Solid Solution

• A solid solution is formed when two metals
are completely soluble in liquid state and also
Solid Solution Hardening completely soluble in solid state.
• when homogeneous mixtures of two or more
kinds of atoms (of metals) occur in the solid
state, they are known as solid solutions.

Solid Solution Substitutional solid solutions
Types of solid solutions • If the atoms of the solvent or parent metal are
Solid solutions are of two types. They are replaced in the crystal lattice by atoms of the
(a) Substitutional solid solutions. solute metal then the solid solution is known
as substitutional solid solution.
(b) Interstitial solid solutions.

Hume Rothery rules for the formation
Substitutional solid solutions
of substitutional solid solutions
• Hume Rothery formulated certain rules which
govern the formation of substitutional solid

to dissolve more of a metal of higher valence • If the chemical affinity of the two metals is than vice versa. • For extensive solid solubility the difference in atomic radii of two elements should be less than about 15 percent. Chemical affinity factor Relative valence factor • Solid solubility is favoured when the two • It is found that a metal of lower valence tends metals have lesser chemical affinity. the solid solubility structure becomes more restricted. greater then greater is the tendency towards compound formation. Substitutional solid solutions Substitutional solid solutions . the two • As the size (atomic radii) difference between elements should have the same type of crystal two elements increases. Crystal structure factor Relative size factor • For complete solid solubility.

Interstitial Solid Solutions Interstitial Solid Solutions • In interstitial solid solutions. . Interstitial Solid Solutions Effect of Solute Size Effect of Solute Size Effect of Solute Size • The degree of strength imparted by the alloying element depends on the relative difference in size between the solute and solvent. • but rather it enters one of the holes or interstices between the solvent atoms. the solute atom does not displace a solvent atom.

strength. different combinations in efforts to vary other important properties. elements give the highest return on strength Effect of Solute Size Selection of alloying elements • Solution hardening.0) is about 1/7 the size of copper • Nickel (58.4 and 63.0) and Silicon (28. and cost. elastic modulus. Zinc gives the lowest return on much greater return. is a powerful • Various alloying elements are also used in method to improve the strength of a material.7) is nearly double the size. resulting in higher stength. zinc and copper atoms • Aluminum (27. This extra distortion further impedes the progress of dislocations. However .5.1) are both are nearly the same size. substantially smaller than copper and give respectively. Effect of Solute Size Effect of Solute Size • A large difference in size creates more distortion of the crystalline lattice. such as conductivity. or alloying. ductility. but not as close as zinc. These copper. 65. • Beryllium (9.7) is also very close in size to and tin (118. Effect of Solute Size Effect of Solute Size • Based on atomic mass.

Selection of alloying elements • All properties of a material must be scrutinized by the designer before a material choice can be made. .