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The ASEAN

T bacco
ControlAtlas Second Edition September 2014

Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance
SEATCA
www.seatca.org

The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Second Edition

Authors
Tan Yen Lian
Ulysses Dorotheo

Editorial Team
Bungon Ritthiphakdee, Mary Assunta Kolandai, Foong Kin, Domilyn C. Villarreiz, Mary Jocelyn Alampay,
Jennie Lyn Reyes, Sophapan Ratanachena, Worrawan Jirathanapiwat, May Myat Cho.

ISBN 978-616-7824-01-7

Second Published: September 2014, 1,000 copies

Published by:
Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA)
Thakolsuk Place, Room 2B, 115 Thoddamri Road, Dusit, Bangkok 10300 Thailand
Telefax: +66 2 241 0082 Email: info@seatca.org
Website: www.seatca.org

Printed by:
Crown Print Associates
279-G2, Lorong Tampin, 10150 Penang, Malaysia
Tel/Fax: 604 - 281 2012 Email: crownprint@gmail.com

The information, findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views
of the funding organization, its staff, or its Board of Directors. While reasonable efforts have been taken to ensure accuracy at the time
of publication, the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA) does not warrant that the information contained in this publication
is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. If there are unintentional errors, please
convey this information to the authors.

Copyright Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA)

Photo Credits:
Dr Mom Kong, Dr Maniphanh Vongphosy, Dr Domilyn C.Villareiz, Mr Dass Kandunni, Mr Abdillah Ahsan, Mr Nur Hadi Wiyono,
Ms Tan Yen Lian, Dr Ulysses Dorotheo, Ms Le Thi Thu, Mr. Alec Chin, Collections from SEATCA Industry Surveillance (SIS) Project,
Ministry of Public Health, Thailand

The ASEAN
T bacco
ControlAtlas Second Edition September 2014

Tan Yen Lian
Ulysses Dorotheo

Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance
SEATCA
www.seatca.org

The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas

Foreword iii . Average monthly expenditure for manufactured
. Judith Mackay cigarette (in USD) among smokers _> 15 years
old (2009-2012)
Preface iv . Comparison of tobacco control and health
. Bungon Ritthiphakdee budgets in ASEAN (2012-2014)
. Annual tobacco expenditure =
About SEATCA v Lost opportunities

Acknowledgements vi Chapter 3: Tobacco Prices and Taxes 13
. Prices of most popular local and foreign brands
Chapter 1: Tobacco Consumption 1 (in USD Per Pack) 2014
. Smoking prevalence: adult male and female . Tobacco tax burden on cigarette as percentage
smokers in ASEAN of retail price (2014)
. World cigarette consumption by region . Higher tax rates, higher revenues, and
. ASEAN region has 10% of world's smokers reduced smoking prevalence
Adult smoking . Highest tobacco tax burden in ASEAN:
. Numbers don't lie: percentage of adult smokers Singapore
in ASEAN . Higher revenue gained from tobacco tax
. Smoking prevalence: percentage of adult male increased in Philippines and Thailand
and female smokers in ASEAN . Cigarette tax systems in ASEAN
. Regional cigarette per capita consumption . Tobacco prices
(2000 and 2010) - Price of most popular cigarette brands
. Average age of smoking initiation in ASEAN (per pack) relative to quantity of rice (kg)
(2009-2012) and egg in ASEAN
. Total and average number of cigarettes smoked . Cigarette affordability
daily by adult smokers (2009-2012) - Relative Income Prices (RIP) of cigarette
. Number and percentage of adults who use (1990-2010)
smokeless tobacco in ASEAN (2009-2012) - Cumulative change in RIP (2002-2009)
Youth Smoking - Cigarettes are affordable to the poor
. Numbers don't lie: smoking among boys in Cambodia
(13-15 years) - Even more affordable cigarette when sold
. Numbers don't lie: smoking among girls by sticks
(13-15 years) - All tobacco products should be taxed: no
. Intentions of non-smoking youths to start duty-free allowance
smoking in the next year (2007-2013)
. Percentage of youth purchased cigarettes in a Chapter 4: Smoke-free Environments 21
store and were not refused purchase because of . 100% smoke-free public places policy in ASEAN
their age . Enjoy ASEAN foods in smoke-free environments
. Most Indonesian smokers are between 10 and . Fines imposed on violators of smoke-free policy
25 years old in ASEAN
. Tobacco industry recruits replacement smokers . % of youth exposed to secondhand smoke in
and outside home (2007-2013)
Chapter 2: Costs of Smoking 9 . Common places with secondhand smoke
. Tobacco-related health care cost in ASEAN exposure in ASEAN (2007-2011)
. Proportion of annual deaths (per 100,000) . Smoke-free world heritage sites/cities in
attributable to tobacco in ASEAN (2004, ASEAN
aged 30 and over) . Smoke-free sports in ASEAN
. Annual deaths attributed to major tobacco-
related diseases (2006-2012) Chapter 5: Packaging and Labelling of 25
Tobacco Products
. Health warnings implemented in ASEAN

i

Preventive measures Chapter 6: Tobacco Advertising. Status of health warnings in ASEAN government . Forms of unnecessary interaction and constituents and emissions of tobacco transparency products . Tobacco industry undermines tobacco control Warnings (PHWs) in ASEAN using legal challenges . Youth susceptibility to tobacco advertising . Tobacco industry players in ASEAN . Chapter 9: Tobacco Farming 51 promotion and sponsorship in ASEAN . Tobacco farming in ASEAN . Promotion 33 . Industry-related CSR activities misleading descriptors . Tobacco farming in selected ASEAN countries in ASEAN (2010-2013) .Countries that have banned false or . Tobacco farmers switched to other crops in POS Cambodia . Human resource in ASEAN . Front groups and high profile allies mobilized PHW on cigarette packs across the globe to fight tobacco control (2001-2015) . The tobacco industry rallies and funds front groups ii . Types of funding mechanism and promotion (2007-2013) . Tobacco marketing channels Malaysia . Sustainable way out: alternative crops in . Targeting youths and women tobacco control funds . Conflict of interest . Status of ban on tobacco advertising. Challenges in enforcement Chapter 11: National Tobacco Control 59 Coordinating Mechanism Chapter 7: Tobacco Industry 41 . Best practice: Thailand sets the benchmark in the Philippines (2006-2007) . Best practice of pictorial health warnings . Profitability of tobacco farming vs other crops . Licensing of tobacco retailers in selected ASEAN countries Chapter 10: Establishing Sustainable Funding 55 . Status of TAPS ban in ASEAN . Tobacco industry's profit (in USD) References 65 . Tobacco industry interference in policy . Legislation on tobacco advertising ban at . The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Table of Contents . Thailand: world’s biggest (85%) pictorial health warnings Chapter 8: Tobacco Industry Interference 45 . National mechanism for tobacco control . Image bank of copyright-free Pictorial Health . Countries that have banned kiddie packs . Profitability of tobacco farming vs other crops . Big transnational tobacco companies consolidating their power in the region ASEAN Summary Tables (Chapter 1-11) 61 . Implementation timeline of latest set of .Australia's plain packaging: a world first development . Governance and roles of health promotion/ . Menthol and fruit-flavored cigarettes sold . On-going development of sustainable funding International's (PMI) Corporate Social for health promotion and tobacco control Responsibility (CSR) in ASEAN . Increasing trend of countries requiring . Tobacco industry exploits Lao PDR . Benefits to the tobacco industry . Health promotion/tobacco control fund in (Less than 20 sticks per pack) ASEAN .Disclosure of information on relevant . Ban TAPS via internet . Number of POS in selected ASEAN countries . Tobacco tax revenue and tobacco tax revenue pictorial health warnings in ASEAN loss in Lao PDR (2002-2013) . Most common source of the last purchase in Indonesia of manufactured cigarettes (2009-2013) . Painting good image: Philip Morris . Make public all meetings and information on and Sponsorship the tobacco industry .

” The publication of the second edition of this Atlas only interference with public health policy making. It also shows that tobacco farmers actually do better financially by growing This atlas gives an immediate and visual comparison between other crops. countries. the atlas focuses on the huge economic debit of smoking to the countries' economy. pictorial packet warnings. which is published every three years bans on advertising and promotion _ even though these (5th edition 2015). still fall short of full implementation. and this one year after the first edition marks not only the importance could be replicated in other regions of the world. SEATCA has developed a very useful Dr Judith Mackay "Tobacco Industry Index" to define the measures and World Lung Foundation. making it and the simple statistic that half the number of smokers available and understandable to a wide range of people _ among these ten countries live in one country alone _ governments. but also the rapidly changing The good news is that there is the still-present opportunity profile of the ASEAN region _ the prevalence. making them more affordable especially to youth. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation iii . behavior of the tobacco industry and its allies. It complements the are increases in smoke-free areas. One that smoking starts below the age of 20 in all but one of kilobyte of preventive action taken now is better than a the countries. economic to prevent a rise of smoking among girls and women. in the region. packed with information. It is far more than just a statement of the status quo of the Given that the greatest barrier for governments to take epidemic _ it is a challenge and a call to action for countries tobacco control action is the economic misconceptions. rates of smoking in some countries. that in all countries (except Thailand) cigarettes have become cheaper in real The Atlas is highly professional. The atlas gives examples of the penetration and the media and schools. terms. and action taken. health and development NGOs. Asian Consultancy on Tobacco elements that contribute to the ability of the tobacco industry Control. The reality is that tobacco control There is bad news and there is good news: the bad news is is good for the wealth as well as the health of nations. there impact of tobacco. academia. One kilobyte of preventive action taken now is better than a gigabyte of economic costs in the future. there are extremely high male prevalence gigabyte of economic costs in the future. global Tobacco Atlas. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Foreword “The reality is that tobacco control is good for the wealth as well as the health of nations. of the 10 countries in the ASEAN region which contain 10% of the world's smokers. especially legal challenges mounted against government tobacco control action. Indonesia. fully referenced yet beautifully visually crafted. tracking the rapid changes since the first edition.

who diligently worked on this updated edition. and Burmese. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Preface “We will continue to commit our best to advance tobacco control in ASEAN and hope you all join our efforts. My special thanks to Ms. Tan Yen Lian. Bungon Ritthiphakdee Director of SEATCA iv . which incorporates updated information. Dr. Judith Mackay. We will continue to commit our best to advance tobacco control in ASEAN and hope you all join our efforts. We firmly believe that you will find it useful to move tobacco control policy in your countries. I also greatly appreciate the encouraging support of Dr. All the feedback from our colleagues.” I am thrilled that SEATCA's first ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas released in August last year was well received. as well as adds new topics. I would like to thank our country partners from all 10 ASEAN countries for their excellent contributions. and well-organized.seatca. and the rest of the SEATCA team. who is the originator of the global Tobacco Control Atlas. Ulysses Dorotheo. The online version is already available at www. not only in ASEAN but also around the world. Laotian. informative.org. Vietnamese. Many thanks again for all the feedback and encouragement. has been amazingly positive. They found the ASEAN atlas very useful. On behalf of SEATCA. which has driven SEATCA to prepare this second edition. This edition is also special because it is translated into four languages in ASEAN: Khmer.

"SEATCA has emerged as a major catalyst for advances made in tobacco control in the South East Asia Region. 2004. SEATCA national tobacco control working groups. Malaysia.Dr.WHO Regional Director Over the years. Lao PDR.org SEATCA Vision: "Towards a healthy. then WHO Regional Director Asia particularly in Cambodia. closely with ministries of health and finance. Philippines.seatca. especially with Since 2001. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas About SEATCA Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance www. WHO conferred SEATCA member states in developing and implementing effective with its World No Tobacco Day Award in 2004 and the and evidence-based tobacco control policies in line with WHO Director-General Special Recognition Award in 2014. the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). SEATCA's efforts have been recognized for the Western Pacific. and increase the community bringing together various stakeholders and working number and capacity of tobacco control advocates. tobacco-free ASEAN" Mission: "Working together to save lives by accelerating effective implementation of the FCTC in ASEAN countries" The Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA) In recognition of SEATCA's outstanding contributions to is a regional multi-sectorial alliance that supports ASEAN tobacco control in the region." advancement of the tobacco control movement in Southeast . SEATCA's programs have contributed to the regard to policy and legislation. v . Thailand and Vietnam. Shin Young-soo. SEATCA's strategies have "This award recognizes the valuable contribution of SEATCA as been to support progressive policy development. strengthen a regional ally especially in the area of tobacco taxation. Shigeru Omi.Dr. 2014. generate more is a key catalyst and leader in tobacco tax reform in the ASEAN local evidence for advancing policies. nationally and internationally. SEATCA has also been engaged by emerging alliances in tobacco control to share the SEATCA model as a learning platform for tobacco control best practices and lessons learned." . Indonesia. Working closely with country partners. for the Western Pacific.

Lorna Linda University. Ministry of Health. we would like to thank the following: Brunei: Dr Anie H Abdul-Rahman. Executive Director. Instructor. Vietnam Dr Pham Thi Hoang Anh. WHO TFI Cambodia Dr Mom Kong. Manager. Southeast Asia Initiative on Tobacco Tax (SITT) Philippines Coordinator and Managing Director of HealthJustice Philippines Mr Ralph Emerson Degollacion. Southeast Asia Initiative on Tobacco Tax (SITT) Vietnam. Mahidol University Vietnam: Dr Nguyen Tuan Lam. Deputy Director. Disease Control Division. Faculty of Public Health. Researcher. Adult Health Division. Epidemiology and Global Health. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Acknowledgements SEATCA would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions and support of all our various partners in the preparation of this second edition ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas. University of Cape Town. Myanmar Philippines: Atty. National Professional Officer. Malaysia Dr Foong Kin. SALDRU Research Affiliate. Department of Health Services. University of Indonesia Mr Nur Hadi Wiyono. Associate Professor. University of Indonesia Mr Abdillah Ahsan. Vietnam Steering Committee on Smoking and Health (VINACOSH). Demographic Institute. Southeast Asia Initiative on Tobacco Tax (SITT) Indonesia Packs Project Coordinator. South Africa Partners: Dr Pramil N. Center for Health Research. Brunei Cambodia: Dr Yel Daravuth. Ministry of Health. Secretary-General. Basic Health Services. ASEAN Focal Point on Tobacco Control. Singh. National Professional Officer. Substance Abuse Department. Southeast Asia Initiative on Tobacco Tax (SITT) Lao PDR Coordinator Malaysia: Mr Ooi Poh Keong. Universiti Sains Malaysia Myanmar: Dr Nan Naing Naing Shein. Ministry of Health. Health Promotion Board. Southeast Asia Initiative on Tobacco Tax (SITT) Project Coordinator. Southeast Asia Initiative on Tobacco Tax (SITT) Vietnam Coordinator. Faculty of Economics. Thailand Dr Sarunya Benjakul. Director of Environmental Health Service. School of Public Health. FCTC Secretariat and Tobacco Control Unit. Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences. HealthJustice Philippines Singapore: Mr Chan Lit Fai. Vice Director. Demographic Institute. Southeast Asia Initiative on Tobacco Tax (SITT) Indonesia Tax Coordinator. Director. WHO Country Office for Vietnam Dr Phan Thi Hai. HealthBridge Vietnam International Dr Hana Ross. Project Manager. Action on Smoking and Health (ASH). National Poison Centre. California vi . University of Indonesia Lao PDR: Dr Maniphanh Vongphosy. Cambodia Movement for Health (CMH) Indonesia: Dr Widyastuti Soerojo. Irene Patricia Reyes. Singapore Thailand: Professor Prakit Vathesatogkit. Faculty of Public Health. Ministry of Health. Healthbridge Vietnam Ms Le Thi Thu. Faculty of Economics. In particular.

4% 39.1% 3.9% 1% Brunei Darussalam Malaysia 23.4% 47.4%) and lowest in Singapore (23.8% Singapore 67.4% Male Female Myanmar Lao PDR 39% 2.1%).9% 43. Indonesia the Philippines and Lao PDR.9% 3.8% 7.1% 3.44. Female smoking rate is particularly high (>5%) in Myanmar.4% 1. 1 .7% 9% Thailand Vietnam Cambodia Philippines 34.5% Male smoking prevalence is highest in Indonesia (67.1% 47. * ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations.4% 4.8% Smoking prevalence: adult male and female smokers in ASEAN* 43% 8.

0. disability. Eastern Mediterranean and Africa 9% World cigarette consumption by region Americas 11% Asia Pacific 56% ASEAN has 121 million adult smokers.72% Malaysia. At (1.22% Vietnam.68% Myanmar. Tobacco use remains the single biggest highly addictive product is commonly used by all preventable cause of disease. 0. 7.and middle-income nations (82% of world's of adult ASEAN population) living in ASEAN smokers) including in the ASEAN region. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 1 Tobacco Consumption Tobacco consumption is increasing worldwide groups such as women. there are 121 million adult smokers (20% in low.63% Brunei. half of whom live in Indonesia. This countries.29% Philippines.156.300 (2013) ASEAN region has 10% of world's smokers Cambodia.3 billion smokers) and has grown substantially present.89% Singapore.06% Thailand. 0.096.28% Indonesia.32% Lao PDR. 12. youth and children. 14. 3.804 2 .91% Total adult smokers in ASEAN: Percentage Distribution of Total Adult Smokers in ASEAN Countries 121. 50. 1. Europe 24% Total ASEAN Population: 625. 8. and segments of the population including vulnerable premature deaths in the world.

000 1.4 Female (2011) 4.0 Myanmar 44.000 Numbers don't lie: percentage of adult smokers in ASEAN 10.9 (2011) 1.1 Male (2011) 3.391 70.000 876.4 3 .477. Chapter 1: Tobacco Comsumption 61.8 Thailand 39 (2013) 2.1 356.1 22 18.1 (2013) 3.5 28.0 19.9 (2011) 3.8 (2009) 7.4 Malaysia 43.0 Singapore 23.300.747.800 Adult Smoking Prevalence (%) 4.765.863.3 23.807 36.000 15.000 Adult Smoking 17.806 Total Numbers of Adult Smokers 8.3 Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam (2011) (2011) (2011) (2012) (2011) (2009) (2009) (2013) (2013) (2010) Smoking prevalence: Percentage of adult male and female smokers in ASEAN Brunei 34.300.400.7 (2009) 9.000 25.9 Cambodia 39.9 13.5 19.4 (2010) 1.4 Indonesia 67.5 Lao PDR 43 (2012) 8.8 23.1 Vietnam 47.8 Philippines 47.

2 before the age of 20.1 On average.016 2000 2010 909 864 863 813 715 588 601 517 540 491 455 416 429 201 187 Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam male adults in ASEAN smoke _ Average age of smoking initiation in ASEAN (2009 2012) 21.4 17. Average Age of Initiation (Daily Smokers) Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam (2011) (2011) (2012) (2011) (2009) (2010) (2011) (2010) 4 . The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Regional cigarette per capita consumption (2000 and 2010) 1.115 1.052 1.6 17.2 17.7 17.8 ASEAN started smoking 17. smokers in 18 19.

8% (834.918 4.000 23. 785.1% (286.195) Cambodia 12.1% (18.380.289) and Lao PDR.7 13.983. _ Total and average number of cigarettes smoked daily by adult smokers (2009 2012) A majority of adult smokers smoke between 10 and 14 cigarettes daily.9 12.000) (2011) 0.920.3% (752.5% (1.4% (2.277.000 15.963) (2011) 3.3% (92.000 206.188. Lao PDR 8.692.300 11.000.300) use is the highest (2011) 1.918.000) (2009) 2.1% (12.550.0% (138.6% (25.000) tobacco Indonesia 2% (1.2% (357.8 13.7% (24.460.000) Thailand 5.655.862) Philippines 1.121) Myanmar 16.900 65.000) 5 .1% (4.2% (1.6 10 Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand* Vietnam (2011) (2011) (2012) (2011) (2009) (2010) (2011) (2010) Average number of cigarettes smoked daily Total number of cigarettes smoked by adults daily *The estimate based on total and average number of cigarettes smoked by adults for 2011 _ Number and percentage of adults who use smokeless tobacco in ASEAN (2009 2012) Brunei 6. Malaysia 0.000 183.6% (60.9% (95.6 12 13.300) Female Male in Myanmar.5 10.300) Vietnam 2.7% (526.567) (2009) 51.000) Smokeless (2011) 0.000 130.000) (2010) 0.000) (2011) 1.080) Cambodia (2012) 1.

5 (%) 1.9 20.2 0.9 7.9 9 5. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Youth Smoking Numbers don't lie: smoking among boys (13-15 years) Brunei (BRN) Cambodia (KHM)* Indonesia (IDN) Lao PDR (LAO) 41 Malaysia (MYS) Myanmar (MMR) Philippines (PHL) Boys Singapore (SGP)** Thailand (THA) Vietnam (VNM) 30.3 5.1 14.8 3.7 5.3 5 4 3.1 1.1 17.3 13 12.9 (%) BRN KHM IDN LAO MYS MMR PHL SGP THA VNM (2013) (2010) (2009) (2011) (2009) (2011) (2011) (2012) (2009) (2007) Numbers don't lie: smoking among girls (13-15 years) Brunei (BRN) Cambodia (KHM)* Indonesia (IDN) Lao PDR (LAO) Malaysia (MYS) Myanmar (MMR) Philippines (PHL) Singapore (SGP)** Thailand (THA) Vietnam (VNM) Girls 6.5 BRN KHM IDN LAO MYS MMR PHL SGP THA VNM (2013) (2010) (2009) (2011) (2009) (2011) (2011) (2012) (2009) (2007) * The data is based on currently use any tobacco product ** The data is based on age range 13-16 and the definition is smoked once in the past 30 days 6 .

6 83. Malaysia (2009) 10.2 Myanmar (2011) 39.2 no data Philippines (2011) 50. Lao PDR (2011) 6.4 53.5% Thailand (2009) 8.1 37. Chapter 1: Tobacco Consumption _ Intentions of non-smoking youths to start smoking in the next year (2007 2013) Brunei (2013) 9.2 73.6% Note: Years of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) differ between countries Between 80.6% Malaysia and Philippines expressed similar intentions to smoke next year.3 Thailand (2009) 47.4 Indonesia (2009) 51.9 38.3 Vietnam (2007) 51.000 children More than 30% of Indonesian children worldwide start smoking every day .7% Myanmar (2011) 14.6% Vietnam (2007) 6.0 Lao PDR (2011) 51.5% One in ten non-smoking youths in Indonesia.1 Malaysia (2009) 53.1% Myanmar are likely to start smoking next year. Indonesia (2009) 11.6% Almost 15% of non-smoking youths in Cambodia (2010) 6.4 7 . age of 10.7% Philippines (2011) 10.9 68.000 and 100.roughly reportedly smoke a cigarette before the half of whom live in Asia. Percentage of youth who purchased cigarettes in a store and were not refused purchase because of their age Country % Youth purchased cigarettes in a store % who purchased cigarettes in a store and were not refused purchase because of their age Brunei (2013) 21.1 59.

6 9 9.8 3.7 2001: 1.3 4.8 1.7 1.6 3.5 14.967 million 43.9 0 5-9 year 10-14 year 15-19 year 20-24 year 25-29 year >30 year 1995 2001 2004 2007 2010 Tobacco industry recruits replacement smokers 190.935 million 50 2010: 3.9 0.6 10 0.7 4.9 20 19 16 17.869/day 8 .9 54.5 6.6 Total number of new smokers 50.5 40 17.6 12.96 million/year 10.3 3.8 5.2 30 25.260 Indonesians/year New Indonesian smokers aged 10-14 521 Indonesians/day 3.7 New smokers aged 10-14 have doubled in 10 years 60 58.5 6. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Most Indonesian smokers are between 10 and 25 years old 70 63.8 23.9 1.4 1.1 2.

11 billion) direct and related diseases (22% of economic burden). The negative impact Indonesia of the tobacco-related health care costs is expected to worsen without effective tobacco control measures. 2005 Malaysia SGD 73.09 billion) Thailand for only 4 tobacco-related Vietnam diseases. 2011 Philippines MYR 2.78 billion). 2012 PHP 177 billion (USD 4. 2009 1.34 million) for only 3 tobacco-related diseases.04 .92 billion (USD 790.5 trillion* (USD 1.47 million) for only 3 tobacco-related diseases.51 billion (USD 3.383 (USD 260.74 billion) of direct and indirect medical care cost for overall tobacco. 2002 Singapore IDR 18.449) for 8 tobacco-related diseases.14 trillion (USD 1.8 . particularly in Indonesia (USD related diseases.59. Health care costs are very high inpatient care for 29 tobacco.74.78 billion). 2009 indirect cost for 5 tobacco-related diseases (for active smoking only). *Tobacco-related health care cost that is spent by Indonesian excluding cost borne by the government 9 . 2007 costs in ASEAN Myanmar Lao PDR THB 11. 1999 Tobacco-related health care LAK 28. 6 million) for 5 tobacco-related diseases.MMK156.5 million (USD 59.2 billion (USD 3. VND 23.269.

along with hundreds of burden on society.000 Brunei Cambodia Lao PDR Malaysia Philippines Singapore Vietnam _ Annual deaths attributed to major tobacco-related diseases (2006 2012) 190. imposes a heavy economic of all its regular users.260 Currently.Proportion of tobacco-related deaths ( ) . there are 6 million tobacco-caused deaths globally Premature deaths per year every year. aged 30 and over) 24% 23% 22% 22% (197) (116) 21% (271) (319) (319) 18% 18% 17% (336) (119) 15% (326) 15% (89) 14% (146) (325) 12% (142) Men 8% 8% Women (130) (85) % .710 40.049 Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam (2012) (2010) (2012) (2011) (2012) (2006) (2010) (2009) (2006) 10 . 87.000 deaths from exposure to secondhand smoke. Many ASEAN governments thousands of non-smokers. Tobacco also causes already spend significant amounts of their budgets many diseases and disabilities that contribute to for tobacco-related health care costs that are many human productivity losses.807 2. in addition to times higher than revenues gained from tobacco.000) attributable to tobacco in ASEAN (2004.060 50.650 11.000 9. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 2 Costs of Smoking Tobacco is the only legal product that kills half premature deaths. Proportion of annual deaths (per 100.056 4.Number of deaths per 100.600 71. plus 600. which.

0015 No data available - Indonesia No data available .948) 22.41 7 (LAK 92.5 Million) 0.56 Billion (SGD 5.700 Billion) 28.56 Thailand 10 Million (THB 300 Million) 0.7 Cambodia 0. Vietnam 11 .3 Billion) 214 Philippines 0.6 Singapore* 141.000) 1.4 on cigarettes per month.6 Million (SGD 177 Million) 26.830 Billion (MYR 2. physical activity.7 Billion)** 844.76 Million) 676.04 Million (VND 840 Million)*** 0.1 Million (LAK 16.0004 2. nutrition.55 Million (BND 700.79 Billion) 48.41 Billion (MYR 19.8 (THB 697.32 No data available - Malaysia 0. screening as well as tobacco) *** Estimated government budget for tobacco control office at Ministry of Health.05 Million) 0.6 Billion (VND 54.7 7 (KHR 28.375 Billion (IDR 55.4) (VND 135.000) Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Philippines Thailand Vietnam (2011) (2011) (2012) (2011) (2009) (2011) (2010) Comparison of tobacco control and health budgets in ASEAN (2012-2014) Country Tobacco Control (USD) Tobacco Control Health (USD) Health (per capita in USD) (per capita in USD) Brunei 0.6 Lao PDR 2.8) Cigarette smokers in Malaysia.36 274.9 Trillion) 21.22 4.57) 11.028 6.94 * Total budget allocated for a number of health topics including tobacco control **Estimated budget is for all health topics (obesity.79 Vietnam 0.28 Million (PHP 12.23 Billion) 12.421) 7.9 (MYR 178.25 Billion (PHP 53.8 Billion) 0.000) (PHP 326. 5. (IDR 369.0225 Million (KHR 90 Million) 0. Chapter 2: Costs of Smoking Average monthly expenditure for manufactured _ cigarettes (in USD) among smokers >15 years old (2009 2012) 55. Indonesia and Thailand spent the most 37.86 Million (BND 347.33 Billion (THB 99.147 3.003 1.

144.000 million) Vietnam Average annual spending = on cigarettes by each smoker.236 tons of 125cc (2013) houses in rural high quality rice rolled cigarettes) by current adult smokers.98 times 1.84/kilo) .809 pieces of eggs .358 wooden or 127. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Annual tobacco expenditure = Lost opportunities Cambodia Annual expenditure of USD 101.3 Billion) (THB 25.916.42/kilo) .116 kilos/year .645.573 Motorbikes or 20. areas Indonesia Annual spending on cigarettes by smokers (among the poorest = group) 13 times or 5 times or 2 times the average the average the average expenditure on meat expenditure on milk expenditure on fish and eggs and vegetables or 6 times the average expenditure on education and health Philippines Annual expenditure of current smokers on cigarettes is PHP 3.789.5 Billion (THB 75 Billion).75 times or 3 times USD 2.154 kilos/year Thailand Annual expenditure o n to b a c c o i s e st i m a t e d to b e = 0.000 on manufactured cigarettes and USD 2.27) per smoker = Rice or Fish (PHP 33. = 53.000 spent on cigarettes (USD 99. household expenditure expenditure on Bangkok Mass on education Transit System (BTS) Sky train (THB 95.000 on hand.8 (USD 92. 1.32 kilos/year Egg or Green Leafy or (PHP 4.84 per piece) (PHP 25.19 times or the average expenditure the average expenditure on on health per person education per person 12 .70/kilo) (PHP 123.

12) Dunhill (3.1) Marlboro (1.06) L&M (2.60) Thailand Vietnam Cambodia Philippines Marlboro Gold (6.06) VINATABA (0.2. Myanmar.Red Ruby (0. Philippines and Vietnam are among the lowest across ASEAN countries Indonesia and in the world.96) Alain Delon (0.3) Lao PDR.98) Prices of most popular local and foreign Adeng (0.2) local brands in Cambodia.35) Fortune (0.47) John (2. Marlboro (1.62) brands (in USD Per Pack) 2014 Local brand Foreign brand Myanmar * Insignificant or no local cigarette production Lao PDR Krongthip (2.08) ARA (0.725 .70) Brunei Darussalam* Malaysia Marlboro (9.87) Marlboro (1.60) Singapore* Cigarette prices of the popular A Mild (1.26 .72) Marlboro (2.89) Craven (1. 13 .

The estimate was calculated based on premium cigarette brand for Brunei. More recently. are lagging far behind. ASEAN countries. however. Malaysia and Singapore.6 40 30 _ 22 28 _ 20 16 19. governments should therefore adopt tax with tobacco products remaining very affordable and price policies aimed not only at raising in many member states. the WHO has recommended that at least 70% of retail price should be excise. price. revenues but primarily to reduce consumption. Tobacco tax burden on cigarette as percentage of retail price (2014) (%) 100 90 80 71 70 70 62 60 59 53 50 50 46 41.7 10 0 Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Note: Rates for countries following the tier-system are based on average/most applied rates. As recommended in WHO FCTC Article 6. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 3 Tobacco Prices and Taxes Tax and price increases that reduce the affordability The World Bank has recommended that the total of tobacco products are among the most effective tax burden should be 66% to 80% of the retail measures to reduce tobacco consumption. 14 .

4 30 23 21.997 2000 1.4% (2011).4 400 20 200 10 0 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Cigarette Tax Rate (%) of Factory Price Smoking Prevalence (%) Tobacco Tax Revenue (Million USD) Source: Excise Department.91 billion baht 2011 prompted the Thai government to further (USD 1.8 600 530 25. At the increase the tax rate to 87% in 2012. overall smoking prevalence dropped times (from 55% to 87% of factory price) between from 32% (1991) to 21. and reduced smoking prevalence Thailand raised its cigarette excise rates 11 same time.473 70 71 1. (Million USD) 2. 1991 and 2012. Ministry of Finance.384 1400 68 70 1.210 60 62 1. which resulted in an almost fourfold gain in revenues from 15. Chapter 3: Tobacco Prices and Taxes Higher tax rates.5 25.1 20.997 million) over the same period. higher revenues.906 100 87 87 1800 85 90 80 79 80 1600 75 1.188 1200 55 60 988 1000 937 50 890 803 800 40 32 667 691 28. Thailand (2013) 15 .7 21.262 (%) 1.89 billion baht The slight increase in smoking prevalence in (USD 530 million) to 59.

255 per stick of <1g 8.50 12.50 Mar 2003 255 per kg 7.3 (1992) 1993 60 per kg 4. 14.94 billion) (PHP 70.388 per stick of <1g 12.90 13.2 (1998) 1998-99 130 per kg 5.57 billion (PHP 32.90 1995-98 115 per kg 5.9 million Revenues USD 1.99 billion USD 2.30/pack PHP 12 or 25/pack (2012-2013) 4 tax tiers 2 tax tiers USD 838. the Singapore government decided to increase tax by 10% in 2014.26 billion (THB 7.8 (2001) 2002 210 per kg 6.352 per stick of <1g 11.30 1991 50 per kg 3.3 (2010).92 billion) (THB 67.70 July 2003 0.6 (2004) 2005-2013 0.98 billion) (THB 59.21 million (PHP 37.39 billion) Thailand 85% of ex-factory price 87% of ex-factory price (2011-2012) Tax rate USD 265.80 2000 150 per kg 6.50 15.40 2001 180 per kg 6. Year Excise Duty of Cigarettes (SGD) Retail Price 20 sticks (SGD) % Smoking Prevalence (aged 18-69 years) 1987 34 per kg 2.50 2004 0.89 billion) 16 .90 13.3 (2013) 2014 0.45 billion) Revenues USD 737.293 per stick of <1g 9. 13.70 18.29 million USD 1. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Highest tobacco tax burden in ASEAN: Singapore Concerned by a slight increase in smoking prevalence from 2004 to 2010 and noting that the last tobacco excise tax increase was in 2005.72-28.00 Higher revenue gained from tobacco tax increased in Philippines and Thailand Country From To New Tax Revenues Philippines Tax rate PHP 2.6 (2007).80 1990 42 per kg 3.

Profit tax 20% of profit. USD 0.25/stick N/A N/A N/A Specific Tax Indonesia IDR 80-380/stick 8. income tax _ Vietnam 65% of factory price 10% 30 135% N/A _ Lao PDR 15% 30% of 10% Flat rate Royalty Fee 15% of Mixed Tax production cost. price (mixed system for local taxes are applied ThaiHealth tax 2% of non-cigarette products) excise. and 5% MYR 0. Turnover tax 2% of invoice value Myanmar 100% of retail price 16% 30% on CIF 1% special excise duty.20/stick N/A 20% of ex-factory cost Thailand 87% of ex-factory 7% Exempted but other Local tax THB 0.25/stick.093/stick. profit tax.40/pack production cost LAK 500 additional specific tax Malaysia MYR 0. and public TV tax at 1.4% 0% from ASEAN plus China Local cigarette tax 10% (multiple tiers) 40% from outside ASEAN of excise tariff plus China _ Philippines PHP 17 or 27 12% 3% 10% N/A per pack (2 tiers) Singapore SGD 0. Chapter 3: Tobacco Prices and Taxes Cigarette tax systems in ASEAN Types of Tax Applied Country Excise Rate VAT/GST Import Tariffs Others Brunei BND 0.388/stick 7% N/A N/A _ Cambodia 15% of 90% of 10% 7% 35% plus Public lighting tax 3% of Ad Valorem Tax invoice price 10% import VAT invoice value.5% of excise 17 .

47 Cambodia Cambodia 5_8 1_1.06 L&M USD 2.62 Malaysia 36 Malaysia 3.3 Marlboro USD 1. reduce the amount consumed and encourage Youth and the poor are more price sensitive. Smokers earning USD 2 per day or less spend a large proportion of their income on tobacco.725 .60 Marlboro USD 1.3kg of rice or 10 eggs instead of a pack of Marlboro.7 Dunhill USD 3. discourage relapse among former tobacco users Tobacco consumption contributes to poverty.89 Marlboro USD 1.06 Vietnam 7 Vietnam 1.1 Alain Delon USD 0.3 Lao PDR 10 Lao PDR 1.1 Indonesia 14 Indonesia 2.7 Philippines 15 Philippines 2 Marlboro USD 1. A 10% deter children and adolescents from initiating increase in price of cigarettes would decrease tobacco use and thus avoid addiction. Most Cambodians still live below the national poverty line (2. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Tobacco prices Economic research has shown that cigarette prices Effective price increases can: are inversely related to cigarette demand.473 riel or USD 0.4 Dunhill USD 3.62 Marlboro USD 1.08 Eggs (qty) Rice (kg) 18 .3 Marlboro Gold USD 6.3 Marlboro USD 1.7 56_59 Marlboro USD 9.5 Alain Delon USD 0. For example in Lao PDR.60 Marlboro USD 9.4_4.60 Singapore Singapore 4.61).05 Marlboro USD 1. overall adult consumption by approximately 4%. a smoker is able to buy 1.60 Thailand Thailand 1 15 L&M USD 2.08 Marlboro USD 1. Price of most popular cigarette brands (per pack) relative to quantity of rice (kg) and eggs in ASEAN Poor families could benefit from spending on basic needs such as rice and eggs instead of cigarettes.47 40 6. quitting among current smokers.725 . Brunei Brunei Marlboro Gold USD 6.

19 . cigarettes have become significantly more affordable in Cambodia. The lower the RIP.531. Philippines and Indonesia between 2002 and 2009. Chapter 3: Tobacco Prices and Taxes Cigarette affordability _ Relative Income Prices (RIP) of Cigarettes (1999 2010) (%) 15 In most of the countries cigarettes have Cambodia Lao PDR Thailand become more affordable as indicated by the significant decline in RIP (apply for Indonesia Philippines Vietnam the most popular brand) since early 2000. the more affordable cigarettes are and vice versa. cigarette prices became more affordable particularly in the Philippines and Indonesia compared to 5 the other four countries. 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Relative Income Price (RIP) = percentage of per capita GDP required to purchase 100 packs of cigarettes. -57% -60% Except for Thailand.000 Thailand Annual Cash Expenditure on Cigarettes 45 Philippines 36.662. Vietnam. Over the years.000 Indonesia Cambodia Lao PDR Vietnam 40 10% 35 5% 30 20. This was more drastic in Lao PDR and 10 Vietnam. Thailand is the only country where cigarettes have gradually become less affordable since year 2005. Lao PDR. _ Cigarettes are affordable to the poor in Cambodia Cumulative Change in RIP (2002 2009) 41.000 0% 25 -10% 29 15 (USD in Million) -20% 10 5 -30% 0 -27% -40% Daily Income 2 USD or less >2 to 3 USD >3 USD -50% -45% Lower income earners (USD2 or less a day) spend more on cigarettes -48% -60% than higher income earners (>USD2 per day).951.

10)/stick | Marlboro _ THB 4.045)/stick | Marlboro _ VND 1.25 (USD 0.32)/stick Banned (2005) Cambodia Alain Delon _ KHR 145-200 (USD 0.11)/stick Allowed Singapore Marlboro _ SGD 12.05)/stick Allowed All tobacco products should be taxed: no duty_free allowance Duty-Free Allowance in the Region Country No duty-free concession on all tobacco products Brunei 400 cigarettes (20 packs) or 100 cigars Cambodia 200 cigarettes or 25 cigars or 100 gm of rolling tobacco Indonesia 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 gm of tobacco Lao PDR 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 225 gm of tobacco Malaysia 400 cigarettes.6 (USD 0.075)/stick | Marlboro Gold _ IDR 717 (USD 0.14)/stick Allowed Vietnam VINATABA _ VND 935 (USD 0.48)/stick Banned (2002) Thailand Krongthip _ THB 3.036 .07)/stick | Marlboro _ PHP 5.065)/stick Allowed Lao PDR Adeng _ LAK 350 (USD 0.15)/stick Philippines Fortune _ PHP 3.0.00 (USD 0.18)/stick Myanmar Banned (2006) Red Ruby _ Kyats 50 (USD 0.00 (USD 0.043)/stick | Marlboro _ LAK 600 (USD 0.135 (USD 0.10-0.05)/stick | Marlboro .Kyats 100-150 (USD 0.018)/stick Allowed Indonesia A Mild _ IDR 832 (USD 0. 50 cigars or 250 gm of pipe tobacco Myanmar 400 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 gm of pipe tobacco Philippines No duty-free concession on all tobacco products Singapore 200 cigarettes or 500 gm of rolling tobacco including cigars Thailand 400 cigarettes or 100 cigars or 500 gm of tobacco Vietnam 20 .405 (USD 0.081)/stick Banned (2009) Malaysia Banned (2004) Marlboro _ MYR 0. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Even more affordable cigarettes when sold by sticks Sale of single sticks Brunei Marlboro Gold _ BND 0.05)/stick | ARA _ KHR 70 (USD 0.00 (USD 0.5 (USD 0.

Indonesia Enjoy ASEAN foods in smoke-free environments Lao PDR Myanmar 100% smoke-free indoor air-conditioned restaurant 100% smoke-free indoor Thailand Vietnam non-air-conditioned restaurant Philippines Allows designated smoking room inside the restaurant Cambodia Malaysia Brunei Darussalam Singapore 21 Indonesia . 100% smoke-free public places policy in ASEAN Lao PDR Myanmar Healthcare Facilities Educational Facilities Government Offices Thailand Vietnam Bars and Pubs Public Transportation Philippines Universities Work Places Places of Worship Cambodia Hotel Lobby Other Outdoor Public Places Malaysia Other Indoor Public Places Brunei Darussalam Singapore * 100% smoke-free refers to all indoor areas only.

257 Singapore USD 756 Thailand USD 6 . 22 . There is no safe level of Most countries have banned smoking in healthcare exposure to secondhand smoke. Growing public awareness and support ASEAN (Thailand. ASEAN countries are strengthening implemented such as smoke-free cities and world smoke-free policies in accordance with Article 8 heritage sites with the aim to attain a smoke-free of the WHO FCTC. More countries in of smoking.65 Vietnam USD 5 .74 Cambodia No fine. Best practice of smoke-free law: Thailand: Smoking ban in pub / bar /discotheques.030 Myanmar USD 156 . effective 1st March 2012. give advice and warning Malaysia USD 3. effective 7 February 2008. give advice and warning Indonesia USD 5. Fines imposed on violators of smoke-free policy in ASEAN Brunei USD 790. public transport. Implementing and educational facilities. Brunei: No designated smoking room at the Brunei International Airport Terminal.14 All countries have national laws/policies on smoke-free.587 Lao PDR No fine. Various initiatives have been public places.780 Philippines USD 11 . ASEAN. Indonesia and for smoke-free environments has called for strong Singapore) have enforced prohibiting smoking in smoke-free legislation banning smoking in all bars and pubs. Partial bans are imposed in to protect non-smokers from the health hazards restaurants and workplaces. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 4 Smoke-free Environments Secondhand smoke kills. and 100% smoke-free environments is the only way government offices. Cambodia.

Chapter 4: Smoke-free Environments _ % of youth exposed to secondhand smoke in and outside home (2007 2013) 78.6 71.5 Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Thailand Vietnam (2013) (2010) (2009) (2011) (2009) (2011) (2011) (2009) (2007) _ Common places with secondhand smoke exposure in ASEAN (2007 2011) 88 85 85 78 75 73 70 70 71 63 66 57 55 56 51 53 54 48 49 48 50 47 44 40 38 39 37 37 34 36 34 28 31 26 26 24 18 20 17 15 9 8 7 Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Philippines Thailand Vietnam (2007-2011) (2011) (2011) (2011) (2011) (2009) (2011) (2010) Note: Percentages are rounded off At workplace Inside restaurant Government buildings to the nearest whole number.1 In home Outside home 68.7 43 42.1 57.4 48.7 45.2 31.2 64. At home (at least monthly) Public transportation Health facilities 23 .1 56.4 39.9 58.8 67.5 38.5 50.7 32.9 36.

22 November 2011 Lao PDR: Smoke-Free 25th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games.18 December 2009 Malaysia: Smoke-Free Paralympic Games held on 15-19 August 2009 Thailand: Smoke-free 24th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games. 27 November to 5 December 2005 Vietnam: Smoke-free 22nd Southeast Asian (SEA) Games. held in Hanoi. 5 . held in Vientiane City. 6 . held in Nakhon Ratchasima (Korat).15 December 2007 Philippines: Smoke-free 23rd Southeast Asian (SEA) Games. held in Jakarta. 9 .13 December 2003 24 . The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Smoke-free world heritage sites/cities in ASEAN Angkor Wat Borobudur Temples Halong Cambodia Indonesia Vietnam Hoi An Luang Prabang Malacca Vietnam Lao PDR Malaysia Prambanan Temples Sukhotai Vatphu Champasak Indonesia Thailand Lao PDR Smoke-free sports in ASEAN Cambodia: 1st Smoke-Free Sports event held on 20 June 2012 Indonesia: Smoke-Free 26th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games. held in Manila. 11 .

Myanmar Health warnings Lao PDR implemented in ASEAN 30% Pictorial Health Warnings (PHWs) Since 2013 Text Only Warnings Since 2005 50% 85% Vietnam Thailand New set of 85% PHWs will come into force on 23 September 2014 Philippines Cambodia 30% 30% First set of 50% PHWs Since 2008 will come into force in 2015 Since 2009 75% 50% Brunei Darussalam Malaysia Since 2004 50% Singapore 2014 40% Note: For complete details. see page 27. Indonesia 25 .

The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 5 Packaging and Labelling of Tobacco Products There is a growing trend in implementation of At present. Other legislated PHWs to date. the ASEAN: Brunei. Australia is the only country that has implemented More than seventy countries/jurisdictions have plain packaging effective December 2012. Increasing trend of countries _ requiring PHW on cigarette packs 72 70 across the globe (2001 2015) 69 64 60 56 50 40 40 34 30 26 20 18 11 12 10 5 1 2 2 3 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 26 . Thailand has the world's largest PHWs pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on tobacco (85% front and back of the pack) setting a new packages globally. Of these seven are from countries have taken steps in this direction. Philippines. Indonesia. by 23 September 2014. promotion tool to communicate the harmful effects of tobacco use with no cost to government. Thailand and Vietnam. It is an effective health benchmark. Singapore. Malaysia.

2014)* Vietnam (2013) Indonesia (2014) Position. Size. Size. 2014)* Brunei (2008. Location: Upper 40% front and back Language: Malay (front). Size. 2006. Location: Upper 50% front and 60% back Position. Size. Location: Upper 50% front and back Position. 2013)* Thailand (2005. Size. Size. Location: Upper 50% front and back Position. Chapter 5: Packaging and Labelling of Tobacco Products Status of health warnings in ASEAN Singapore (2004. 2007. 2010. English (back) Language: Vietnamese Language: Indonesian Health warning messages: 12 rotating messages Health warning messages: 6 rotating messages Health warning messages: 5 rotating messages * Year of rotation 27 . Location: Upper 85% front and back Position. English (back) Health warning messages: 6 rotating messages Health warning messages: 10 rotating messages Health warning messages: 7 rotating messages New set of 85% PHWs will come into force on 23 September 2014 Malaysia (2009. Location: Upper 75% front and back Language: English Language: Thai Language: Malay (front). 2012)* Position.

The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas

Status of health warnings in ASEAN
Cambodia Lao PDR Myanmar Philippines*

Position, Size, Location: Bottom 30% Position, Size, Location: Bottom 30% Position, Size, Location: 1 side panel Position, Size, Location: Bottom 30%
(front) 30% (back) (front) 30% (back) only (front only)
Language: Khmer Language: Lao (front), English (back) Language: Myanmar Language: English
Health warning messages: Health warning messages: Health warning messages: 1 message Health warning messages: 4 rotating
5 rotating messages 6 rotating messages messages

*Recently approved legislation (Republic Act 10643) requiring PHWs at the bottom 50% front and back of tobacco packages will be implemented in late 2015.

Implementation timeline of latest set of pictorial health warnings in ASEAN
Size Duration of
Country Date of Date of Compliance for
Approval Implementation Tobacco Industry
Front (%) Back (%)

Brunei 75 75 13 March 2012 1 September 2012 Less than 6 months

Indonesia 40 40 24 December 2012 24 June 2014 18 months

Malaysia 50 60 11 June 2013 1 January 2014 Less than 7 months

Singapore 50 50 12 January 2012 1 March 2013 12 months

Thailand* 85 85 5 April 2013 2 October 2013 6 months

Vietnam 50 50 8 Feb 2013 8 August 2013 for soft 6 -10 months
pack and 8 December
2013 for hard pack
*The actual implementation of PHWs was delayed by a court case filed by tobacco companies. The Thai Supreme Administrative Court
ruled against the tobacco industry, allowing PHWs to be implemented effective on 23 September 2014, 90 days after the court decision.

28

Chapter 5: Packaging and Labelling of Tobacco Products

Thailand: world’s biggest (85%) pictorial health warnings
In April 2013, the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) passed
Text a regulation requiring pictorial health warnings to cover the
upper 85% of front and back panels of packs; however,
implementation was delayed due to a legal challenge by the
tobacco industry, including Japan Tobacco International (JTI),
Phillip Morris (PM), and British American Tobacco (BAT),
Pictogram that led to an injunction being issued by the Central
85%
Administrative Court.

On 26 June 2014, the Supreme Administrative Court ruled
in favor of the MoPH and cancelled the injunction, clearing
the way for implementation of the larger 85% warnings. All
Quitline number tobacco products sold in Thailand are expected to carry the
new warnings by 23 September 2014.
Cigarette brand 15%

Philippines: The implementation of the
Department of Health (DOH) Administrative
Order No.2010-0013 requiring nine rotating
PHWs to be printed in English and Filipino
languages on all tobacco packs, occupying the
upper 30% front and 60% back of the pack
was delayed by multiple court cases filed by
five tobacco companies to nullify the DOH
Administrative Order:

Fortune Tobacco Corp. (Marikina)
Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Corp.
(Tanauan)
Mighty Corp. (Malolos)
JTI Philippines (Pasig)
La Suerte (Parañaque)

These pictures were required by DOH AO no. 2010-13 but may not necessarily be implemented under RA 10643.

29

The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas

Image bank of copyright-free pictorial health warnings (PHWs)
In collaboration with ASEAN Focal Points
on Tobacco Control (AFPTC), SEATCA:

. Provides technical assistance to
countries on development and
implementation of PHWs policies.

. Facilitates access to high-resolution
and copyright-free PHW images
from Brunei, Singapore, Thailand
and other ASEAN countries.

. Provides sample cigarette packs
from the ASEAN region for
advocacy purposes.

Best practice of pictorial health warnings
. Position and location

The health warnings and messages should be at the top of the front and back of packages.
. Size

The health warnings and messages should be 50% or more of the principal display areas.
. Use of pictorials
The health warnings and messages should include pictures or pictograms.
. Colour

The use of pictures or pictograms should be in full colour (four colour printing).
. Message content

The health warnings and messages should address different issues related to tobacco use and
convey in an authoritative and informative but non-judgmental manner.
. Language
The warnings and other textual information should be in the Party's principal language or languages.
. Rotation

The health warnings and messages should be rotating either having multiple health warnings
and messages appearing concurrently or setting a date after which the health warning and
message content will change.

30

Chapter 5: Packaging and Labelling of Tobacco Products

Australia's plain packaging: a world first
Plain packaging
- prohibits brand
colours and logos
- requires a standard
colour, shape and
75%
format of packages
90%
- requires the brand
name to appear in
a standard font size
and style on a specific
space on the package
25%
10%
Front Back
Australia was the first country to implement plain packaging of cigarettes, effective on the 1st December
2012. Pictorial health warnings cover an average of 87.5% of the package front and back, while a fire-risk
statement covers the bottom 10% of the back panel. Turkey would become second in the world with its
Ministry of Health's announcement to implement plain packaging on 1st January 2015. Ireland, New
Zealand, and India have also indicated their interest to implement plain packaging.

Countries that have banned false or misleading descriptors
Countries Year

X
Indonesia 2012

Malaysia 2009
X
Philippines 2014

Singapore 2012
X
Thailand 2006

Vietnam 2012

31

The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Disclosure of information on relevant constituents and emissions of tobacco products Malaysia (2009) This product contains more than 4.000 toxic chemicals. formaldehyde. tar. nicotine. nitrosamine Brunei (2012) This product contains nicotine and tar which cause addiction and is dangerous to health Indonesia (2012) There is no safe limit! Contains more than 4. carbon monoxide. of which at least 60 can cause cancer.000 chemicals including tar. The chemicals include tar.000 hazardous chemicals and more than 43 cancer- causing substances Singapore (2013) Smoking exposes you and those around you to more than 4. ammonia and benzene 32 . nicotine and carbon monoxide that are dangerous to health Thailand (2010) Toxic substances in cigarette smoke: Hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide Carcinogens in cigarette smoke: Formaldehyde.

Status of TAPS ban in ASEAN Total Ban Almost Total Ban Myanmar Partial Ban No Ban Lao PDR Thailand Vietnam Philippines Cambodia Brunei Darussalam Malaysia Singapore Indonesia 33 .

Point-of-Sale CSR .Corporate Social Responsibility 34 . discouraging tobacco Status of ban on tobacco advertising. as well as current and former tobacco users. new means to reduce tobacco consumption by media and cross-border advertising. including targeting women and However. Promotion and Sponsorship Tobacco advertising. can easily circumvent them. be tobacco users. despite comprehensive ban on TAPS youth. and preventing ex-users from relapsing. preventing youth uptake. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 6 Tobacco Advertising. promotion and sponsorship in ASEAN Direct Ad via Advertising Promotion Sponsorship Ad at POS Social Media CSR Cross Border Brunei Cambodia Allow brand Ban logo on A4 size publicity Indonesia Only on Ban (Non Party) electronic media publicity Lao PDR Allow parasol Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Allow at POS Singapore Ban publicity Ban Allow live Partial Ban Thailand Ban publicity telecast from oversea No Ban Vietnam Ban publicity No CSR POS . Partial (TAPS) are strategies used by the tobacco industry bans do not work because the tobacco industry to promote and market its lethal product to would. the industry is still successful in finding innovative ways to promote and market their products A comprehensive ban on TAPS is an effective through creative pack and product designs. promotion and sponsorship use.

street vendors. Philippines. 50% of cigarette sales are by street Person-to-Person Sale vendors. petrol Philippines and Indonesia.500.000 694.300.765. kiosks. newsstands. Malaysia. Thailand and Vietnam. Promotion and Sponsorship Menthol and fruit-flavored cigarettes Ban TAPS via internet sold in ASEAN Malaysia Brunei Myanmar Singapore Cambodia Philippines Thailand Indonesia Singapore (Menthol flavour only) Vietnam Lao PDR Thailand* (Menthol flavour only) Malaysia Vietnam *Thailand Excise Department has imposed administrative ban for sale of flavored cigarettes (fruit/confectionery/flower) enforced in 2003 Tobacco marketing channels At Point-of-Sale (POS) On Billboards .000 pop** Indonesia 61. Indonesia.821 402 12 *Does not include street vendors ** Table 14.Cigarettes are easily purchased at POS (supermarkets. Tobacco industry recruits pretty young girls as promoters to sell cigarettes in Cambodia.000 smokers 10. convenient stores.000 5.333*** 94 6 35 .000 2.000 407 1 Malaysia 4. Chapter 6: Tobacco Advertising.747. market stalls and minimarts). 2010 HDR Singapore 356.ly/dQupbE Thailand 10.000 303. Outdoor tobacco advertising billboards can be found in the sundry shops.000 399 3 *** The estimate for total number of cigarette retailers untill 2015 Vietnam 15.400. .100 137 19 http://bit.300. Number of POS in selected ASEAN countries Country Total Smokers Cigarette Cig Retailer per Physicians per Retailers* 10.000 80.000 170 7 Philippines 17.806 570.In Indonesia.

effective 2011 Before Ban Cambodia Ban Display of only 1 pack per brand Indonesia No Ban Allowed Lao PDR No Ban Allowed After Ban Malaysia Ban Allowed Philippines No Ban Allowed Display of any 1 pack Thailand. Vietnam Ban carton per brand Singapore will enforce a ban on displaying cigarette packs at point-of-sale by end of 2016 to protect youths from tobacco marketing.6 4.2 37.1 9.3 61. box or covers display cases. Thailand Ban Banned.7 19. the first country in the ASEAN region to implement Singapore Ban per variant a complete ban on retail display of tobacco products at point- of-sale.5 1. effective 2005 Brunei has a de facto ban on display.6 16.1 12.6 64. effective on 25 September 2005. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas _ Most common source of the last purchase of manufactured cigarettes (2009 2013) (%) 96. 36 .2 88.6 Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam (2011) (2011) (2011) (2011) (2009) (2013) (2011) (2010) Grocery store Convenient store/kiosk/supermarket Traditional market Tea stall/street vendor Food Shops/Hawker Centres (%) Best practice: Thailand sets the benchmark Legislation on tobacco advertising ban at POS POS POS Advertising Pack Display Brunei Ban Banned.3 35. as the ban on advertising Display of any 1 pack.3 79.3 49.4 6.8 81 79.4 9.2 17.

cities: Vietnam 28.4 40 58.3 0 Brunei Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Thailand Vietnam Cigarette advertising on billboard seen by youth Youth who have object with a cigarette brand on it 37 .3 12.3 (THB 40) Singapore 2002 In urban.12 (BND 300) Brunei 2005 Singapore 288.000) Vietnam 1st May.3 11. provinces: 14.1 9. Chapter 6: Tobacco Advertising.4 56. Promotion and Sponsorship Licensing of tobacco retailers in selected Countries that have banned kiddie packs ASEAN countries (Less than 20 sticks per pack) Countries Cost of License (USD) Countries Year Brunei 240. 2016 In rural.7 2007 60 69.000) _ Youth susceptibility to tobacco advertising and promotion (2007 2013) (%) 100 2009 2011 80 2011 89.14 (SGD 360) Malaysia 2010 Thailand 1.3 (VND 300.4 20 2013 2009 2009 6.2 8.5 (VND 600.8 10.3 2011 80.7 11.3 9.

Indonesia Philippines Vietnam Sachet packaging of 5 cigarettes per pack targeting young Lao PDR children and youths widely sold in the market. 38 . Philippines and Vietnam Lao PDR. Lipstick Pack Sold in Indonesia. brand sold in 12 and 16 sticks. Malaysia and Singapore Cambodia Indonesia ARA. the most popular A Mild. the most popular local local brand sold in 12 sticks. Indonesia. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Targeting youths and women Kiddie Pack (Less Than 20 sticks) of Cigarettes Sold in Cambodia.

941 247.000 160.816 275.381 147.000 (USD) (USD) 247.000 5.129 32.000 33.000 To promote its corporate image and distance itself from its harmful 1.969 (USD) 439.400 972.701 285.000 210.150.077.000 340.992 1. 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Malaysia Thailand 223.000 86.588 2.792.000 509.924 (USD 4.844 352. Chapter 6: Tobacco Advertising.000 100.133.100 74.180.000.000 136.382 90.311 285.260 120.000 markets for PMI as it holds 36% and 79% of total market share in 676.000 70.016) are two countries where PMI invested the most 1.000 29.000 5.School buildings.250 106.971 ASEAN region.000 47.126 282.150 5.000 146.333 147.200.900 913.597 5. Indonesia (USD 5.263 133.000 85.916 230.000 242.211 35.967 1.000 92.000 35.000 45.233 901.000 144.000.775 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Environment/Living condition Disaster Relief Hunger & Extreme Poverty Community grant Education .000 5.985 money in CSR activities in 2012.361 170.000 Indonesia and the Philippines respectively.100 130. Promotion and Sponsorship 2.304.075.406 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Vietnam Indonesia (USD) 106.087 423.000 50.024 Painting good image: Philip Morris International's (PMI) Philippines Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in ASEAN (USD) 232.319 49.000) and the Philippines 320.000 95.000.355. scholarship Empowering women Economic opportunity 39 .000 products. Both countries are vital tobacco 455.000 482.923 1.420 6.439.059 34.000 510.872 500 82.000 50.470 140.117 91. PMI has been conducting more CSR activities across the 769.000 629.

or cause or permit to be distributed any tobacco product advertisement". and distributing branded ashtrays and napkin holders are all violations for the same reasons. This is illegal for 2 reasons: (a) the intent of the law is to ban all outdoor ads. However. all cinema and outdoor advertising shall be prohibited. and similar materials. No leaflets. promotion and sponsorship of all tobacco products in the mass media including internet. including the open spaces between the buildings located on the same tract of land and within the perimeter of said tract of land" and thus places billboard ads on the roofs of stores or hanging from a post next to the store. 40 . monitoring tobacco promotion over the internet revealed that Facebook is the most popular social network to promote cigarettes followed by Flickr and Photobucket. all outdoor advertising is banned: "Beginning 1 July 2007. Putting up huge umbrellas with tobacco branding. distribute. Philippines Under RA 9211. posters. BAT's Dunhill was promoted most. except inside the premises of point-of-sale retail establishments. or cause or permit to be displayed or affixed any tobacco product advertisement. coloring the POS with cigarette brand colors. and (b) the exception for POS is limited to leaflets. the industry has argued that the term "premises" is defined in the implementing rules and regulations of RA 9211 to refer to "a tract of land and the building or buildings thereon. The regulation stipulates a total ban of advertising. The promotion mainly meant for direct promotion of cigarette brands and only a small percentage was used for promoting items with cigarette brand names as well as sports activities showing cigarette brands. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Challenges in enforcement Malaysia The Malaysian Control of Tobacco Product Regulations 2004 (CTPR) states in Reg 4(1) that "no person shall display or affix." However. posters and similar outdoor advertising materials be posted. followed by Marlboro (PMI) and Winston (JT) in the social media.

8% BAT Vietnam 28.8% Cambodia Other companies 3.1% Philip Morris Thailand Ltd 26.6% Other companies 15.5% Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Corp 79% Philip Morris 2.2% Mighty Corp 20% BAT Cambodia 40.6% Dong Nai Tobacco 8.6% Malaysia British American Tobacco Malaysia 62% JT International Berhad (JTI Malaysia) 20% Philip Morris (Malaysia) 16% Other companies 2% Indonesia PT Philip Morris Indonesia (PT PMI) 36% Djarum PT 21% Gudang Garam 20% British American Tobacco 7% Nojorono 5% Other companies 11% 41 .4% Hongtha China Good Luck 5.4% Other companies 1% Viniton Group 28.6% Lao Tianlong Co 1% Thailand Vietnam Philippines Thailand Tobacco Monopoly 67. Lao PDR Tobacco industry players in ASEAN Lao Tobacco Ltd 93.5% Huotraco Ltd 18.1% Vietnam National Tobacco 43.3% Japan Tobacco 1.

through its subsidiary.7 6 companies $7. tremendous strategic fit for our business that will Philip Morris Philippines Manufacturing Inc. created a joint venture with Fortune cement our leadership in Tobacco Corp in 2010 known as PMFTC Inc. tobaccoatlas. Tobacco in several countries in the ASEAN region such as manufacturers in the 9 ASEAN countries produce Cambodia and Malaysia.2 $35. Tobacco industry's profit (in USD) $10B $30B $50B $70B $90B China National Tobacco Corp revenue $91.5 Japan Tobacco $346.” Imperial Tobacco.British American Tobacco.4 4th edition. Philip Morris USA $24.2 billion International $65.0 Philip Morris Total Revenue for top International $67.9 42 . South East Asia. Coralma International (a French company) Matteo Pellegrini.1 Tobacco $4.5 Total profit (ash) for top 6 companies British American $58. BAT acquired Bentoel International “This transaction is a Investama for $579 million in 2009.2 billion in 2005.org $3.4 $2. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 7 Tobacco Industry Three of the five largest tobacco companies in the local cigarette companies in Philippines and world . Philip Morris has in close to 500 billion cigarettes annually.9 $1. referring to Philippines merger Government to form Lao Tobacco Ltd (LTL) that allows foreign investors to enjoy tax privileges and special benefits.7 total profit $16. State-owned companies are the leading and Japan Tobacco dominate the cigarette markets manufacturers in Thailand and Vietnam. President of Philip Morris in Asia and S3T Pte Ltd (a Singaporean company) entered into a joint venture with Lao 2010. recent years bought controlling stakes in Big transnational tobacco companies consolidating their power in the region Philip Morris Indonesia bought a controlling stake in local cigarette manufacturer PT HM Sampoerna for USD5.1 billion Profit equals net earnings after Imperial taxes and dividends Tobacco $38.0 Altria/ Source: Tobacco Atlas. Philip Morris Indonesia.

(PASI) Association . coffee shop associations or research groups which challenge tobacco control legislation. The International Tobacco Retailers Growers Association (ITGA) is one such group which mobilizes tobacco growers to interfere in tobacco control policy development in ASEAN countries and fight FCTC implementation particularly Articles 9.Forum Peoples' Coalition Against Regressive Masyarakat Industri Rokok Seluruh Taxation (PCART) Indonesia (FORMASI)* Philippine Association of Supermarkets Indonesia Tobacco Farmers Inc. Inc.(Komunitas Kretek) Shop Proprietors General Association Kelantan Tobacco Growers and Curers Association (PITAS) *Association of small scale tobacco industry ** Federation of kretek cigarette industries 43 . 17 and 18.Aliansi Masyarakat Tembakau Philippine Tobacco Growers Thai Smokers Community Indonesia (AMTI) Association (PTGA) (Philipp Morris) Indonesian Forum of Tobacco Industry Community . Farmers Front groups and high profile allies mobilization to fight tobacco control Thai Tobacco Growers.Asosiasi Petani Tembakau Indonesia (APTI) Philippine Tobacco Institute (PTI) Corporate Federation of Indonesian Cigarette Industries -Gabungan National Tobacco Administration Perserikatan Pabrik Rokok Indonesia (NTA) (GAPPRI)** Corporate of Indonesian White Philippine Aromatic Tobacco Cigarette Makers . Federation of Philippine Industries Koalisi Nasional Penyelamat Kretek (FPI) (KNPK) Indonesia Clove Cigarette Malaysia Singapore Coffee Community. Chapter 7: Tobacco Industry The tobacco industry rallies and funds front groups to fight tobacco control measures at both international and national level. Other front groups Businessmen include retailers and trade associations. 10. Curers and Dealers Association (TTA) Thai Tobacco Trade Association Indonesia Tobacco Society Alliance (TTTA) .Gabungan Development Association. Pengusaha Rokok Putih Indonesia (PATDA) (GAPRINDO) Clove National Rescue Coalition .

66 10.00 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 44 . a wholly-owned Lao government instead of the actual government revenue gain of corporation USD 131.07 0.00 Tobacco Tax Revenue USD (Million) Tobacco Tax Revenue Loss USD (Million) 20.38 13.48 8. As a result of the ILA's terms. (a joint venture between ST Group (a Lao company) and Coralma International). (47%). 25 years and S3T Pte.28 9. the government collected a) Dissolved and liquidated the Lao Tobacco the net tobacco tax revenue of USD 52. S3T Pte.99 15.14 3.92 5.46 million. Coralma International (34%). Lao USD 79. and the rate applied to LTL has remained static. Ltd.68 7.99 12.22 1.26 5. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Tobacco industry exploits Lao PDR government On 23 November 2001. The estimated loss was b) Established a joint venture company. Valid for 25 years (till 31 December 2026).38 7.00 6.a 5-year (2002-2006) total exemption on LTL's Investment and Co-operation of the Committee for corporate income taxes and on taxes on Planning and Cooperation). Ltd. a joint (depending on declared production costs) for company controlled by UK-based Imperial Tobacco).05 6.a fixed ad valorem excise rate of 15% to 30% (a subsidiary of French-based Tobaccor SA.00 9.4 1. Coralma International dividends paid to shareholders .71 2.09 2.18 1. (see graph).18 0. with company shares b) Despite progressive increases of the excise tax distributed to the Lao PDR government ceiling to 55% in 2005 and to 60% in 2012.98 1.42 million or 4. an Investment License c) Granted special privileges to LTL.04 million Company.56 3. the ILA: a) Between 2002 and 2013. including Agreement (ILA) was signed between the Lao PDR preferential tax treatment: Government (represented by the then Committee for . _ Tobacco tax revenue and tobacco tax revenue loss in Lao PDR (2002 2013) 25.00 8. (19%) causing the government to lose significant potential revenues until 2026. Tobacco Ltd (LTL).65 1.28 3. the Lao government has been at the losing end of this agreement.00 8.39% of the state investment budget on the development.93 4.

Philip Morris Thailand along with other tobacco companies including BAT and JT challenged Thailand's legislation increasing pictorial health 9 court cases . requiring an increase in the selling price of its cigarettes. 4 warnings size from 55% to 85% in the Administration by Fortune Tobacco Corp and 1 by Mighty Corp court. Malaysia 6 court cases brought by the industry against tobacco control measures including challenging well established scientific facts that nicotine is addictive and by Indonesia Indonesian smokers challenging the constitutionality of Indonesia's Health law that sought to restrict smoking in work and public places as well as implementation of pictorial health warnings. In the latest.including 4 by Philip Morris. 45 . brought against the government for a variety of tobacco control measures including halting pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs. Tobacco industry undermines tobacco control in ASEAN using legal challenges 8 court cases brought against tobacco control measures. Thailand Philippines 3 court cases filed by Philip Morris Malaysia against the Ministry of Health for requiring Ministry's approval for the retail price of tobacco products. rejecting the retail price of its cigarettes'.

Singapore. Tobacco Regulation Act (RA9211) gives the tobacco industry a seat in the Inter-Agency Philippines Committee (IAC) on Tobacco.3 Guidelines and can only be amended by its Congress. obstruct and policies with respect to tobacco control. It also employs direct or indirect political interests of the tobacco industry in accordance lobbying. Lao PDR) are leading the way in developing a policy. dilute and delay effective tobacco control policy. Cambodia and advance its cause. They participate in policy development in order to undermine any stringent tobacco control policy a government may put in place. Tobacco industry interference in policy development The tobacco industry works to defeat. to protect delay implementation of effective tobacco control these policies from commercial and other vested measures. discredit. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 8 Tobacco Industry Interference The tobacco industry is not like any other business Recognizing the irreconcilable conflict between . They collaborate with the government to provide support and assistance. the tobacco industry's interests and public health Then.3 Guidelines and implementation of tobacco control policies at the third session of the Conference of the at all levels. Thailand. litigation against governments and with national law. This legislation was enacted in 2003 before the Philippines ratified the FCTC and adopted Article 5. defeat. 46 .it sells a product that kills half its customers. guidelines or code of conduct to protect their public health policies from tobacco industry interference. Five ASEAN countries individuals as well as mobilize front groups to (Philippines. Using a wide range of unethical tactics Parties (COP3) in 2008 which requires Parties and strategies. but their efforts usually result in watering down tobacco control measures. the Parties to the FCTC vested interests by interfering in the development unanimously adopted the Article 5. the tobacco industry continues to when setting and implementing their public health challenge. it vigorously protects its commercial and policy interests. dilute.

Brunei Benefits to the tobacco industry With the exception of Brunei and Thailand. Cambodia Singapore Thailand Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities by the tobacco industry are not banned among ASEAN countries. On the deadline. In Malaysia implementation of the ban on kiddie packs (less than 20 sticks) enacted in September 2004 was postponed for six years till May 2010. Singapore and Thailand) have banned their publicity. 47 . It is through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities that the industry promotes and projects a positive public image as a good corporate citizen. Lao PDR Indonesia Malaysia The tobacco industry in Lao PDR obtained a 5-year tax holiday and capped tobacco tax at 15%-30% till 2026. or ban its publication. Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Banned contributions from the tobacco industry (either completely or partially to health-related agencies). Chapter 8: Tobacco Industry Interference Industry-related CSR activities The tobacco industry has been trying to re-brand itself as "socially responsible" corporations. restaurants and eating places are not 100% smoke-free to accommodate requests from the tobacco industry's representatives. 2014. and revenue agencies. education. only 6 out of 3. specific policies were issued for vulnerable institutions such as health. although Indonesian tobacco companies are already exporting packs with PHWs to Brunei. other governments accommodate requests from the tobacco industry for a longer implementation time or a postponement of tobacco control law. In the Philippines. Indonesia granted 18 months to the industry to apply pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs effective June 24. receive some form of contributions (monetary or otherwise) from the tobacco industry. Also in Malaysia. except Brunei. aside from a comprehensive policy. although a few (Cambodia. Malaysia and Singapore. All governments.393 cigarette brands in the market were found to have pictorial health warnings. but that is just a public relations gimmick.

BAT Malaysian’s annual reports made it a point to mention its Chairman. such as attending social functions and events sponsored or organized by the tobacco companies. more stringent rules apply to committees in charge of tobacco control policies as in the Philippines and Singapore. In several cases. Many countries limit interactions with the tobacco industry to those that are strictly necessary for regulation. candidates. Tan Sri Abu Talib bin Othman (1994-2012). a tobacco industry trade event was held in Bangkok. who was the former Attorney-General of Malaysia (1980-1993) and Malaysia who upon his retirement became the Chairman of BAT Malaysia (1994 to 2012). The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Forms of unnecessary interaction and transparency Indonesia. In 2009 when Tabinfo. Cambodia Lao PDR Thailand Top-level government officials do not meet with nor foster relations with tobacco companies. Relatives of current high level officials also work for the tobacco industry in both Malaysia and Thailand. Other countries do not prohibit or require full disclosure of such contributions from the tobacco industry or any entity working to further its interests to political parties. 48 . government officials were instructed not to endorse the event. Indonesia Malaysia Thailand The government accepts assistance or offers of assistance from the tobacco industry on enforcement such as conducting raids on tobacco smuggling or enforcing smoke-free policies. although Thailand has a state tobacco monopoly. The Royal Malaysian Customs collaborated with the Confederation of Malaysian Tobacco Manufacturers (CMTM) in conducting anti-smuggling activities. Malaysia and the Philippines report high levels of unnecessary interactions with the tobacco industry participation in policy development. or campaigns. and provide a mechanism to ensure transparency in meetings that occur. Conflict of interest Brunei prohibits political contributions from the tobacco industry.

however. which aims to protect the bureaucracy against tobacco industry interference in accordance with Article 5. policy drafts. the Philippine Civil Service Commission and Department of Health issued Joint Memorandum Circular (JMC) 2010-01. philanthropy and political contributions. and revenues. or study visit invitations to the government and its officials. manufacture. Philippines Thailand In 2010. expenses on lobbying. Through a Cabinet decision. Chapter 8: Tobacco Industry Interference Preventive measures Most governments do not have a procedure for disclosing records of interactions with the tobacco industry and its representatives. 49 . market share.3 Guidelines by limiting interactions with the industry and rejecting partnerships with tobacco companies. Thailand and Lao PDR have a similar policy for their respective ministries of health. including offers of assistance. the tobacco industry is not required to provide information on marketing expenditures. Brunei Indonesia Malaysia Thailand The tobacco industry is required to submit information on tobacco production. Thailand prohibits the acceptance of all forms of contributions from the Thai Tobacco Monopoly. The Philippines is the first country in Asia to have such a Circular.

The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Make public all meetings and information on the tobacco industry To demonstrate transparency. both Australia and New Zealand inform the public about their meetings with the tobacco industry by making the relevant information available on their website.tobaccowatch.seatca.org/ 50 . Country Agency Year Information Disclosed Department of Health 2009 • Date of meeting Australia • Issue discussed and Ageing • Date of meeting New Zealand Ministry of Health 2011 • Which company • Purpose of meeting • List of attendees Civil Service 2010 • Interaction with tobacco industry Philippines Commission and • Any preferential treatment given to Department of Health tobacco industry • Any offer of donation to public official or employee by tobacco industry http://www.

16 13.64 Indonesia 51 . Tobacco farming in ASEAN Total tobacco farmers % of total employment 49.17 Vietnam Philippines Cambodia 3.166 (2011) 220.000 (2010) Thailand 0.11 Malaysia 689.533 (2011) 0.204 (2010) 0.13 0.000 (2011) 0.360 (2010) 0.44 55.

96 26.000 hectares of tobacco farm land in the producing countries.000 135. contributing 37%.770 2.384. Philippines and Vietnam are net importers of tobacco amounting to 41. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 9 Eight of the ten ASEAN countries.65 million 52 .418 3. Cambodia are progressively switching to alternative livelihoods.40 62.000 100.78 60. are engaged in tobacco countries in the region while import of tobacco cultivation on different scales. The other major producers Tobacco farmers in Philippines. excluding Tobacco FarmingTobacco production is on the decline in most Singapore and Brunei. Tobacco farming contributes metric tonnes of tobacco were harvested from to less than 1% of total employment in all the 346.000 80.092.000 8.881 228.04 28.233 metric tons valued at USD 200. Indonesia and are Thailand.730. Vietnam and the Philippines. Malaysia has implemented region in 2010.678 120. Indonesia was the largest producer crop substitution with government support.000 79.721 40.161 Total area planted (ha) (2013) (2010) (2010) (2011) (2011) (2011) Indonesia.448.526 35.000 47. Malaysia. A total of 363.140 0 Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Thailand Vietnam 6.016 leaves is increasing.000 20. _ Tobacco farming in selected ASEAN countries (2010 2013) Total yield (mt) 140.

496 In the high lands.000. Kenaf Cultivation In Malaysia Profitability of tobacco farming vs other crops in Indonesia Planting tobacco is less profitable compared Onion with other seasonal crops both in low and 7. 2006 112 ha (13 farmers) Since its introduction in 2004 the area under kenaf cultivation rose from less than one hectare to 1.714 melon and red chili pepper reaped higher 5. farmers who planted onion.500 tonnes of core by 2020.000 tonnes of fiber and 17. fertilisers. and 2011 1.140 ha (687 farmers) promoted as an alternate crop for tobacco in 2004 by the government. production of 7. with started in 2005 and has intensified over 2007 285 ha (92 farmers) the years with financial support from the government. 2010 2009 1. Chapter 9: Tobacco Farming Sustainable way out: alternative crops in Malaysia Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus ) was identified as a new commodity in Malaysia. first introduced in 2000.607 (USD) high land areas.4 ha (1 farmers) one to 687 farmers over the same period.495 Tobacco Red Chili yields and profits than planting tobacco.693 ha (409 farmers) Smaller tobacco farmers are encouraged to switch to 343 ha (50 farmers) alternative livelihood through a crop diversification 2008 464 ha (167 farmers) program.140 2005 42 ha (25 farmers) hectares in 2011. Total kenaf growers also rose from 2004 0.430 4. Melon Potato In the low lands. it is more profitable to plant red chili pepper and potato than Red Chili Tobacco 1. 4.702 tobacco. formerly known as National Tobacco Board (NTB) plans to increase total kenaf hectarage to 5. pesticides and machinery. 5. Acreage (ha) National Kenaf and Tobacco Board (NKTB).635 Low land High land 53 . To encourage farmers to plant kenaf a subsidy of RM 3.120) is provided per hectare including seeds.500 (USD 1. 1.

corn.762.78) Native (428.089.147. 54 .2) Peanut (1. peanut. Pangasinan (Region 1) preferred to plant non-tobacco pepper (sweet/hot) and bitter gourd provided crops since they require less input and labor much higher income than tobacco. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Profitability of tobacco farming vs other crops in the Philippines (2006 . eggplant. and Vegetable crops such as tomato. Sweet Pepper (5.3) Eggplant (2.Price fluctuation of tobacco The alternative crops include rice. This is due to: . compared to tobacco.Tobacco farming needs more capital Corn field .60) Burley (727.1) Bitter Gourd (3. La Union.Lower profit compared to other crops .2007) Farmers in Ilocos Norte. as well as other vegetables.041.6) Hot Pepper (4.31) Virginia (1. Ilocos Sur. such as soy bean and sesame.582.525.2) Garlic (1. garlic.730) Mungbean (707.1) Corn (498. other industrial crops. About 40% of tobacco farmers have switched from tobacco farming to alternative crops in the last ten years.13) Net Income per Hectare (in USD) Rice field Tobacco farmers switched to other crops in Cambodia Tobacco farming is less profitable compared to other crops.741.639.60) Tomato (2. Cultivation of mungbean and peanuts also resulted in higher income compared to tobacco.3) Onion (2.

Ministry of Health Brunei Malaysia (2006) Malaysian Health Promotion Board (MySihat) Singapore (2001) Singapore Health Promotion Board 55 . Health promotion/tobacco control fund in ASEAN Established health promotion/tobacco control fund Lao PDR (2013) Presence of funding mechanism Lao PDR Tobacco Control Fund for tobacco control Thailand (2001) Thai Health Promotion Foundation (ThaiHealth) Vietnam (2013) Vietnam Tobacco Control Fund Brunei Darussalam (2008) Health Promotion Centre.

and 2% from 1st May. 2008 USD 560 million (2013 2014) Ministry of Health Brunei Singapore Health Promotion Board 2001 USD 136 million (2014) Treasurer budget Malaysian Health Promotion Board 2006 USD 3.3 million (2013-2015) USD 6.6 million (2016-2019) USD 8. However.5% from 1st May. Types of funding mechanism Year of Types of Funding Source Establishment Percent Surcharge Tax/Total Budget Within the Ministry of Health budget _ Health Promotion Centre. tobacco control and health promotion including tobacco control programmes. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 10 Establishing Sustainable Funding Health promotion programmes can be used as a An effective way to address this situation is to tool to reduce the impact of smoking-related raise tobacco taxes and introduce a surcharge tax diseases and other non-communicable diseases or dedicated tax policy. 2016. promotion agendas are usually not given priority through a sustained health promotion fund or and have to compete for government funding in foundation.100.08 million (2013) (MySihat) Surcharge Tax Lao PDR Tobacco Control Fund 2013 2% profit tax plus LAK 200 (per pack) USD 2. effective 1st May. most countries. 2013. 2019 USD 4. whereby additional (NCDs) and help alleviate social and economic revenues can be generated to support health burdens.5 million (2019 onward) 56 .000 (2014) for tobacco control estimated by Ministry of Health Thai Health Promotion Foundation 2001 2% surcharge levied on excise tax from (ThaiHealth) alcohol and tobacco USD 120-130 million (2013-2014) Vietnam Tobacco Control Fund 2013 1% excise tax. 1.

Cabinet and Promotion agency chaired by Prime Minister to both Foundation houses of (ThaiHealth) (2001) Parliament Vietnam Tobacco Semi. Board of Directors and Minister Promotion Board autonomous chair appointed by the of Health (MySihat) (2006) agency Prime Minister upon under MOH the advice of the Minister of Health Singapore Health Statutory Board of Directors and Minister for Promotion Board Board under chaired by independent Health and (2001) MOH Chairman Parliament Thai Health Autonomous Board of Governance. In-sectoral Management Government Control Fund (2013) autonomous Board chaired by Minister and National agency and of Health Assembly a unit in MOH 57 . Chapter 10: Establishing Sustainable Funding Governance and roles of health promotion/tobacco control funds Role of organization Type and Year Type Governed and chaired by Report to Granting Policy Implementing Building Established agency Development health capacity promotion programs Lao PDR Tobacco Unit in MOH Tobacco Control Fund National TC Control Fund (2013) Council (The National Committee Committee on Tobacco and Government Control) Malaysian Health Semi.

Philippines Sin Tax Law (Republic Act 10351) Section 8 of Republic Act (RA) No. Central Java and West Nusa Tenggara. 2% of revenues generated from cigarette excise must be distributed to three main cigarette and/or tobacco producing provinces particularly in East Java. It has been implemented since 2008 and currently 20 provinces have received the resulting fund. an approximate total of PhP 30.5 billion (USD 718. 80% of the remaining balance will be allocated for: 1. 10351 (commonly known as 'sin tax' law passed on 20 December 2012) stipulates that after deducting the earmarked amount under RA 7171 (for Virginia tobacco growing provinces) and RA 8240 (for alternative livelihood for burley and native tobacco growing provinces). a uniform rate of 10% local excise tax is imposed on for cigarette. 10% Local Cigarette Tax Based on Law 28/2009. Attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 3. and law enforcement on illegal cigarettes. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas On-going development of sustainable funding for health promotion and tobacco control Indonesia 2% Tobacco Excise Revenue Sharing Based on Law 39/2007 on excise policy. Ministry of Health has developed a 10% local cigarette tax implementation guidelines for health target in 2014 as main reference for all the 32 provinces in Indonesia. disseminating customs regulations. The tobacco excise policy of 2% earmarked tax should be used mostly for tobacco control to reduce its consumption. developing the industry.49 million) from the incremental revenue of the sin taxes has been allocated for Universal Health Care. 58 . According to the Department of Health. Universal health care under the National Health Insurance Program 2. These funds must be used for five purposes: improving the quality of raw materials.related diseases. MDG-related. Health awareness programs The Implementing Rules and Regulations for the release of the sin tax revenues has been released on June 2014. improving social welfare including tobacco control for implementing smoke-free area regulations and acquiring medical equipment for treatment of smoking. Half of the revenue from the 10% local cigarette tax will be used for health including tobacco control and health promotion beginning in 2014. and Health Awareness Programs under the 2014 General Appropriations Act.

Human resource in ASEAN Number of Government staff working on tobacco control Full-time Myanmar Part-time 5 Part-time Number of NGOs working on tobacco control 3 NGOs Lao PDR 3 Part-time Thailand 38 Full-time 12 NGOs Vietnam 8 Full-time 3 Part-time Cambodia 4 NGOs Philippines 7 Full-time 10 Full-time 5 Part-time 1 Part-time 2 NGOs 5 NGOs Brunei Darussalam 14 Full-time 23 Part-time Malaysia 7 Full-time 2 Part-time 3 NGOs Singapore 24 Full-time 2 NGOs Indonesia 8 Full-time 54 NGOs 59 .

resources) to strengthen their tobacco control implementation. while other countries necessary structural. periodically update. have a sufficient number of staff working full-time implement. To this end. Department of Health Singapore Health Promotion Board Thailand National Committee for Tobacco Control Vietnam Vietnam Steering Committee on Smoking and Health (VINACOSH) 60 . Country National Mechanism for Tobacco Control Brunei High Level Committee for Tobacco Control (JKKT) Cambodia Inter-Ministerial Committee for Education and Reduction on Tobacco Use (IMC) Indonesia None. Generally. and review on tobacco control. human. only Ministry of Health (MOH) Focal Point Lao PDR National Tobacco Control Committee Malaysia Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Secretariat Myanmar Central Tobacco Control Committee Philippines National Tobacco Control Coordinating Office. financial. few national governments in ASEAN or tobacco control focal points that will develop. many countries still lack the level tobacco control staff. plans. Both Singapore and Thailand comprehensive multisectoral national tobacco have strong tobacco control policies in place with control strategies. the the backbone for effective development and FCTC requires countries to establish or reinforce implementation of a wide range of tobacco control and finance a national coordinating mechanism activities. and in the region are gradually making progress in technical resources to implement cost-effective building national capacity (human and financial and sustainable tobacco control programmes. The ASEAN Tobacco Control Atlas Chapter 11 National Tobacco Control Coordinating Mechanism The success of FCTC-compliant tobacco control While recognizing that knowledgeable and skilled policies largely depends on each country's ability human resources at different societal levels is and capacity for implementation. and programmes (Article support from a significant number of national- 5).

1 41 3.9 5.807) (12.6 Middle (4.016 47.9 1.2 3.0 Middle (876.4 23.4 1.300) (1.8 5.7 1.655.0 2.1 3. 34.1 19.1 1.000) (92.1 (8.9 20.400.000) (24.8 11.1 22 13 0.862) (4.0 429 43 8.5 6.300.8 187 33.277.300) (1.844.000) (526.4 4.3 0.9 1.8 51.8 517 23.3 1.61 _ ASEAN summary tables (chapter 1 11) Country World Population Cigarette Prevalence of Smoking (%) % Smokeless Tobacco Consumption (Total Number) Bank Size Per Capita Adult Youth (13-15 years) Adult Income (in '000) * Consumption Group (in 2010) Male Female Total Boys Girls Total Male Female (number of smokers) Brunei High 406.2 Middle (10.9 5 6.962.963) Cambodia Low 14.747.3 Middle (15.3 1.806) (286.3 2.460.573.080) Malaysia Upper 29.1 8 1.0 17.384.000) Vietnam Lower 89.6 455 39.4 25.000) (752.9 3.000) Indonesia Lower 248.2 Middle (17.3 0.5 20.0 491 43.300.1 3.8 13.3 8.765.000) (95.000) (1.7 12 3.5 1.5 14.818.1 6.1 5.5 7.7 9 28.9 2.251.0 540 39.000) * Population size in 2013 ** The data is based on age range 13-16 and the definition is smoked once in the past 30 days .391) (18.9 18.1 3.2 . - (356.000) Myanmar Low 61.6 6.4 16.863.3 12.708.2 0.3 18.800) (2.3 9 4 6** .1 8.000) Thailand Upper 68.644.948.567) Philippines Lower 99.9 5.121) (60.0 23.289) (138.4 19.115 67.6 (70.7 12.000) (834.9 863 47.9 0.300) Lao PDR Lower 6.1 6.1 30.477.8 1.000) (357.7 (1.195) (25.000) Singapore High 3.5 36.5 2 Middle (61.

807 11.6 53 Allowed 11-257 42.22 844. 50% front 12 months 3 3 and back (2012) (2013) Thailand 50.6 Allowed 5-14 58.5 71. 1.94 41.587 68.000) and back Indonesia 190.000 7 0.41 0.028 214 46* Banned (2004) 3.74 39.2 50% front 6 -10 months 3 (VND 135.4 . .6 85% front 6 months 3 3 (THB 697.7 67. . .1 40% front 18 months 3 3 (IDR 369.9 57.7 64.8) 60% back months (2009) (2009) Myanmar 71.000) and back (2012) *The estimate was calculated based on premium cigarette brand 62 ** First set of 50% PHWs will come into force in 2015 *** New set of 85% PHWs will come into force on 23 September 2014 .8 78. 16-19. .32 .6 59 Allowed 5.4 3 Philippines 87.8 0. Manufactured Percentage Imposed give exposed exposed Health Warnings Industry for False or Constituents and Related Cigarette Tobacco Health of Retail (in USD) advice to SHS to SHS Warnings Latest Set Misleading Emissions of Diseases (in (USD) > _ Control Price and in home outside (PHWs) of PHWs Descriptors Tobacco Products (Estimates) 15 years old warning home Brunei . 22-28 Allowed 3 31.5 50.2 38.260 37.421) and back Malaysia 11.7 Banned (2009) 3 36.060 . _ ASEAN summary tables (chapter 1 13) Country Annual Average Government Budget % Tobacco Sale of Violators of Secondhand Smoke Health Warnings Period of Countries Disclosure of Deaths Monthly (per capita in USD) Tax Burden Single Sticks Smoke-free Policy (SHS) Compliance That Have Information on Due to Major Expenditure for as Fines No fine.4 75% front Less than 6 3 and back months (2012) Cambodia 9.7 56.36 676.1 30% front (LAK 92.650 7 0.57) and back*** (2006) (2010) Vietnam 40.56 71* Banned (2002) 756 .79 70 Allowed 6-65 45.600 7.1 50% front.003 12.948) and back (2012) (2012) Lao PDR 4.9 0.7 0. 21. 26.147 48. % Youth % Youth Pictorial Text Only by Tobacco Banned Relevant Tobacco.710 22.4) only** (2014) Singapore 2049 .9 30% front 3 (PHP 326. 50 Banned (2006) 156-780 32.5 43 30% front (KHR 28. Less than 7 3 3 (MYR 178.030 48.056 55.0004 28.0015 .7 62* Banned (2005) 790.

9.5) (1st May.14) 3 .7 - total ban effective 2011 BND 300 (2005) Cambodia Almost Ban Display only 1 7 3 7 7 .3) 7 .8 - ban Philippines Partial No Ban Allowed 7 3 7 7 80.3 6 court cases ban Lao PDR Partial No Ban Allowed 7 3 7 7 58.4 8.3 - total ban 1 pack. cities: 3 56. 9.000 In rural. - total ban pack per brand Indonesia Partial No Ban Allowed 7 3 7 7 89.3) VND 300. 7 3 7 7 69. of Kiddie Packs Advertising and Promotion Undermines Regulation Status of via Flavored Tobacco (Less Than Cigarette Youth who have Tobacco Control of POS Pack Internet Cigarettes Retailers 20-Stick Per advertising on object with a Using Legal Ads Display Sold (in USD) Pack) billboard seen cigarette Challenges by youth brand on it Brunei Almost Ban Banned.3 8 court cases total ban effective 2005 flavour only THB 40 Vietnam Almost Ban Display of any 3 3 In urban.3 ban Malaysia Partial Ban Allowed 3 3 7 3 . - total ban pack per variant flavour only SGD 360 (2002) Thailand Almost Ban Banned. 3 Menthol (1.4 12. . 2016) carton per brand VND 600. 6.7 10.2 3 court cases ban (2010) Myanmar Partial .1 9 court cases ban Singapore Almost Ban Display of any 1 3 Menthol (288. box or (28. .12) 3 .3 11. . provinces: (14. 7 3 (240.4 11.63 _ ASEAN summary tables (chapter 1 13) Country Status of Legislation on Tobacco Ban Menthol Licensing Banned % Youth Susceptibility to Tobacco Tobacco Industry TAPS Ban Advertising Ban at POS TAPS and Fruit.000 .

96 49. 2 Promotion Board Thailand 28. 3 - Information Information Control Fund 2% profit tax plus LAK 200 (per pack) Malaysia 2.384. 2016.17 3 7 5 2 Indonesia 228. 12 Foundation (ThaiHealth) 2% surcharge levied on excise tax from alcohol and tobacco Vietnam 26. effective 64 1 May. 1.16 3 10 1 5 Singapore NA NA 3 Singapore Health 3 24 . 2013. Ministry of Health Brunei Cambodia 8.13 3 Thai Health Promotion 3 38 . 5 3 Information Information Philippines 35.04 55.526 3.166 0. 2019 * None full time at Ministry of Health but 7 full time at FDA/NADFC (National Agency for Drugs and Food Control) .5% from 1st May.000 0.730.64 7 8 .204 0.308 13. and 2% from 1st May.11 3 Malaysian Health 3 7 2 3 Promotion Board (MySihat) Myanmar No No 3 .161 220.360 0. _ ASEAN summary tables (chapter 1 13) Country Tobacco Number of % of Total Sustainable Funding Types of Funding Mechanism/Source Human Resource and Mechanism Farming Tobacco Employment Health Funding Within the Treasurer Budget Dedicated Tax National Number of Government Number of (Total area Growers promotion/ mechanism Ministry of Mechanism for Staff Working on NGOs Working planted in (ha)) tobacco for tobacco Health budget Tobacco Control Tobacco Control on Tobacco control fund control Full-Time Part-Time Control Brunei NA NA 3 Health Promotion 3 14 23 - Center.000 0.44 3 Vietnam Tobacco 3 8 3 4 Control Fund 1%st excise tax.533 0.770 689. 54 Lao PDR No No 3 Lao PDR Tobacco 3 .

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