Vol.50, n. 6 : pp.1073-1081 November 2007
ISSN 1516-8913 Printed in Brazil BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF

Effect of the Improved Fermentation on Physicochemical
Properties and Sensorial Acceptability of Sour Cassava
Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon, Gisele Cristina Netto Vieira, Karina Nunes de Simas,
Karina Santos, Manoela Alano Vieira, Renata Dias de Mello Castanho Amboni and Edna
Regina Amante*
Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia dos Alimentos; Centro de Ciências Agrárias; Universidade Federal de
Santa Catarina; Rodovia Admar Gonzaga, 1346; Itacorubi; eamante@cca.ufsc.br; 88034-001; Florianópolis –
SC - Brasil


The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its
fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its
sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch
expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different
viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through
current industrial methods.

Key words: Sour cassava starch, expansion, viscosity, sensorial acceptability

INTRODUCTION capacity for expansion and crunchiness (Cereda,
1987; Plata-Oviedo and Camargo, 1995;
Sour cassava starch (Polvilho azedo) is a typical Balagopalan, 2002).
Brazilian product, preferred in culinary as an Several works have shown that the fermentative
indispensable raw material for biscuit and cheese- process alters the starch granule, giving sour
bread production, characterised as soft bulky oven- cassava starch its peculiar characteristics, such as
cooked products due to the expansion property of its unique odour and taste, in addition to
sour cassava starch (Ascheri and Vilela, 1995; rheological modifications (Carvalho et al., 1996;
Silveira et al., 2000; Balagopalan, 2002). Cassava Pereira et al., 1999; Maeda and Cereda, 2001;
starch is extracted from cassava root (Manihot Guyot and Morlon-Guyot, 2001). Studies have
esculenta, Crantz) and fermented for 30 to 60 shown that sour cassava starch has physical,
days. This is followed by sun drying, an essential chemical and functional properties, which are
procedure in sour cassava starch finishing. Sour distinct from the original cassava starch. A good
cassava starch, added to biscuit and bread example of this is the decrease in volume when
formulations, without flour or ferment, produces sour cassava starch is substituted with cassava
dough with a soft alveolar structure, with a large starch in biscuit production (Mendes da Silva et

Author for correspondence

Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology

Rio do Sul cassava starch* RS 0. Tubarão cassava starch* TB 0.10 % of glucose.25 % of glucose. according to the 1 and type C – rate lower than 12. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology . Santa Rosa do Sul do Sul cassava starch* SR 0.25 % of glucose. Maeda and Sul and Tubarão. The objective of this study accepted among researchers that the fermentation was to verify if fermentation improved through and the sun drying processes not only alter starch glucose addition. Santa Rosa do Sul (Industrial) SR T Traditional sour cassava starch. Rio do Sul cassava starch* TB S Cassava starch.g-1.10 % of glucose. It was produced in laboratory Cereda (2001) suggested a classification to through traditional methodology (no glucose evaluate sour cassava starch quality: type A – sour added). Tubarão TB SS Sour cassava starch. M. Tubarão (Industrial) TB T Traditional sour cassava starch. resistance to shaking. when compared to the original cassava starch (Maeda and Cereda.50 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0.0 mL.50 % of glucose. Maeda and Cereda.0 mL.50 % of glucose.50 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0. A. Santa Catarina State (Brazil): Santa Rosa.25 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0. of the volume of the recipients.10 % of glucose. Rio do Sul cassava starch* RS 0.g. and gelling tendency on cooling.. Samples Discrimination RS S Cassava starch. type B – between 12.10.25 % of glucose.50 % 16. Santa Rosa do Sul SR SS Sour cassava starch.25 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0. 1998.10 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0.10 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0.0 and 15. Tubarão cassava starch* SR S Cassava starch. Rio do Sul cassava starch* RS 0. 0. Pereira method described by Marcon (2004). Such processes also reduce its initial cassava starch. pasting temperature.1074 Marcon. 2001). Tubarão cassava starch* TB 0. Samples of et al. glucose syrup to the cassava starch fermentation process could significantly reduce fermentation time.Sample Identification. Maeda and Cereda. (1999) suggested expansion rate as being a both cassava starch and industrial sour cassava relation between cookie diameter before and after starch from each of these regions (Table 1) were baking. et al.10 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0. Considering that biscuits are valued and marketed Sour cassava starch (polvilho azedo) was produced according to their volume. Santa Rosa do Sul cassava starch* SR 0. Rio do Sul RS SS Sour cassava starch. Santa Rosa do Sul cassava starch* *Samples produced in the laboratory from respective regional cassava starch. Rio do Sul (Industrial) RS T Traditional sour cassava starch.50 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0. Tubarão cassava starch* TB 0. expansion property is from samples of cassava starch (Manihot esculenta one of the most significant product parameters in Crantz) obtained from three different regions in quality evaluation of sour cassava starch (Rivera. 2001). also used.0 mL. as suggested by Marcon (2004).50 % of glucose. The analyses were all carried out in Marcon (2004) reported that the addition of triplicate. It is generally process in cold regions. Santa Rosa do Sul cassava starch* SR 0. al. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2001). Rio do 1997. rheology but also increase expansion capacity and influenced on the characteristic properties of sour viscosity.25 and 0. which was an important alternative in accelerating the cassava starch fermentative Table 1 . J. and through improved method by adding cassava starch with an expansion rate higher than glucose at concentrations of 0.25 Sour cassava starch fermented with 0.g-1.

Determination of Acid factor and pH corresponding to the highest and lowest scores of Samples of 25 g were weighed. where AI homogenisation was performed with a magnetic (%) = A X 100/B. starch fermentation on product quality was The biscuits were measured with a pachymeter.. All the samples showed ash values inferior to the among the glucose syrup concentrations studied. The sun calculated by using the relation between the initial drying conditions of the laboratory production of medial diameter of the biscuits before baking and the sour cassava starch samples resulted in final medial diameter after baking. Effect of the Improved Fermentation on Physicochemical Properties 1075 Physicochemical analysis sour cassava starch from this process in the All the samples were analysed in triplicate (n = 3). 6. viscosity at 80 and 90 oC. Rheological properties hydrogenated vegetal fat (15 g). was used. Biscuits were prepared by using a standard formulation containing sour cassava starch (75 g). compared to measurements were performed in triplicate. The biscuits were formulated with 50 g of sample mixed with 40 mL of boiling water. In this work. evaluated for overall acceptability by 50 1999) and total ash content (AOAC 923. with addition of “9” and “1”.70 to 17. and A was the minimal score stirrer and pH evaluation was performed on a and B was the maximal score attributed to the pHmeter Quimis model Q 400 A. 1999). lipids.03. Cereda (1983. proteins. ash before and after baking.50 % was which was 14 % moisture (Brasil. crude protein (AOAC 920. evaluated for moisture. evaluation of sensorial acceptability. industrial sour cassava starch. Gelling point. shaped into circular biscuits of approximately 10 g each and The effect of the improved method of sour cassava baked at 200o C for 25 minutes in electrical oven. Viscoamylographic properties were determined in boiling water (approximately 50 mL. A nine-point hedonic scale ranged from “like extremely” to “dislike extremely”. All analytical determinations were carried out in triplicate. All the significantly higher moisture content. means The determination of expansion capacity followed were separated by using Tukey multiple range test. according to a Brabender Viscoamylograph. Biscuits for moisture (AOAC 921. thus. The dough RESULTS AND DISCUSSION was then divided into five parts. for type 1 samples. the fermentation process. Glucose syrup at a concentration of 0. This Specific volume of the biscuits was determined difference could be attributed to empirical through the rape seed displacement method observation for moisture in the sour cassava starch (Cereda. 1983)..0.50 % (Brasil. maximal viscosity. The acid factor corresponds to the volume 1999).70 %. The biscuits were for 10 minutes and cooled to 55 oC (Mazurs et al. heated at 92 oC. 1999). 2001). The suspension product.87. Sample acceptability rate (AI) was calculated.05. of acid consumed (Brasil. respectively. 1983a). 1978). acid factor and pH (Table 2). volunteers.1 N HCl solution to equal to or higher than 70 % (Meilgaard et al.92 % of the samples analysed showed values in agreement with the Sensorial analysis maximal limits established for sour cassava starch. industry. The product distilled water up to a volume of 50 mL. 1978). 1985) and Ascheri and Vilela (1995) found moisture Specific volume values varying from 7. shown by Marcon (2004) to be the most indicated. de Raizes Tropicais (Maeda and Cereda. lipid (AOAC formulated according to Cereda (1983) were 920. which improve productivity in the cassava starch was 0. If a significant F-test was noted. the procedures proposed by the CERAT – Centro Significance was accepted at p ≤ 0. salt – NaCl (3 g). Expansion capacity was content. to maximal limit permitted by Brazilian laws. The data were subjected to analysis of Expansion capacity variance.39. 1957). justifying the use of Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology . baked in electric oven at 200 oC for 20 minutes.10. cassava starch) (Cereda. Suspensions of 6 the consistency characteristics of each sour % dry basis weight were prepared. and viscosity at 55o C were observed. 1999). viscosity at 90o C for 10 more Statistical analysis minutes. An excellent AI should be considered was titrated with a standard 0. pH 3. 1978).

19 1.44 4.41 0.11 0.16 0.77 c a a a a a Rio do Sul T 18. Cereda increase (p<0.Physicochemical of cassava starch (S).13 0.05) in protein content after the (1985). however.25a 3.20 2.21 3.07 0. Table 2 .84 4.03 8.37 8.14 0.25 % 17.66 4.10 a 0. et al. Nakamura et al.82 27.15bc CV 4.13 0.16 4.70 20..15 b 0.12 0.33 2.12b 5.10 % 16. A.14c 1. those reported by Pereira et al. The results showed higher acid factor in (Silveira and Cereda. M.03bc CV 7. are significantly different (P ≤ 0.05). The ash (1995) and Aschieri and Vilela (1995) reported content of the treatments on the Santa Rosa do Sul sour cassava starch protein values of 0. (1999) found values around 0.86 0.17 0.15 0.95 S 13.10 a 0. which means maximal values established by the CONCEX that the greater the washing.14 0.72 4. Acid factor is a practical parameter which is alterations in product performance.19 1.05 0.75 0.11 0. Cereda found ash values that varied from 0.13b a a a a a 0.99c 0.03c 0.68c 0.05b a a a a 0.63ª 4.41 0.25 % 18.14 0.100g-1) (g.16 1. and Lima (1981). J. with no significant with a smaller amount of water. All the regularly employed by the cassava starch industry.18 1.99b ab ab ab b b 0.71 4.27 ab ab ab ab b b 0.1076 Marcon.09 0. The the Tubarão products showed statistical difference values of lipids found in this study were similar to between one another (p < 0. Aschieri Sul did not show significant differences in protein and Vilela (1995). Aschieri and Vilela fermentation process.98a b a a a b SS 14.11 0.05).95 5.11 0. Cereda et al.14c a a a a c 0.93b CV 6.58 a b a a b b 0.06 4.97 CV = Coefficient of Variation. 1987).05b a a a a a 0. Mean values in the same column followed by different superscript letters.12 % and for type 2 The Tubarão samples showed a significant was 0. traditional sour cassava starch (T) and sour cassava starch fermented with 0.38 14.14 0.50 % of glucose. the treatments on et al.11b 0.19 2.88 0.50 %.18 1. (1999) and higher The products from Rio do Sul and Santa Rosa do than those reported by Cereda (1983a).17 1. from the same region.56 0.10 %.50 % 15.20 a 3.78b 4. Fermentation Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology .22a 3.10 % 19.71 0. the lower the acid (1971). Cárdenas and Buckle (1980).82a SS 13.14 a 0. 0.83 and Rio do Sul starches did not show statistical %.100g-1) (g.84 S 12.52 3.31 3.16 a 0.16 0.05 to 0. permitted ash content was 0.54 %.14 0.12 0.12 0.50 % 17.100g-1) (g.12c a a a a b 0. Region Treatments Moisture Ash* Protein* Lipids* Acid pH Factor (g.27 b a a a a b Santa Rosa T 16.28 0.2 3. industrial sour cassava starch (SS).57 3. 4.56 0. (1995).15 0.47 3.22 1.19 1.25.75b 5. industrial sour cassava starch samples compared to Industrial fermentative processes are carried out those produced in this work. compared to those from (1995) and Plata-Oviedo and Camargo (1995) other locations.15 0. obtained from three different regions of Santa Catarina state (Brazil). 0.11 0.12 0.10.73 27.10 % 15.14ab 0.100g-1) (mL HCl) b a a S 14.18 a 4. and lipid content.17 a 2.35 1. while Cárdenas and Buckle (1980) and Pereira differences (p > 0.14 0.96 3.78 23.07a SS 14.50 % 19.60 0. compared to their respective cassava starch and industrial sour cassava starch.57 20.18 1.05). * Dry basis weight.50 mL for type 1 sour cassava starch factor.12 0.09c a a a a c 0.21 2. Plata-Oviedo and Camargo attributed to the sun drying process.87b a ab b ab b Tubarão T 18.71 4.15 0.25 % 16.02a 4. samples showed lower acid factor values than the It is directly related to starch purity.02 0.13 0. (1976).11b 0.60 to 1.2 8.15 0.09 0.78 4.08c 0.

diluting organic viscosity curves. a decrease in pH occurred. to sour cassava starch. and that which was in accordance with what is found in retrogradation was practically null in sour cassava literature.7 500 500 260 220 220 0.5 480 480 380 240 230 0.0 340 340 110 90 90 T 60.5 780 620 410 320 400 SS 61. Ascheri and Vilela (1995) fermented starch.0 510 420 280 210 250 0.0 540 480 360 280 280 Fermentation effects on starch viscosity are this work showed typical performance values for attributed to the action of organic acids produced cassava starch from all the aforementioned during fermentative process. the viscosity of Cárdenas and Buckle. 1999.0 390 200 140 100 100 Santa Rosa T 61.25. 1999. in comparison to cassava starch. The results of time since the industrial product showed a higher Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology . Cereda and Lima. starch viscosity and shaking stability there lower 4. Considering that the and Pereira et al. 1999). Maeda and Cereda. (1999) reported that sour cassava fermentation starch pH values were previously.0 520 520 300 220 200 S 61.10 61. 1995. 1995. (1976). starch showed characteristic pH values for Nakamura et al. 1981. the sour cassava starch fermented in this work was 1981.50 % of glucose. which contributes to locations.0 550 440 280 210 240 S 60.82. 1976. pH reduction during the fermentation starch . In general. through which the effect of acids in all the sour cassava starch produced in the fermentation on starch viscosity can also be laboratory. 1980. (UB) S 60. where the fermentation was carried out with Starch granule properties can be estimated through laminar water for all samples. Plata-Oviedo and higher than that of industrial sour cassava starch.. 2001).07 and 5. 5.. 0. influence on the final pH values of the Santa Rosa.25 61. 1996..3 300 200 140 120 140 Tubarão T 62. Carvalho et al.0 700 700 430 310 390 SS 60..0 550 460 370 300 270 0.0 520 430 300 220 260 0.. with higher maximal viscosity compared a decrease in viscosity (Nakamura et al. Camargo. Demiate et helped to explain the low acid factor found in this al. Viscosity Gelling Maximal Viscosity Viscosity Viscosity on Region Treatment 92ºC + 10 point (ºC) Viscosity (UB) 80ºC (UB) 92ºC (UB) cooling (UB) min.5 720 590 380 280 360 SS 63.0 510 440 340 280 280 0.10. Effect of the Improved Fermentation on Physicochemical Properties 1077 often occurs without the water lamination Aschieri and Vilela. 0. obtained from three different regions of Santa Catarina state (Brazil). work. This Camargo. traditional sour cassava starch (T) and sour cassava starch fermented with 0.10 62.25 60. Sour cassava its derivative applications (Amante. Plata-Oviedo and indicated for cassava starch fermentation.0 490 400 270 210 240 0. Pereira et A probable explanation would be its fermentation al.98. The results shown in Table 3 confirmed process corresponds to the release of organic acids such properties. 1986). Viscosity curves can serve as a guide to starch and Rio do Sul and Tubarão products. Pereira et al. Table 3 – Rheological properties of cassava starch (S).0 540 480 370 280 270 do Sul 0.50 61. observed.10 60.50 61. industrial sour cassava starch (SS). 1995. 1995. Ascheri and Vilela.50 62. Viscoamylographic properties are Different concentrations of glucose syrup did not modified as a result of the fermentative process. and aromatic compounds (Cereda and Lima.7 570 570 320 240 240 Rio do Sul 0.25 62.

50 %).3 °C. 0. while all sour cassava starch starch from other locations (RSS and TBS). retrogradation tendency and the shaking resistance Cereda. Maeda and Cereda (2001). which was in agreement There are divergences regarding evaluation with previous publications on fermented cassava methodology of sour cassava starch expansion. cassava starch when using the improved method at All the samples showed that differences in each of the glucose concentrations employed. 1981. This has comparison to cassava starch samples. the value obtained for improved method (2004) was its effect on the expansion capacity of the Santa Rosa products expansion property of sour cassava starch. Plata-Oviedo and Camargo. increase of product different glucose syrup concentrations (0. 1999. others to specific Cassava starch fermentation results in a product volume. as compared to that of cassava shaking resistance. J. 2001). starch (Ascheri andVilela. Regarding specific characterisation could well be related to network volume. Ascheri and Vilela. The Bonassi. was their expansion value. in comparison to those from contribute to granular weakness and consequent other locations. M. this did not The expansion capacity analysis showed that the influence on their expansion performance. Another notable characteristic of the Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology . expansion in oven 1995. (1999). expansion parameter could be considered ideal According to Ascheri and Vilela (1995) and (Cárdenas and Buckle. samples showed lower viscosity on cooling in confirmed the variations between origins. the increase in viscosity on and Lima. in maximal viscosity.05). They reduction in viscosity. Some authors refer to density.. Cereda and Giaj-Levra. except for TBSS which was at 63. and although industrial cassava starch influence on the main property of the product. which could Santa Rosa products.25 acidity. residence time in fermentation. industrial sour cassava starch. among the products studied in this work. the performance cassava starch was formation compounds generated during typical. Table 4 showed that the treatment that are inversely proportional to the expansion proposed did not influence on the expansion and rate and the characteristics of sour cassava starch specific volume of the biscuits produced with sour itself. the efficiency of the cassava starch fermentative Considering that the expansion rate evaluation in process. The cassava starch differed from the sour cassava expansion rate used in sour cassava starch starch of the same origin. 2004). 1980. and sour Publications and practical information show that cassava starch produced in the laboratory with decrease of pH characteristics. 1995. showed lower maximal viscosity. this work was the same as that carried out by The main concern in proposing Marcon’s Pereira et al. 1987. 1993. Through the properties of starch associated with the generation viscoamylogram. 1995).10. 1983. independent of the from the sour cassava starch from the same viscoamylographic performance of the starch. The expansion rate performance the traditional and industrial products. were verified showing a decrease performance. with behaviour. changes in rheological of new compounds during fermentation. irrespective of the Santa Rosa do Sul products did not of their origin (p>0. 1995).1078 Marcon. and yet others to expansion rate. No viscosity did not influence on the performance of significant differences were found between the sour cassava starch in relation to expansion rate expansion capacity of the improved product and (Tables 3 and 4). et al. A. Maeda and Cereda. Cassava The differentiated performance of the Santa Rosa starch showed higher maximal viscosity and cassava starch. Pereira et cooking constitutes a parameter which can verify al. The improved correspond with their viscoamylographic fermentation process of cassava starch did not properties. Such were lower in the sour cassava starch studied in variations can be attributed to different intrinsic this work than in cassava starch. This were lower than that of the products from other factor led to the comparison between cassava locations and than those obtained by such authors. Cereda and cooling was attributed to retrogradation. location. starch. Ascheri and Vilela. which occurred due to fermentation of possible influences on product expansion cassava starch. scored the lowest expansion capacity values The gelling point was at around 60 to 62 °C. 1985. showing significantly different density fermentation or sun drying. and reduction in viscosity are parameters and 0. Cereda. According also been observed by other researchers (Cereda to Cereda (1993). Such fact with expansion properties which discard the use of results in conflicting data regarding which any kind of flour or ferment (Marcon.

This demonstrated that work.5 % glucose 7.20 0. are significantly different (P ≤ 0.32a SS 2.50 2.50 2.18 0.10b a Santa Rosa do Sul T 2. and density of cassava starch (S).25 2. a process should be pointed out.22 0. (2000).19 0.25 2.05). Table 5 .00 Mean values in the same column followed by different superscript letters are significantly different (P ≤ 0. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology .11 Rio do Sul 0.35a SS 2.19 0.10b a Rio do Sul T 2.25 0.46 0. sensorial acceptability evaluation was performed The physiochemical characteristics of sour cassava on samples obtained through the improved method starch produced through the improved method with 0.25.10b a Tubarão T 2. industrial sour cassava starch (SS).11b a 0. The caused by ultraviolet radiation during the sun acceptability rate for all samples was higher than drying process.09b CV 2. Therefore. Effect of the Improved Fermentation on Physicochemical Properties 1079 According to Demiate et al.10 2.50 % of glucose. traditional sour cassava starch (T) and sour cassava starch fermented with 0.57 Mean values in the same column followed by different superscript letters. and compared to those of either the traditional sour cassava starch industrial sour cassava starch from each of the produced in industry or the one produced in this aforementioned locations. characteristics of sour cassava starch. Sample Acceptability Acceptability rate (%) Rio do Sul SS 7. nonetheless.50 2.50 % of glucose obtained through the glucose improved method. Expansion and sensorial evidence that proves what kinds of polymers acceptability results showed that the cassava starch comprise the network responsible for starch improved process did not influence on the expansion. Aiming at providing the proof of the influence of its importance in accelerating the fermentative the improved starch fermentation process.07a 0.21 9.09b a 0.18 0.40b 0.18 0. Table 4 .14a 0.09b a 0.22 Santa Rosa 0.00 Tubarão 0.37 8. 0.49b 0.10b CV 4.08a 0.12 0. 2004).10 2.84 a 87.Sensorial acceptability and acceptability rate of industrial sour cassava starch (SS) and sour cassava starch fermented with 0.84 a 87.10.13b a 0.25 2.10b a 0.50 a 83.5 % glucose 7.11b CV 2.5 % glucose 7. from similar region.10b 0.18 0.12ª 0.11b 0. expansion is the improved method did not influence on the attributed to starch granule oxidative degradation sensorial acceptability of the product.10 2.11 Tubarão SS 7.33 Santa Rosa SS 7.92a 88.07 S 1. which was the quickest showed the properties which were very similar to process (Marcon. there is no chemical 80 % (Table 5).05).09 0.92a 88.11 4.30a a SS 2.76 a 86. obtained from three different regions of Santa Catarina state (Brazil). from three different regions of Santa Catarina state (Brazil).50 % glucose. 0.09b a 0.58 S 1.09b a 0.Cooked expansion capacity. Source Treatments Expansion capacity Specific volume [cm3 (g) -1] b S 1.

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