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COABB Special Transformer , February 2013

ABB Special Transformers
Variable Speed Drive Applications

© ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 1

ABB Special Transformers (PG SPT)
Agenda

How does ESP transformer work
Natural ester in a special
transformer
Aluminium in special transformer

© ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 2

ABB Special Transformers (PG SPT)
Allocation Map Oil Type transformers

Lead Center
Vaasa

South Boston
Zhongshan
Shanghai

Pereira

© ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 3

ABB Special Transformers (PG SPT)
Factories for VSD transformers

Vaasa, Lead Center
• Marketing & Sales
• Market Intelligence
• Engineering
• R&D
• Production
• All VSD

Zhongshan Pereira South Boston Shanghai
• Marketing & Sales • Marketing & Sales Marketing & Sales • Production
• Engineering • Engineering Engineering • LV VSD, ACS 1000
• Production • Production Production
• all VSD (excl. • up 10MVA (excl. LV VSD, ACS 1000
ACS5000) ACS5000)
© ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 4

ABB Pereira, Colombia
Special Transformer Manufacturer in SAM Region

SPT Focused Factory for LAM region
Strategic geographical location
Full current ABB Technologies implemented
More than 40 years of experience in transformers
Manufacturing culture based on operational excellence.
World class test failure rate.

© ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 5

Transformers for Variable Speed Drive Applications © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 6 .

torque and power of an electric motor in the most efficient way in an application It consists of transformer. 2013 | Slide 7 . variable speed drive and motor The main components need to be with matching charasteristics Standard scope of supply for a drive system © ABB Group February 19.What is a drive system? A drive system is used to control speed.

Transformers for Variable Speed Drives (AC) for . Cement. Oil & Gas Marine Metals Minerals Special applications. 2013 | Slide 8 . wind tunnels © ABB Group February 19.g.. Power Pulp & Paper Water e.. Mining & Chemical.

Typical Applications Blowers & fans Conveyors Compressors Crushers. mixers Marine propulsion Mine hoists Pumps Refiners Gas & hydro turbine starters Soft starters for large machines Test stands. 2013 | Slide 9 . wind tunnels © ABB Group February 19. rolling mills Extruders.

18. CE labelled .Standards IEC 61378-1 Converter transformers.10 IEEE standard Practices for Semiconductor Power Rectifier Transformers” IEC makes no requirements for BIL levels unlike IEEE We design always to cover Increased electrical stress drive side Common mode voltages High DU/dt 2000 iu 1500 Harmonic currents 1000 500 0 EMC reduction -500 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 -1000 EU requirement. Part 1 Transformers for Industrial Applications IEEE C57. applied also in -1500 -2000 MEA and ASIA markets.

10 is technically close to IEC 61378-1. differencies mainly in terminology IEEE gives defined requirements for insulation levels (BIL-levels) .Transformer ratings in IEC 61378-1 Rated power = Fundamental kVA kVA calculated with rated voltage and fundamental current component of the load current RMS kVA kVA calculated with rated voltage and total RMS load current Equivalent kVA kVA calculated with rated voltage and defined equivalent sinusoidal current which will give the same losses in the transformer than the actual load current when all its harmonic components are considered in relation they cause losses in the transformer IEEE C57.18.

tests with real harmonic / common mode content cannot be done at factory . with fundamental frequency only.Transformer ratings in IEC 60076 Fundamental kVA = RMS kVA = Equivalent kVA = kVA calculated from rated voltage and rated sinusoidal current No allowance for harmonic currents or harmonic distortion in voltage IEC 60076 series is standard for power (network) transformers with clean sinusoidal currents and voltages Rules of performing routine tests at factory are valid generally also to converter transformers. test currents and voltages are sinusoidal.

bars.Converter duty for transformers Fundamentals Harmonic currents arise extra stray losses in windings. load type and transformer design Dimensioning Calculation of equivalent current or derating factor is enough in standard VSD applications (limited power & current) More detailled study is necessary as power / current / harmonic content gets higher. core clamps and tank / enclosure Degree of severity depends on drive type. .

U/Un = voltage tolerance.Converter duty for transformers Simplified dimensioning based on motor power: U Pmotor _ shaftpower Sn Un motor output _ trafo converter cos St Sn K Sn = Rated power. harmonics not included. St = Type power (Sinusoidal equivalent power). K = sinusoidal equivalent factor . effects of harmonics included.

harmonic distortion limits Comparison: Current Distortion Limits 6-p versus 12p Example for Isc/IL: 20<50 10 M ax.How to apply IEEE519 . H arm o n ic C u rrent D istortion in 9 8 6 pulse rectifier 12 pulse rectifier 7 P ercent o f IL 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 41 43 47 49 TDD Harmonic Order © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 15 .

2013 | Slide 16 .Converter Transformers / Definition & Why Why converter transformers are needed (main issues) Adapts the network supply voltage to the converter input voltage Isolates the converter from feeding network and restricts short-circuit currents to the converter Relieves the motor and/or network from common mode voltages Reduces radio interference (EMC) from drive to the network (special screen) Protects the drive from voltage transients from the feeding network Reduces harmonics (transformer impedance and special connections for multipulse operation) © ABB Group February 19.

12+1=13th.).2. 6+1=7th. Most common are Z and “extended delta” connection © ABB Group February 19.. 2013 | Slide 17 . 30°(or multiple) require a special phase shift winding. 24-1=23rd and 24+1=25th harmonic currents (in ideal case) Pulse number can be increased by applying multiple 6 pulse groups with phase shifted supply voltages 30 degrees phase shift can be obtained by using basic connection groups on the transformer (Y and D) Phase shifts other than 0°. a 6 pulse rectifier produces 6-1=5th.Converter duty for transformers / Harmonics Reducing line harmonics with transformer connections As the power increases the network harmonics come more critical Harmonics on the line side: n x p ±1 (n=1..3. 12-1=11th and 12+1=13th harmonic currents (in ideal case) a 12 pulse rectifier produces 12-1=11th. p=pulse number The order of characteristic harmonics (h) in relation to the rectifier pulse number (n): h= k n 1 k is any integer.

Converter duty for transformers / Connections © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 18 .

01 0.015 7th harmonic total -0. 2013 | Slide 19 .5 fundamental 3th harmonic pu 0 5th harmonic 0 0.5 -1 -1.005 0.5 time © ABB Group February 19.Example (General theoretical) 1.5 1 0.Visualisation Harmonics .Harmonics .

2013 | Slide 20 .Effect of Harmonics / Fundamentals © ABB Group February 19.

5 30898 3.573 Stray loss multiplier 1.300 Stray loss multiplier 1.634 Rectifier 22605 6567 0 30898 8463 7519 76052 New Power 60093.Effect of Harmonics / Fundamentals HV (Primary) LV (Secondary) Eddy Loss multiplier 8.077754887 TDD 27.300 Eddy Loss multiplier 8.9% LV Losses HV Losses Total Loss I2R Eddy Stray I2R Eddy Stray Power TX designed 22605 3.573 0.790166976 Power TX designed 12650kVA Power Required 10000 Max Power appl 9996kVA Power new design 12656 DISEÑO BASE OK © ABB Group February 19.81 / 76052 = 0. 2013 | Slide 21 .3 4780 60094 791.175 1019.

2013 | Slide 22 .Effect of Harmonics / Thermal Modeling © ABB Group February 19.

Electrostatic screen is also protecting the drive but making functional screen is not against common mode voltage stress from supply so simple system (lightning and switching) © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 23 .EMC screen 3 EU has set limits for radio frequency (RF) pollution of power supply system at point of power drive system connection (including transformer) EN 2 1 61800 4 transformer window Metal foil Same requlation is applied increasingly also Insulating cylinder Middle of outside europe Drive systems generally do not fullfil requirement without filtering or screening Industry require system to be EMC compliant (CE labelling) anywhere although EU requirement is 5 5 valid only at point of connection to public network or at 10 m distance from the boarder fence Correctly designed electrostatic screen is a cost efficient way of fullfilling the requirement for drive- transformer package Hint: This is the general description of screen in transformer specification.

switching frequency 2-3 kHz © ABB Group February 19. design must be correct to allow for cooling With transformers feeding VSD having high switching frequency on input side (active front end). 2013 | Slide 24 . losses at screen can be dramatic Wrong type of earthing leads from screen can make the screen not functional Hint: This is view of locally made low cost VSD transformers screen in Far East after few successful weeks of operation with 25 % load with active front end .Static screen issues At ratings above some MVA with typical harmonic currents. losses at screen are important.

L Mineral oil O is standard for industrial installations. stable) IEC 60836.K. so not new technology Installation of liquid transformers possible at explosion hazard Zone 1 and Zone 2 with simple measures.Liquid insulated transformers IEC 60076 Insulation liquids O. are applied when low fire risk is required synthetic esters (bio-degradeable non-toxic) IEC 61099. fire point >300 C. (DC 561. but out of question (low fire point and high combustion energy) on ships and offshore Less flammable liquids class K. can be fitted on one deck height Cost benefits Liquid transformers dominant for drive applications on off-shore platforms and rigs with harsh environmental conditions. (Midel 7131) silicone oils (non-toxic. TR50) Non flammable liquids class L not existing today Liquid transformers are quite new application area for ships and FPSO Increasing power of propulsion drives created need for compact solutions-liquid transformers up to 20 -30 MVA feasible as one unit Water cooling easy to apply Low height . .

reliability of the system and adequate lifetime of the transformer can not be ensured The special desing needs to consider especially. 2013 | Slide 26 .Summary & Conclusions Modern AC converter drives need transformers of special desing – normal distribution transformers are not feasible The above fact has been a reason why separate standards have been published by IEC and IEEE Without appropriate desing and manufacturing the performance. increased dielectric stress thermal issues (related to harmonics etc. ABB Transformers is having a unique position since it has global common product desing platforms that are making broadening of the manufacturing footprint possible (technical support and technical transfers) © ABB Group February 19.) increased mechanical stresses many cases complex internal connections with phase shifts & multiwinding desings for ensuring The special considerations need to be done especially for medium voltage drives and in general for drives above 1 MW The drive transformer manufacturer should have some general and specific knowledge about drives ABB has a unique position since it can offer the full scope of a drive system with it’s products.

ACS 1000 – Input Transformer Medium Voltage Medium Voltage Medium Voltage Supply Bus Supply Bus Supply Bus Main Feeder Main Feeder Main Feeder I>> Prot I>> Prot Breaker I>> Prot Breaker Breaker & Protection & Protection & Protection 12-pulse 24-pulse Converter Input Converter Input Transformer 24-pulse Transformer Converter Input Transformer Rectifier Rectifier Rectifier 12-pulse 24-pulse 24-pulse ACS 1000i • 12-pulse or 24-pulse topology • Oil or dry type transformer Conformity to IEC 61000-2-4 and IEEE 519/1992 Total power factor: 0.95 constant over speed range Transformer can be placed inside the building or outdoor © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 27 .

ACS 1000 – common mode voltage Common Modes inside the Drive System I_Cfuvw_G A 35 30 Common Modes are produced from every 25 20 inverter. -10 -15 -20 but kept completely away from the motor. -25 -30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 ms © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 28 . independent which topology is used 15 10 and which manufacturer is considered. 5 0 -5 In ACS 1000 they are directed back to the transformer.

2013 | Slide 29 .ACS 1000 – 24-pulse input transformer One 5-winding transformer Two separate 3-winding transformer U L U L I PN I PN Screen P D A P2 P1 C B Screen Screen D C B A Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 Id/2 Id/2 Id/2 Id/2 Id Id Udi0 Udi0 Technically a compromise Technically ideal and “save” solution (non-characteristic harmonics) Large in size and expensive More compact and lower costs © ABB Group February 19.

2013 | Slide 30 .Large 12 pulse rectifier transformer active part © ABB Group February 19.

ACS 5000 Converter topology Transformer 2 x 4-winding or 1 x 7-winding Output voltage up to 6.9 kV Optional integrated dry type solution EMC-filter (dv/dt limitation at output) as 36-pulse diode rectifier standard 3 x 12-pulse bridges Motor type Input voltage: 1920 V / ±10% Asynchronous DC link (in triplicate) Synchronous Three 5-level inverter unit Permanent magnet H-bridge configuration © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 31 .

2013 | Slide 32 . compromise is to have two active parts in one oil tank Primary currents must be measured separately Oil transformers. only for small powers Technically ideal and “save” solution (non-characteristic harmonics) More compact nut not always lowest costs Larger in size.ACS5000 . two separate transformers are lowest costs 2 sets of CTs on primary side is required for overcurrent detection (each primary side measured separately) © ABB Group February 19.36-pulse transformers One 7-winding transformer Two separate 4-winding transformer Inverter Inverter One transformer : Transformer 1: SR SR/2 -25 -20 -15 0 -5 20 MCB MCB Inverter Inverter 5 -20 15 0 25 20 Transformer 2: SR/2 Inverter Inverter Technically a compromise.

2013 | Slide 33 .ACS 5000 Network friendliness Line to line voltage THD = 1.95% Scc = 500MVA. Xsc = 10% © ABB Group February 19.19% Phase current TDD = 2.

Aluminum and natural ester in ESP Transformers © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 34 .

datasheet for respectively (vs. hence mitigating collateral damage and potentially lowering insurance premiums © ABB 22/07/2009 | Slide 35 . 160°C and 180°C transformers typically for mineral oil) Listed as a “less flammable” dielectric fluid by FM Global and Underwriters Laboratories Tested in strict accordance with IEC standard 61100 and meet the K2 classification Active fire suppression and barrier walls can essentially be eliminated when minimal spacing is maintained (for transformers with ratings 10 MVA and lower)¹ Savings apply to initial installation.NATURAL ESTER® TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION Preserving life and property ¹ According to FM NATURAL ESTER has a flash and Global property loss prevention fire point of 340°C and 360°C. rehabilitation and maintenance costs Meet fire safety requirements for indoor applications and outdoor areas of heightened safety sensitivity without additional safety equipment Reduce risk of transformer explosion and fire.

more than 6% of mineral oil mixed with NATURAL ESTER® will reduce its 360 °C firepoint below the 300 °C threshold at which point it would loose its "less flammable“ fluid classification © ABB October 7.NATURAL ESTER® TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION Miscibility Between Electric Insulating Liquids Even though mineral oil is completely miscible with ester fluids. 2011 | Slide 36 .

NATURAL ESTER® TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION Current product scope Up to 230 kV class (1050 kV BIL) 200 MVA max rated power KNAN/KNAF cooling modes Constant oil pressure sealed with membrane or nitrogen blanket system required (free breathing applications to be avoided) © ABB October 7. 2011 | Slide 37 .

2011 | Slide 38 .NATURAL ESTER® TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION Low Ageing: NATURAL ESTER® and Cellulose Paper 20 °C NATURAL ESTER® impregnated paper experiences lower aging rate compared to mineral oil impregnated paper. hence in the transformer life © ABB October 7. leading to an increase in the insulation system life.

NATURAL ESTER® TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION High Overloadability Overloadability: Cellulose-based insulation parts have a longer life expectancy in NATURAL ESTER® than in mineral oil A typical 50 MVA transformer can be overloaded by 10% and still achieve the same life expectancy as a mineral oil-filled transformer of the same rating NATURAL ESTER® has better thermal conductivity than mineral oil. 2011 | Slide 39 . at higher temperatures it has reduced viscosity. thus allowing for better thermal performance during overloads Short term emergency overloads result in less loss of insulation life in NATURAL ESTER® than in mineral oil © ABB October 7. Additionally.

NATURAL ESTER® TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION Savings Summary Potential CAPITAL & MAINTENANCE COST AVOIDANCE: NATURAL ESTER® is defined as “less-flammable”. reduced explosion risk of NATURAL ESTER filled transformers Potential AVOIDANCE OF FIRE LOSS because of less-flammable characteristic Potential AVOIDANCE OR REDUCTION OF OIL SPILL CLEAN-UP COSTS: applicable laws and regulations will determine how fines are imposed. non-toxic. This provides savings in installation and maintenance of such systems Potential INSURANCE COST SAVINGS from less-flammable. therefore certain installations do not require fire-suppression systems or fire barriers. NATURAL ESTER® spills can often be disposed through normal means (at a much lower cost) Potential for INCREASED REVENUES associated with short-term increased load pass-thru: ability to overload NATURAL ESTER® -filled power transformers could mean higher revenues during peak demand periods without sacrificing transformer life Potential to DELAY CAPITAL EXPENDITURES due to increased asset replacement intervals Increased life of NATURAL ESTER® impregnated insulation can translate to longer replacement intervals. However. Investments in additional equipment could also be delayed because of overloadability advantage of NATURAL ESTER® filled transformers © ABB October 7. with 99% biodegradability and non-toxicity. 2011 | Slide 40 .

The price of copper fluctuates heavily during the last years and the price level is expected to be at high levels.r. X Copper winding transformers better bear short-circuit efforts. X Copper transformers are more compact than aluminum ones. X Aluminum windings are lighter than copper windings. ALUMINIUM ® TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION Summary Transformers with Aluminum windings having the same losses as that of Copper windings are technically feasible and economically advantageous. for the same load losses Descriptions True False Aluminum price is more stable because of its market availability (twice copper worldwide production). X © ABB Group February 19. usage of Al in winding conductors has become more viable option. 2013 | Slide 41 . X Aluminum winding transformers are not compatible with copper connectors. As the price of Cu has recently moved ahead much faster than the price Al. Copper is extensively used in power transformer windings.t copper wound one.C w. due to limited copper reserves. X Aluminum transformers have bigger losses. Aluminum wound transformers have better mechanical and thermal performance during S.

488 ( ) 1.Conductor Materials in Transformers Surge and Overload Current Mass of aluminum transformers is 0.15 Heat _ capacity _ Cu mCu cCu 385 Aluminum transformers have superior thermal storage capacity compared to Copper wound units (15% higher for Al) © ABB Group February 19.488 times the copper ones for a similar electrical performance Heat (calorific) capacity = M x c Heat _ capacity _ Al m Al c Al 904 0. 2013 | Slide 42 .

the AC losses can be computed with the following formula: The penetration depth of Cu at 50 Hz is 9.28935 108 [Ohm m]-1 Cu Al Conductivity 100% 62% Penetration Depth 100% 127% Eddy losses 100% 62% Eddy loss in aluminum winding is 38 % less w. Transformers and K-Factors Eddy loss due to high harmonics: Al vs Cu According to classical theory. while for Al is 12.t eddy losses in copper with same volume of conductor © ABB Group February 19. while for Al is 0.4 mm. Harmonics.r.4703 108 [Ohm m]-1.3 mm. 2013 | Slide 43 . The conductivity of Cu at 75°C is 0.

Transformers and K-Factors Eddy loss due to high harmonics: Al vs Cu Below is an example. 37% in case of aluminum As we can see from table. a K20 rated aluminum wound transformer have approximately Eddy losses as K13 copper wound transformer Copper Windings Aluminum Windings Ratio K-Factor Eddy Pdc Peddy Ptotal Pdc Peddy Ptotal (Al/Cu) K1 4997 111 5108 4997 70 5067 K4 4997 444 5441 4997 280 5277 K9 4997 999 5996 4997 630 5627 63% K13 4997 1443 6440 4997 910 5907 K20 4997 2220 7217 4997 1400 6397 © ABB Group February 19. for 400KVA transformer with equal No Load and Load losses designed with Copper and Aluminum conductors Eddy losses are reduced by approx. 2013 | Slide 44 . Harmonics.

but not as much as copper. The amount of Al now produced annually exceeds Cu production by two. and other factors such as Al being the most plentiful metal in the earth have the potential to make the Al prices more stable and lower than the Cu prices in the future. supply and demand. Economies of scale. © ABB Group February 19. The price of aluminum is lower than the price of copper and it fluctuates. 2013 | Slide 45 . It is reasonable to expect future copper prices to be both high and volatile. Aluminum Conductor in Transformers Economic Considerations Copper represents one of the most expensive materials used in transformers Besides its cost. World copper reserves are limited and a big debate on. price of copper is highly unstable. when will be the full depletion.

5 mpt/cm3 for Cu and 2. European Union “Eco-Indicator” is used as an indication. 2013 | Slide 46 . comparisons based on volume are more useful than comparisons on mass: per volume. Eco-indicator method quantifies environmental impact in terms of “points”. Aluminum Conductor in Transformers Environmental Considerations For evaluating the environmental impact of Cu and Al. the values can be expressed as 12. Millipoints (mpt) are often the appropriate units for evaluating practical decisions in design work.1 mpt/cm3 for Al. Even considering the 62% additional Al needed for equal resistivity. As with cost. Al has much less environmental impact than Cu needed for the same winding by this measure. © ABB Group February 19. where 1000 points roughly corresponds to the annual impact of an average European. The values given in “Eco-Indicator 99 Manual for Designers 2000” for primary Cu and Al are 1400 mpt/kg and 780 mpt/kg respectively.

The transformers are designed to comply with the temperature limits. In transformers. The maximum allowed temperature during S. limiting temperatures are specified mainly to limit the ageing of paper insulation in contact with the conductor. 2013 | Slide 47 . This mitigates the risk for hot spots. © ABB Group February 19. whereas the same is 200oC for an aluminum conductor without any detriment to mechanical properties. Aluminum Conductor in Transformers Reliability Considerations Transformer’s life is defined by the life of its insulation system.C for oil-immersed transformers is 250oC for copper conductor. whichever the conductor type is. The higher resistivity of Aluminum gives inherently lower additional losses in the windings.

ABB Aluminum Wound Transformers Experience • More than 40 years of experience with aluminum wound transformers • Experience of several million aluminum wound distribution transformers • Experience of several thousand aluminum wound power transformers above 10 MVA • Well proven and established ABB technology up to 145 kV class © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 48 .

Natural ester Transformers COMBO 3 VSD TRANSFORMER + ALUMINUM + NATURAL ESTER © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 49 . ABB Aluminum Wound .

COLOMBIA C&CA AND BOLIVIA & ARGENTINA ROLL BRAZIL PERU & MEXICO ECUATOR URUGUAY VENEZUELA PARAGUAY Luis Tatiana PRODUCT Ana María Jakeline Andrés Ana María MANAGER Fernando Paola Díaz Franco Salazar Restrepo Osorio Padilla Juan Juan SALES Karen Anyela Felipe Natalia SUPPORT Felipe Alejandro Restrepo Vasquez Echeverri Loaiza Castaño Bedoya © ABB Group February 19. 2013 | Slide 50 .New responsables ESP TRX in COABB CHILE.