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IN the reign of Athelstan, 924-39, there appeared on the coins for a limited time the
place of mintage and it is noteworthy that the only mint recorded in East Anglia is
Norwich and that, for a large area of the east midlands stretching up to the Humber,
no mint-signed coins are known. It appears that a certain latitude was given to what
was later known as the Danelaw and that the order requiring the moneyer to add the
place of mintage was, outside Norwich, either not applicable or was not enforced,
for there is no reason to think that such places as Lincoln and Stamford (to name but
two) did not have mints at this time. It also appears that in East Anglia there was a
preference for coins bearing the royal head, as opposed to Mercia where it is rarely
By the end of Athelstan's reign the practice of identifying coins by their mints had
been discontinued except, notably, at Norwich where the crowned-bust type persisted.
This remained the position under Edmund and in his reign mint-signatures are quite
exceptional (except at Norwich) and, where they do occur, are represented today by
virtually isolated surviving coins. 1
Edmund's Norwich issues, which are again of crowned-bust type ( B M C vi), present
a complete contrast. Here the names of six moneyers are found, all of whom struck
the corresponding type for Athelstan. It is clear that we have here continuity. The six
moneyers are: Barbe, Eadgar, Giongbald, Hrodgar, Manen, and Manticen (PI. IV. 1-7).
In addition to Edmund's mint-signed coins of the crowned-bust type there are a
number of moneyers of this type who clearly give no mint: Bosa, Bruinic (PI. IV. 12-13),
Ergimbalt, Fredard, Fugel (PI. IV. 19-21), and Winide (?) (PI. IV. 25): and a few others
where it is possible that elements of a mint-signature may be intended. Some of these
latter have at different times been attributed to Bath, Dorchester, Exeter, London,
and Oxford and it is to this group that attention is here particularly directed.
The coins on which there are possible elements of mint-names are as follows:
Moneyer 'Mint' reading Reference
1. Gear(es) ? BDAON Lockett 2744 (PL IV. 8)
2. NoSer BA Roy. Belfast Acad. Insn. (Pl. IV. 9)
3. Boe BI (a) Forum hoard 308
(b) Found near Kings Lynn c. 1940, writer's
collection (PL IV. 10)
(c) with retrograde rev. inscription. National
Museum of Wales. Fd. at Caerwent c. 1967
(PL IV. 11)
Three with the Circumscription Cross type both 700): Chester (BMC 1) and Derby (Forum hoard
sides (BMC—, North 699): Wallingford (Forum hoard 398); and one of the Two-line type (BMC i, North
302), Chester (B.M. ex Chester (1950) hoard 118 and 691) with doubtful reading Derby. Of these the only
Forum hoard 382); two with obverse circumscription strictly regular coin is the one of the Wallingford
cross, reverse circumscription rosette (BMC iv, North mint.
C 9039 C

Lockett 3697. The Clac coins (no. IV. 24) With some of these one can deal quite easily. IV. This leaves nos. p. 939-946 Moneyer 'Mint' reading Reference 4. 1 A die-link is found with a coin of Fugel (PI. 2 to Bath. 4 a not unreasonable interpretation. IV. but Clac is the Old Danish name Klak (or Old Norse Klaklcr). 21 and 15). on one of which the obverse legend has the curious ending REPTX (PI. No. not seemingly a 1 BMC ii. Clac EX. But there is no reason to believe that the type with the crowned bust was struck by Edmund in the western part of the country.M. 14 and AIlITD-r 17). NC 1925. and Reingrim is strengthened by the die- links just referred to. BMC 36. IV. none of whom is known in this type. I can make no suggestion for interpreting REYON. 14 and 24). BMC 69. 61. of BA. Reingrim o. 2 This is in marked contrast to the Norwich moneyers. 23). 5) 7. NoSer. 4) when viewed together show that no mint-name is intended. IV. Harris's kind permission). What has been taken as EX (and has led to an Exeter attribution in the past) may be seen to be the last letter of MONE followed by a cross. The obverse is of good work but the reverse is clearly by a less competent hand. 125. On three of the recorded specimens there is just an o after MONETA and it is only on SCBI Oxford 356 and B. 14 and 24). SCBI Oxford 358 (PL IV. no. but so far I have not traced one. EIITX Seven specimens recorded: B M (4) (PI. in isolation. The coins by this moneyer in the name of Eadred point to the same conclusion. 18) 6. though Oxford has been suggested. IV. Iohan DORNC B M ex Chester (1950) T T 119 (PI. but I have not traced any die-link with one of his coins. 16). as with the Clac coin just mentioned. Lockett 586 (Pl. Reingrim. 5. 15) 5. BNJxxvii (1952-4). p. 'Elact' REYON F o r u m hoard 326 (PI. The name. on each of which a possible mint-name beginning with B is found. But if read the normal way it can be interpreted as a degraded form of the name of the moneyer Hrodgar followed by MONOI in which case it would be an irregular reverse of the Norwich mint. Fugel. Reingrim (no. IV.18 THE C R O W N E D BUST C O I N A G E OF E D M U N D . This seems likely to be little more than a space-filler. IV. . 6 was doubtfully attributed to Dorchester in the report on the Chester hoard 3 but this cannot be sustained. No. 3) that this is followed by an x. ox B M ex Barnett 1935 (PL IV. probably as a space filler. and the association of Clac. The coin in the Forum hoard appears to be unique and the name in the form in which it there occurs otherwise unknown. 22). (the last unpublished and recorded here English Coins. SCBI Oxford 356/7. There is also a die-link with a coin of Reingrim (PI. A die-link with the obverse would provide the conclusive evidence. which some of its ill-formed letters might well suggest. 2 3 Clac. p. The attribution to Dorchester and to a moneyer Iohan was put forward on the assumption that the reverse legend was retrograde. Brooke has already scouted the attribution of one of Clac's coins to London. BMC 156 (PL IV. It seems likely that Clac (possibly CLACC) may be intended. 4 Harris coll. 1-3. Brooke attributed no. J. Blunt ex Carlyon-Britton 1685 (PI. IV. ex Barnett (PI. Fugel. E. Another feature these three moneyers have in common is that all three are known in Edmund's Two-line type. by Dr. 361. p. 2. 7) is also unlikely to be attempting to add a mint. 144.

3 at least presents no problem as to its reading. 76 where. On East Anglian coins the occasional runic letter is found considerably later than on other coins. be in keeping for a Scandinavian name to occur on coins of Edmund's crowned bust type. presumably for Anlaf (Forum hoard 385). The correct form of the genitive should be GEARWES. though its interpretation certainly does so. appear to come from the north-eastern part of the country. 'prepared. stylistically. BOGE is found producing a similar type for Edgar but his coin must be some fifteen years later than those by BOE. It is clearly an irregular piece. of course. An alternative and perhaps more probable interpretation is the Old Danish Boi. Both of the latter are similar in style and have a widely splayed M in the king's name. and it seems reasonable to associate the BOE coins with that general area. that it die-links with the other two specimens. Its weight is 16-1 gr. in marked contrast to the narrow M more commonly found which is made up of two vertical lines with a link at the top from which there usually depends a smaller vertical. is difficult of interpretation. The bust on this coin is far cruder than on the other two. a name found at Bedford in the reign of Eadwig. It could possibly be a blundered form of BOIGA. 1-3. I have no record of it on a coin of Edmund's successor Eadred. it is mistakenly stated originally bringing this coin to my notice. the moneyer's name may be read GEARES. 939-946 common one. though none has been noted as late as the second quarter of the tenth century. which also occurs as an element in two early compound names: Gearuman. of course. The coin found near Kings Lynn 2 and the one in the Forum hoard are from the same reverse die. In the Bruun sale catalogue (lot 100) it was tentatively attributed to Exeter. from Old English gearu. 2). A further link between this 'north-eastern' type of Athelstan and these Edmund coins with crowned bust is that the moneyers Clac and Fugel are also found striking both types. The coin was first published in Arch. No. an attribution that must surely be abandoned. Monmouth 3 which has a similar reverse legend but retrograde (PI. 3 I have to thank Mr. 4 Looking at this group. Gearured. 3 already mentioned. which is substantially lighter than other coins of this type..19 THE C R O W N E D BUST C O I N A G E OF E D M U N D . In this event it might be an unrecorded Old English name Gearu. A coin similar in style and also with the widely splayed M is found by the Norwich moneyer Eadgar (PI. also represented today by a single specimen. Norman Field for (1970). Camb. made the more interesting by its the East Anglian king Edmund. Are. In addition to the two specimens of no. 1. Old Norse. a number over 23 and one or two over 25. however. IV. No. name Ari and is found on coins of Edmund which. The moneyer's name presents some difficulty. a curious piece was found at Caerwent. 855-70 (SCSI western findspot. later Bo. Dolley for particulars of this . 1 Reading 36). Most weigh over 20 gr. IV. This is. is the regular form of the Old Danish. is found on a number of coins of Athelstan's of his Two-line type with the coarse lettering which is associated with the north-eastern part of the country. adj. 11). ready'. however. It would. cxix 2 I am much indebted to Mr. and on one of similar style on which the obverse reading is ANLEF REX N. The legend appears to read +XLARLTDOBAON. either imitative or a contemporary forgery. largely conjectural. 1 If one can accept the possibility of runic letters occurring so late. though the final -e is troublesome (we would expect -i) at this early date. together the question arises whether a mint-name is 1 The latest example I have noted is on a coin of very curious piece. p. though the obverse dies differ. nos.

coins of Edmund of this type and confusion could 6 Athelstan.M. BMC 154.M. 2 7 See SCBI Reading. etc. One is by Bruinic (Pi. Geographically it is essentially connected with the eastern part of the country and specifically with East Anglia. ex Chester (1950) 462/3. but Dr. Under Eadwig. 3 8 Hrodgar. There does not appear to be any connection between these coins and the Edmund ones reading BI. Bruini(n)c is found on the crowned-bust type for Edmund and Eadred. however. That Bedford does not appear as a mint on coins of Athelstan need not prejudice acceptance of it as a mint under Edmund: it is in the area where mint-signed coins are not found in Athelstan's reign. Carlyon-Britton Edmund. IV. p. as noted easily have arisen. BMC 100. So Bedford is a possibility.. Equally its absence under Eadred is of no significance. Drabble 423. 25). 6 a reverse die of Edmund of Reingrim's survived to be used on Eadred's coins (PI.M. just possible that 377. etc. 13). 3 and there are other links showing the continuity of the issue of the type: on the coins without mint-signature Fredard is found on the crowned-bust type for all three kings. IV.7 North gives Sperflinc in this type for Edmund. etc. Hrodgar and Manne. 20 THE C R O W N E D BUST C O I N A G E OF E D M U N D . Lockett 586 and SCBI Oxford 378. IV. Monne. Forum hoard 178. but it may well exist as Sperlinc is known for Eadred in the type. the other has an enigmatical name reading PhUlPE (PI. 1 All are by the moneyer Eofermund who may be confidently said to have worked at Tamworth on the strength of a coin formerly in the Carlyon-Britton collection (lot 462 in his sale) where the mint-name is indisputable. Bedford does appear as one of his relatively few identifiable mints and an active one at that. The obvious candidate is Bedford. Drabble 442. Sir Frank Stenton considered Winide a possible interpretation. 5 but. One occurs at Norwich where Barbe (formerly Elmore Jones collection but not in his 1971 sale) shares an obverse die with Manticen {BMC4. B. Eadred. the only certainly identifiable mint is Norwich. North has made a slip. It may be worth noting here that coins exist of Edgar on which the letters BI and B occur at the end of the reverse legend. 939-946 intended and if so what. 4 Clac's name is also found on coins of all three. BMC 110-12. 13. from 939 to 946. I have noticed two further die-links between moneyers in this series and these may usefully be recorded here. SCBI Oxford Lockett 3703. above. 8 The sum of the evidence is clearly therefore that the type was issued throughout Edmund's reign. 24 and 26). a cast in the British Museum 4 Athelstan. however. I have not seen the coin. It can be shown that the crowned-bust type was issued early in it: the Norwich coins of Edmund are a continua- tion of the issue there in the name of Athelstan and all the six Norwich moneyers recorded for Edmund had struck there for his predecessor. Edmund. as has been noted. On Edmund's death two of the same men. IV. It is. . But the forms in which the name is found on these few coins must make it necessary to treat its acceptance with considerable reserve. of Lockett 3703 was placed in the tray next to the etc. 459 and 1042. ex Chester (1950) 121. von Feilitzen felt unable to venture any opinion on what is clearly a corrupt form. B. Edmund. ex Chester (1950) 248. Eadred. 7). The other is between two coins on which there is no attempt at a mint-signature. Eadred. 2 Edmund's reign was a relatively short one. because so few of his coins bear mint-names. 1 8 B.. pi. his coins of Athelstan are of the Two-line type. are found striking the type there for his successor Eadred. SCBI Edinburgh 574. but there are letters on a few other coins which make it a possibility (though not as yet a probability) that Bedford may eventually be added.

M. „ Lockett 586 25. Hrodgar. and. 21 T H E C R O W N E D B U S T C O I N A G E O F E D M U N D . with his usual kindness. National Museum of Wales. where the small collection originally in the Royal Belfast Academical Institu- tion is now housed. Norwich Barbe BMC 3 2. H. W. to Professor Panvini Rosati of the Museo Nazionale. Boon of the National Museum of Wales. Carlyon-Britton 985 21. 3.M. 'Winide'. C. 10. Clac. Baldwin & Sons Ltd. 546 15. B I Boe. to Mr. ex Chester hoard 14. A. Reingrim. Archibald of the British Museum.M. at Caerwent 12.A. Mitchell of A. N o mint Bosa. A. 939-946 In conclusion I must express my gratitude to Dr. „ BMC 150 18. von Feilitzen who has. for providing material for the plates and permission to publish here. „ SCBI Oxford 358 17. fd. ex Chester hoard 6. Dolley and to Mr. B.M. „ Blunt 16. ex Chester hoard 4. „ B. SCBI Oxford 378 . Roy. B A Nother. to Mr. Manen. Lockett 589 7. Manticen. 'Elact'.M. Belfast Acad. Blunt 13. BDAON Gear(es) ?. Blunt 11. Lockett 2745 5. Rome and to Mr. Baldwin & Sons Ltd. L I S T O F C O I N S I L L U S T R A T E D (PL. B. Field for bringing to my notice the two important coins referred to above. Blunt 22. B. O.M. Rome ex F o r u m hoard 19. B. BMC 4 8. given me his opinion on some of the personal names found on these coins and on the question of the possibility that Bedford might be one of the mints involved. Lockett 2744 9. it must be made clear that the conclusions reached are my own responsibility. H. While I have drawn extensively on what he has told me. SCBI Reading 52 26. Eadgar. Fugel. I am also indebted to Mr.M. Insn. ex Barnett 24. G. B. Bruinic. P. Giongbald. Seaby of the Ulster Museum. Ergimbalt. IV) 1. Fredard. Eadred N o mint. BMC 156 23. 20. Reingrim. to Miss M. „ (retrograde).