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**Case Studies in Thermal Engineering
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/csite

**Thermodynamic analysis of 120 MW thermal power plant with
**

combined effect of constant inlet pressure (124.61 bar) and different

inlet temperatures

Ankur Geete a,n, A.I. Khandwawala b

a

Mechanical Department, S. D. Bansal College of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

b

Mechanical Department, SGSITS, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: The thermal power plants are used to generate power. The thermal power plants are

Received 29 May 2013 designed based on required conditions, but actually inlet conditions are not as per the

Received in revised form designed conditions. Variations in the power outputs from power plant are always a

5 August 2013

matter of disputes. So correction curves for power and heat rate are generated. In this

Accepted 6 August 2013

Available online 20 August 2013

paper, the thermodynamic analysis of 120 MW thermal power plant has been done at

particular inlet pressure (124.61 bar) and at different inlet temperatures (507.78 1C,

Keywords: 517.78 1C, 527.78 1C, 537.78 1C, 547.78 1C, 557.78 1C, and 567.78 1C). The correction curves

Inlet pressure for power and heat rate have been generated for combined effect of inlet pressure and

Inlet temperature

different inlet temperatures. These curves indicate that if inlet pressure is 124.61 bar and

Power output

inlet temperatures vary, then power output and heat rate also vary.

Heat rate

Correction curve for power & 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Correction curve for heat rate

1. Introduction

This paper is based on 120 MW thermal power plant and a thermal power plant consists of five major components – (1) boiler,

(2) steam turbines – high pressure turbine, intermediate pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, (3) condenser, (4) feed

water pump – pump after condenser and pump after deaerator and (5) feed water heater – one feed water heater for high

pressure turbine, two feed water heater for intermediate pressure turbine and three feed water heater for low pressure turbine.

In the boiler, water converts into high pressure and temperature steam by the constant pressure heating process. Then high

pressure and temperature steam enters into a high pressure steam turbine, in which steam expands and some amount of steam

extract for feed water heating process. Then steam enters into an intermediate pressure turbine, in which steam expands and

some amount of steam again extract for feed water heating process. And finally steam enters into a low pressure turbine, in which

steam expands and some amount of steam again extract for feed water heating process. After passing through the low pressure

turbine steam is converted into saturated water. Then water enters into the boiler with the help of a pump [1].

Sukrii et al. [2] worked on condenser optimization in steam power plant. Sharda and Batra [3] worked on super thermal power

station to improve the performance of the plant by distribution control system technology. Richard and Fritz [4] worked on

modernization of turbine and condenser for improving the performance of power plant. Prabhakar and Dinesh [5] applied six

sigma DMAIC methodologies in thermal power plants. Vosough et al. [6] worked on condenser to improve the efficiency of power

plant. Mateen and Roa Nageswara [7] did structural and thermal analysis of the condenser by finite element analysis. Carvalho and

Cristiani [8] analyzed the corrosion in condenser tubes. Claude [9] worked on step-by-step approach to the evaluation and life

n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ91 9926081734.

E-mail addresses: ankur_geete@yahoo.co.in (A. Geete), aikhanwawala@yahoo.co.in (A.I. Khandwawala).

**2214-157X & 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
**

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2013.08.001

Cheng et al. [11] worked on power plant to improve the performance by an elaborate design process. [23] worked on performance evaluation of the turbo generator system of a thermal plant by the use of probabilistic approach. 5 Feed No. Michael and Christof [19] worked on modernization of steam turbine. Jeffrey et al. Mateen and Roa Nageswara [22] did structural and thermal analysis of the condenser by finite element analysis. Jaroslav et al. These curves help as a reference or as a document to prove the design of thermal power plant. [13] worked on operational flexibility and improve efficiency of the plant. John and Terrence [18] explained the complementary fired combined cycle plant design concept and compared its plant performance characteristics with conventional duct fired plants. L3 and L4 leakage before entering steam in HP W mass flow rate of steam for 120 MW power turbine (kg/s) plant (design condition) (kg/s) L5 and L6 leakage after steam expand in HP turbine W′ mass flow rate generated in boiler at different (kg/s) conditions (kg/s) L7 and L8 leakage before entering steam in IP turbine Wi mass flow rate of steam at different stages (kg/s) (kg/s) extension of feed water heaters. L. . 2 No. W4 W6 W2 h6 h9 W7 W3 h2 W5 h8 h1 h3 h7 W1 h5 H. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 Nomenclature L9 leakage before entering steam in LP turbine (kg/s) Exi extraction quantity from HP. Roth [16] worked on the efficiency of thermal power plants. Rene et al. Rainer et al. A.18 A. Riley et al. 6 No. Bryan and Richard [15] worked on life management and its applications on a feed water heater. Boiler Turbine Turbine Turbine h4 Ex4 Condenser h Ex1 Pump Ex2 Ex5 Ex6 Ex3 Feed Feed Feed Feed Feed Water Water Water Water Water Heater Heater Heater Heater Heater No.P. [20] worked on retrofit design and operation for large steam turbine. P pressure of steam for 120 MW power plant bines at different stages (kg/s) (design condition) (bar) FF flow function Q1 heat addition in boiler (kJ/kg) hi enthalpy of steam at different stages (kJ/kg) Q2 heat addition in superheater (kJ/kg) L1 steam used for reducing pressure difference V specific volume of steam for 120 MW power b/w 1st & last stage of HP turbine (kg/s) plant (design condition) (m3/kg) L2. 1 Pump Deaerator Fig. [21] worked on the reheat concept by biomass fuel to increase efficiency of the plant. A layout of 120 MW thermal power plant [26] (Fig. [14] worked on cascade shell and tube type feed water heater. 1. Kaupp [17] published a paper on thermal power plant. Andreas et al.P. Vora et al. IP and LP tur. [10] worked on a feed water heater. Geete. 1).I. Layout of 120 MW thermal power plant. Sharma and Singh [24] worked on the thermodynamic evaluation of waste heat recovery boiler for its optimum performance. [12] worked on a simulation of the components of a thermal power plant. I.P. This work deals with the generation of correction curves for different inlet pressures and inlet temperature conditions. 3 No.

Net power calculation Then net power has been calculated for given condition [26]. IP and LP turbines Then different mass flow rates have been calculated at different stages for HP. 2. Methodology 2. W 1 ¼ ðW′L1 L2 L3 L4 Þ kg=s ð2Þ W 2 ¼ ðW 1 þ L1 L5 L6 Ex1 Þ kg=s ð3Þ W 3 ¼ ðW 2 Ex2 L7 l8 Þ kg=s ð4Þ W 4 ¼ ðW 3 Ex3 Þ kg=s ð5Þ W 5 ¼ ðW 4 Ex4 Þ kg=s ð6Þ W6 ¼ ðW5 Ex5 L9 Þ kg=s ð7Þ W7 ¼ ðW6 Ex6 Þ kg=s ð8Þ 2. MW ð11Þ 2.2. Flow function calculation First of all flow function has been calculated with the relationship between mass flow rate.1. P net ¼ ðPower–Mechanical LossesÞ Generator Efficiency. pressure and specific volume [25].4.3. Mass flow rate calculation Then mass flow rate (W) has been calculated for given condition [25]. IP and LP turbines for given condition. Heat rate calculation And then heat rate has been calculated with the relationship between total heat addition in boiler and net power output from the power plant for given condition [26]. Mass flow rate calculation for different stages of HP.0186) ¼ 4430. ðHeat addition in boilerÞ kJ=s ð15Þ .26 kg2/bar m3 h W ¼363.313 kg/h. 2. Power ¼ ðMass flow rateÞ ðEnthalpy drop in the turbineÞ MW ð9Þ P ¼ HP Turbine W 1 ðh1 h2 Þ þ IP Turbine W 2 ðh3 h4 Þ þ W 3 ðh4 h5 Þ þ W 4 ðh5 h6 Þ þ LP Turbine þ W5ðh6 h7 Þ þ W 6 ðh7 h8 Þ þ W 7 ðh8 h9 Þ MW ð10Þ 2.I. Geete. A. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 FF ¼ W= ðP=VÞ kg =bar m3 h pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ W= ðP=VÞ. P¼ 125.1 bar and V ¼ 0. Total power calculation Then power has been calculated with the relationship between mass flow rate and enthalpy drop in the turbine for given condition [26].6.5. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 19 2. here P and V given as per given condition. A.0186 m3/kg for 120 MW power plant (ideal condition). Heat rate ¼ ðTotal heat addition in boilerÞ=ðNet powerÞ ð12Þ HR ¼ Q =P net kJ=MWs ð13Þ HR ¼ ðQ 1 þ Q 2 Þ=P net kJ=MWs ð14Þ Q 1 ¼ W′ðh1 hÞ. Different leakage rates and different extraction rates have been taken for the BHEL thermal power plant [26].1/0. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 FF ¼ W= ðP=V Þ kg =bar m3 h ð1Þ FF¼ 363313/√(125.

178/120 kcal/kW-h HR ¼2413.627¼ 93. Ex4 – 2.1. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 Q 2 ¼ W 2 ðh3 h′Þ ðHeat addition in super heaterÞ kJ=s ð16Þ 2.230–0. Inlet pressure has been taken as a parameter.819–5.21 kg/h W′¼98. Power calculation W1 ¼ (W′ L1 L2 L3 L4) ¼100.920 (3436.982 kg/s W6 ¼ (W5 Ex5 L9) ¼80. Heat rate calculation HR ¼ Q =P net HR ¼ ðQ 1 þ Q 2 Þ=P net Q 1 ¼ W′ ðh1 hÞ.042–0.101¼ 88.015–(2 1. L8 – 0.671.7.7.233 kg/s.196 kg/s W2 ¼ (W1 þ L1 L5 L6-Ex1) ¼99.000 2.I.366 kg/s.116 kg/s W5 ¼ (W4 Ex4) ¼ 83.2.015 kg/s W7 ¼ (W6 Ex6) ¼ 77.263–0.7.116–2.133¼ 80.0186) ¼4430.366–0.758)¼ 73.000. Geete. L2 – 0.1.083 kg/s. A. Q 2 ¼ W 2 ðh3 h′Þ (summation of heat addition in Boiler and Super heater) HR ¼100.1/0.108 kg/s. P¼ 125.963)–0.042 kg/s. L5 – 0.20 A. L4 – 0. L6 – 0.516–4.196þ 1.920–1.811 kg/s and Ex6 – 3. L3 – 0. And all the predicted values have been taken for 120 MW thermal power plant [26].122–3091.092 kg/s.311–0.879–981. Ex2 – 4. [26] FF¼W/√(P/V) kg2/bar m3 h FF¼363313/√(125. Some constants which have been taken from BHEL are – (1) different leakages L1 – 1.397 kg/s.522 kg/s. Case study1 – Inlet pressure This is the first case study which has been done on 120 MW thermal power plant.702¼83.515 (3539.041¼ 77. Power calculation All constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant [26]. Flow function calculation FF¼W/√(P/V) kg2/bar m3 h pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 4430:126 ¼ W= ð122:65=0:019Þ kg =bar m3 h W′¼355225. Ex3 – 5.982–(2 1.108¼99.819 kg/s W4 ¼ (W3 Ex3) ¼ 88.263–0.383 kg/s.083–6. Power and heat rate calculations for ideal condition (127.61 bar 3.21) þ93. (2) Different extraction quantities – Ex1 – 6.0186 m3/kg for 120 MW power plant (ideal condition) Inlet pressure: 124.263 kg/s.516 kg/s W3 ¼ (W2 Ex2 L7 L8) ¼93.116 kg/s.233–0. 3.311 kg/s. .61 bar) 2.498 kg/s P ¼ HP Turbine W 1 ðh1 h2 Þ þ IP Turbine W 2 ðh3 h4 Þ þ W 3 ðh4 h5 Þ þ W 4 ðh5 h6 Þ þ LP Turbine W 5 ðh6 h7 Þ þ W 6 ðh7 h8 Þ þ W 7 ðh8 h9 Þ P ¼ ½99:196 ð3436:879–3087:598Þ þ f½93:516 ð3539:122–3387:304Þ þ ½88:819 ð3387:304–3200:542Þ þ ½83:116 ð3200:542–2918:559Þg þ f½80:982 ð2918:559–2827:728Þ þ ½77:015 ð2827:728–2654:718Þ þ ½73:498 ð2654:718–2478:029Þg P ¼ 34647:278 þ 14197:412 þ 16588:014 þ 23437:299 þ 7355:676 þ 13324:365 þ 12986:288 kW P ¼ 122:536 MW P net ¼ ð122:536–0:69Þ 0:983 ¼ 120 MW Correction factor for power¼ (Ideal power)/(Calculated power) Correction factor¼ 1.2.673 kg/s 3.26 kg2/bar m3 h W¼363313 kg/h.653)/120 HR ¼289. Ex5 – 3.041 kg/s. L7 – 0.1 bar and V¼ 0.101 kg/s and L9 – 0.926 kJ/MW-s Correction factor for heat rate¼ (Ideal heat rate)/(calculated heat rate) Correction factor¼ 1.

397¼ 91. Sr.041 kg/s. Ex3 – 5.653)]/117. Flow function calculation 2 Flow function ¼ W=√ P=V kg =bar m3 h 2 Flow function ¼ 4430:126 kg =bar m3 h. Ex5 – 3.101 ¼86. A.3.499–4.869 0.092 kg/s.673 (3440.042–0.366 kg/s.101 kg/s and L9 – 0.108¼96.394–2. Sr.035 1.916 kg/s W4 ¼(W3 Ex3)¼86. P ¼ 125:1 bar and V ¼ 0:0176 m3 =kg: .092¼79.61 98.I.263 kg/s.067 kg/s P ¼ HP TurbinefW 1 ðh1 h2 Þg þ IP Turbinef½W 2 ðh3 h4 Þ þ W 3 ðh4 h5 Þ þ W 4 ðh5 h6 Þ g þ LP Turbinef W 5 ðh6 h7 Þ þ W 6 ðh7 h8 Þ þ W 7 ðh8 h9 Þg MW P ¼ f½96:949 ð3440:014–3090:508Þg þ ½91:499 ð3539:122–3387:304Þ þ ½86:916 ð3387:304–3200:542Þ þ ½81:394 ð3200:542–2918:559Þ þ ½79:302 ð2918:559–2827:728Þ þ ½75:450 ð2827:728–2654:718Þ þ ½72:067 ð2654:718–2478:029Þ kW P ¼ 33684:154 þ13891:195 þ16232:605 þ 22951:724 þ 7203:079 þ13053:604 þ12733:446 kW P ¼ 119:749 MW P net ¼ ð119:749–0:69Þ 0:983 ¼ 117:035 MW 3. Q2 ¼W2(h3 h′) (summation of heat addition in Boiler & Super heater) kJ/s HR ¼[98.949 kg/s W2 ¼(W1 þL1 L5 L6 Ex1)¼ 96.996 4.560.1.302 kg/s W6 ¼(W5 Ex5 L9) ¼79. L3 – 0. Pressure (in bar) Mass flow rate (in kg/s) Power (in MW) Correction factor 1 124.083–6.61 bar inlet pressure with correction factor. L6 – 0.035 kJ/MW-s HR ¼2422.263–0.116–0. Different extraction quantities – Ex1 – 6.522 kg/s.302–3.6 Kcal/kW-h (Tables 1 and 2). Heat rate calculation All constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant [26].311 kg/s.2. A.311–0. Ex4 – 2.869 kJ/MW-s or 2086.014–981.522¼81.811 kg/s and Ex6 – 3.041¼ 75. And all the predicted values have been taken for 120 MW thermal power plant [26].366–0.233–0. L5 – 0.035 kJ/MW-s HR ¼283560. Case study-2 – Inlet temperature This is the second case study which has been done on 120 MW thermal power plant.233 kg/s. HR ¼Q/Pnet kJ/MW-s HR ¼(Q1 þQ2)/Pnet kJ/MW-s Q1 ¼W′(h1 h). Geete. Inlet temperature 507.450 kg/s W7 ¼(W6 Ex6)¼75.108 kg/s.949 þ1.397 kg/s.21) þ91. 4.499 (3539. Table 1 Power at 124.61 283. L7 – 0.383 kg/s [26]. Inlet temperatures as a parameter have been taken. L4 – 0. L8 – 0.383 ¼72.450–3.025 Table 2 Heat rate at 124. 4. no.916–5.263–0.811–0.533/117. no.116 kg/s. Pressure (in bar) Total heat input (in kJ/s) Heat rate (in kJ/MW-s) Correction factor 1 124.673–1. Ex2 – 4.78 1C.042 kg/s. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 21 W1 ¼(W′ L1 L2 L3 L4) ¼98. Some constants which have been taken from BHEL are – (1) different leakages L1 – 1. L2 – 0.083 kg/s.499 kg/s W3 ¼(W2 Ex2 L7 L8)¼91.61 bar inlet pressure with correction factor.394 kg/s W5 ¼(W4 Ex4)¼81.673 117.533 2422.122–3091.

814 1.529 þ13.108 ¼101.78 99.863–(2 2.832 (3539.773.538.633.993 kg/s W4 ¼(W3 Ex3)¼90.78 289. Sr.178 2413.78 289.926 1 5 547.366–0.78 103.920 120.539.3.271 2404.022þ16.832–4.990 3 527.960þ 1.549.78 100.083–7.018 Table 4 Heat rate at different inlet temperatures with correction factors.22 A.937 MW 4.188 þ13.787 2449.469 2388.186 2373.984 2 517.78 289.78 102.985 7 567.227 kW P ¼124.438 0.847) ¼75.78 289.439.926/HR) 1 507.950 1.004 4 537.245 118.008 6 557. Power calculation All constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant [26]. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 Then mass flow rate W′ ¼ 373:264 t=h ¼ 103:684 kg=s 4.I.653)]/121.960 kg/s W2 ¼(W1 þL1 L5 L6 Ex1) ¼101.735–0.381 2464.075 ¼95.013 7 567. Heat rate calculation All constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant [26] (Tables 3 and 4).979 .78 100.3 Kcal/kW-h Table 3 Power at different inlet temperatures with different correction factors.863 kg/s W6 ¼(W5 Ex5 L9)¼82.994.430 1.372–0.066 1.068.067 119.678 1.179–981.753 121.78 101.983¼121.916 ¼85.101 ¼90.4. HR ¼ Q =P net kJ=MW-s HR ¼(Q1 þQ2)/Pnet kJ/MW-s Q1 ¼W′(h1 h).263–0.334 0.327 þ14.993–5.000 1 5 547.671.498 2434.800 kg/s W7 ¼(W6 Ex6)¼78.122–3091.78 289.684–1.21) þ95.78 290.052 1.042–0.451 117.78 98.996 4 537.294 0.937 kJ/MW-s HR ¼2373.937 kJ/MW-s HR ¼289.990.805 120.077–2.034þ23.077 kg/s W5 ¼(W4 Ex4)¼85.69) 0.678 kJ/MW-s or 2044. no.937 0.213 ¼82. Temperature (in 1C) Mass flow rate Power Correction factor (in kg/s) (in MW) (120/Power) 1 507.800–(2 1.016 2 517.263–0.832 kg/s W3 ¼(W2 Ex2 L7 L8)¼95. Q2 ¼W2(h3 h′) (summation of heat addition in Boiler & Super heater) kJ/s HR ¼[103. no.267 þ7526.010 3 527.78 290. Geete.684 (3359.284 0.270.684 121.105 kg/s P ¼ HP TurbinefW 1 ðh1 h2 Þg þIP Turbinef½W 2 ðh3 h4 Þþ W 3 ðh4 h5 Þ þ W 4 ðh5 h6 Þ g þ LP Turbinef W 5 ðh6 h7 Þ þ W 6 ðh7 h8 Þ þ W 7 ðh8 h9 Þg MW P ¼ f½101:96 ð3359:179–3018:130Þgþ f½95:832 ð3539:122–3387:304Þ þ½90:993 ð3387:304–3200:542Þ þ ½85:077 ð3200:542–2918:559Þg þf½82:863 ð2918:559–2827:728Þ þ ½78:800 ð2827:728–2654:718Þ þ½75:105 ð2654:718–2478:029Þg kW P ¼34.011)–0. Temperature (in 1C) Total heat input Heat rate Correction factor (in kJ/s) (in kJ/MW/s) (2413.846.233– 0.311–0.328.439.735 MW Pnet ¼(124.186/121.041 ¼78. Sr.991 6 557.199 0. A. W1 ¼(W′ L1 L2 L3 L4)¼103.

342 0.720 0.78 124. All the constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant.012 2 517. Temperature (in 1C) Pressure (in bar) Heat rate (in kJ/MW/s) Correction factor (2413.61 2416.61 2422.03 1. Geete. For example – if inlet pressure is 124.006 3 527.78 124. And then correction curves for power and heat rate have been generated. Correction curve for combined effect of constant pressure and different temperatures for power.78 124.996 5 547. A.033 6 557.78 124.61 2385.I. Sr.78 124. Inlet pressure (constant) and inlet temperature (variable) have been taken as parameters. then correction factor is 1.166 1.035 1.61 116.78 124. . 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Fig.869 0.926/HR) 1 507.61 115.78 124.04 1. no.343 1. 7.01 Curve for Power 1 0.61 2399. A. 7.78 124.78 1C.61 bars) and different inlet temperatures have been analyzed and different correction factors have been found for different conditions.61 117.61 2475. 2.61 2445.999 4 537. Correction curve for power See Fig.606 1. Correction Curve for Power Inlet Pressure Line 1. Table 5 Correction curve for power with combined effect of inlet pressure (constant) and inlet temperature (different).99 °C °C °C °C °C °C °C 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 7.975 5. no.78 124.05 (124. 7.61 117.61 118.647 MW is the power output Tables 5 and 6.78 124.02 Correction 1.981 7 567.78 124.61 bar) 1.043 Table 6 Correction factor for heat rate with combined effect of inlet pressure (constant) and inlet temperature (different).020 and 117.821 0.78 124.61 2460. 7. 7.61 115. Result Two different case studies have been done on 120 MW thermal power plant.78 124.78 124.1. Temperature (in 1C) Pressure (in bar) Power (in MW) Correction factor (120/Power) 1 507.025 5 547. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 23 5.647 1.528 1.008 2 517. Sr.047 1.038 7 567.678 0. 7.052 1.014 3 527.302 1.987 6 557. Combined effect of inlet pressure (constant 124.020 4 537.61 bars (constant) and inlet temperature is 527.61 119. 2.

Christof Scholten. Behjat Azam. Technical paper published in Power-Gen Europe in Germany.122:176–178. Terrence Sullivan B. Turkey. Steam & gas turbines and power plant engineering. 6. 385–90. Kent Rockaway. Thermal power plants have relatively low efficiency. 1–6. Humbert Claude. Khanduja Dinesh. Michael Wechsung. [5] Prabhakar Kaushik.. [14] Cheng Xu. Application of six sigma DMAIC methodology in thermal power plants: a case study. 2002. Fritz Henken. [19] Michael Smiarowski W. The complimentary fired combined cycle power plant.97 Correction 0. Winn Hary R. References [1] Yadav R. [12] Rene Schimon. 2000. Thermal Science 2007. Restoring heat transfer surface to feed water heaters using explosively welded sleeves at la cygne generating station. Richard Pearce E.2.2(3):38–43. 1–14. Christian Kral. From the correction curves of power and heat rate. Experiences of on-line monitoring of microbial corrosion and antifouling on copper alloys condenser tubes. 1–17. p. 2006.99 0. Ramanlal Patel.95 °C °C °C °C °C °C °C 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 7. Zehra Yumurtac from Yildiz Technical University of Istanbul. [2] Sukrii Bekdemir. [8] Carvalho LM. 2011. p. heat rate is 2385.10(2):1–8. 7. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Fig. Mechanical Engineering 2009. 7. Improvement of power plant efficiency with condenser pressure. For the same conditions. 2006. An article published in Energy Manager Training. p. 2005. p. p. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence 2009. Malaysia. Technology and Humanities 2011.981.I. A technical paper publication in The Modelica Association. International Journal of Computer Application 2011:34–42. if inlet pressure is 124. if inlet pressure is 124. Technical paper published in Power-Gen Science in Germany. correct value of power and heat rate with correction factors can be find out.1:1–10. [6] Vosough Amir. A.78 1C then power output from power plant is 115.20:197–207. International paper published in Power-Gen Science. Steam turbine modernization solutions provide a wide spectrum of options to improve performance. [10] Riley Linda. Anton Haumer. Allahabad: Central Publishing House. Markus Plainer. International Journal of Mathematical Science. Germany. 7. How much rupees could be invested per MW installed power to improve the system efficiency of thermal power plant. [9] Claude Humbert F. Improvement in super thermal power stations by distributed control system (DCS) – KSTPS stage – I: a case study.01 1 0. Greg Nitch.24 A. 1–9. 3. 2nd ed. 2005. 2005.038.98 0. Correction Curve for Heat Rate 1. Feed Water Heater Technology. [15] Bryan Becker R. For the same conditions. Dragan Simic.008. 1–8. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering 2011. 1–14. 2011. Correction curve for heat rate See Fig.047 MW and correction factor is 1. Technical paper published in Power-Gen Science. In: International paper presentation in Power-Gen international conference in Las Vegas. Roa Nageswara Amar N. Geete. Life extension of feed water heaters a new approach using predictive maintenance and today's technology. [3] Sharda GG. A large steam turbine retrofit design and operation history. Recep Ozturk. Kuala Lumpur. Willsie Carroll.61 bar and inlet temperature is 557. Paper published in Feed Water Heater Technology.02 1. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 5. Naseri Rad Roya. Similarly. 3. p. A case study of feed water heater life management. 119–25. Efficiency of Thermal Power Plants 2004.4:37–52. Edwin Gobrecht. 2005. Performance increase through world class technology and implementation. 7.302 KJ/MW/s and correction factor is 1. . Henry Osaghae. [4] Richard Bednorz. Vosough Sadegh. Marc Christianson. Eduard Jenikejew.96 Curve for Heat Rate 0. [7] Abdul Sk Mateen. Esfehani Hasan Nasr. Cristiani P. Falahat Alireza. [16] Roth Eike. 7.012. [18] John Copen H. Simulation of components of a thermal power plant. 2005.606 MW and correction factor is 1. 7–8.61 bar and inlet temperature is 507. Beveridge Robert A. Batra KR. Feed Water Heater Technology. [20] Jeffrey Cheski R. Condenser optimization in steam power plant. Rainer Leo. Correction curve for combined effect of constant pressure and different temperatures for heat rate. [11] Andreas Schaarschmidt. Williams Jefferey J. USC steam turbine technology for maximum efficiency and operational flexibility. Andreas Ulma. 2008. A technical paper published in Power-Gen Asia 2008. p. [17] Kaupp Dr A.78 1C then power output from power plant is 119. Conclusion Conclusion of the thermodynamic analysis of 120 MW thermal power plant is. p. In: Proceedings of the international conference on heat exchanger and fouling. heat rate is 2460. Coordinated multi-stage boiler feed water heater level optimization. Structural and thermal analysis of condenser by using finite element analysis. Turbine and condenser modernization in the farge power plant. [13] Rainer Dr Quinkertz. 7.678 KJ/MW/s and correction factor is 0.

Inc. [26] Documents from steam turbine engineering (STE) department BHEL. Thermodynamic evaluation of WHRB (waste heat recovery boiler) for its optimum performance in combined cycle power plants. [25] Cotton KC. . Roa Nageswara Amar N.2(1):11–9. Bhopal. Germany. 1st ed. Patel BM. Simulation model for stochastic analysis and performance evaluation of steam generator system of a thermal power plant. A.4:37–52. Walter Hanstein. A.3:5141–9. IOSR Journal of Engineering 2012. Technology and Humanities 2011.I. Biomass looking for efficiency utilization – the reheat concept. International Journal of Mathematical Science. Olaf Arndt. NY 12148 USA: Cotton Fact.. [24] Sharma Meeta. Structural and thermal analysis of condenser by using finite element analysis. Rexford. [22] Mateen Abdul Sk. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 2011. 254–62. 2006. Technical paper published in Power-Gen Science. Geete. Evaluating & improving steam turbine performance. Tewari CP. Singh Onkar. [23] Vora Yogesh. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 25 [21] Jaroslav Lahoda.

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