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PARTS OF ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL involved with intracellular digestion.

Lysosomes fuse with vesicles (small
vacuoles) formed by endocytosis. The
contents of these vesicles are digested by
lysosomal enzymes. Autodigestion by
lysosomes also occurs during embryonic
development. The fingers of a human
embryo are webbed initially, but are
separated from each other by lysosomal
enzymes. Cells in the tail of a tadpole are
digested by lysosomal enzymes during the
gradual transition into a frog.

Mitochondrion: Membrane-bound organelle
and the site of aerobic respiration and ATP
production. Energy from the step-by-step
oxidation of glucose (called the Krebs or
citric acid cycle) is used to produce
molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The Krebs cycle starts when a 2-carbon
acetyl group combines with a 4-carbon group
to form a 6-carbon citrate. Including
glycolysis (which occurs outside the
mitochondria), a total of 38 ATP molecules
are generated from one molecule of glucose.

Chloroplast: Membrane-bound organelle
and the site of photosynthesis and ATP
Golgi Apparatus: A series (stack) of production in autotrophic plant cells. Like
flattened, membrane-bound sacs (saccules) mitochondria, chloroplasts contain their own
involved in the storage, modification and circular DNA molecules. In fact, chloroplast
secretion of proteins (glycoproteins) and DNA, including the protein-coding RBCL
lipids destined to leave the cell gene, is often used at the family level to
(extracellular) and for use within the cell show the relationships between genera and
(intracellular). The Golgi apparatus is species within plant families. Intron regions
abundant in secretory cells, such as cells of from chloroplast DNA are also used to
the pancreas. construct family trees. Introns are sections of
messenger RNA that are removed prior to
Golgi Vesicle: A membrane-bound body
translation at the ribosome. Comparative
that forms by "budding" from the Golgi
DNA between different genera and species
apparatus. It contains proteins
of a plant family can be shown with
(glycoproteins), such as digestive enzymes,
computer generated evoltionary trees called
and migrates to the cell (plasma)
cladograms.
membrane. Golgi vesicles fuse with the cell
membrane and discharge their contents into Grana: Region of chloroplast composed of
the exterior of the cell through a process stacks of thylakoid membranes. This is the
called exocytosis. Some Golgi vesicles site of the "light reactions" where ATP and
become lysosomes which are involved in NADPH2 are generated. These two products
intracellular digestion. are utilized in the "dark reactions" where
carbon dioxide is converted ("reduced") to
Lysosome: A membrane-bound organelle
glucose.
containing hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes.
Lysosomes originate as membrane-bound Stroma: Region of the chloroplast where the
vesicles (called Golgi vesicles) that bud from "dark reactions" occur. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
the Golgi apparatus. They are primarily
is gradually converted into glucose through a in plasma membranes include membrane
series of reactions called the Calvin cycle. transport "carrier molecules" and cell
recognition antigens. The plasma membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum: A complex is permeable to water molecules by osmosis,
system of membrane-bound channels but not to other molecules and ions by
extending throughout the cytoplasm of cells. simple diffusion. Ions pass through the
Like the emergency room of a hospital, the plasma membrane via carrier molecules by
endoplasmic reticulum is often abbreviated active transport and facilitated diffusion.
as ER. Active transport requires ATP.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Does Cell Wall: A cellulose layer that surrounds
not contain attached ribosomes. the plasma membrane of plant cells.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Studded Because it is very porous, the cell wall is
(dotted) with attached ribosomes on the side permeable to molecules and ions that cannot
of the membrane that faces the cytoplasm. pass through the plasma membrane by
simple diffusion. During plasmolysis, the cell
Ribosome: Organelle site of protein membrane loses water and its contents
synthesis. The ribosome is composed of shrink up into a ball, while the outer cell wall
large and small subunits separated by a remains intact. Shrubs and trees have a
central groove. A strand of messenger RNA thickened secondary cell wall containing
(m-RNA) fits into the groove and the lignin, a brown phenolic polymer that
ribosome moves along the m-RNA in a 5' to imparts great strength and hardness to
3' direction. Molecules of cloverleaf-shaped wood. Ironwoods such as lignum vitae sink in
transfer-RNA (t-RNA), each with a unique water because of the density of their heavy,
amino acid, temporarily attach to the m-RNA thick-walled, lignified cells.
at the ribosome in a process called
translation. Transfer-RNA anticodons hook up Vacuole: A membrane-bound, fluid-filled sac
with m-RNA codons and the amino acids inside plant and animal cells. Contractile
bond together by dehydration synthesis. vacuoles of protists, such as the
Paramecium, are specialized organelles for
Nucleolus: Dark-staining body within the expelling excess water. Food vacuoles of the
nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized. Amoeba digest smaller cells captured by
Plant nuclei in onion root tip cells may have phagocytosis. Plant cells have large central
several nucleoli. vacuoles that occupy much of the cell
volume.
Nucleus: Membrane-bound organelle
containing chromatin, a term applied to all Large Central Vacuole: A membrane-
the chromosomes collectively when they are bound, fluid-filled sac that occupies much of
in a tenuous (threadlike) stage. During the the volume of a plant cell. For this reason,
prophase of mitosis, the chromosomes the chloroplasts, nucleus and other
become shorter and thicker, and appear as organelles are displaced to the periphery of
distinct doubled bodies called "chromosome the cytoplasm (around the central vacuole).
doublets."
Centriole: Nonmembrane-bound organelles
Cell (Plasma) Membrane: The living that occur in pairs just outside the nucleus of
membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of animal cells. Each centriole is composed of a
all cells. It is composed of a phospholipid cylinder or ring of 9 sets of microtubule
bilayer with embedded glycoproteins. In the triplets with none in the middle (9 + 0
"sandwich model" the two phospholipid pattern). During cell division a pair of
layers are sandwiched between two layers of centrioles moves to each end of the cell,
protein. The membranes of organelles are forming the poles of the mitotic spindle.
also composed of a phospholipid bilayer, Centrioles also give rise to basal bodies that
including vacuoles, nuclei, mitochondria and control the origin of cilia and flagella in
chloroplasts. [Riubosomes are not motile cells of protists. In cross section,
membrane-bound.] Embedded glycoproteins flagella and cilia have 9 sets of microtubule
doublets surrounding a pair of single and radiating aster) are composed of
microtubules in the center (9 + 2 pattern). microtubules. Microtubules are involved in
This characteristic pattern also occurs in cell movement, cell shape and the formation
motile cells of higher organisms, such as of mitotic spindles during cell division
human sperm. (mitosis). Some cancer chemotherapy drugs
cause the dissolution (depolymerization) of
Centrosome: The microtubule organizing tubulin in microtubules, thus destroying
center that forms the mitotic spindle in mitotic spindles and effectively stopping cell
dividing cells. In animal cells the centrosome division in tumor cells.
includes a pair of centrioles surrounded by
radiating strands of microtubules called the Cytoplasm: All the contents of a cell within
aster. the plasma membrane. The nucleus and its
contents (nucleoplasm) are generally
Microtubules: Protein filaments composed excluded from the cytoplasm. The semifluid
of a polymer called tubulin. The centrosome medium between the nucleus and the
of animal cells (including a pair of centrioles plasma membrane is called cytosol.