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Department of Civil Engineering-I.I.T.

CEL 212: Environmental Engineering
Second Semester 2011-2012
Home Work 9 (Disinfection)

Q1. The Chick’s Law: For disinfection, assume N (0) is initial number of pathogens and N (t) is remaining
number of pathogens at time and given by: N (t) =N (0) × exp (-K×t); where K is disinfection rate
(unit=1/unit of time) and depends on disinfectant-pathogen interaction and solution characteristics. Here R-
log removal: R=-log10 [N (t)/N (0)].
If disinfectant concentration (Cdisinfectant) and contact time (tc) are related to each other by following equation
(the Watson’s Law):
(Cdisinfectant)n × (tc) = constant (standard unit: C in mg/L and tc in minute)
Calculate R-log removal value for 99.9% removal? What is the remaining pathogen concentration at this
removal after 1 minutes of contact time? (Assume K=0.046/min) [3+3=6 points]

R-log removal = -log10 [1-Nt/N0]
Given removal = 99.9%, so Nt/N0= (1-99.9/100) =0.001
R-log removal = -log10 [0.001] =3 (answer)
For calculating remaining fraction of pathogens after 1 minute of disinfection with K=0.046/min, use the Chick’s
Law: Nt/N0 = exp (-k ×t) = exp (-0.046/min×1 min) =0.9550 (i.e., 95.50%) (answer)

Q2. An experiment shows that a concentration of 0.1g/m3 of free available chlorine yield a 99% kill of
bacteria in 8 minutes. What contact time is required to achieve a 99.9% kill at a free available chlorine
concentration of 0.05 g/m3? Assume that Chick’s Law and Watson’s Law hold with n=1. [2+2=4 points]

Given: For 99% kill: C= 0.1 g/m3 and time (t) =8 minutes
Chick’s Law: Nt=N0×exp (-k ×t)
Calculation of disinfection rate constant:
Nt/N0= (1-99/100) =0.01 in 8 minutes
From Chick’s Law: 0.01 = exp (-k ×8) => k = - (1/8) ln (0.01) = 0.5756/min (answer)

Using calculated k value, calculate time for getting 99.9% kill:
Nt/N0= (1-99.9/100)=0.001
Using Chick’s Law: 0.001 = exp (-0.5756×t) =>t = - (1/0.5756) ln (0.001) =12 min (answer)
Note: Watson’s Law: Cn×t=constant = > C×t=constant (as n=1)

For 99.9% kill: C= 0.1 g/m3 and time (t) =8 minutes. So, C×t value =(0.1 *1000mg/1000L)*(12 minutes)
= 1.2 (mg/L)(min.)

To determine contact time using 0.05 g/m3, Ct is equal for both cases.
1.2 (mg/L)(min.) = (0.05 ×1000mg/1000L)*(t minutes)
t= 24 min. (answer)


For wastewater consists of ammonia.0 Chlorine residual (mg/L) 0.5 3. organic matter and microorganisms).0 1.1 0. draw breakthrough curve using following information and answer following questions: Chlorine dosage (mg/L) 0.4 0. [8 points] (ii) Calculate chlorine dose to achieve 0.0 2.75 mg/L free available chlorine? [4 points] Solution: 2 .5 2.4 (i) Discuss the significance of different regions.9 1.4 0.Q3.5 1.4 0.0 0.8 0.

Highest removal was observed for Enterococci than other microorganisms as lowest remaining concentration. Q6. So we need longest contact time for Coxsackievirus A2 than that for other pathogens. both produces similar extent of virus decay. Concentration values are shown in box plots where middle line show median value. lesser removal of pathogens than that due to light conditions.. LP UV rays give high disinfection rate than MP UV rays. Q5...e. Look at the following relationship between concentration of free residual chlorine and contact time required for 99% kill (Watson’s Law: C0. [6+4=10 points] Solution: For given chlorine dose: high contact time is required for high λ value.e.86tp= λ (constant) for different pathogens).coli Coxsackievirus A2 λ (constant) 0. i.e.0001)100= 99. 25% of values lower than this) and above 75th percentile.. below 25th percentile value (i. Lowest removal was observed for F-RNA phages than other microorganisms.Q4.. for fecal coliforms) was observed than viral indicators (i. 4-log removal) Log (Nt/N0)=-4.99% LP UV rays produce high decay of adenovirus compared to MP UV rays. Comment on effect of light and dark on concentration of five fecal indicators.e. Solution: Dark conditions give higher CFU values.098 0. Thus to achieve maximum removal of all pathogens we need contact time equal to that of Coxsackievirus A2. 3 . In initial regions. how long would you like to disinfect to achieve maximum removal of all pathogens? Explain the result.3 For given chlorine dose.e. Solution: Example: Log (survival)= (-4) (i. Pathogen type Adenovirus 3 E. Comment on decay of adenovirus (survival = Nt/N0) using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) UV rays. Nt=N0 (10-4) or Removal = (1-0. for somatic coliphage and F-RNA phages). but for high dose. Note UV dose is given in milli joules/cm2.24 6. Higher removal for bacterial indicator (i.

adenovirus 2 requires relatively higher UV dose than other pathogens (at least 4-5 times higher).. however.e. Both linear models appear to fit the observed decay data. For 99.Q7. high log-removal can be achieved. Solution: With high UV dose.. For high log-removal. Comment on dose requirements for inactivation of viruses at different levels by UV light for each of viruses studied. for 4-log removal). Further. Comment on effect of UV dose on virus survival for two sets of data. hard to kill). Solution: Adeno 2 virus is disinfected at slower rate than other pathogens with increasing UV dose. high UV dose is required for adeno 2 virus than other pathogens. 4 . These data also indicate that adenovirus type 2 is most resistant to UV dose (i.99% removal (i. highest UV dose is required for adenovirus type 2 than other pathogens with lowest dose required is for echovirus 2. Q8. Note that two linear models are fit to data (this is first order data).e. it is difficult to comment on model fitting due to difficulty in determining goodness-of-fit of fit models to data.