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The Philippines is one of the 18 mega diverse countries in the world. The country has
more than 52,170 described species, about half of which are found nowhere else in the world.
Studies show that on a per unit area basis, the Philippines is the top mega diversity country.
However, unsustainable logging operations and illegal timber trade continue to pose serious
threats to the country’s species richness. In 1917, the country still had 17 million ha, or more
than 50% of her 30 million ha land area. Today, the latest estimate shows that only about 7.168
million ha of Philippine forests remain (Philippine Forestry Statistics, 2003). In the 60’s and 70’s
the forestry sector was a major contributor to the country’s economy. The Master Plan for
Forestry Development of the Philippines (1991) indicated that for almost two decades,
agriculture, logging, mining and fisheries together contributed annual almost P15 billion to the
country’s gross value added. Although this was almost doubled in 1988 (P25 billion), the share
of forestry and logging dramatically plummeted from 12.5% in 1970 to only about 2.3% in 1988.
In the 2003 Annual Report of DENR, it was reported that the Philippines—from being a major
tropical timber exporter up to the 70’s has become a net importer of forest products (65%-70% of
wood requirements). About 18-20 million Filipinos live in the uplands under abject poverty.
As stated, the Philippines is one of the 18 mega diverse countries in the world. According
to experts, the number of species in a country is one measure of biodiversity. The Philippines has
204 species of mammals, of which 54% or 111 species are found nowhere else; 101 species of
amphibians, 78% of which is endemic; 258 species of reptiles with 66% endemism; and 576
species of birds with 34% or 195 endemic species (PBCP, 2002). On wild flora, the country has
about 14,000 species representing five percent of the world’s flora. These include more than
8,000 species of flowering plants or angiosperms, 33 species of gymnosperms, 1,100 species of
pteridophytes, and 1,271 species of bryophytes (PPCSAP, in prep). There are many more species
that remain unknown to science (Heaney, 1997; Heaney & Regalado, 1998; Brown et. al.,
1999). Per hectare, the Philippines probably harbors more diversity of life than any other country
on Earth (Heaney as cited in the PBCP, 2002). Because of the remarkable diversity in Philippine
biological resources, the country is considered as one of the 18 megadiversity1 countries in the
world. The megadiverse countries together contain 70 to 80% of global biodiversity (Mittermeier, 1997, 1999; Myers, 2000, as cited in the PBCP, 2002). (Cited in Josie de Leon’s
Masteral Paper at DAP, 2006). Unfortunately however, with the loss of the country’s forest
cover, the habitat of wild fauna has likewise been lost. Habitat destruction can be attributed to
logging, both legal and illegal, mining and energy projects, land use conversion, kaingin, pest
and diseases, etc. According to the IUCN, the Philippines continue to face biodiversity crisis
unparalled in magnitude. The Philippines thus is considered as a biodiversity hotspot. While

habitat destruction is considered as the reason for wildlife loss. among which are: the tremendous pressure from an increasing population in search of land to till and forest resources to use. The proliferation of only short duration timber licenses in the past discouraged long term investments in forest development and dampened private sector initiatives. management. Forest destruction rose to very alarming levels while forest recovery through natural and artificial means never coped with the forest destruction rate. other factors include weak institutional and legal mechanisms. introduction of exotic species. . the institutions mandated to implement forest policies to address all these problems had not been equipped to fully address the situation. The Philippines’ forestry and wildlife sector is continuously declining in terms of its bio- physical. the sector continue to reel from many threats to forest resources. and the provision of biomass fuels. The very high incidence of poverty in the uplands continues to exacerbate environmental degradation problems and the country’s once rich forests continue to lose their vital functions. domestication and hybridization. Besides. Soil erosion and hydrological deterioration of these watersheds caused losses in productivity and utility of infrastructures. 1997). full- time job creations. The forestry and wildlife sector is the major centerpiece of the country’s natural resource base and ecosystems. the loss of vital watershed function and loss of biodiversity and inadequate forest development. Meanwhile. Furthermore. The contribution of the sector to the economy in terms of gross value added. economic and environmental aspects. are still significant. forest lands are the main watersheds of rivers which provide water for various uses. However. the social settings in the uplands and forest adjacent communities continue to exert pressure on natural resources and made the tasks of conserving the forests more difficult. Such decline is largely attributed to a number of inadequate and poorly implemented forestry policies that led to the rapid exploitation of timber from virgin forests at prices far below real market values. its continued development and that of the environmental sector is a pre-requisite to a sustained growth in agriculture and other industries. and overexploitation for food and trade (NBSAP. Although the sector’s contribution to the national economy has been declining. export revenues. and conservation efforts.

(e) Grazing land refers to that portion of the public domain which has been set aside. guidelines and procedure. (i) Game refuge or bird sanctuary refers to a forest land designated for the protection of game animals. in view of the suitability of its topography and vegetation. (d) Forest lands include the public forest. (f) Mineral lands refer to those lands of the public domain which have been classified as such by the Secretary of Natural Resources in accordance with prescribed and approved criteria. sports fishing. (m) Watershed is a land area drained by a stream or fixed body of water and its tributaries having a common outlet for surface run-off. (j) Marine parks refers to any off-shore area inhabited by rare and unique species of marine flora and fauna. (h) National park refers to a forest land reservation essentially of primitive or wilderness character which has been withdrawn from settlement or occupancy and set aside as such exclusively to preserve the scenery. water skiing and related healthful activities. (l) Watershed reservation is a forest land reservation established to protect or improve the conditions of the water yield thereof or reduce sedimentation. the natural and historic objects and the wild animals or plants therein. (b) Permanent forest or forest reserves refer to those lands of the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of classification and determined to be needed for forest purposes.DEFINITION OF TERMS 1 (a) Public forest is the mass of lands of the public domain which has not been the subject of the present system of classification for the determination of which lands are needed for forest purposes and which are not. and forest reservations. the permanent forest or forest reserves. (k) Seashore park refers to any public shore area delimited for outdoor recreation. (c) Alienable and disposable lands refer to those lands of the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of classification and declared as not needed for forest purposes. birds and fish and closed to hunting and fishing in order that the excess population may flow and restock surrounding areas. (g) Forest reservations refer to forest lands which have been reserved by the President of the Philippines for any specific purpose or purposes. for the raising of livestock. and to provide enjoyment of these features in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future generations. (n) Critical watershed is a drainage area of a river system supporting existing and proposed hydro-electric power and irrigation works needing immediate rehabilitation as it is being .

It is closed from logging until it is fully rehabilitated. game. tengile. resin. recreational and geologic resources in forest lands. over-mature and defective trees in such manner as to leave adequate number and volume of healthy residual trees of the desired species necessary to assure a future crop of timber. barks. such as red lauan. . honey. (v) Multiple-use is the harmonized utilization of the numerous beneficial uses of the land. or other forest growth such as grass. rattan. (q) Forest product means timber. oil. gum. water. wildlife. whether occupied or not. (y) Healthy residual is a sound or slightly injured tree of the commercial species left after logging. nipa. shrub. but not for the wood thereof. (o) Mangrove is a term applied to the type of forest occurring on tidal flat along the sea coast. and forest cover for the protection and conservation of soil and water. (r) Dipterocarp forest is a forest dominated by trees of the dipterocarp species.subjected to a fast denudation causing accelerated erosion and destructive floods. grass and timber of forest lands. (s) Pine forest is a forest composed of the Benguet Pine in the Mountain Provinces or the Mindoro pine in Mindoro and Zambales provinces. (u) Tree farm refers to any tract of forest land purposely and extensively planted to trees of economic value for their fruits. scenic. firewood. which is subjected to shifting and/or permanent slash-and-burn cultivation having little or no provision to prevent soil erosion. soil. and flowering plant. white lauan. bagtikan and mayapis of the Philippine mahogany group. tiaong. (t) Industrial tree plantation is any tract of forest land purposely and extensively planted to timber crops primarily to supply the raw material requirements of existing or proposed processing plants and related industries. beeswax. (w) Selective logging means the systematic removal of the mature. fish. extending along streams where the water is brackish. (x) Seed tree system is partial clearcutting with seed trees left to regenerate the area. (p) Kaingin is a portion of the forest land. apitong and the yakals. historical. the associated water. leaves. almon. pulpwood. wood. tree top. recreation value. flowers. or extractives. bark.

d. g. f. “Endangered species” refers to species or subspecies that is not critically endangered but whose survival in the wild is unlikely if the causal factors continue operating. “Threatened species” a general term to denote species or subspecies considered as critically endangered. “Exotic species” means species or subspecies which do not naturally occur in the country. “Conservation” means preservation and sustainable utilization of wildlife. “Wildlife” means wild forms and varieties of flora and fauna. . including those which are in captivity or are being bred or propagated. “Critically endangered species” refers to a species or subspecies that is facing extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future. endangered. b. and/or maintenance. i. “Habitat” means a place or environment where a species or subspecies naturally occur or has naturally established its population. h. in all developmental stages. vulnerable or other accepted categories of wildlife whose population is at risk of extinction. restoration and enhancement of the habitat. e. c. “Endemic species” means species or subspecies which is naturally occurring and found only within specific areas in the country. “Vulnerable species” refers to species or subspecies that is not critically endangered nor endangered but is under threat from adverse factors throughout their range and is likely to move to the endangered category in the near future.DEFINITION OF TERMS 2 a.

control and review of the DENR. management. or it may enter into coproduction. In Article XII. management of the forest lands is entrusted to the ARMM government.” In 2003. all forces of potential energy. LGUs as partners / co-managers Under RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991). The Code contains basic . such as enforcement of forestry laws in community based forestry projects. thus: “all lands of the public domain. petroleum and other mineral oils. and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. integrated social forestry programs and communal forests. 98-01 entitled “Manual of Procedures for DENR-DILG-LGU Partnership on Devolved and Other Forest Management Functions. all other natural resources shall not be alienated”. waters. In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. In 1998. Sec. “local government units (LGUs) shall share with national government the responsibility in the management and maintenance of ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction”. other agencies have also been given jurisdiction and management over certain forest areas such as UP with respect to Mt. AGENCIES/ LAWS TASKED IN FOREST MANAGEMENT DENR as primary agency DENR is the primary government agency responsible for the conservation. With the exception of agricultural lands. DENR and DILG issued Joint Memorandum Circular No. “the exploration. The State may directly undertake such activities. 2003-01 entitled “Strengthening the DENR-DILG-LGU Partnership on Devolved and Other Forest Management Functions. 1987). Section 17 of the LGC went on to devolved certain forest management functions to LGUs. or production sharing agreements with Filipino citizens or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens”. Major Forestry Laws The principal law governing forest management in the country is PD 705 (1975) otherwise known as the “Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines”. 1.” Other agencies having jurisdiction over forest lands By virtue of other laws and Presidential Proclamations. minerals. development and proper use of the country’s environment and natural resources as well as the licensing and regulation of all natural resources (EO 192. Makiling (RA 6967. 2 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. fisheries. flora and fauna. in an effort to strengthen the partnership. 1989) and PNOC over Tiwi Geothermal. DENR-DILG issued Joint Memorandum Circular No. Tongonan and Palimpinon watershed areas (PD 1515). forests or timber. subject to supervision. development. joint venture. and other natural resources are owned by the State. wildlife. Accordingly. coal.

. BP 83. RA 8371 (1997) or the “Indigenous People’s Rights Act” (IPRA) will also have great impact on forest management.” OTHER LAWS: 1. Knowing the classification and boundaries on the ground is very important as management and activities will depend on what kind of forest is being managed. 277 (1987) is the law governing illegal logging. ISSUES IN FOREST MANAGEMENT A. 78 of PD 705. NON DEMARCATION OF FOREST BOUNDARIES Earlier. and criminal offenses and penalties. RA 7161 and EO 277. natural monument. as amended. biogeographic zones and related ecosystems. 4 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution which states: “The Congress shall as soon as possible. we have discussed the two major classifications of forest lands that of set-asides or protection forests and production forests. Sec. The protected areas include strict and nature reserve. PRESENT INITIATIVES IN FOREST PROTECTION 11. Unfortunately. 3. the metes and bounds of the forest lines have not been delimited. multiple use. This is the principal law governing set asides or protected areas. Another important law in forestry is RA 7586 (1992) or the “National Integrated Protected Area System” (NIPAS). resource reserve and natural biotic areas. RA 9147 (2001) “Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act”. THE LAW ON ILLEGAL LOGGING Section 68 of PD 705 as amended by Executive Order No. PD 705 has been amended by PD 865. This despite Article XII. Other laws include RA 9072 (2001) or the “National Cave and Resources Management and Protection Act”. protected landscapes and seascapes. LAW ON KAINGIN Sec. determine by law the specific limits of forest lands and national parks. forest utilization and management.forestry standards and practices such as areas needed for forestry. wildlife sanctuary. all of which are designated as protected areas. COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP IN FOREST LAW ENFORCEMENT PEDO IBP 5. NIPAS encompasses outstanding remarkable areas and biologically important public lands that are habitats of rare and endangered species of plants and animals. ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND TENURE HOLDERS IN FOREST LAW ENFORCEMENT DENR LGUs 4. PD 1559. is the law on unlawful occupation or destruction of forest lands and grazing lands. 2. and RA 9175 “The Chainsaw Act. PD 1775.

for so many years. and from its share in any co- .000. Amount of Share of Local Government Units. there is as yet no working definition on what is the share of the government in joint venture. tanguile or premium hardwood harvested was only P30. license agreement or permit. 290. such forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not be increased nor diminished. For the past several years. Unfortunately. Be that as it may.marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. royalties. except by law. the modes of access to natural resources management was either through a lease. or through coproduction. keeping for itself the enormous profits from the utilization of the natural resources. fees. Share in the Proceeds from the Development and Utilization of national Wealth. – Local government units shall have an equitable share in the proceeds derived from the utilization and development of the national wealth within their respective areas. B. NEED FOR MORE ACCURATE WORKABLE DEFINITION ON THE MODES OF DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF FOREST RESOURCES Prior to the 1987 Constitution. and other taxes. 289. lauan. the 1987 Constitution has so wisely moved away from the lease.00 – P3. timber concessionaires became so rich. development and utilization of natural resources can only be done directly by the State. for such period as it may determine measures to prohibit logging in endangered forests and watershed areas”. Now. including related surcharges. The DENR would not allow because the area is a critical watershed. a fact they have belatedly learn. No wonder. and the communities who planted them would like to harvest. DENR has launched several reforestation activities supported by Overseas Development Assistance. the government issues the permit. At the expense of our natural resources! It was only with the passage of RA 7161 (Forest Charges law. forestry and fishery charges. the forest charge for almaciga. license or permit system. interests or fines. while the company was able to sell the same for about P2. The provision under RA7160 thus states: “Sec. have a share of forty percent (40%) of the gross collection derived by the national government from the preceding fiscal year from mining taxes. coproduction or production sharing agreements in forest products utilization C. NON-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LGC PROVISION ON LGU SHARE IN NATIONAL WEALTH Aside from mandating LGUs to share with the national government the responsibility in the maintenance of ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction.00 per cubic meter. The Congress shall provide.00 per cubic meter. joint venture or production sharing agreements. For example.000. Many of the trees planted are now mature. In other words. Their goal was to cut more and export more. in addition to the internal revenue allotment. and in return. the logging company pays only fees and other charges. 1991) that forest charges were increased. Thereafter. including sharing the same with the inhabitants by way of direct benefits. or charges. – Local government units shall. DENR had encouraged the use of fast growing species and had promised the communities the chance to harvest the same. The shift is obviously to ensure that the State is able to get a fair return on the utilization of natural resources.” Sec. the LGC also gives to LGUs the right to share in the national wealth.

the Supreme Court has ruled that titles issued inside forest lands are void from the beginning. This. the reversion process is very slow. and after a little while. shall be given a reward in the amount of twenty per centum (20%) of the proceeds of the confiscated forest products. Accordingly. joint venture or production sharing agreement in the utilization and development of the national wealth within their territorial jurisdiction. If tax declarations involving growing trees/crops in forest lands are issued. unless the land is titled or has been occupied and possessed by members of the national cultural minorities prior to July 4. despite Sec. 85 – Tax Declaration on Real Property. adverse and continuous possessions of these forest lands do not ripen into ownership.” 111. Aside from anomalous titles obtaining in forest lands. transfers of the same are often made. NON-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REWARDS TO INFORMERS UNDER PD 705 The provision reads: “Sec. as even long. ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO IMPROVE FOREST LAW A. shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall issue a tax declaration on real property. possessions of tax declarations especially in the rural areas are treated almost as evidence of ownership. STRENGTHEN DENR FOREST LAW ENFORCEMENT CAPABILITY From interviews. Accordingly. the following have been identified as factors affecting DENR’s effectiveness in forest law enforcement: • Absence of unified environmental law enforcement mechanism. While this principle is quite clear. the use of the land becomes agricultural or residential. ISSUANCE OF TAX DECLARATIONS INSIDE FOREST LANDS As stated by the Constitution. without a certification from the Director of the Forest Development and Director of Lands or their duly designated representatives that area declared for taxation purposes is alienable and disposable lands. mining. “Imprisonment for a period of not less than two (2) nor more than four (4) years and perpetual disqualification from holding an elective or appointive office. or confiscation of forest products.” The law is quite clear. E.” D. 78-B – Rewards to informants. not for the forest lands but for the growing crops therein. 1955. all natural resources can not be alienated. environment and clean air. Thus. while DENR has major concerns such as forestry. environmental law enforcement is fragmented. with the exception of alienable and disposable lands. It is common knowledge that there are many forest lands where titles have been issued. 85 of PD 705 as amended which reads: Sec. another issue which affects forest management and leads to conversion of forest lands into other uses is the practice of LGUs in issuing tax declarations inside forest lands. Unfortunately this has not been implemented by DENR for quite sometime now. • Lack of resources . Although tax declarations are not evidence of ownership. rules and regulations. in a long line of cases. – Any person who shall provide any information leading to the apprehension and conviction of any offender for any violation of this Code or other forest laws.production.

the CBFM program has been much affected because the DENR has suspended the issuance of resource use permits of the entire program on the findings that some POs have violated their tenure instruments. 8.00 traveling allowance per month. Presently. Unfortunately. • Weak DENR Legal Support To strengthen the DENR Legal Service will include training. 9. LGU involvement in forest management and forest law enforcement is still isolated. computerization of the legal department and incentive schemes for lawyers to enter and stay in the DENR. . To a large extent. DENR needs effective surveillance equipment such as helicopters and small planes. These are usually in places where there are foreign assisted projects or where the LGUs themselves are environmental champions. the wood industry has complained about their difficulty in investing in forestry as they fear that DENR without due process would suspend or cancel their operations. STRENGTHEN MPFCS AND PARTNERSHIP WITH OTHER SECTORS The MFPCs have proved to be cost effective partner of the DENR in forest protection. GIVE TENURE HOLDERS DUE PROCESS PRIOR TO SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION Another major issue in forest law enforcement is the practice of DENR to suspend validly issued tenure instruments or rights arising there from without due process. each forest guard is still guarding 4. C. • Lack of DENR’s surveillance equipment Since forest areas are far flung. then the forest area will be subject to timber poaching and other illegal forestry activities. SIFMA. MFPCs have been credited to be responsible in the dismantling of big time illegal logging in Regions 2. This is because if the selection process for MFPC members is followed. this situation is inimical to forest law enforcement as when the areas become open access. Of late. CBFM). Aside from its negative impacts on the program itself (IFMA. D. 10 and 11 in the early 90’s. STRENGTHEN AND INSTITUTIONALIZE LGU INVOLVEMENT IN FOREST LAW ENFORCEMENT The laws (RA 7160) and regulations (DENR-DILG JMCs 98–01 and 2003–01) on devolution of forest management functions to LGUs and partnership with DENR are already in place.00–P100.000 ha with a measly P50. In various forums. The suspensions however came about without affording due process to the tenure holders. • Lack of the Forest Management Bureau’s involvement forest law enforcement B. the MFPCs bring to the fore of forest protection the stature and commitment of its members. DENR’s budget has actually declined during the last five years. 4.

and the ASEAN Regional Center for Biodiversity Conservation. As wildlife is essential to preserve biological diversity. and conserving the threatened species of wild fauna. The Philippines also ratified its membership in two other international conventions: the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS). 2. As with forest lands. wildlife resources are also owned by the State. the Philippines is a signatory to the “Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora” (CITES) in 1981. or training of all animals either as objects of trade or as household pets. reviewing all existing rules and regulations on the exploitation of wildlife resources. The treaty requires member-countries to designate CITES Management and Scientific Authorities that will ensure the strict implementation of CITES regulations. its parts and by-products. • Republic Act (RA) 8485 or the Animal Welfare Act of 1998 which intends to protect and promote the welfare of all animals in the Philippines by regulating the establishment and operations of all facilities utilized for breeding. This treaty aims to regulate the international trade of wildlife species. the State is also duty bound to protect our country’s wildlife resources. keeping. • PD 1152 of the Philippine Environment Code of 1977 which mandates the DENR to establish a system of national exploitation and conservation of wildlife resources and to encourage citizens’ participation in the maintenance and/or enhancement of their continuous productivity by: regulating the marketing of threatened wildlife resources. NATIONAL LAWS PROTECTING WILDLIFE Among the national laws that protect our wildlife resources include: • PD 705 (1975) otherwise known as the Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines which mandates the protection of forest lands. and • RA 7586 of the National Integrated Protected Areas System of 1992 which established protected areas for the protection of biological diversity. Import or Re-export Permit for species listed under CITES Appendices. treating. It sets international policies on trade of wildlife which include the issuance of CITES Export. • RA 7160 or the Local Government Code which mandates local government units to share with the national government the responsibility in the maintenance of ecological balance within their territorial jurisdictions. The member-countries to the . including the conservation of wildlife and regulating the hunting thereof. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND AGREEMENTS At the international level. the Philippines is a member of ASEAN which is advocating biodiversity conservation and wildlife protection through the ASEAN Working Group on Nature Conservation and Biodiversity (AWGNCB). It prohibits the trade of CITES species unless the individuals for trade are bred in captivity in CITES-registered facilities. Also. maintaining. 1.

requires member-countries to. pet shops and zoological gardens 4) Preparation of a National Biodiversity and Strategy Action Plan and Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities 5) Partnerships with some LGUs and Private Sector on wildlife protection such as in Bicol National Park. develop national framework on conservation and ensure that any use of biodiversity is sustainable and equitable (CBD Text. adopt strict protection measures for migratory species. and what are the prohibited acts. .CBD are obliged. to conserve sites noted for rich biological diversity. especially those categorized as being in danger of extinction. the following have been done by government towards wildlife protection: 1) Issuance of the IRR for Ra 9147 2) Issuance of DAO 2004-15 establishing the national list of threatened wild fauna and other wildlife species 3) Issuance of DAO 2004-60 requiring registration of endemic and exotic species in possession of private individuals. on the other hand. A. engineering or those that relate to infrastructure and enforcement or those that relate to actually apply the law. Inter-Agency Wildlife Management Committee on Animal Welfare and MOA between the City of Manila and the DENR ISSUES AND CONCERNS IN WILDLIFE RA 9147 is a good law insofar as it provides for the legal arsenal for wildlife protection. among others. III. Wildlife Enforcement Officers and LGUs in the proper identification of wildlife and in paralegal. However. • Lack of technical expertise in the DENR. The Department of Agriculture on the other hand as represented by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources is the agency responsible for declared aquatic critical habitats. (Cited in paper of Josie De Leon. then wildlife law enforcement will have little chance of success. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RA 9147 Since its passage in 2001. These can be classified into educational issues or those that relate to information and education campaigns. EDUCATION • Lack of information materials regarding RA 9147 such as what are the ban species for trading. and their habitats. rescue centers. RA 9147 DENR is the primary government agency responsible for terrestrial wildlife protection. PAWB). The CMS. DAP). The office in the DENR is the Parks and Wildlife Bureau. • If the officers tasked to apprehend illegal wildlife peddlers do not know how to identify a particular wildlife. there are issues hindering its effective implementation. among others. all aquatic resources and all marine mammals except Dugong.

ENFORCEMENT • Lack of resources for wildlife protection • In fact. Zamboanga. Manila. • Lack of checkpoints / monitoring units at airports and ports • Harassment against those who enforce the Wildlife Act .B. ENGINEERING • Lack of wildlife rescue centers • Lack of wildlife traffic monitoring units • At present. Cebu and Subic have monitoring units. while only the port of Manila has a monitoring unit. • Absence or lack of institutional arrangements with other countries to combat entry and exit or wildlife and / or exotic wildlife species. there is no separate budget allocation as yet in the General Appropriations Act for wildlife protection. C. only the airports of Davao.

Myers et. 1997  DENR. 2002  PPCSAP. 2006  Heaney et. 1997.. in prep  Josie de Leon’s Masteral Paper at DAP. 2003 Statistics  CBFM Guidelines  IFMA Guidelines  Local Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160)  Philippine Constitution  PD 705  RA 9147  RA 7586  RA 7160 .. 1997. Heaney & Regalado. 2002  NBSAP... Brown 1999  Mittermeier et.REFERENCES  PD 705 (1975) otherwise known as the Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines  PD 1152 of the Philippine Environment Code of  Republic Act (RA) 8485 or the Animal Welfare Act of 1998  RA 7160 or the Local Government Code  PBCP. 2000. 1999. 1998. as cited in the PBCP. al.