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Department of Civil Engineering-I.I.T.

Delhi
CEL 212: Environmental Engineering
Second Semester 2011-2012
Home Work 9 (Disinfection)

Q1. The Chick’s Law: For disinfection, assume N (0) is initial number of pathogens and N (t) is remaining
number of pathogens at time and given by: N (t) =N (0) × exp (-K×t); where K is disinfection rate
(unit=1/unit of time) and depends on disinfectant-pathogen interaction and solution characteristics. Here R-
log removal: R=-log10 [N (t)/N (0)].
If disinfectant concentration (Cdisinfectant) and contact time (tc) are related to each other by following equation
(the Watson’s Law):
(Cdisinfectant)n × (tc) = constant (standard unit: C in mg/L and tc in minute)
Calculate R-log removal value for 99.9% removal? What is the remaining pathogen concentration at this
removal after 1 minutes of contact time? (Assume K=0.046/min) [3+3=6 points]

Solution:
R-log removal = -log10 [1-Nt/N0]
Given removal = 99.9%, so Nt/N0= (1-99.9/100) =0.001
R-log removal = -log10 [0.001] =3 (answer)
For calculating remaining fraction of pathogens after 1 minute of disinfection with K=0.046/min, use the Chick’s
Law: Nt/N0 = exp (-k ×t) = exp (-0.046/min×1 min) =0.9550 (i.e., 95.50%) (answer)

Q2. An experiment shows that a concentration of 0.1g/m3 of free available chlorine yield a 99% kill of
bacteria in 8 minutes. What contact time is required to achieve a 99.9% kill at a free available chlorine
concentration of 0.05 g/m3? Assume that Chick’s Law and Watson’s Law hold with n=1. [2+2=4 points]

Solution:
Given: For 99% kill: C= 0.1 g/m3 and time (t) =8 minutes
Chick’s Law: Nt=N0×exp (-k ×t)
Calculation of disinfection rate constant:
Nt/N0= (1-99/100) =0.01 in 8 minutes
From Chick’s Law: 0.01 = exp (-k ×8) => k = - (1/8) ln (0.01) = 0.5756/min (answer)

Using calculated k value, calculate time for getting 99.9% kill:
Nt/N0= (1-99.9/100)=0.001
Using Chick’s Law: 0.001 = exp (-0.5756×t) =>t = - (1/0.5756) ln (0.001) =12 min (answer)
Note: Watson’s Law: Cn×t=constant = > C×t=constant (as n=1)

For 99.9% kill: C= 0.1 g/m3 and time (t) =8 minutes. So, C×t value =(0.1 *1000mg/1000L)*(12 minutes)
= 1.2 (mg/L)(min.)

To determine contact time using 0.05 g/m3, Ct is equal for both cases.
1.2 (mg/L)(min.) = (0.05 ×1000mg/1000L)*(t minutes)