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B.F.

SKINNER:
SHAPING
DESIRED Skinners’ Theory:

BEHAVIOR Operant Conditioning- is a form of learning in which the stimulus/experience happens after the behavior is
S demonstrated.

 Shaping is an operant conditioning method in which you reward closer and closer approximations of the
desired behavior.

How can behaviors be reinforced?

By McKenzie Coggin & 1. Primary Reinforcer-
A primary reinforcer is considered a physical need and cannot be learned.
Tina McBride (An example of a primary reinforcer would be: water, food, sleep, shelter, and touch, among others.)

February 20,2017 2. Secondary Reinforcer-
A secondary reinforcer has no inherent value and only has reinforcing qualities when linked with a
primary reinforcer.
(Praise, linked to affection, is one example of a secondary reinforcer. Toke economy is another)

You can encourage proper behavior by:

* Using Praise
* Using Feedback
* Using Rewards

*For example, if a teacher wanted to encourage students to answer questions in class they should praise them for every attempt. Eventually, the teacher will only
praise the students when their answer is correct, and after time only exceptional answers will be praised.
Elementary Classroom Examples:

Reward positive / good behavior with prizes, tokens, and/ or praise, such as when they:
* Help a fellow student or teacher
* Show an act of kindness
* Complete assignments on time
* Follow directions
(And any other positive behaviors you see)

Secondary Classroom Examples:

* Allow students to give their feedback
* Allow students to help create class rules
* Reward positive behavior before
reprimanding negative behaviors.

References:

 Boundless. “Shaping.” Boundless Psychology Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 05 Feb. 2017 from

https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/learning-7/operant-conditioning-47/shaping-198-12733/

 Learning, L. (n.d.). Operant Conditioning. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wsu-sandbox/chapter/operant-conditioning/

http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LqTdMt_ddY
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpGRvstgD3c

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ml1tih5zSY