Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25

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Case Studies in Thermal Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/csite

Thermodynamic analysis of 120 MW thermal power plant with
combined effect of constant inlet pressure (124.61 bar) and different
inlet temperatures
Ankur Geete a,n, A.I. Khandwawala b
a
Mechanical Department, S. D. Bansal College of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
b
Mechanical Department, SGSITS, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: The thermal power plants are used to generate power. The thermal power plants are
Received 29 May 2013 designed based on required conditions, but actually inlet conditions are not as per the
Received in revised form designed conditions. Variations in the power outputs from power plant are always a
5 August 2013
matter of disputes. So correction curves for power and heat rate are generated. In this
Accepted 6 August 2013
Available online 20 August 2013
paper, the thermodynamic analysis of 120 MW thermal power plant has been done at
particular inlet pressure (124.61 bar) and at different inlet temperatures (507.78 1C,
Keywords: 517.78 1C, 527.78 1C, 537.78 1C, 547.78 1C, 557.78 1C, and 567.78 1C). The correction curves
Inlet pressure for power and heat rate have been generated for combined effect of inlet pressure and
Inlet temperature
different inlet temperatures. These curves indicate that if inlet pressure is 124.61 bar and
Power output
inlet temperatures vary, then power output and heat rate also vary.
Heat rate
Correction curve for power & 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Correction curve for heat rate

1. Introduction
This paper is based on 120 MW thermal power plant and a thermal power plant consists of five major components – (1) boiler,
(2) steam turbines – high pressure turbine, intermediate pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, (3) condenser, (4) feed
water pump – pump after condenser and pump after deaerator and (5) feed water heater – one feed water heater for high
pressure turbine, two feed water heater for intermediate pressure turbine and three feed water heater for low pressure turbine.
In the boiler, water converts into high pressure and temperature steam by the constant pressure heating process. Then high
pressure and temperature steam enters into a high pressure steam turbine, in which steam expands and some amount of steam
extract for feed water heating process. Then steam enters into an intermediate pressure turbine, in which steam expands and
some amount of steam again extract for feed water heating process. And finally steam enters into a low pressure turbine, in which
steam expands and some amount of steam again extract for feed water heating process. After passing through the low pressure
turbine steam is converted into saturated water. Then water enters into the boiler with the help of a pump [1].
Sukrii et al. [2] worked on condenser optimization in steam power plant. Sharda and Batra [3] worked on super thermal power
station to improve the performance of the plant by distribution control system technology. Richard and Fritz [4] worked on
modernization of turbine and condenser for improving the performance of power plant. Prabhakar and Dinesh [5] applied six
sigma DMAIC methodologies in thermal power plants. Vosough et al. [6] worked on condenser to improve the efficiency of power
plant. Mateen and Roa Nageswara [7] did structural and thermal analysis of the condenser by finite element analysis. Carvalho and
Cristiani [8] analyzed the corrosion in condenser tubes. Claude [9] worked on step-by-step approach to the evaluation and life

n
Corresponding author. Tel.: þ91 9926081734.
E-mail addresses: ankur_geete@yahoo.co.in (A. Geete), aikhanwawala@yahoo.co.in (A.I. Khandwawala).

2214-157X & 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2013.08.001

Cheng et al. [11] worked on power plant to improve the performance by an elaborate design process. [23] worked on performance evaluation of the turbo generator system of a thermal plant by the use of probabilistic approach. 5 Feed No. Michael and Christof [19] worked on modernization of steam turbine. Jeffrey et al. Mateen and Roa Nageswara [22] did structural and thermal analysis of the condenser by finite element analysis. Jaroslav et al. These curves help as a reference or as a document to prove the design of thermal power plant. [13] worked on operational flexibility and improve efficiency of the plant. John and Terrence [18] explained the complementary fired combined cycle plant design concept and compared its plant performance characteristics with conventional duct fired plants. L3 and L4 leakage before entering steam in HP W mass flow rate of steam for 120 MW power turbine (kg/s) plant (design condition) (kg/s) L5 and L6 leakage after steam expand in HP turbine W′ mass flow rate generated in boiler at different (kg/s) conditions (kg/s) L7 and L8 leakage before entering steam in IP turbine Wi mass flow rate of steam at different stages (kg/s) (kg/s) extension of feed water heaters. L. . 2 No. W4 W6 W2 h6 h9 W7 W3 h2 W5 h8 h1 h3 h7 W1 h5 H. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 Nomenclature L9 leakage before entering steam in LP turbine (kg/s) Exi extraction quantity from HP. Roth [16] worked on the efficiency of thermal power plants. Rene et al. Rainer et al. A.18 A. Riley et al. 6 No. Bryan and Richard [15] worked on life management and its applications on a feed water heater. Boiler Turbine Turbine Turbine h4 Ex4 Condenser h Ex1 Pump Ex2 Ex5 Ex6 Ex3 Feed Feed Feed Feed Feed Water Water Water Water Water Heater Heater Heater Heater Heater No.P. [20] worked on retrofit design and operation for large steam turbine. P pressure of steam for 120 MW power plant bines at different stages (kg/s) (design condition) (bar) FF flow function Q1 heat addition in boiler (kJ/kg) hi enthalpy of steam at different stages (kJ/kg) Q2 heat addition in superheater (kJ/kg) L1 steam used for reducing pressure difference V specific volume of steam for 120 MW power b/w 1st & last stage of HP turbine (kg/s) plant (design condition) (m3/kg) L2. 1 Pump Deaerator Fig. [21] worked on the reheat concept by biomass fuel to increase efficiency of the plant. A layout of 120 MW thermal power plant [26] (Fig. [14] worked on cascade shell and tube type feed water heater. 1. Kaupp [17] published a paper on thermal power plant. Andreas et al.P. Vora et al. IP and LP tur. [10] worked on a feed water heater. Geete. 1).I. Layout of 120 MW thermal power plant. Sharma and Singh [24] worked on the thermodynamic evaluation of waste heat recovery boiler for its optimum performance. [12] worked on a simulation of the components of a thermal power plant. I.P. This work deals with the generation of correction curves for different inlet pressures and inlet temperature conditions. 3 No.

Net power calculation Then net power has been calculated for given condition [26]. IP and LP turbines Then different mass flow rates have been calculated at different stages for HP. 2. Methodology 2. W 1 ¼ ðW′L1 L2 L3 L4 Þ kg=s ð2Þ W 2 ¼ ðW 1 þ L1 L5 L6 Ex1 Þ kg=s ð3Þ W 3 ¼ ðW 2 Ex2 L7 l8 Þ kg=s ð4Þ W 4 ¼ ðW 3 Ex3 Þ kg=s ð5Þ W 5 ¼ ðW 4 Ex4 Þ kg=s ð6Þ W6 ¼ ðW5 Ex5 L9 Þ kg=s ð7Þ W7 ¼ ðW6 Ex6 Þ kg=s ð8Þ 2. MW ð11Þ 2.2. Flow function calculation First of all flow function has been calculated with the relationship between mass flow rate.1. P net ¼ ðPower–Mechanical LossesÞ  Generator Efficiency. pressure and specific volume [25].4.3. Mass flow rate calculation Then mass flow rate (W) has been calculated for given condition [25]. IP and LP turbines for given condition. Heat rate calculation And then heat rate has been calculated with the relationship between total heat addition in boiler and net power output from the power plant for given condition [26]. Mass flow rate calculation for different stages of HP.0186) ¼ 4430. ðHeat addition in boilerÞ kJ=s ð15Þ .26 kg2/bar m3 h W ¼363.313 kg/h. 2. Power ¼ ðMass flow rateÞ  ðEnthalpy drop in the turbineÞ MW ð9Þ         P ¼ HP Turbine W 1 ðh1 h2 Þ þ IP Turbine W 2 ðh3 h4 Þ þ W 3 ðh4 h5 Þ þ W 4 ðh5 h6 Þ þ LP Turbine       þ W5ðh6 h7 Þ þ W 6 ðh7 h8 Þ þ W 7 ðh8 h9 Þ MW ð10Þ 2.I. Geete. A. pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 FF ¼ W= ðP=VÞ kg =bar m3 h pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ¼ W= ðP=VÞ. P¼ 125.1 bar and V ¼ 0. Total power calculation Then power has been calculated with the relationship between mass flow rate and enthalpy drop in the turbine for given condition [26].6.5. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 19 2. here P and V given as per given condition. A.0186 m3/kg for 120 MW power plant (ideal condition). Heat rate ¼ ðTotal heat addition in boilerÞ=ðNet powerÞ ð12Þ HR ¼ Q =P net kJ=MWs ð13Þ HR ¼ ðQ 1 þ Q 2 Þ=P net kJ=MWs ð14Þ Q 1 ¼ W′ðh1 hÞ. Different leakage rates and different extraction rates have been taken for the BHEL thermal power plant [26].1/0. pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 FF ¼ W= ðP=V Þ kg =bar m3 h ð1Þ FF¼ 363313/√(125.

178/120 kcal/kW-h HR ¼2413.627¼ 93. Ex4 – 2.1. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 Q 2 ¼ W 2 ðh3 h′Þ ðHeat addition in super heaterÞ kJ=s ð16Þ 2.230–0. Inlet pressure has been taken as a parameter.819–5.21 kg/h W′¼98. Power calculation  W1 ¼ (W′ L1  L2  L3  L4) ¼100.920  (3436.982 kg/s  W6 ¼ (W5  Ex5  L9) ¼80. Heat rate calculation HR ¼ Q =P net HR ¼ ðQ 1 þ Q 2 Þ=P net Q 1 ¼ W′ ðh1 hÞ.042–0.101¼ 88.015–(2  1. L8 – 0.671.7.7.233 kg/s.196 kg/s  W2 ¼ (W1 þ L1  L5  L6-Ex1) ¼99.000 2.I.366 kg/s.116 kg/s  W5 ¼ (W4  Ex4) ¼ 83.2.015 kg/s  W7 ¼ (W6  Ex6) ¼ 77.263–0.7.116–2.133¼ 80.0186) ¼4430.366–0.758)¼ 73.000. Geete. L2 – 0.1.083 kg/s. A. Q 2 ¼ W 2 ðh3 h′Þ (summation of heat addition in Boiler and Super heater) HR ¼100.1/0.108 kg/s. P¼ 125.963)–0.042 kg/s. L5 – 0.20 A. L4 – 0. L6 – 0.516–4.196þ 1.920–1.811 kg/s and Ex6 – 3. L3 – 0. And all the predicted values have been taken for 120 MW thermal power plant [26].122–3091.092 kg/s.311–0.879–981. Ex2 – 4. [26] FF¼W/√(P/V) kg2/bar m3 h FF¼363313/√(125. Some constants which have been taken from BHEL are – (1) different leakages L1 – 1.397 kg/s.522 kg/s. Case study1 – Inlet pressure This is the first case study which has been done on 120 MW thermal power plant.702¼83.515  (3539.041¼ 77. Power calculation All constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant [26]. Flow function calculation FF¼W/√(P/V) kg2/bar m3 h pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 4430:126 ¼ W= ð122:65=0:019Þ kg =bar m3 h W′¼355225. Ex3 – 5.982–(2  1.108¼99.819 kg/s  W4 ¼ (W3  Ex3) ¼ 88.263–0.383 kg/s.083–6. Power and heat rate calculations for ideal condition (127.61 bar 3.21) þ93. (2) Different extraction quantities – Ex1 – 6.0186 m3/kg for 120 MW power plant (ideal condition) Inlet pressure: 124.263 kg/s.516 kg/s  W3 ¼ (W2  Ex2  L7  L8) ¼93.116 kg/s.233–0. 3.311 kg/s. .61 bar) 2.498 kg/s         P ¼ HP Turbine W 1 ðh1 h2 Þ þ IP Turbine W 2 ðh3 h4 Þ þ W 3 ðh4 h5 Þ þ W 4 ðh5 h6 Þ       þ LP Turbine W 5 ðh6 h7 Þ þ W 6 ðh7 h8 Þ þ W 7 ðh8 h9 Þ   P ¼ ½99:196  ð3436:879–3087:598Þ þ f½93:516  ð3539:122–3387:304Þ þ ½88:819  ð3387:304–3200:542Þ þ ½83:116  ð3200:542–2918:559Þg þ f½80:982  ð2918:559–2827:728Þ þ ½77:015  ð2827:728–2654:718Þ þ ½73:498  ð2654:718–2478:029Þg P ¼ 34647:278 þ 14197:412 þ 16588:014 þ 23437:299 þ 7355:676 þ 13324:365 þ 12986:288 kW P ¼ 122:536 MW P net ¼ ð122:536–0:69Þ  0:983 ¼ 120 MW Correction factor for power¼ (Ideal power)/(Calculated power) Correction factor¼ 1.2.673 kg/s 3.26 kg2/bar m3 h W¼363313 kg/h.653)/120 HR ¼289. Ex5 – 3.041 kg/s. L7 – 0.1 bar and V¼ 0.101 kg/s and L9 – 0.926 kJ/MW-s Correction factor for heat rate¼ (Ideal heat rate)/(calculated heat rate) Correction factor¼ 1.

397¼ 91. Sr.041 kg/s. Ex3 – 5.653)]/117. Flow function calculation   2 Flow function ¼ W=√ P=V kg =bar m3 h 2 Flow function ¼ 4430:126 kg =bar m3 h. Ex5 – 3.101 ¼86. A.3.499–4.869 0.092 kg/s.673  (3440.042–0.366 kg/s.101 kg/s and L9 – 0.108¼96.394–2. Sr.035 1.916 kg/s  W4 ¼(W3  Ex3)¼86. P ¼ 125:1 bar and V ¼ 0:0176 m3 =kg: .092¼79.61 98.I.263 kg/s.067 kg/s       P ¼ HP TurbinefW 1 ðh1 h2 Þg þ IP Turbinef½W 2 ðh3 h4 Þ þ W 3 ðh4 h5 Þ þ W 4 ðh5 h6 Þ g þ LP Turbinef W 5 ðh6 h7 Þ    þ W 6 ðh7 h8 Þ þ W 7 ðh8 h9 Þg MW P ¼ f½96:949  ð3440:014–3090:508Þg   þ ½91:499  ð3539:122–3387:304Þ þ ½86:916  ð3387:304–3200:542Þ þ ½81:394  ð3200:542–2918:559Þ   þ ½79:302  ð2918:559–2827:728Þ þ ½75:450  ð2827:728–2654:718Þ þ ½72:067  ð2654:718–2478:029Þ kW P ¼ 33684:154 þ13891:195 þ16232:605 þ 22951:724 þ 7203:079 þ13053:604 þ12733:446 kW P ¼ 119:749 MW P net ¼ ð119:749–0:69Þ  0:983 ¼ 117:035 MW 3. Q2 ¼W2(h3 h′) (summation of heat addition in Boiler & Super heater) kJ/s HR ¼[98.949 kg/s  W2 ¼(W1 þL1  L5  L6  Ex1)¼ 96.996 4.560.1.302 kg/s  W6 ¼(W5  Ex5  L9) ¼79. L3 – 0. Pressure (in bar) Mass flow rate (in kg/s) Power (in MW) Correction factor 1 124.083–6.61 bar inlet pressure with correction factor. L6 – 0.035 kJ/MW-s HR ¼2422.263–0.116–0. Different extraction quantities – Ex1 – 6.522 kg/s.302–3.6 Kcal/kW-h (Tables 1 and 2). Heat rate calculation All constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant [26].311 kg/s.2. A.311–0. Ex4 – 2.869 kJ/MW-s or 2086.014–981.522¼81.811 kg/s and Ex6 – 3.041¼ 75. And all the predicted values have been taken for 120 MW thermal power plant [26].366–0.233–0. L5 – 0.035 kJ/MW-s HR ¼283560. Case study-2 – Inlet temperature This is the second case study which has been done on 120 MW thermal power plant.233 kg/s. HR ¼Q/Pnet kJ/MW-s HR ¼(Q1 þQ2)/Pnet kJ/MW-s Q1 ¼W′(h1 h). Geete. Inlet temperature 507.450 kg/s  W7 ¼(W6  Ex6)¼75.108 kg/s.949 þ1.397 kg/s.21) þ91. 4.499  (3539. Table 1 Power at 124.61 283. L7 – 0.383 kg/s [26]. Inlet temperatures as a parameter have been taken. L4 – 0. L8 – 0.383 ¼72.450–3.025 Table 2 Heat rate at 124. 4. no.916–5.263–0.811–0.533/117. no.116 kg/s. Pressure (in bar) Total heat input (in kJ/s) Heat rate (in kJ/MW-s) Correction factor 1 124.673–1. Ex2 – 4.78 1C.042 kg/s. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 21  W1 ¼(W′ L1  L2  L3  L4) ¼98. Some constants which have been taken from BHEL are – (1) different leakages L1 – 1. L2 – 0.083 kg/s.499 kg/s  W3 ¼(W2  Ex2  L7  L8)¼91.61 bar inlet pressure with correction factor.394 kg/s  W5 ¼(W4  Ex4)¼81.673 117.533 2422.122–3091.

814 1.529 þ13.108 ¼101.78 99.863–(2  2.832  (3539.773.538.633.993 kg/s  W4 ¼(W3 Ex3)¼90.78 289. Sr.178 2413.78 289.926 1 5 547.366–0.78 103.920 120.539.3.271 2404.022þ16.832–4.990 3 527.960þ 1.549.78 100.083–7.018 Table 4 Heat rate at different inlet temperatures with correction factors.22 A.937 MW 4.188 þ13.787 2449.469 2388.186 2373.984 2 517.78 289.78 102.985 7 567.227 kW P ¼124.438 0.847) ¼75.78 289.439.926/HR) 1 507.950 1.004 4 537.245 118.008 6 557. Power calculation All constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant [26]. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 Then mass flow rate W′ ¼ 373:264 t=h ¼ 103:684 kg=s 4.I.653)]/121.960 kg/s  W2 ¼(W1 þL1  L5 L6  Ex1) ¼101.735–0.381 2464.075 ¼95.013 7 567. Heat rate calculation All constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant [26] (Tables 3 and 4).979 .78 100.3 Kcal/kW-h Table 3 Power at different inlet temperatures with different correction factors.863 kg/s  W6 ¼(W5 Ex5 L9)¼82.994.430 1.372–0.066 1.068.067 119.678 1.179–981.753 121.78 101.983¼121.916 ¼85.101 ¼90.4. HR ¼ Q =P net kJ=MW-s HR ¼(Q1 þQ2)/Pnet kJ/MW-s Q1 ¼W′(h1  h).263–0.334 0.327 þ14.993–5.000 1 5 547.671.498 2434.800 kg/s  W7 ¼(W6 Ex6)¼78.122–3091.78 289.684–1.21) þ95.78 290.052 1.042–0.451 117.78 98.996 4 537.294 0.937 kJ/MW-s HR ¼2373.937 kJ/MW-s HR ¼289.990.805 120.077–2.034þ23.077 kg/s  W5 ¼(W4 Ex4)¼85.69)  0.678 kJ/MW-s or 2044. no.937 0.213 ¼82. Temperature (in 1C) Mass flow rate Power Correction factor (in kg/s) (in MW) (120/Power) 1 507.800–(2  1.016 2 517.263–0.832 kg/s  W3 ¼(W2 Ex2 L7  L8)¼95. Q2 ¼W2(h3  h′) (summation of heat addition in Boiler & Super heater) kJ/s HR ¼[103. no.267 þ7526.010 3 527.78 290. Geete.684  (3359.284 0.270.684 121.105 kg/s       P ¼ HP TurbinefW 1 ðh1 h2 Þg þIP Turbinef½W 2 ðh3 h4 Þþ W 3 ðh4 h5 Þ þ W 4 ðh5 h6 Þ g þ LP Turbinef W 5 ðh6 h7 Þ    þ W 6 ðh7 h8 Þ þ W 7 ðh8 h9 Þg MW P ¼ f½101:96  ð3359:179–3018:130Þgþ f½95:832  ð3539:122–3387:304Þ þ½90:993  ð3387:304–3200:542Þ þ ½85:077  ð3200:542–2918:559Þg þf½82:863  ð2918:559–2827:728Þ þ ½78:800  ð2827:728–2654:718Þ þ½75:105  ð2654:718–2478:029Þg kW P ¼34.011)–0. Temperature (in 1C) Total heat input Heat rate Correction factor (in kJ/s) (in kJ/MW/s) (2413.846.233– 0.311–0.328.439.735 MW Pnet ¼(124.186/121.041 ¼78. Sr.991 6 557.199 0. A.  W1 ¼(W′  L1 L2  L3 L4)¼103.

342 0.720 0.78 124. All the constant values have been taken from BHEL power plant.012 2 517. Temperature (in 1C) Pressure (in bar) Heat rate (in kJ/MW/s) Correction factor (2413.61 2416.61 2422.03 1. Geete. For example – if inlet pressure is 124.006 3 527.78 124. And then correction curves for power and heat rate have been generated. Correction curve for combined effect of constant pressure and different temperatures for power.78 124.996 5 547. A.033 6 557.78 124.61 2385.I. Sr.78 124. Inlet pressure (constant) and inlet temperature (variable) have been taken as parameters. then correction factor is 1.166 1.035 1.61 116.78 124. . 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Fig.869 0.926/HR) 1 507.61 115.78 124.04 1. no.343 1. 7.01 Curve for Power 1 0.61 2399. A. 7.78 124.78 1C.61 bars) and different inlet temperatures have been analyzed and different correction factors have been found for different conditions.61 117.61 2475. 2.61 2445.999 4 537. Correction curve for power See Fig.606 1. Correction Curve for Power Inlet Pressure Line 1. Table 5 Correction curve for power with combined effect of inlet pressure (constant) and inlet temperature (different).99 °C °C °C °C °C °C °C 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 7.975 5. no.78 124.05 (124. 7.61 117.61 118.647 MW is the power output Tables 5 and 6.78 124.02 Correction 1.981 7 567.78 124.61 bar) 1.043 Table 6 Correction factor for heat rate with combined effect of inlet pressure (constant) and inlet temperature (different).020 and 117.821 0.78 124.61 2460. 7. 7.61 115. Result Two different case studies have been done on 120 MW thermal power plant.78 124.78 124.1. Temperature (in 1C) Pressure (in bar) Power (in MW) Correction factor (120/Power) 1 507.025 5 547. Khandwawala / Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 1 (2013) 17–25 23 5.647 1.528 1.008 2 517. Sr.047 1.038 7 567.678 0. 7.052 1.014 3 527.302 1.987 6 557. Combined effect of inlet pressure (constant 124.020 4 537.61 bars (constant) and inlet temperature is 527.61 119. 2.

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