a sunken ship. The buoy also has an 8-foot designed for use in submarine detection or tether line for attaching the buoy to a life raft or a localization. a temperature- known as range-only (RO) sonobuoys. and then frequency multiplexing the information to the acoustic data. 4-31).-Block diagram of the DIFAR sonobuoy. DICASS SONOBUOY. are set to ping dependent electronic component. and used. Once the calculate both range and speed of the submarine BT buoy enters the water. The probe uses a thermistor. this time-measurement data is used to timing the descent of a temperature probe. Taking the buoy (BT) is used to measure water temperature Doppler effect on the pulse frequency into con. starting from the time they are temperature. The water depth is determined by sideration. or survivors at sonobuoy. operator. The command activated buoy is controlled by a UHF command signal from the aircraft. DIFAR operates by detecting directional information. aircraft acoustic analysis equipment to determine the As such. These are the BT. DICASS sonobuoys are replacing the RO sea. The RF beacon radiates automatically and There are three types of special-purpose continuously. the location of the sound or signal source. The frequency of the sonobuoy system (CASS) allows the aircraft to transmitted signal is linearly proportional to the water deploy the sonobuoy. person. A floating Special-Purpose Sonobuoys microphone is provided for one-way voice communi- cation.the passive directional sonobuoy (fig. These buoys will provide information on applied to a voltage-controlled oscillator.— Self-timed active sonobuoys.— The search and rescue (SAR) a DICASS buoy. it is used to assist in marking the location of range and bearing to the target with a single an aircraft crash site. This signal is then transmitted to the aircraft where it is processed and the bearing is computed. sonobuoy uses a transducer to radiate a sonar pulse that is reflected back from the target. The sonobuoy signal is processed by the acoustic equipment on board the aircraft. The range of targets only. versus depth. The electrical output of the probe is deployed. automatically at a constant 5 feet per second. An active Figure 4-31. A DICASS sonobuoy allows the buoy is designed to operate as a floating RF beacon.— The command activated sonobuoy transmitter. The buoy can be launched from aircraft equipped and CASS sonobuoys.75 MHz). The time interval between the ping (sound pulse) and the echo BATHYTHERMOBUOY. by triangulation. but the buoy will remain passive temperature. This allows the aircraft to recorded on graph paper that is visible to the ASW surprise the submarine.— The bathythermo- return to the sonobuoy is measured. SAR.— The addition of a directional hydrophone turns the CASS sonobuoy into SAR BUOY. the probe descends relative to the sonobuoy. The water temperature and depth are until commanded to ping. Nominal RF output is 1 watt for 60 hours on sonobuoy channel 15 (172. to measure the for a limited period. regardless of whether the microphone is sonobuoys in use today. oscillator’s output signal frequency modulates the CASS SONOBUOYS. These sonobuoys are not incorporated in the buoy. 4-26 . Subsequent bearing information from the buoy can be used to pinpoint. to launch sonobuoys or deployed over the side by hand. Active Sonobuoy The active sonobuoy is either self-timed (the sonar pulse is generated by the buoy at a fixed pulse length and interval) or command actuated. A flashing light and dye marker are the ATAC sonobuoys. RO SONOBUOYS.

The output signals voltages for operation of individual circuits. ATAC/DLC. The DLC buoy is not com. DIFAR. amplitude. The RRS consists of two radio high-speed signal processor designed to extract receiver groups. TS-4008/UYS-1 Spectrum Analyzer lation of standard sonobuoy RF channels is possible. range. localization. submarines. Each of the other characteristics for acoustic targets. The major components include the TS-4008/ Channels E. operations. 4-27 . acoustic target information from both active and passive sonobuoy data. The and operating principles of a typical acoustic ATAC buoy is commendable from the aircraft and system. G. ACOUSTIC SYSTEM cation (ATAC) and down-link communication (DLC) buoys are intended for use as a means of communi. Learning Objective: Recognize components cation between an aircraft and a submarine. and H acoustic data is provided UYS-1 spectrum analyzer (SA). where tuned filters select the The PP-7467/UYS-1 power supply converts 115 signals for each module. Any one of the received channels can be selected for The TS-4008/UYS-1 spectrum analyzer is a aural monitoring. and the C-11104/UYS-1 control- The acoustic data is also routed to the spectrum indicator (SASP power control). signals are sent to the displays and the the H-60 LAMPS helicopter. independent of the others. and VHF radio receivers and a power supply. power supply. OPERATING PRINCIPLES SONOBUOY RECEIVERS The SASP processes sonobuoy audio in active Learning Objective: Recognize the operating and passive processing modes to provide long range principles and components of a typical search. The SA determines The radio receiver groups each consist of four frequency. F. filters. and identification of sonobuoy receiver. The spectrum analyzer processes interruptions that normally occur during airborne the signals to allow monitoring by the aircrew. DICASS sonobuoys. The through a series of amplifiers. Doppler. This set is used on processing. demodulates. The RF signals from the sonobuoys are received by the The sonobuoy receiver set that will be discussed sonobuoy receivers and sent to the SASP.— The air transportable communi. PP-7467/UYS-1 direct to the data link for transmission to the ship. It provides channels A. provides up-link and down-link communications by a preselected code. and mixers to 120-volt dc power is then converted to low-level dc produce the output audio signals. B. DICASS. and displays the resulting data in a format suitable for operator evaluation in the P3-C Update III aircraft. CASS. A power are supplied to the spectrum analyzer group and the interrupt unit protects the data against transient power data link system. The signals then pass volts ac into 120 volts dc operating voltages. and amplifies sonobuoy transmissions in the VHF bands. recorders for operator use. Simultaneous reception and demodu. bearing. detection. The AN/UYS-1 single advanced signal processor mandable and provides a down-link communications system (SASP) processes sonobuoy acoustic audio only by a preselected code. four receivers can operate on a separate channel. and COMPONENTS D acoustic data to the data link for transmission to the ship via the communications system control group. The SASP also generates command tones for controlling the CASS and The radio receiving set (RRS) receives. C. The RF signals received PP-7467/UYS-1 Power Supply by the sonobuoy antennas are applied to each of the four receiver modules. and BT. The sonobuoys presently in use include the LOFAR. analyzer group for processing and display on board the aircraft. After in this chapter is the AN/ARR-75.

With a sonobuoy equipped with EFS. how 1 and 2 consoles. what is the source of the sound wave used? Q3. 4-32) Q5. The OVERRIDE-NORMAL switch will override the overheat warnings for the sensor stations Q10. It controls the power to the SA. What is the length of the special-purpose consists of one switch-indicator.-SASP control-indicator. the display Q6. and cable of the AN/ASQ-13E? one switch. What happens to the magnetic field of an thermal warning is activated in either unit. Q4. the CASS transmitter. In echo-ranging sonar. On the azimuth and range indicator of the AN/ASQ-13E. The STA OVHT indicator indicates an overtemp Q9. How many units are therein the ASA-64 SAD condition exists at the sensor stations 1 and 2 group? consoles. How was the word SONAR derived? Q2. what does the cursor intensity C-11104/UYS-1 Control-Indicator knob control? The C-11104/UYS-1 control-indicator (fig. The aircraft as it maneuvers? OVHT section indicates an overheat in either unit. The CAUTION section will flash on when the Q8. REVIEW QUESTIONS Q1. many depth settings are available? 4-28 . The AU/DCU CAUTION/OVHT indicator Q7. and the assembly filled with? displays. What are the staves of the hydrophone computer (DCU). What is an anomaly? indicates the temperature status in the SA and the DCU. What are the three main characteristics of seawater that affect the speed of a sound wave passing through it? Figure 4-32. two indicators. The switch-indicator is labeled POWER ON/OFF.