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VBEAM Theory of Operation


The VBEAM system is a flashlamp excited pulsed dye laser which delivers energy at a
wavelength of 595 nm and a pulse width between 0.45 ms to 40 ms. This laser system has
the Dynamic Cooling Device (DCD) built into it which provides a short spray burst of cryogen
prior to firing the laser pulse. The laser head is designed to deliver a minimum of 100,000
pulses. A unique MegaDye cartridge stores enough dye to provide 100,000 pulses to the
customer before a replacement cartridge is required. Laser energy is delivered through a
handpiece and optical fiber which are both user replaceable parts. The handpiece contains
the cryogen spray valve, bubble sensor, fiber delivery system, and fingerswitch. Four spot
sizes are currently available. They are 5mm, 7mm, 10mm, and an elliptical spot of 3mm x
10mm. Single laser pulses can be delivered by pressing the trigger switch and then releasing,
or if the trigger switch is held, multiple pulses will be emitted.The nominal repetition rate of the
laser is up to 1.5 Hz. At higher energy density settings and after normal head degradation, the
repetition rate will be less than 1.5 Hz.

The VBEAM operates from an input line voltage of 185 VAC to 260 VAC at 50/60 Hz. There
are no adjustments required on the laser to operate over this voltage range. The VBEAM
system does not contain an isolation transformer. All of the components that are directly
connected to the AC input were chosen for low line leakage current to ensure the systems
meets the leakage current requirements of IEC-601 and UL2601. Maximum current drawn by
the laser system is 19 A at 230 VAC input. At this power consumption level, the thermal load
from the laser system is 15,700 Btu/hr. Under nominal consumption levels, the thermal load
in the Ready state will be 9231 Btu/hr. When the laser is in Standby state (non-pulsing), the
thermal load decreases to 1991 Btu/hr.

The VBEAM system is fully air cooled. All fans used are operated from 24 VDC so their
performance is constant for low or high AC input line voltage and for 50 or 60 Hz power
sources. There are a total of six fans in the system. One is built into the high voltage power
supply. Two fans are mounted to the front of the frame and cool the modulator area. One fan
is in the AC Section to cool the DCD canister. Two fans are mounted to the water cooled
heat exchanger and are the only fans that are switched on and off by the firmware. All other
fans turn on as soon as the system is powered on.

The deionized water system is maintained at 60°C (140°F) to provide optimum performance
from the laser head. The dye solution is also maintained at 60°C (140°F) through a liquid-to-
liquid heat exchanger. A 1000 watt heater and air-cooled heat exchanger regulate the water
at its proper temperature which in turn heat the dye solution to its proper temperature. An
initial warm-up time of approximately 20 minutes (from a cold start) is required for the
deionized water and dye solution to be at the correct operating temperature. This time varies
depending on the ambient temperature in the room and the line voltage. (At low line voltage
the heater's output power is less than 1000 watts). The warm-up time of the cryogen canister
is about 25 minutes. Thus the system warm-up time is typically 20 to 25 minutes depending
on whether the DCD is on or off.

A wavelength monitor assembly is included to monitor the wavelength in the system. When
the wavelength decreases, the firmware turns on the inject pump which adds triplet quencher

8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page1 of 22

VBEAM Theory of Operation

(COT) to the dye reservoir. The added COT displaces some of the dye from the dye cartridge
which increases the absorbance to its proper level to correct the wavelength.

An MC68HC812 microprocessor based system controller is used to monitor and direct all
system functions. A diagnostic connector located at the bottom center of the front panel will
provide a communications port for an external computer. It gives the service technician
access to system status and control functions for repair and maintenance. A DB9 male to
female communications cable can be used when connecting the diagnostic port to the
external computer.

For purposes of technical review, the laser can be divided into three major subsections. They
are: 1) Optics, 2) Fluids, and 3) Electronics. Each section will be addressed in this theory of
operation. The system firmware will not be discussed here unless it is required to explain the
functioning of the laser. For detailed information on the system firmware see the following
documents: 1) Firmware Requirements Specification (1010-06-1000), 2) Firmware Design
Specification (1010-01-1000), and 3) VBEAM Flowcharts (1010-02-1000).


A block diagram of the optical system is shown in Figure 1. The optical components located
inside the laser system are the laser rail and the calibration port. The laser rail contains the
laser head, beam splitter assembly, beam shutter assembly and fiber receptacle assembly.
The delivery system, consisting of the optical fiber and handpiece are connected into the front
of the laser.

Laser Head

The laser head contains one flashlamp (5 mm bore, 400 torr), a dye cell, water jacket and two
mirrors. The max reflector, mounted at the rear of the laser head, is ideally a 100% mirror.
Laser light is reflected back and forth through the laser cavity between the max reflector and
the output coupler. The output coupler is a partial reflector that allows approximately 30% of
the laser energy to pass through it.

Operation of the laser head at higher energy output levels could reduce the lifetime of the
head. Therefore, maximum delivered energy and fluences are determined by a set maximum
head energy of 10J and realistic delivery system between 65 % to 85% transmission.

A metal cover is mounted over the laser rail to protect the optics from dust contamination. It
also protects the service technician from the high voltages present in the vicinity of the laser
head and from optical hazards. Unless required for trouble-shooting, the laser should not be
pulsed with the laser cover removed. If the cover is removed, it should be replaced as soon as
possible and the laser should never be left with the laser cover off.

8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 2 of 22

Also. It is only a triggerswitch away from being pulsed. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 3 of 22 . use extreme caution when servicing the laser head. but not simmering there is 1300 VDC applied to two terminals of the flashlamp. The simmer start pulse applies a high voltage pulse (peak amplitude ≈10 KV) to the laser cavity.VBEAM Theory of Operation Figure 1 . whenever the laser system is in Ready.Optical Block Diagram The laser head is simmered when entering Ready. Therefore. When the laser is in Ready state. never touch the laser head or rest test equipment on it.

but an optical alignment is still required for the laser head and receptacle.VBEAM Theory of Operation Beam Shutter The beam shutter allows laser light to pass on to the fiber coupling lenses when it is energized. The ceramic block reflects most of the laser energy that hits it and absorbs the rest. The lenses are designed and located so that the proximal tip of the fiber is at the image plane of the output end of the dye cell. The proximal end of the fiber is inserted into the fiber receptacle and locked into position with a threaded fitting on the fiber assembly. The head detector monitors the energy being delivered to the patient and will send signals to the CPU I/O PCB. If lens replacement is performed. The reflected laser light is dispersed in a divergent pattern. For new receptacles. firmware will then determine if there is a fault. As a result. The beam shutter is controlled by hardware and firmware. it is important to note the orientation of the existing lenses so that the new lenses are installed properly. When the shutter is energized and moves out of the beam path. This gives a uniform beam profile on the fiber and causes the laser beam diameter to be 0. The Wavelength detector monitors the wavelength being delivered to the patient and will send a signal to the CPU I/O PCB. Normally it is not energized so it blocks any laser light exiting the partial reflector end of the laser head. The sensor is positioned so that it detects infrared light from the LED side of the optical switch when the shutter is in the laser beam path. Fiber Receptacle The fiber receptacle assembly contains two lenses that are used to couple the laser beam onto the end of the fiber. A ceramic block is mounted to the surface of the beam shutter blade so that it is in line with the laser beam when the shutter is in the blocking position. this alignment is done on a fixture at the factory. The beam shutter normally does not get hit with laser energy. It cannot be opened unless the triggerswitch is depressed and the firmware command is present. the infrared light is blocked by the back end of the shutter blade.8mm diameter resulting in maximum coupling efficiency and lifetime. The lenses are held in place with o-rings that help keep them centered in the beam path. The beamsplitter assembly. The beam shutter is used solely as a safety device to prevent laser energy from exiting the laser system under fault conditions. beam shutter assembly. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 4 of 22 . An optical switch on the shutter assembly is used to sense the position of the shutter. firmware will then determine if there is a fault. Beamsplitter and Wavelength Detector The beamsplitter assembly is between the laser head and beam shutter for the head detector and one for the wavelength monitoring. but fine alignment is still necessary. The firmware will only allow the laser system to enter the Ready state if the beam shutter is blocking the laser beam path in Standby state. it is not designed to withstand repeated high energy pulses from the laser head. This assembly splits off 2 % from the main beam into two photodiodes . and fiber receptacle are all precisely located on the rail. The lenses are designed to be field replaceable and alignable.

The Calport contains two microswitches that sense when the handpiece is fully inserted in the Calport. The ceramic disks and acetal cylinder provide a scattering volume that both attenuates and scatters the light. This current pulse is sent to the Calport energy detector circuit on the CPU I/O PCB. Spot Size Conversion Factor 5 mm 5. There are four difference spot sizes that correspond to specific fluence levels. The high level of scattering nearly eliminates Calport sensitivity to misalignment of the spot at the input face.09 x External Meter Energy 7 mm 2.60 x External Meter Energy 10 mm 1.VBEAM Theory of Operation Calport The VBEAM Calport measures the energy out the handpiece. The photodiode circuit on the Calport Energy PCB converts the optical sample of the laser beam energy to a current pulse. A ball plunger in the bottom of the Calport provides pressure against the handpiece to prevent it from falling out after it is inserted. it is processed and calibrated before being sent on to the firmware to measure the actual energy into the Calport. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 5 of 22 .27 x External Meter Energy 3X10 mm 4. There. The VBEAM operating fluence range is currently 3 . The conversion factors used to convert energy to fluence are shown in Table 1. depending on the spot size. then an acetal cylinder and onto a photodiode sensor. The photodiode sensor is mounted on the Calport Energy PCB.25 J/cm2. Energy to Fluence Conversion Factors The available energy density settings for each spot size and the external energy meter value associated with that spot size are shown in Tables 2A and 2B. Laser energy from the handpiece is directed through ceramic disks.24 x External Meter Energy Table 1.

42 6.0 4.89 7.5 2.89 7.0 2.5 4.5 5.06 3.75 6.08 2.37 10.5 4.5 2.0 2.5 2.68 8.0 4.60 19.5 2.31 2.0 3.5 3.92 24.53 14.5 2.81 6.58 6.43 5.77 23.12 5.0 3.36 2.36 5.94 6.0 3.11 6.22 25.23 5.65 6.0 1.01 5.87 8.5 2.57 12.5 5.0 1.5 1.16 5.83 6.42 5.36 2.57 3.0 5.0 5.09 6.55 6.0 5.50 4.0 4.04 5.5 2.95 6.50 3.2 5.5 1.5 1.71 5.62 5.5 5.48 22.12 11.30 6.98 17.5ms – 40ms) 7mm Spot Size Tx = 80% 3x10mm Spot Size Tx = 80% 10mm Spot Size Tx = 80% 5mm Spot Size Tx = 40% Fluence Delivered Head Fluence Delivered Head Fluence Delivered Head Fluence Delivered Head Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy (J) (J) (J) (J) (J) (J) (J) (J) 4.27 11.65 7.0 2.14 3.5 2.21 3.0 4.74 20.95 4.24 7.0 5.5 3.98 2.0 2.75 3.68 9.87 4.95 7.32 5.5 2.0 1.95 6.48 5.37 3.5 1.53 4.38 7.54 1.5 2.18 6.0 1.62 14.92 7.9 10.36 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 6 of 22 .14 13.0 2.69 3.77 15.66 10.47 3.9 12.42 12.0 3.86 13.65 8.0 1.09 11.12 15.5 5.85 11.00 2.39 7.38 13.36 5.13 9.0 2.16 11.41 8.95 3.5 3.0 4.81 13.92 2.0 2.5 2.4 11.93 4.92 8.5 3.66 4.01 15.89 7.0 2.42 4.89 4.22 18.44 7.46 4.33 12.42 9.25 16.33 22.80 5.0 5.01 14.5 1.5 3.24 5.91 6.88 2.89 3.05 13.45 6.61 10.5 2.67 4.77 7.24 2.15 14.36 8.36 18.2 7.88 14.0 1.0 1.16 7.77 4.0 5.19 21.36 4.65 2.5 4.39 6.73 2.26 5.49 16.5 2.0 0.30 4.59 5.71 5.0 2.30 15.5 5.0 4.06 5.77 4.83 3.71 13.04 21.96 4.5 4.88 2.0 3.18 9.12 2.71 3.0 1.5 4.44 4.63 23.5 1.5 3.18 3.0 5.45 19.7 6.46 5.65 4.89 20.5 4.5 5.0 2.00 6.5 2.89 9.0 3.64 12.50 6.98 10.08 3.96 4.59 3.20 6.53 4.27 4.28 3.0 4.VBEAM Theory of Operation TABLE 2A: Spot Size Fluence Ranges (Pulse width = 1.5 5.0 3.77 2.57 12.0 5.73 17.5 0.06 3.5 5.5 4.07 6.0 2.93 5.54 6.29 14.85 4.5 3.18 2.83 10.5 4.0 3.65 5.85 7.40 6.0 3.0 1.0 4.0 2.47 3.12 2.0 0.53 9.77 7.5 1.79 1.07 24.

Each HP spot size slider has an associated resistor mounted in it that is connected to the handpiece cable.5 1.98 2.53 12.16 7.0 1.83 3.95 4. bubble sensor.36 4.0 1. The Handpiece PCB contains the optical sensor used for the bubble detector.36 2.65 2.0 3.13 9.24 11. A ball plunger in the handpiece and a slot in the HP spot size slider assembly are used to lock the slider assembly in place.5 2. The fiber assembly with HP spot size slider slides into the handpiece and is easily removable so that the customer can change HP spot size sliders.06 3.88 2.61 10.09 8. A distance gauge for each of the spot sizes is attached to the end of the handpiece and held in place by an o-ring. The proximal end connector has a screw locking mechanism that slides into the fiber receptacle on the front of the laser and secures it in place.21 3.0 0.95 3.06 3. The electrical cable connects into the Handpiece PCB with an eight pin connector.75 3.0 3.0 0.08 3.0 2. The VBEAM fiber is a 1.79 1. and the electrical cable and cryogen tubing that connects to the front of the laser system.59 3. the switch cover and mounting bracket.44 4.71 3. The Handpiece PCB is 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 7 of 22 .0 2.5 2. The distal end of the fiber connects to the HP spot sliders.5 2.37 10.0 1.31 2.5 1.41 8.88 2.5 2.68 13.50 6. The distance gauge serves as an aiming guide and also keeps the cryogen spray confined to an area set by the size of the white circular plastic ring that is attached at the end of the distance gauge.24 2.85 11.0 1. Nominal fiber transmission is 85%.92 7.73 2.0 2.50 3.96 4.0 mm diameter fiber. and the connector for the cryogen spray valve.65 8. The circular ring is 2 mm larger in diameter than the laser spot size. the two independent trigger switches. The handpiece body can be disassembled by removing the three screws on the side of the handpiece.36 2.0 2.83 Delivery System The delivery system consists of two assemblies.69 3.12 2.65 6.5 2.VBEAM Theory of Operation TABLE 2B: Spot Size Fluence Ranges (Pulse width = 0.5 2.0 3.0 2. trigger switches. All the internal parts can be serviced if required.89 3.12 2.77 2.80 7.00 2. A fiber scrambler is attached several inches from the connector at the proximal end of the fiber to homogenize the beam profile.5 2. The main part is the handpiece assembly that contains the cryogen valve.47 3.5 0.14 3.46 5.5 2.95 7.0 2. This allows the firmware to determine which HP spot size slider is attached.2 5.5 2.89 9.45ms) 7mm Spot Size Tx = 80% 3x10mm Spot Size Tx = 80% 10mm Spot Size Tx = 80% 5mm Spot Size Tx = 40% Fluence Delivered Head Fluence Delivered Head Fluence Delivered Head Fluence Delivered Head Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy (J) (J) (J) (J) (J) (J) (J) (J) 4.39 12.92 2.0 2.93 5.54 1.

If the bubble sensor needs to be adjusted it can be done without opening the handpiece. the small piece of tubing protruding from the end of the cryogen valve can be lined up with four set screws for correct cryogen aiming. The bubble sensor adjustment potentiometer can be accessed through the small hole in the side of the handpiece. the service technician should never contact the laser head cavity while the system is on because it could be at voltages as high as 10. Also. and it should not be spraying onto the edge of the distance gauge ring. several items must be re-tested. The spray can be tested by using the purge button so lasing is not necessary. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 8 of 22 . that the cryogen aiming is accurate. Spraying onto a black piece of paper generally gives the most visible spray pattern. and that the calibration of the bubble sensor is correct. be centered in the distance gauge. Whenever maintenance or repair of the laser system is required be sure to adhere to the following safety statements: WARNING During servicing of the laser system use only safety eyewear known to have an optical density of 5.9 or more at 591 . These include checking that the valve functions properly. The cryogen spray should fill the diameter of the distance gauge. Safety eyewear designed for use with other laser systems may not provide adequate protection. The same method is used to hold the cryogen valve into position. During servicing of the laser head.VBEAM Theory of Operation press fit into the handpiece body and held into position when the two halves are screwed together. Whenever the handpiece is taken apart.000 volts. The flat portions of the valve head must be lined up against the inside of handpiece body sides in order for the two halves to be closed properly.597 nm. The cryogen aiming should be tested with a 10 mm distance gauge and the spray duration set at 20 ms.

8 liters and 1. a deionized water system and dye solution system that regulates the temperature of the laser head at 60°C (140°F).VBEAM Theory of Operation FLUID SYSTEM The VBEAM contains two separate fluid systems. A block diagram detailing the fluid system is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 .Fluid Block Diagram 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 9 of 22 .4 liters for the dye solution without the dye cartridge volume. The total water capacity of this system is approximately 1.

Typical pump output pressure generated is 15. The output of the heat exchanger is connected to the heater manifold. the calibration of the temperature circuit will be affected. the DI temperature sensor. The drain valve is located after the heater manifold and is manually operated to remove water from the system. then the thermal overtemperature (OT) switch will open which removes 24 VDC power from the main relay thus turning off the entire laser system. Exhaust air exits the fluid compartment out the rear of the laser chassis.VBEAM Theory of Operation For the DI fluid system a centrifugal pump is used to circulate the deionized water in the system. This is done to limit the AC input current drawn by the system during pulsing of the laser. The cartridge contains a deionizing section to maintain the purity of the water (high resistivity). and a thermal overtemperature switch. The pump is mounted directly under the water reservoir. The laser head output is connected to the DI heat exchanger. The DI pump is directly wired to the mains. If there is not enough pressure out of the pump. The DI fluid system may be low on water or has a leak. The combination of the 1000 watt heater in the heater manifold and the heat exchanger fans work together to maintain the water in the laser system at 60°C (140°F). The heater manifold contains a single 1000 watt heater. If the connection between the temperature sensor and the system wiring harness becomes wet.1 GPM. If an overtemperature problem occurs that cannot be corrected by the firmware or hardware. Most of the water travels through the bypass tube. until a service technician can look at the laser. the pump is still on and can damage the DI pump if there is no water in the system. The dye solution will heat to the same temperature as the DI water 60°C (140°F).8 PSI (measured at the pump outlet) with a nominal flow rate of 1. The tubing connection between the pump and the laser head has several components in it. After it opens. The fans are mounted on the heat exchanger and pulls air up from the bottom of the laser fluid compartment. The pump output flows up to the laser head on the upper chassis. The parallel path consists of a DI cartridge and a bypass tube. The heater is not required when pulsing since the majority of the pulsed energy goes into the DI water in the laser head. The temperature sensor is a solid state device that is used in conjunction with circuits on the CPU I/O PCB which allows the firmware to monitor the temperature of the water. The water flow and pressure are not adjustable. The temperature is 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 10 of 22 . it typically takes from 10 to 20 minutes for it to reset itself. The dye solution will track the DI water system. Approximately 5% of the flow is through the DI cartridge. therefore after this fault is detected. The heat exchanger is cooled with two 24 VDC fans which are controlled by the firmware. The heater is disabled by the firmware when the triggerswitch is depressed. A foam filter in the bottom of the fluid compartment minimizes the amount of dust picked up by the incoming air. the pressure switch will activate the software to display a fault. which completes the DI loop. The foam filter must be changed at regular intervals to prevent restriction of the cooling air. The OT switch is self resetting. The laser should be turned off at this point. The temperature sensor operates with very low current levels (≈340uA). Water then flows from the pressure switch to the laser head and enters a parallel path about half way up to the head. then to the DI reservoir. First a pressure switch is located just after the DI pump to detect water pressure. It is located at the lowest point in the DI fluid system. This liquid to liquid exchanger will pass the heat from the heated DI water to the dye solution. The output from the heater manifold flows through a liquid to liquid heat exchanger.

damage to the DI pump can occur if it is turned on with no water. a fault will be indicated. the firmware assumes the temperature sensor has failed or become open circuited.5 GPM. if the temperature drops below 55. then a fault will be indicated and no COT will be added to the system. If the initial wavelength check shows that the wavelength is significantly out of range. If this does not happen. If the wavelength was not restored after the extended COT cycle. the firmware should declare an over temperature fault before the over- temperature thermostat turns off the laser. This is because if the temperature is less than 5°C. Also. The COT concentration slowly decreases in a system. For best accuracy. This solution flows from a dye pump that is a positive displacement pump continuously circulating the dye at 1. Normally. then most likely the temperature sensor is bad or miscalibrated. which completes the dye loop. mostly as a function of time or usage due to evaporation. The firmware over temperature fault is set for 66°C. The second fluid loop is the dye fluid system.5°C or greater. The laser will not go into the Ready state if this fault is present. The dye solution system consists of a 50/50 mixture of ethylene glycol and deionized water. This ensures that the water temperature measured by the external sensor in the reservoir is at the same temperature as the sensor in the heater manifold.5 GPM a typical system will produce 36 PSI at the pump head. The dye and water pumps are directly wired to the mains in the laser system so as soon as the laser is turned on. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 11 of 22 .5°C or less. Wavelength will be checked at the end of calibration. The firmware uses two set points to control the heater and fans. The COT inject pump is used to transfer COT from the COT bottle into the dye reservoir. There is some undershoot and overshoot in the water temperature at each of these set points. affecting the wavelength. the laser will automatically repeat the calibration process.3 milliliters per nanometer. the temperature sense circuit should only be calibrated with both the heater and heat exchanger fans off. Again. A pressure switch is located just after the DI water pump to determine when there is insufficient water to operate the laser. particle (bubble) filter. The firmware will also declare an over- temperature fault if the temperature read is less than 5°C. a fault will be displayed. At the end of the mixing delay. Field Service must replace the COT bottle. sufficient COT will be added to bring the laser back to its target wavelength. This will be followed by a mandatory 3 minute mixing delay period. The heater is turned on whenever the water temperature is at 59. If the wavelength is found to be below specifications. The addition of COT takes place at a rate of 11. the laser head. the pumps will turn on. COT is required to maintain the correct dye absorbance. the liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger then into the dye reservoir. COT is not user replaceable.5°C while in the Ready state.VBEAM Theory of Operation regulated to ± 2°C to ensure good efficiency and stability and to minimize variations from different laser heads. an extended COT addition and delay cycle will occur. An adjustment screw on the pump head allows for proper set up of the flow rate. If the wavelength is low but within specifications. During this time a flashing hourglass symbol will be displayed on the calibration message. The output of the pump is sent to the Dye cartridge. The heat exchanger fans are turned on whenever the water temperature is at 60. At this time sufficient COT will be added to restore proper wavelength. At 1.

The SCR and Modulator PCB will be discussed in the section on the Modulator. A single serial RS-232 port exists on the board so that a maintenance terminal or modem can be connected to the laser. The board is easily accessible by removing the front panel of the laser system. laser state. The CPU I/O PCB also provides distribution of all the 24-volt power used in the laser except for the modulator section. CPU I/O PCB (Schematic 7111-80-2280) The CPU I/O PCB functions as the brain of the laser system. Connector J9 receives the 24 volts generated by the HVPS.0 A fuse. The user interface is accomplished with a touch screen display that allows the customer to control the laser functions such as energy level. cryogen spray time. Feedback to the user is provided by a ¼ VGA display which provides status messages and laser system operating parameters.15 A or a 5. The CPU I/O PCB interfaces with all the other PC boards in the laser system except the 24 VDC Power Supply PCB. It also allows larger gauge wiring (smaller diameter) to be used on low current signals. Fusing limits the amount of fault current a failed component would be subjected too. Fusing is required because the HVPS will source between 8 and 9 amps of current if the 24 volts is shorted to ground. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 12 of 22 . An 8-bit microprocessor bus is used on the board to control and monitor all laser system functions. A brief description of the main circuits on the CPU I/O PCB follows. It is partitioned into three separate groups of 24 volts that are each fused either by a 3. etc. All the CPU circuits and Input/Output interface circuits are located on the CPU I/O PCB that is the heart of the control system. It contains the EPROM that stores the control system firmware for the VBEAM and an MC68HC812 microprocessor that directs all commands for proper operation of the laser. It directly interfaces with the touch screen and ¼ VGA display. This PC board is located behind the front panel of the laser system.VBEAM Theory of Operation ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Control System A block diagram of the control system is shown in Figure 3. The port is located on the bottom center in the front of the frame.

The analog signals to and from the high voltage power supply (HVPS) are isolated using op amp isolation IC’s (U23 and U27 on schematic page 5) which have a 1500 VAC isolation rating. The main exception to this is the signals to and from the touch screen and ¼ VGA display. All digital output commands are buffered by U29. These are logic level signals that are connected to the front panel and the display with short cables.Control System Block Diagram The CPU I/O PCB provides isolation and signal conditioning for the entire VBEAM systems analog and digital signals. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 13 of 22 . U36 and U44 which are driver IC’s (integrated circuits). Almost all the signals that interface with the CPU circuits are electrically isolated on different grounds to prevent noise problems with the processor. The digital inputs and outputs are all optically isolated using opto isolator IC’s.VBEAM Theory of Operation Figure 3 .

The same situation is true for the cal port switches that are connected to the input of U39D. which are normally high. which then is converted to an electrical signal by S1 and S2. The output of U39D will only be low when both cal port switches are depressed. and 8) DCD Pressure Circuit. 1. energy circuits) B +24 VDC Digital I/O and Bubble Sense circuits C Isolated ± 15 VDC (± 15VDC_HV) HVPS interface circuits Table 3 . The output of U39B. (They are also connected to U35 so the firmware can sense the position of the trigger switch. there are four isolated ground returns present on this board.CPU I/O PCB Returns The following CPU I/O circuits will be reviewed here: 1) Beam Shutter Circuit. “footswitch” and “handpiece in cal port” signals are all generated by redundant switches. A low is required to open the beam shutter. The various returns and their functions are listed below in Table 3. 7) DI Temperature Circuit.VBEAM Theory of Operation To accomplish the signal isolation requirements.) The finger switch signals. the output will be high. C138) providing a small delay to prevent timing problems between the hardware and firmware beam shutter opening signals.) The footswitch signals originate in the air footswitch. the basic on/off I/O circuits will not be discussed. 2) Trigger Circuit. U39C and U39D are connected to the inputs of U40C. The output of U39A will only be low if both inputs are low. This provides the safety feature that both the hardware and firmware commands must exist in order to open the beam shutter. The fingerswitch signals originate in the handpiece and are sent to the input of U39B. Due to their simplicity. indicating the fingerswitch is depressed. indicating the handpiece is fully inserted in the cal port. Beam Shutter Circuit (schematic page 3) The beam shutter can only be opened if both the firmware commands it and either the fingerswitch or footswitch is depressed or the handpiece is in the cal port. must both be low so that the output of U39B can change from a high to a low. The other input to U39A is the firmware signal that commands the shutter to open. (They are connected to the input U39C and also U35 so the firmware can sense the position of the trigger switch. The “fingerswitch”. 4) DAC and ADC Circuits. Return Associated Power Supply Associated Circuits D +5 VDC CPU and logic circuits (+5 V/ ± 15 V DC/DC PS) A ± 15 VDC Analog circuits (+5 V/ ± 15 V DC/DC PS) (temp circuits. After the RC circuit. the signal passes through U40B that simply inverts the signal to a low when the hardware is commanding the shutter to open. The output of U40B is connected to an input of U39A. The output of U40C is connected to an RC circuit (R177. 3) Bubble Sense Circuit. A low output on U39A draws current through the diode side of optoisolator U53. This IC functions as an NAND gate so that if either input is low. 6) Calport Energy Detector Circuit. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 14 of 22 . 5) High Voltage Power Supply Interface Circuits.

Trigger Circuit (schematic page 4) The four trigger pulses are generated by firmware depending on the front panel settings. The electrical signal is converted into an optical signal for isolation purposes. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 15 of 22 . then the output of U54B switches from a low to high state. through the beam shutter coil. This PCB will enable the lamp to fire. When the tube is empty the transmission of light through it drops by approximately 50%. and R241) and the resistance of the shutter coil. Under this condition. allowing current flow from capacitor C156. Op amp U54A’s output voltage is monitored by U54B which is configured as a comparator. after the shutter is opened. R239. which is connected to its inverting input. This circuit provides sufficient stored electrical energy to open the shutter quickly. The circuit works by having the slotted optical switch in the feedback loop of op amp U54A. the current is reduced to limit the power dissipated in the shutter coil. The output of U54A is connected to the noninverting input of U54B. When the cryogen tube becomes empty (bubbles exist). The reference voltage for this comparator is 10 volts. This new voltage level is approximately 15 volts. then through Q12 and into ground. the phototransistor’s output drops and op amp U54A compensates for this by raising its output voltage to drive more current into the slotted switch LED. They are sent from the CPU chip through U29 a driver IC chip. The output voltage of U54A adjusts itself to a level that provides sufficient current in the LED of the optical switch so that its phototransistor can generate 10 volts at pin 2 of U54A. after a few hundred milliseconds. The cryogen tube is located in the center of the slot so the photosensor in the switch detects the light transmitted through the cryogen tube. The phototransistor output of the optical switch is connected to the inverting input pin of U54A through resistor R242. and R234.VBEAM Theory of Operation When diode current flows through U53 it turns on Q12 by raising the gate voltage to approximately 15 volts. The output of U54A is connected to the LED portion of the slotted optical switch through resistor R243. Initially. Bubble Sense Circuit (schematic page 7) The bubble sense circuit uses a slotted optical switch located in the handpiece for the bubble detection sensor. Then.75 VDC with the cryogen tubing full. The adjustment is a potentiometer in the handpiece that shunts some of the phototransistor output current to ground. This optical signal is then sent by a 1000 micron plastic fiber to the SCR Trigger PCB. a high current flows because C156 is charged to +24 volts. The high state stops current flow through the diode half of optoisolator U50 which is the signal that eventually connects into the firmware to inform it that a bubble exists. 3. J17 and J18. R231. 2. A detail discussion of the SCR Trigger PCB is described in the Modulator section further on. However. When this input goes above 10 volts. C156 discharges to a level determined by the four dropping resistors (R238. The output from U29 is a low signal that turns on an optical driver as in J15. the feedback loop is in regulation and the output voltage of U54A is adjusted to 7. The noninverting pin of U54A is connected to a 10-volt reference created by U61. R240. Resistor R222 provides a small amount of hysteresis for U54B to prevent oscillations when it switches states. This makes Q12’s drain terminal low. The sensor is calibrated with cryogen in the tube. J16.

For 3.22 mV. it is bi-directional. and R130.777KV/V at the input to the HVPS. The calport circuit is the same as the other two circuits except for the gain circuit. Once the firmware selects either chip select then the data transfer begins. Full scale on each device is 5 VDC so the minimum resolution is 1/(212) x 5V = 1. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 16 of 22 .5KV output. wavelength and calport). head. The water temperature. 6. The high voltage sample signal from the HVPS has a ratio of 8V=3500V.5 volt reference for the DAC. The wavelength and head circuits are exactly the same.VBEAM Theory of Operation 4.5 volts by the resistor divider. A stable 5 volt reference chip U16 is use for the CPU analog port and the external ADC. This is then isolated by U27 and has a transfer function same as the Program Voltage 0. HVPS Program Voltage is the signal that tells the HVPS what voltage to charge to and HVPS Sample is the signal that provides feedback on the actual high voltage level. Since these three circuits are so similar only the calport will be discussed. The CPU chip can send data to and receive data from the ADC chip. Two precision resistors R123 and R124 divide down this 5 volt reference to a 2. Calport Energy Detector Circuit There are three energy detector circuits on this board (labeled head. HP detection. calport. The DAC output is isolated by U23 and then its level is reduced by approximately 10% by the voltage divider consisting of R131.777KV/V. However. Then it is sent to the ADC chip U22 so it can be processed and sent to the CPU chip to be read by the firmware. WL and HV sample go through the external 12-bit ADC chip U24. the DAC generates 5 volts which then is reduced to 4. HVPS Inhibit is basically an on/off input signal. High Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) Interface Circuits (schematic page 5) There are four signals associated with the high voltage power supply (HVPS). and two touch screen signals go directly into the CPU chip to be processed. Two of them are analog signals (HVPS Program Voltage or HVPS Ref and HVPS Sample) and the other two are digital (HVPS Inhibit and HVPS fault). The Program Voltage signal comes from the firmware as a 12 bit digital number. It does not remove AC line voltage from the HVPS but it will prevent it from charging. The communication between the DAC and ADC to the CPU is obtained through the SPI bus. The CPU only sends data to the DAC chip. So at 3. The energy signals.5 volts. four analog signals are processed through an external 12-bit ADC chip U22. This signal is divided down by R139 and R132 (potentiometer) to allow for adjustment of the signal. Potentiometer R131 is used to calibrate the actual high voltage to the value set by the firmware. It is converted to an analog signal at the DAC (U24). The DAC and ADC used in this laser system are both 12-bit types. Also there are five analog signals and one spare processed directly through an internal 8-bit ADC port of the CPU chip U26. The HVPS fault signal is generated if the HVPS experiences an over temperature or over voltage fault.5KV the sample voltage is set for 4. Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Circuits (schematic pages 14 and 16) The only signal that requires the DAC (U24) is the high voltage power supply program voltage signal. The DAC and ADC share data transfers on the SPI bus to the CPU chip. DCD pressure. 5. This results in a program voltage transfer function of 0.

Since the output of U2B is both a small voltage and negative it is sent to an inverting op amp U2A for amplification gain=4. This input of the CPU is an ADC input and then the firmware can interpret the water temperature. The temperature sensor is mounted in the DI heater manifold. Keep in mind that ideally no current flows in or out of U20B pin 6 and it is at zero volts (virtual ground). so the output of op amp U20B must increase to supply the required current through R102. Connected to the inverting input of U20B is an adjustable current source formed by R83 and R86. Electrically.12 and inversion to a positive signal.1 V/°C.5 volt offset. The firmware opens U5 just before each trigger pulse. 0°C = 273°K). The output of U2B is a negative pulse with a decay time constant much greater than the original laser pulse. The sensor transfer function is 26. Because R102 is a 100 K resistor the output of U20B is 0. This pressure sensor has internal circuitry which runs off 5 volts and has a voltage output scale of 4. For temperatures above 0°C the temperature transducer draws more current than 273 µA.50 volts and a 0. The current pulse is sent to op amp U2B on this board. Electrically. U3A.7 millivolts per PSI. The K stands for Kelvin degrees which are 273 degrees greater than Celsius degrees (e. Potentiometer (R18) is used to adjust the amount of signal into U2A for calibration to the laser energy. analog ground (A_GND) and its output voltage is across R84 a potentiometer and R79 a resistor to analog ground which allows calibration of the pressure circuit. DCD Pressure Circuit The DCD pressure sensor has a range of 0 to 150 PSI with a 300 PSI maximum over- pressure value. Potentiometer R83 is adjusted so that 273 µA flows through R86. the peak hold circuit stores the voltage that is proportional to the energy in the calport. After the laser is pulsed.g. U3B. The firmware controls Q3 through driver chip U36. it is connected between the +5 volt reference. The circuit only samples signals at its input when the reset transistor (Q3) is off. which allows C13 to charge up proportional to the energy pulse. R10 is adjusted to remove any offsets in the circuitry so the voltage level at TP2 is zero when the laser is not pulsed. it is connected between the -15 VDC and the inverting input of op amp U20B. The circuit is calibrated with an external pressure meter connected to the HP cryogen connector on the front bezel. 7. 8. This op amp integrates the current pulse using C13 and thus the amount of charge (or voltage) on C13 is proportional to the laser energy. Capacitor C8 and R22 form a noise filter before the signal reaches the input of the peak hold circuit. This 273 µA current source is used to cancel out 273 µA of current from the temperature transducer which effectively changes its output from 1 µA/°K to 1 µA/°C. Capacitor C65 provides noise filtering for the circuit. The firmware keeps C13 discharged just before the trigger pulse by controlling an analog switch U5. The 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 17 of 22 . The pressure sensor is mounted to the brass tee fitting that the DCD canister output connects to. The output of the peak hold circuit (TP1) is connected to the ADC U22 so the firmware can read the energy level. DI Temperature Circuit The DI temperature sensor is an IC temperature transducer (AD590) with an output current of 1 µA/°K.VBEAM Theory of Operation A photodiode on the Energy PCB located on the backside of the calport assembly converts a sample of the laser light pulse directed into the calport to a current pulse. The output of U20B is sent through R95 to the input of the CPU (U26). The transfer function is 4 J per volt. This current source is powered by the 5 volt reference from U19A. and their associated circuitry form the peak hold circuit which captures the peak level of the output of U2A and holds it at TP1.

The high voltage power supply is rated for 2.5 Hz repetition rate.VBEAM Theory of Operation signaled is sent to the CPU (U26). These pulses are stepped up to approximately 5 KV on the secondary of the simmer start transformer. Their triggers are generated by the SCR Trigger PCB. therefore four SCR modules. The high voltage power supply is built by an outside vendor and is covered by a one-year warranty by the manufacturer. open circuit protection. The PFN capacitor is constructed as a single unit that houses all four capacitors. the RMS current through the PFN and flashlamp is about 25 amperes. The internal power supply fan pulls up air from the bottom of the laser system and blows it through the power supply. These triggers are controlled by the firmware depending on the front panel settings. At maximum power. The maximum pressure reading is at 4. produces a peak current of 950 amperes per network. There are four individual PFN pulses. The high voltage power supply also contains an integral 24-volt DC power supply. For most energies. The modules are mounted directly to the laser chassis for heatsinking. The PFN. After the lamp is lit the simmer output voltage drops down to approximately 300 volts. and power factor correction circuitry. this allows laser operation up to 1. the repetition rate decreases due to an increase in the time it takes the power supply to charge the PFN capacitor. A DCD pressure fault is declared by the firmware if the pressure exceeds 135 PSI. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 18 of 22 . The high voltage secondary is connected directly to the laser head cavity. When the input energy is above approximately 1700 Joules.5 volts which corresponds to 150 PSI. internal over temperature shut down. These pulses create an electrical field inside the laser head which helps to breakdown the flashlamp. It has no field serviceable parts. rated at 6 amperes. The power supply is inhibited by the firmware for the length of the set pulse width plus a fixed 50 milliseconds after all the PFNs discharge to ensure the flashlamp current has reached zero before voltage is reapplied. MODULATOR A simplified schematic of the modulator section is shown in Figure 4. at its maximum voltage of 3. The PFN pulse discharge occurs when each SCR ‘s (silicon controlled rectifiers) is triggered on. When the laser goes into the “Ready State” the simmer power supply is enabled. The air exhausts out through vents in the back of the laser.5 KV. Each module contains two 2200 volt SCR’s. The power supply features include: short circuit protection. The PFN choke is a foil construction type which helps reduce resistive losses in the PFN. The Pulse Forming Network (PFN) has four separate capacitors and one choke network that produces four electrical pulse widths of approximately 250 microseconds (full width half maximum or FWHM) at maximum voltage of 3.5KV.5 KJ/s. The output voltage of the simmer power supply is 1300 volts before the lamp is lit. to an ADC input so the firmware can interpret the DCD pressure. air cooled. It automatically sends out trigger pulses at a 30 Hz rate to the simmer start transformer in an attempt to initiate simmer current.

The trigger pulses from the CPU I/O PCB are optically isolated by optical drivers J17. The timing is dependent on the input setting from the front panel by the user. has three charging channels which allow the capacitors to charge to specific voltage levels. This serves as a safety reminder that high voltage is present. Service personnel should always verify the voltage on the capacitors with a meter and high voltage probe before servicing the modulator. J16. The four trigger timing signals are controlled by the firmware. there may still be lethal voltages present on capacitors C1. J15 and J13. CAUTION: If the neon bulb is not lit.Modulator Block Diagram The Modulator PCB (schematic 7111-80-2300). 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 19 of 22 . This isolation is provided by optical signals. J22. This dump resistor rod is used by service personnel to discharge the high voltage. There is a manual dump resistor rod attached to this laser to provide a quick discharge of the high voltage. SCR Trigger PCB The SCR Trigger PCB (schematic 7111-80-2320) receives the four trigger pulses from the CPU I/O PCB and generates a signal to trigger the four dual SCR modules to pulse the flashlamp. J23 and J15 to receive the trigger signals from the CPU I/O PCB. C2 or C3. which is mounted on top of the SCR Trigger PCB. The primary function of the SCR Trigger PCB is to provide isolated trigger circuits for the four SCR’s modules that are used to trigger the four PFN pulses. It also contains high value resistance bleeder resistors to discharge any energy stored in the capacitors after the laser is turned off.VBEAM Theory of Operation Figure 4 . There is a neon lamp on the board that illuminates whenever the high voltage is greater than approximately 300 volts on capacitor C4. Each charging channel is controlled by the firmware dependent on the corresponding laser energy set on the front panel. The SCR Trigger PCB uses optical receivers J16.

C31 is the snubber capacitor for the first SCR. There are two sets of balancing resistors used to ensure equal voltage sharing between the two SCR’s. The high voltage output from the simmer power supply is routed through this board so that the simmer current can be measured and a simmer sense signal can be created. LASER SAFETY INTERLOCK CIRCUIT There is one hardware interlock circuits in the laser to prevent lasing. will allow Q8 to turn on. If they are shorted or bypassed. They are part of the circuit that provides coil current for the main relay. Therefore only SCR trigger #1 will be discussed. The simmer sense signal is developed by creating a 7. Each set contains four 750K. The current is measured across the 10 Ω. Instead.8 volt source using zener diodes D4 and D9. Each of these devices functions as a normally closed switch and they are connected in series with one another. the simmer start pulse applied to the laser head cavity could increase to almost 10 KV. U5 will put a high on the output pin 7 which in turn will turn on the FET Q6. T4 will then have about 24VDC across its input. The SCR’s also have snubber circuits connected across them to prevent voltage spikes when they turn off.1V). It consists of the CDRH connector and the DI heater manifold overtemperature (OT) switch. If one of them becomes open. This PCB has the simmer start transformer mounted on it. Having Q8 on will put a low into the high-speed MOSFET driver chip U5 pin 2. T4 has a dual output winding. This provides current for the optical driver J8. The output of J8 is sent back to the CPU I/O PCB. R76. 1% resistors R11 and R12. 2W resistors.VBEAM Theory of Operation There are four identical SCR trigger circuits on this PCB. Resistors (R4-R7) connected in parallel with the primary are used to limit the voltage applied to the trigger transformer. The simmer current is set to 150 milliamperes by measuring the voltage across these resistors while turning the adjustment on the simmer power supply. R84 and R85. This much voltage is not required to light the lamp for simmering and can cause high voltage breakdown problems on the laser head. Modulator PCB and the SCR Trigger PCB. the capacitor is discharged through resistors R83. from the CPU I/O PCB. The safety interlock circuit is performed in the system wiring. the relay current flow is interrupted. The voltage should be 750 millivolts for 150 milliamps of simmer current (20 mA/0. LED D1 lights to indicate when simmer current is flowing. This opens the main relay and shuts down all power to the laser system except the 24 VDC on the AC Distribution PCB. The 24VDC Power Supply PCB (schematic 7111-80-2330) supplies 24V to the simmer power supply. The laser cannot be turned on again until all the interlock switches are closed. which will turn on both SCR’s in the SCR #1 module. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 20 of 22 . D46 and D33 are required to prevent a high current discharge of C31 through the SCR when it first turns on. The optical signal received into J16.

054 90 3. Cryogen Pulses Per Canister The DCD purge duration is the same as the selected pulse duration setting.243 Table 4.486 60 5. Normally the firmware would declare a water overtemperature fault before the OT switch opens unless a serious fault exists in the heater circuit.405 70 4.VBEAM Theory of Operation The CDRH interlock is a connector located on the back of the laser. These are the values displayed on the front panel after the “Canister Count” has been reset.812 40 8.108 50 6. Typical warm-up time is 25 minutes. DCD (Dynamic Cooling Device) The DCD canister is warmed up with a 48-watt heater.633 80 4. Spray Duration (msec) Pulses/Canister 20 16. the laser will be shut down and lasing prevented. The DI heater manifold OT switch will turn off power to the laser if a fault occurs in the heater circuit that allows the manifold temperature to exceed 79°C. When the canister count gets to zero. the firmware will not allow the laser to be pulsed unless the DCD is turned off (or the reset button is pressed). The number of pulses available per cryogen canister is shown in Table 4. it counts as a pulse and deducts from the total pulses available. It is provided so the physician can connect an external door switch to it. There are no adjustments required for the laser to operate across this range since it has no isolation transformer. Virtually all the AC power for the laser system is fused and distributed from the AC 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 21 of 22 .217 30 10. When the system is purged. LINE VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS The VBEAM operates over a wide input line voltage range of 185 to 260 VAC at 50/60 Hz.603 100 3. If the door is opened while the physician is lasing.

The VBEAM should be serviced only by qualified technicians who have received appropriate training on the VBEAM from Candela. and who are familiar with the safety considerations discussed in this section. future changes and upgrades may cause errors if they impact this document and it is not revised. in the event a discrepancy between the Theory of Operation and the actual system documentation is discovered. 8501-00-1550 Revision C Candela PROPRIETARY Page 22 of 22 .VBEAM Theory of Operation Distribution PCB. Therefore. No fusing is required for the HVPS since it is fused internally. Service Note Whenever maintenance or repair of the laser system is required be sure to adhere to the following safety statement: WARNING The electrical hazards present during servicing of the VBEAM can be extremely dangerous and lethal if proper precautions are not taken. However. Accuracy The references made to components in the laser system and on pc boards was accurate at the time this theory of operation was written. The only exception to this is the power for the HVPS which is taken off the load side of the main relay. it should be assumed that the system documentation is correct.