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COABB Special Transformer , February 2013

ABB Special Transformers


Variable Speed Drive Applications

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 1
ABB Special Transformers (PG SPT)
Agenda

How does ESP transformer work


Natural ester in a special
transformer
Aluminium in special transformer

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 2
ABB Special Transformers (PG SPT)
Allocation Map Oil Type transformers

Lead Center
Vaasa

South Boston
Zhongshan
Shanghai

Pereira

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 3
ABB Special Transformers (PG SPT)
Factories for VSD transformers

Vaasa, Lead Center


Marketing & Sales
Market Intelligence
Engineering
R&D
Production
All VSD

Zhongshan Pereira South Boston Shanghai


Marketing & Sales Marketing & Sales Marketing & Sales Production
Engineering Engineering Engineering LV VSD, ACS 1000
Production Production Production
all VSD (excl. up 10MVA (excl. LV VSD, ACS 1000
ACS5000) ACS5000)
ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 4
ABB Pereira, Colombia
Special Transformer Manufacturer in SAM Region

SPT Focused Factory for LAM region


Strategic geographical location
Full current ABB Technologies implemented
More than 40 years of experience in transformers
Manufacturing culture based on operational excellence.
World class test failure rate.

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 5
Transformers for Variable Speed
Drive Applications

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 6
What is a drive system?

A drive system is used to control speed, torque and power of an electric motor in the
most efficient way in an application
It consists of transformer, variable speed drive and motor

The main components need to be with matching charasteristics

Standard scope of supply for a drive system

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 7
Transformers for Variable Speed Drives (AC) for ...

Cement, Mining &


Chemical, Oil & Gas Marine Metals
Minerals

Special applications,
Power Pulp & Paper Water e.g. wind tunnels

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 8
Typical Applications

Blowers & fans


Conveyors
Compressors
Crushers, rolling mills
Extruders, mixers
Marine propulsion
Mine hoists
Pumps
Refiners
Gas & hydro turbine
starters
Soft starters for large
machines
Test stands, wind tunnels

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 9
Standards
IEC 61378-1 Converter
transformers, Part 1 Transformers
for Industrial Applications
IEEE C57.18.10 IEEE standard
Practices for Semiconductor
Power Rectifier Transformers
IEC makes no requirements for
BIL levels unlike IEEE
We design always to cover
Increased electrical stress drive
side
Common mode voltages
High DU/dt 2000
iu

1500

Harmonic currents 1000

500

0
EMC reduction -500
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-1000

EU requirement, applied also in -1500

-2000
MEA and ASIA markets, CE
labelled
Transformer ratings in IEC 61378-1
Rated power = Fundamental kVA
kVA calculated with rated voltage and fundamental current component
of the load current
RMS kVA
kVA calculated with rated voltage and total RMS load current
Equivalent kVA
kVA calculated with rated voltage and defined equivalent sinusoidal
current which will give the same losses in the transformer than the
actual load current when all its harmonic components are considered in
relation they cause losses in the transformer
IEEE C57.18.10 is technically close to IEC 61378-1, differencies mainly in
terminology
IEEE gives defined requirements for insulation levels (BIL-levels)
Transformer ratings in IEC 60076

Fundamental kVA = RMS kVA = Equivalent kVA


= kVA calculated from rated voltage and rated
sinusoidal current
No allowance for harmonic currents or harmonic
distortion in voltage
IEC 60076 series is standard for power (network)
transformers with clean sinusoidal currents and
voltages
Rules of performing routine tests at factory are valid
generally also to converter transformers, test currents
and voltages are sinusoidal, with fundamental
frequency only, tests with real harmonic / common
mode content cannot be done at factory
Converter duty for transformers

Fundamentals
Harmonic currents arise extra stray losses in
windings, bars, core clamps and tank / enclosure
Degree of severity depends on drive type, load type
and transformer design
Dimensioning
Calculation of equivalent current or derating factor is
enough in standard VSD applications (limited power
& current)
More detailled study is necessary as power / current /
harmonic content gets higher.
Converter duty for transformers

Simplified dimensioning based on motor power:

U Pmotor _ shaftpower
Sn
Un motor output _ trafo converter cos

St Sn K

Sn = Rated power, harmonics not included, St = Type


power (Sinusoidal equivalent power), effects of harmonics
included, U/Un = voltage tolerance, K = sinusoidal
equivalent factor
How to apply IEEE519 - harmonic distortion limits

Comparison: Current Distortion Limits 6-p versus 12p


Example for Isc/IL: 20<50
10
M ax. H arm o n ic C u rrent D istortion in

8 6 pulse rectifier
12 pulse rectifier
7
P ercent o f IL

0
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 41 43 47 49 TDD
Harmonic Order

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 15
Converter Transformers / Definition & Why
Why converter transformers are
needed (main issues)
Adapts the network supply voltage to
the converter input voltage
Isolates the converter from feeding
network and restricts short-circuit
currents to the converter
Relieves the motor and/or network
from common mode voltages
Reduces radio interference (EMC)
from drive to the network (special
screen)
Protects the drive from voltage
transients from the feeding network
Reduces harmonics (transformer
impedance and special connections
for multipulse operation)

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 16
Converter duty for transformers / Harmonics
Reducing line harmonics with transformer connections
As the power increases the network harmonics come more critical
Harmonics on the line side: n x p 1 (n=1,2,3...), p=pulse number
The order of characteristic harmonics (h) in relation to the rectifier pulse number (n):
h= k n 1
k is any integer,
a 6 pulse rectifier produces 6-1=5th, 6+1=7th, 12-1=11th and 12+1=13th
harmonic currents (in ideal case)
a 12 pulse rectifier produces 12-1=11th, 12+1=13th, 24-1=23rd and 24+1=25th
harmonic currents (in ideal case)
Pulse number can be increased by applying multiple 6 pulse groups with phase
shifted supply voltages
30 degrees phase shift can be obtained by using basic connection
groups on the transformer (Y and D)
Phase shifts other than 0, 30(or multiple) require a special phase
shift winding. Most common are Z and extended delta connection

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 17
Converter duty for transformers / Connections

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 18
Harmonics - Visualisation

Harmonics - Example (General theoretical)

1.5

0.5
fundamental
3th harmonic
pu

0 5th harmonic
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 7th harmonic
total
-0.5

-1

-1.5
time

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 19
Effect of Harmonics / Fundamentals

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 20
Effect of Harmonics / Fundamentals

HV (Primary) LV (Secondary)
Eddy Loss multiplier 8.300 Eddy Loss multiplier 8.300
Stray loss multiplier 1.573 Stray loss multiplier 1.573

0.077754887

TDD 27.9%

LV Losses HV Losses Total Loss


I2R Eddy Stray I2R Eddy Stray
Power TX
designed 22605 3.5 30898 3.3 4780 60094

791.175 1019.634
Rectifier 22605 6567 0 30898 8463 7519 76052

New Power 60093.81 / 76052 = 0.790166976

Power TX designed 12650kVA Power Required 10000


Max Power appl 9996kVA Power new design 12656

DISEO BASE OK

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 21
Effect of Harmonics / Thermal Modeling

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 22
EMC screen
3
EU has set limits for radio frequency (RF) pollution
of power supply system at point of power drive
system connection (including transformer) EN 2 1
61800 4

transformer window
Metal foil
Same requlation is applied increasingly also
Insulating cylinder

Middle of
outside europe
Drive systems generally do not fullfil requirement
without filtering or screening
Industry require system to be EMC compliant (CE
labelling) anywhere although EU requirement is
5 5
valid only at point of connection to public network
or at 10 m distance from the boarder fence
Correctly designed electrostatic screen is a cost
efficient way of fullfilling the requirement for drive-
transformer package Hint: This is the general description
of screen in transformer specification,
Electrostatic screen is also protecting the drive but making functional screen is not
against common mode voltage stress from supply so simple
system (lightning and switching)

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 23
Static screen issues

At ratings above some MVA with


typical harmonic currents, losses at
screen are important, design must be
correct to allow for cooling
With transformers feeding VSD having
high switching frequency on input side
(active front end), losses at screen can
be dramatic
Wrong type of earthing leads from
screen can make the screen not
functional Hint: This is view of locally made low
cost VSD transformers screen in Far
East after few successful weeks of
operation with 25 % load with active
front end , switching frequency 2-3
kHz

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 24
Liquid insulated transformers IEC 60076
Insulation liquids O,K, L
Mineral oil O is standard for industrial installations, but out of question (low fire
point and high combustion energy) on ships and offshore
Less flammable liquids class K, fire point >300 C, are applied when low fire risk is
required
synthetic esters (bio-degradeable non-toxic) IEC 61099, (Midel 7131)
silicone oils (non-toxic, stable) IEC 60836, (DC 561, TR50)
Non flammable liquids class L not existing today
Liquid transformers are quite new application area for ships and FPSO
Increasing power of propulsion drives created need for compact solutions-liquid
transformers up to 20 -30 MVA feasible as one unit
Water cooling easy to apply
Low height , can be fitted on one deck height
Cost benefits
Liquid transformers dominant for drive applications on off-shore platforms and
rigs with harsh environmental conditions, so not new technology
Installation of liquid transformers possible at explosion hazard Zone 1 and
Zone 2 with simple measures.
Summary & Conclusions
Modern AC converter drives need transformers of special desing
normal distribution transformers are not feasible
The above fact has been a reason why separate standards have been
published by IEC and IEEE
Without appropriate desing and manufacturing the performance, reliability of
the system and adequate lifetime of the transformer can not be ensured
The special desing needs to consider especially;
increased dielectric stress
thermal issues (related to harmonics etc.)
increased mechanical stresses
many cases complex internal connections with phase shifts & multiwinding
desings for ensuring
The special considerations need to be done especially for medium voltage
drives and in general for drives above 1 MW
The drive transformer manufacturer should have some general and specific
knowledge about drives
ABB has a unique position since it can offer the full scope of a drive system
with its products. ABB Transformers is having a unique position since it has
global common product desing platforms that are making broadening of the
manufacturing footprint possible (technical support and technical transfers)

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 26
ACS 1000 Input Transformer
Medium Voltage Medium Voltage Medium Voltage
Supply Bus Supply Bus Supply Bus
Main Feeder Main Feeder Main Feeder
I>> Prot I>> Prot Breaker I>> Prot Breaker
Breaker
& Protection & Protection & Protection

12-pulse 24-pulse
Converter Input Converter Input
Transformer 24-pulse
Transformer
Converter Input
Transformer

Rectifier
Rectifier
Rectifier

12-pulse 24-pulse 24-pulse ACS 1000i

12-pulse or 24-pulse topology


Oil or dry type transformer

Conformity to IEC 61000-2-4 and IEEE 519/1992


Total power factor: 0.95 constant over speed range
Transformer can be placed inside the building or outdoor

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 27
ACS 1000 common mode voltage

Common Modes inside the Drive System

I_Cfuvw_G

A
35

30

Common Modes are produced from every


25

20

inverter, independent which topology is used 15

10

and which manufacturer is considered. 5

-5

In ACS 1000 they are directed back to the transformer, -10

-15

-20

but kept completely away from the motor. -25

-30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
ms

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 28
ACS 1000 24-pulse input transformer
One 5-winding transformer Two separate 3-winding transformer
U L U L
I PN I PN

Screen
P

D A
P2 P1
C B Screen Screen
D C B A

Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2


Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 Uv0/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2
ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2 ISN/2

Id/2 Id/2
Id/2 Id/2

Id
Id

Udi0
Udi0

Technically a compromise Technically ideal and save solution


(non-characteristic harmonics)
Large in size and expensive
More compact and lower costs

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 29
Large 12 pulse rectifier transformer active part

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 30
ACS 5000 Converter topology

Transformer
2 x 4-winding or 1 x 7-winding Output voltage up to 6.9 kV
Optional integrated dry type solution EMC-filter (dv/dt limitation at output) as
36-pulse diode rectifier standard
3 x 12-pulse bridges Motor type
Input voltage: 1920 V / 10% Asynchronous
DC link (in triplicate)
Synchronous
Three 5-level inverter unit
Permanent magnet
H-bridge configuration
ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 31
ACS5000 - 36-pulse transformers
One 7-winding transformer Two separate 4-winding transformer

Inverter Inverter

One transformer : Transformer 1:


SR SR/2

-25 -20

-15 0

-5 20

MCB MCB
Inverter Inverter

5 -20

15 0

25 20

Transformer 2:
SR/2

Inverter Inverter

Technically a compromise, only for small powers Technically ideal and save solution
(non-characteristic harmonics)
More compact nut not always lowest costs Larger in size; compromise is to have two active parts in one oil
tank
Primary currents must be measured separately
Oil transformers, two separate transformers are lowest costs
2 sets of CTs on primary side is required for overcurrent
detection (each primary side measured separately)

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 32
ACS 5000 Network friendliness

Line to line voltage THD = 1.19% Phase current TDD = 2.95%


Scc = 500MVA, Xsc = 10%

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 33
Aluminum and natural ester in ESP
Transformers

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 34
NATURAL ESTER TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN
OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION
Preserving life and property
According to FM NATURAL ESTER has a flash and
Global property loss
prevention fire point of 340C and 360C,
datasheet for respectively (vs. 160C and 180C
transformers
typically for mineral oil)
Listed as a less flammable
dielectric fluid by FM Global and
Underwriters Laboratories
Tested in strict accordance with IEC
standard 61100 and meet the K2
classification

Active fire suppression and barrier walls can essentially be eliminated when
minimal spacing is maintained (for transformers with ratings 10 MVA and
lower)
Savings apply to initial installation, rehabilitation and maintenance
costs
Meet fire safety requirements for indoor applications and outdoor areas of
heightened safety sensitivity without additional safety equipment
Reduce risk of transformer explosion and fire, hence mitigating collateral
damage and potentially lowering insurance premiums
ABB
22/07/2009 | Slide 35
NATURAL ESTER TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN
OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION
Miscibility Between Electric Insulating Liquids

Even though mineral oil is completely miscible with ester


fluids, more than 6% of mineral oil mixed with NATURAL
ESTER will reduce its 360 C firepoint below the 300 C
threshold at which point it would loose its "less flammable
fluid classification

ABB
October 7, 2011 | Slide 36
NATURAL ESTER TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN
OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION
Current product scope

Up to 230 kV class (1050 kV BIL)


200 MVA max rated power
KNAN/KNAF cooling modes
Constant oil pressure sealed with membrane or
nitrogen blanket system required
(free breathing applications to be avoided)
ABB
October 7, 2011 | Slide 37
NATURAL ESTER TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN
OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION
Low Ageing: NATURAL ESTER and Cellulose Paper

20
C

NATURAL ESTER impregnated paper experiences lower


aging rate compared to mineral oil impregnated paper,
leading to an increase in the insulation system life, hence in
the transformer life

ABB
October 7, 2011 | Slide 38
NATURAL ESTER TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN
OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION
High Overloadability
Overloadability:
Cellulose-based insulation parts have a longer life
expectancy in NATURAL ESTER than in mineral oil

A typical 50 MVA transformer can be overloaded by


10% and still achieve the same life expectancy as a
mineral oil-filled transformer of the same rating

NATURAL ESTER has better thermal conductivity than


mineral oil. Additionally, at higher temperatures it has
reduced viscosity, thus allowing for better thermal
performance during overloads

Short term emergency overloads result in less loss of


insulation life in NATURAL ESTER than in mineral oil

ABB
October 7, 2011 | Slide 39
NATURAL ESTER TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN
OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION
Savings Summary
Potential CAPITAL & MAINTENANCE COST AVOIDANCE: NATURAL
ESTER is defined as less-flammable, therefore certain installations do not
require fire-suppression systems or fire barriers. This provides savings in
installation and maintenance of such systems
Potential INSURANCE COST SAVINGS from less-flammable, non-toxic,
reduced explosion risk of NATURAL ESTER filled transformers
Potential AVOIDANCE OF FIRE LOSS because of less-flammable
characteristic
Potential AVOIDANCE OR REDUCTION OF OIL SPILL CLEAN-UP
COSTS: applicable laws and regulations will determine how fines are
imposed. However, with 99% biodegradability and non-toxicity, NATURAL
ESTER spills can often be disposed through normal means (at a much
lower cost)
Potential for INCREASED REVENUES associated with short-term
increased load pass-thru: ability to overload NATURAL ESTER -filled
power transformers could mean higher revenues during peak demand
periods without sacrificing transformer life
Potential to DELAY CAPITAL EXPENDITURES due to increased asset
replacement intervals
Increased life of NATURAL ESTER impregnated insulation can
translate to longer replacement intervals.
Investments in additional equipment could also be delayed because of
overloadability advantage of NATURAL ESTER filled transformers
ABB
October 7, 2011 | Slide 40
ALUMINIUM TRANSFORMERS IN THE MODERN
OFF AND ON SHORE SUBSTATION
Summary
Transformers with Aluminum windings having the same losses as that of Copper
windings are technically feasible and economically advantageous.
Copper is extensively used in power transformer windings.
The price of copper fluctuates heavily during the last years and the price level is
expected to be at high levels, due to limited copper reserves.
As the price of Cu has recently moved ahead much faster than the price Al, usage of
Al in winding conductors has become more viable option.
Aluminum wound transformers have better mechanical and thermal performance
during S.C w.r.t copper wound one, for the same load losses

Descriptions True False


Aluminum price is more stable because of its market availability (twice
copper worldwide production); X

Aluminum windings are lighter than copper windings;


X
Copper winding transformers better bear short-circuit efforts;
X
Aluminum transformers have bigger losses; X
Aluminum winding transformers are not compatible with copper
connectors; X

Copper transformers are more compact than aluminum ones; X


ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 41
Conductor Materials in Transformers
Surge and Overload Current

Mass of aluminum transformers is 0.488 times the copper ones


for a similar electrical performance
Heat (calorific) capacity = M x c

Heat _ capacity _ Al m Al c Al 904


0.488 ( ) 1.15
Heat _ capacity _ Cu mCu cCu 385

Aluminum transformers have superior thermal storage capacity


compared to Copper wound units (15% higher for Al)

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 42
Harmonics, Transformers and K-Factors
Eddy loss due to high harmonics: Al vs Cu

According to classical theory, the AC losses can be computed


with the following formula:

The penetration depth of Cu at 50 Hz is 9.4 mm, while for Al is


12.3 mm. The conductivity of Cu at 75C is 0.4703 108 [Ohm
m]-1, while for Al is 0.28935 108 [Ohm m]-1

Cu Al
Conductivity 100% 62%
Penetration Depth 100% 127%
Eddy losses 100% 62%

Eddy loss in aluminum winding is 38 % less w.r.t eddy losses in


copper with same volume of conductor

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 43
Harmonics, Transformers and K-Factors
Eddy loss due to high harmonics: Al vs Cu

Below is an example, for 400KVA transformer with equal No Load


and Load losses designed with Copper and Aluminum conductors
Eddy losses are reduced by approx. 37% in case of aluminum
As we can see from table, a K20 rated aluminum wound
transformer have approximately Eddy losses as K13 copper
wound transformer

Copper Windings Aluminum Windings Ratio


K-Factor Eddy
Pdc Peddy Ptotal Pdc Peddy Ptotal (Al/Cu)
K1 4997 111 5108 4997 70 5067
K4 4997 444 5441 4997 280 5277
K9 4997 999 5996 4997 630 5627 63%
K13 4997 1443 6440 4997 910 5907
K20 4997 2220 7217 4997 1400 6397
ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 44
Aluminum Conductor in Transformers
Economic Considerations

Copper represents one of the most expensive materials used in


transformers
Besides its cost, price of copper is highly unstable.
The price of aluminum is lower than the price of copper and it
fluctuates, but not as much as copper.
World copper reserves are limited and a big debate on, when will
be the full depletion. It is reasonable to expect future copper
prices to be both high and volatile.
The amount of Al now produced annually exceeds Cu production
by two. Economies of scale, supply and demand, and other
factors such as Al being the most plentiful metal in the earth have
the potential to make the Al prices more stable and lower than the
Cu prices in the future.

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 45
Aluminum Conductor in Transformers
Environmental Considerations

For evaluating the environmental impact of Cu and Al, European


Union Eco-Indicator is used as an indication.
The values given in Eco-Indicator 99 Manual for Designers
2000 for primary Cu and Al are 1400 mpt/kg and 780 mpt/kg
respectively.
As with cost, comparisons based on volume are more useful than
comparisons on mass: per volume, the values can be expressed
as 12.5 mpt/cm3 for Cu and 2.1 mpt/cm3 for Al.
Even considering the 62% additional Al needed for equal
resistivity, Al has much less environmental impact than Cu
needed for the same winding by this measure.
Eco-indicator method quantifies environmental impact in terms of
points, where 1000 points roughly corresponds to the annual
impact of an average European. Millipoints (mpt) are often the
appropriate units for evaluating practical decisions in design
work.

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 46
Aluminum Conductor in Transformers
Reliability Considerations

Transformers life is defined by the life of its insulation system.


In transformers, limiting temperatures are specified mainly to limit
the ageing of paper insulation in contact with the conductor.
The higher resistivity of Aluminum gives inherently lower
additional losses in the windings. This mitigates the risk for hot
spots.
The transformers are designed to comply with the temperature
limits, whichever the conductor type is.
The maximum allowed temperature during S.C for oil-immersed
transformers is 250oC for copper conductor, whereas the same is
200oC for an aluminum conductor without any detriment to
mechanical properties.

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 47
ABB Aluminum Wound Transformers
Experience

More than 40 years of


experience with aluminum
wound transformers
Experience of several
million aluminum wound
distribution transformers
Experience of several
thousand aluminum wound
power transformers above
10 MVA
Well proven and established
ABB technology up to 145
kV class

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 48
ABB Aluminum Wound - Natural ester Transformers
COMBO 3

VSD TRANSFORMER +
ALUMINUM + NATURAL
ESTER

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 49
New responsables ESP TRX in COABB

CHILE,
COLOMBIA
C&CA AND BOLIVIA & ARGENTINA
ROLL BRAZIL PERU &
MEXICO ECUATOR URUGUAY
VENEZUELA
PARAGUAY

Luis Tatiana
PRODUCT Ana Mara Jakeline Andrs Ana Mara
MANAGER
Fernando Paola
Daz Franco Salazar Restrepo
Osorio Padilla

Juan Juan
SALES Karen Anyela Felipe Natalia
SUPPORT
Felipe Alejandro
Restrepo Vasquez Echeverri Loaiza
Castao Bedoya

ABB Group
February 19, 2013 | Slide 50