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Mineral mapping on the Chilean–Bolivian
Altiplano using co-orbital ALI, ASTER and
Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues

Article in Remote Sensing of Environment · November 2005
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2005.04.027


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2 authors, including:

Bernard E Hubbard
United States Geological Survey


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3) the presence of (ALI). VNIR) through Short Wavelength Infrared (1.4 Am).see front matter.elsevier. * Corresponding author. doi:10. Mail Stop 954. Published by Elsevier Inc. Multispectral and hyperspectral dimensionality 1. many clay. United States Received 10 December 2004. 1).rse. 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive. Published by Elsevier Inc.1016/j. James K. low signal-to-noise Hyperion data were only marginally better for mineral mapping than the merged 13- channel. Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 www. received in revised form 24 March 2005. 357). Terra. as well as mapping results using various ALI+ASTER data subsets. Hubbard a. the band center positions noise) (Lillesand & Kiefer. U.4 – 1. Crowley a Eastern Mineral Resources.2005. pp. SWIR) wavelength regions. sulfate and carbonate minerals (Hubbard et al. thus facilitating the from the standpoint of geologic mapping applications are: 1) detection and mapping of an ever widening range of surface the increased spectral resolution of ALI in the VNIR and materials and landcover types. Neither the Hyperion nor the combined ALI + ASTER datasets had sufficient information dimensionality for mapping the diverse range of surface materials exposed on the Altiplano. Hyperion (Table 1) and earlier spaceborne sensors. Because of their respective band center positions. The Advanced Spaceborne ASTER in the Mineral mapping on the Chilean–Bolivian Altiplano using co-orbital ALI. not including stereo and spectral resolution. Each new of the two sensors are quite different. ASTER. and Table Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) 1). ASTER and Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues and solutions Bernard E. aboard the EO-1 platform. and by employing other appropriate image-processing strategies. Central Andes. low spectral (B. compared to Landsat (Fig. In particular.04. Reston. Introduction ALI and ASTER each have nine unique wavelength channels spanning the Visible and Near Infrared (0.S. 1.*. Significant in one or more of these design factors. panchromatic channels. ALI is especially useful for discriminating among ferric-iron bearing minerals. high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER dataset. accepted 28 April 2005 Abstract Hyperspectral data coverage from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was useful for calibrating Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of a volcanic terrane area of the Chilean – Bolivian Altiplano. However. Keywords: ALI. VA 20192. whereas ASTER has the capability to distinguish between E-mail address: bhubbard@usgs. and 4) spaceborne multispectral sensors in a progression that began both sensors’ relatively high signal-to-noise compared to with the first Landsat Multispectral Scanner in 1972. it is possible to optimize the use of the multispectral data for mineral-mapping purposes by careful data subsetting.5 Am. provided insights into the information dimensionality of all the data. Hyperion. imaging systems is the trade-off among spatial resolution. are the most recent several overlapping ALI and ASTER bands (Fig. EO-1. Mineral mapping. Geological Survey. Hubbard). 2) identical spatial resolution (30 m) of the ALI-VNIR aboard the Terra platform.027 . However. the ALI and ASTER datasets were co-registered and joined to produce a 13-channel reflectance cube spanning the Visible to Short Wave Infrared (0.E. Following calibration. and each has particular generation of multispectral sensors has seen improvements value for certain remote-sensing applications. 1994.0 –2. and the Advanced Land Imager and ASTER-SWIR channels (Table 1). high spectral resolution. and radiometric precision (signal-to.0 A long-established principal in the design of spectral Am. 0034-4257/$ . Eigen analysis and comparison of the Hyperion data with the ALI + ASTER reflectance data. Volcanoes..4 – 2.

775 – 0.235 – 2. 2003). and volcanic materials is treated elsewhere (e.300 140/1 8 1. the bandpasses of the Landsat ETM are also shown. In addition.690 160/1 10 36 1 0.900 – 2.225 229/1 7 2.805 230/1 6 0.. the EO-1 also included on the EO-1 platform.605 380/1 4 0. c Prior to resampling. Pan designates ALI panchromatic channel.690 306/1 3N 0.1 –11.185 254/1 6 2.430 231/1 ALI VNIR Pan 0.285 234/1 8 2. Rowan et al. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 Fig.860 183/1 SWIR 4 1.433 – 0.g.000 161/1 30 7.080 – 2.453 270/1 30 2 0.845 – 0.500 40/1 a Note that slightly different band numbering convention is used for ALI than was reported by Mendenhall et al. 1.890 210/1 SWIR 7 1. (2000).780 – 0.350 180/1 Hyperion VNIR Continuous 0.295 – 2. (2000) for ALI.E. and ALI and ASTER data can be acquired over the same whose use in lithologic mapping of igneous. co-registration and subsetting. Hyperion records data Table 1 Summary of performance characteristics for the three sensors used in this study Multispectral/ Subsystem Band numbera Spectral range Radiometric Spatial Swath hyperspectral sensor (Am) precisionb (S/N) resolutionc (m) widthc (km) ASTER VNIR 1 0. this issue).400 – 1.174 B. ASTER has five additional and Terra satellites share the same sun-synchronous orbit.365 258/1 9 2. Bandpasses of the ALI and ASTER multispectral sensors in relation to diagnostic spectral features of minerals characteristic of hydrothermally altered rocks and ore deposits.550 – 1.600 – 1.515 410/1 3 0.750 190/1 9 2. For comparison. 2003.525 – 0. b Maximum values as reported in or derived from Mendenhall et al.200 – 1.145 – 2. J.450 – 0.520 – 0. 2003.860 202/1 3B 0. Rowan et al.780 – 0. the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer..K.600 370/1 15 60 2 0.633 – 0.185 – 2. metamorphic target within a delay time of about half-hour.360 – 2.7 SWIR Continuous 0. channels of Thermal Infrared (8. respectively for ASTER stereo pair with along-track Base-to-Height ratio (B/H) = 0. Hubbard. (2001) for Hyperion.0 Am TIR) data. Rowan & Hyperion.480 – 0. 3N and 3B designate nadir and backwards looking channels. is Mars..630 – 0.690 340/1 5 0. Fujisada (1995) for ASTER and Folkman et al. .700 466/1 30 5 2.6.

K. spectral bands covering the The ‘‘information dimensionality’’ of a remotely sensed VNIR – SWIR wavelength range. an important implication is that spectral mixture problems generally will be underdetermined for multispectral sensors (Adams et al. In particular.. i. Boardman & Green. since linear mixture analysis is limited to n 1 such as the Altiplano.E. and radiometric precision of the sensor (Board- (Thome et al.. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 175 in 220 narrow. from their background.. mation on commercially exploitable mineral deposits in the and with each other. and radiometric highly correlated and the number of linearly independent performance characteristics of the sensors used in this study spectral components may be less than n. (1989) data? The first issue is addressed here by utilizing the and Sabol et al.. 2). Both instruments were designed with ‘‘off-nadir’’ pointing capa. and urban areas.. The second and third issues are addressed by such as in the laboratory. there are three fundamental issues to spectral components (Adams et al. spectral mapping results man & Green. areas.. reality. 1989. ASTER. With the exception of detailed volcanological and petrological studies of San Pedro and San Pablo (Francis et al. 1993). Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS).7-km swath dataset can be defined as the number of linearly independent that overlaps the western edge of the 36-km-wide ALI swath spectral components present in a particular scene. (1992) note that even though certain hyperspectral to multispectral cross-sensor calibration materials may be ‘‘detectable’’ based on their spectral approach described by Hubbard et al. 2000. can the data be sufficiently well calibrated to yield with high spatial resolution and a high radiometric diagnostic spectral shape information? Second. O’Callaghan & Francis. even under optimum conditions ion data. However. On the other hand. and mapping the greatest variety of 15 to over 80 spectral components (Boardman & Green. Kruse et al.. spatial what limited by the sensor’s relatively low signal-to-noise resolution. referred to herein as ALI + ASTER. 1974. 2003). constrained by the available number of bands. J. Boardman & Green. mineral mapping. contiguous. ping strategies and results. and Azufre (Fig. and radiometric the Earth’s surface to be highly complex. Azufre has been a site of past sulfur mining . based solely on the information content of the 2000. In Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) (Crowley et al. 2. Despite the large numbers of spectral cube. region. Green & Boardman. as (Fig. Nonetheless. Marinovic & Lahsen. including Airborne Visible/ and one of the components is shade (Adams et al. 1993). but the likelihood is that some spectrally similar materials will not be distinguished. 2003). are the precision. geologically diverse. the high band-to-band correlation may be regarded as In remote. consider when using remote-sensing data for spectral Recent studies with the Airborne Visible/Infrared analysis.. an imaging spectrometer First. 2000).e. unmixing endmembers remains <<n (Adams et al. have shown the information dimensionality of spectral resolution. different types of joining ALI-VNIR spectral coverage with ASTER-SWIR mixtures can mask absorption bands needed for unique spectral coverage to produce a 13-channel reflectance image identification. 3). 2.000 (e. spectral. the associated spectral unmixing problem is and Hyperion data are then used to explore the effects of overdetermined with AVIRIS data. 2000). which spectral processing methods are most useful for showed information dimensionalities ranging from about detecting. and Hyper. Individual precision of the data sufficient to identify materials of 11 11 km2 AVIRIS scenes acquired over many different interest without the ability to conduct field sampling? Third. and poorly studied areas fortunate. obtained with Hyperion data compare reasonably well with it is possible to have a maximum of n + 1 spectral results obtained from a variety of technologically advanced components. The ALI + ASTER components. cover types. Fig. Green & Boardman. are summarized in Table 1. (2003) for deriving signatures. Petersen (1999) provides infor- bilities to enable imaging within the 185 km wide field of view of Landsat. EO-1 and Terra instrument ground tracks in relation to Landsat-7 swath. they are not always uniquely ‘‘identifiable’’ spectral shape information from ALI. Hubbard. Spectral mixture analysis can still be performed. San Pablo. spatial resolution.. The scientific applications of Hyperion are some. where n is the number of available bands airborne hyperspectral sensors. deserts. identifying. Geologic setting and scene descriptions The study area is located on the Chilean – Bolivian Altiplano. the geology of much of this area has not been mapped at a scale more detailed than 1:250. adjacent closely spaced spectral bands tend to be 2003. Ramirez & Huete. including oceans. B. In theory. the number of spectral heterogeneity at different scales on mineral map. and covers a 7. Spatial.g. 1986). 1989. and covers the Salar de Ascotan as well as the major stratovolcanoes San Pedro. 1980). 2000). 2000). forests. and lithologic discrimination.. Adams et al. 1984. Notably.

based on the were calibrated to reflectance prior to their spatial and assumption that the calibrated Hyperion data are correct. tectonic feature and salars of the Chilean – Bolivian Altiplano. which is displayed in greater detail in grayscale image on the left.K.. has scenes. San Pablo (G). In other words. while the ALI and Hyperion scenes were solar irradiance spectrum uncertainty. The study area contains tance values were then refined by using computed scalers numerous volcanic features. as well as other prominent volcanic features and structures catalogued by de Silva and Francis (1991): Cerro Araral (B). pumice flow deposit on the South 3.E. In this case. and Cordon de Inacaliri (Pabelloncito Graben—I). Also shown is the full geographic extent of areas in common to both ALI and ASTER scenes. Cerro Carasilla (D). common analysis to all three scenes. and shown and labeled in Fig. August 9.g. dacite lava levels.. Cerro Colorado (H). and deposits of borate (ulexite) continue to be program (Gao et al. laboratory spectrum of a dacitic rock sample by the image Fig. relatively unoxidized. an ASTER scene from the EROS Data our ground target. J. 1993).176 B. San Pedro (F). On the other hand. volcanic activity area covered by fresh. Regional location map showing major stratovolcanoes. The ASTER scene used in this study was acquired the advantage of minimizing errors due to instrument noise. The ATREM-derived reflec- extracted from the Salar de Ascotan. 3. was used to determine corresponding scale factors for adjusting the ALI and ASTER radiance ASTER Level-1B and ALI Level-1 radiance datasets values to reflectance. The major geologic features of the Chilean – Bolivian alitplano covered within the ALI + ASTER 13-channel image cube includes the stratovolcanoes discussed in text: Azufre (E). 3). which shows ALI band four. spatial – spectral registration. Calibration.. Therefore. the Salar de Ascotan (A) and vegetated Ojo de San Pedro oasis (J). and atmospheric path acquired on April 21. and mass wasting. Thus. 1986).. 3). tion errors that must also be carefully assessed. 2001. and data flank of San Pedro (O’Callaghan & Francis. The Hyperion dataset covers an differences related to topographic variations (Clark et al. This two-step procedure. activity. petrogenesis. Also shown and numbered are the various subsets of ALI + ASTER and Hyperion data discussed in text. 1990) determined by dividing the described in a compilation by de Silva and Francis (1991. flows from the ‘‘SW Dome’’ of San Pedro mapped as Simultaneous acquisition of ALI and ASTER scenes ‘‘Young Cone Units’’ by O’Callaghan and Francis (1986). 2001. some of which are listed and (e. approximately 6-km swath that includes part of the Salar de 1995). Cerro Ascotan del Jardin (C). we used an information on edifice construction ages. Hubbard. A Hyperion spectrum (average of 315 pixels) from a spectrally flat and bright. combining Center archives was selected based on snow cover radiative transfer-based atmospheric compensation with conditions that best matched that of our ALI and Hyperion vicarious laboratory or field reflectance measurements. The Hyperion data were initially ALI and ASTER reflectance data were adjusted to give calibrated using the ATmosphere REMoval (ATREM) comparable spectral shape information. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 Fig. Cerro del Carcanal (K). de Silva and Francis (1991) also provide some local spectrum of a known dacitic target. relying on limited spectral Ascotan and several areas of altered volcanic rocks in information to determine the scalers can introduce calibra- common with our ALI + ASTER image cube (Fig. spectral registration. 6. covering our study site was not practical because of limited The applied scalers forced a spectral match between the EO-1 targeting opportunities prior to fieldwork in January image spectrum and the laboratory spectrum representing 2002. the narrow . Kruse et al.

A standard changes in surface moisture within the salar.39 and 0. tered formats. B.g. This summarizes the center wavelength positions and FWHM was based on 157– 223 ground control points for each ALI values of the resulting 13-channel ALI + ASTER image strip. In this case. 2001) was not necessary.26. The ALI reflectance range of approximately 1000 DNs (Fig. The four ALI illumination caused by acquisition of the two scenes at strips were seamlessly mosaicked together. pixels. resulting in methods requires a priori identification of the mixing minimal cross-sensor geometric distortion and no need to endmember components of a scene (Adams et al. which has Additional discussion of cross-sensor calibration issues and an equivalent band center wavelength of 1. shift ASTER bands 4 through 9 to the same reflectance level The ASTER Level-1B data used in this study were as the ALI data. Level-1 data were distributed as four overlapping strips Much of this offset is probably related to differences in covering a total swath of 36 km (Table 1). . At the time of writing.K.. Both datasets were acquired < based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA). correction of the ASTER data for This was done by first subtracting ASTER band 4- SWIR crosstalk (Iwasaki et al. J. less 13-channel image cube. Hubbard et al. ASTER bandpasses.87. and spatially the ALI images to the corresponding UTM grid of the coherent striped noise patterns in ALI band ALI bands 1 –8 were joined to ASTER bands 4– 9. Table 2 ASTER data (Lillesand & Kiefer. pp. The two different times. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 177 swath of Hyperion data can therefore used to constrain the and the ALI data were acquired using a sensor pointing calibration of wider-swath multispectral datasets (Hubbard angle of 4. local differ- image-to-image first-order transformation was used to rotate ences in snow-cover on the volcanoes.from the original Level-1A data.E. Hubbard. 4). 4) were then used to provided by Hubbard et al.of each other.. Histogram of spectral offset values used in spectral registration of ALI to ASTER.. the three ASTER VNIR channels than 50 points would have been sufficient for producing (Table 1) were spatially resampled to match the 30-m SWIR reasonably low RMS errors for the first-order rotations used channels in order to facilitate post-calibration comparison of on the four strips of ALI data. Because the shapes of the resulting ASTER nine-point In order to take full advantage of the available spectral spectra generally agreed with those of ALI nine-point bands provided by ALI in the VNIR and ASTER in the spectra and fit well with Hyperion spectra convolved to SWIR. The largest mode of spectral offset values distributed in UTM-registered form based on a rotation occurs around the median DN value of 18 out of a total angle of ¨9. 3). the ASTER data were Several effective approaches to endmember selection are acquired using a sensor pointing angle of 2. using Use of ‘‘fully constrained’’ linear spectral unmixing sensor pointing angles within 1.5. reflectance values from those of ALI band 8.56 cube. 527– 531). However. 1994. 1993). with final RMS errors ranging between 2003). Although hundreds of ground et al. which Fig.. The a more thorough comparison of spectra between the subtraction was done pixel by pixel and the calculated multispectral and hyperspectral sensors used here are offsets between the two bands (Fig.65 Am.. Bi-modal distribution of DN values is discussed further in detail in the text. larger offsets < 100 (Fig. 4. ALI spectral shapes between corresponding ALI and ASTER data are now being distributed in mosaicked and georegis- nine-point image spectra (e. 2003). Although not used in the construction of the control points were used for conservative measures. correct for parallax. (2003). 4) registered datasets were then subsetted to a 33  62 km occur in some areas of the scene possibly due to temporal area of overlap between the two scenes (Fig.

The resulting spectral . vertices in n-space by repeatedly projecting MNF-trans. These information dimensionality of remote sensing datasets. The actual eigenvalues of MNF method devised by Boardman et al. altered and unaltered volcanic rocks. the number of the Fig. were used to evaluate how distinct each of the greater spectral complexity? This question is explored in resulting endmember classes were. nately.7900 0.2050 0. and 1. Spectra into smaller pieces is it possible to reach the same representing each vertex were then clustered into material eigenvalue cutoff as Green and Boardman (2000) with the classes and utilized in linear spectral unmixing analyses. and 13 are 1. the Minimum Noise Boardman (2000). and by comparisons ALI + ASTER subset enables an ‘‘overdetermined’’ spectral of image spectra to existing spectral libraries (e. 1988. only by subsetting the Azufre image formed image spectra onto random unit vectors.040 10 2. Following an approach similar to image cube that used by Green and Boardman (2000). and even some small areas of dense vegetation. 7. What about other parts of the Azufre image that exhibit 2000).8675 0. In their eigen analysis of AVIRIS data dimensionality.1. designed to relegate spa. we initially explored the question whether it is smaller amounts of the total scene variance (Lillesand & even possible with the ALI + ASTER data to reach the same Kiefer. In view of this spectral with higher-order components containing progressively complexity. respectively.3300 0. As most of the available spectral Identification of each material class was done by inspection information is contained in MNF images 1 – 10.4825 0.178 B. To locate mixing endmembers in the 13) contain little spectral information.and 3-band mineral mapping perspective. 1. 1. wavelength regions Green and Boardman (2000) found that an eigenvalue of affected by strong atmospheric absorption (1. Fig.2500 0. The information dimensionality of the area clearly exceeds the limited number of available dimensions (spectral band- segregates spectral information into orthogonal components passes) in the ALI + ASTER data.070 ice.6600 0. (1995). spectral diversity. Fraction (MNF) transformation.. The full range of eigenvalues is shown in 2000). Clark et unmixing solution (Boardman & Green. 2 0. including evaporite 12 2. 12. this of their occurrences within the images. combinations of MNF eigenchannels (n-D visualizer. 5 inset plot.25 used by Green and variation of the PCA procedure. which is consistent Altiplano data we utilized the ‘‘pixel purity index’’ (PPI) with their low eigenvalues. As ALI + ASTER data (Fig. the eigenvalue of each MNF transformed with the relatively high eigenvalue of 1.100 9 2.065 3 0. 5 it can be seen that the last three eigenchannels (11– (Boardman.80 for the 13th MNF channel provides a measure of its information content.. RSI. Results 6 0. The present study utilized a eigenvalue ‘‘noise floor’’ of 1. which is consistent and Green (2000).060 5 0. ALI + ASTER and hyperion dimensionality comparison 8 1. Unfortu- al. 6).050 contains a variety of surficial materials.28.14.3950 0.4 and 1. 1993) and by limited ground truth sample information. snow and 13 2. Thus.25). which shows MNF images for the NW corner of the Besides its usefulness for spectral endmember selection. as well as part of the Salar de Ascotan (Fig. Hubbard. zero.K. tially incoherent noise to higher-order channels that can be subset of the Azufre image that was chosen for its lack of excluded from subsequent analyses (Green et al. Fig. which identifies channels 11. again reflecting the dominance of incoherent case. the small subset in Fig. and an enlarged version of the plot mixing endmembers contained in a scene is generally highlighting the lower eigenvalues is shown in Fig. 3 and 7b) eigenvalues generally have very limited (or no) spatial were also analyzed by using the MNF procedure.100 4. ALI + ASTER data.040 The Azufre study area is exceptionally well exposed and 11 2.9 Am). 6. J. From equivalent to the number of spatially coherent eigenchannels Fig.045 7 1.2600 0. 1993). 572 – 577)..24. In this coherency.25) Wavelength positions and FWHMs of the merged 13-channel ALI + ASTER versus noise (< = 1. pp. full dataset. the Hyperion data were limited to 136 bands in order noise.1650 0. RSI. a 9  6 km2 area containing a variety of volcanic the MNF procedure also can be used to study the rocks.E.6500 0. This implies that spectral unmixing solutions progressively noisier channels approaching eigenvalues near will be underdetermined for this subset.5650 0. When using the MNF procedure. 7a) contain spatially coherent explained by Green and Boardman (2000) and Boardman information in all 13 MNF images. These authors also note that channels having low Hyperion data of the same subset area (Figs. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 Table 2 boundary between MNF channels containing signal (> 1.030 4. 2000). 3).080 4 0. to exclude overlapping spectral bands. 5 shows 13 MNF images for a small.020 ALI + ASTER and Hyperion data.070 minerals.25 served as a useful empirical baseline demarking the and a few non-functional bandpasses. 9  6 km2.g. with band (Fig. the present study Channel number Center or peak wavelength (Am) FWHM examines MNF transform results for several subsets of the 1 0.4430 0. 5 holds little interest from a Multi-dimensional class-visualization various 2. 1994.

38 Am. 0. Fig.K. Clark et al. 3. which becomes increasingly evident beyond MNF band 13. 6). A major cause of this reduced classes were identified through pixel purity analysis. Fig.09.. are shown in Fig. inspection of the Hyperion MNF images shows MNF bands. 7b shows the discussed above (Fig.96 – 4. Eleven spectral endmember first 18 of 136 MNF images. If the same 1. .44 –0.25 eigenvalue threshold is applied to the Hyperion data. much of the information dimensionality resolvable by Image classification results using linear spectral unmixing Hyperion.2. especially band striping. low-variability portion (subset #1) of the ALI + ASTER dataset outlined in Fig. Eigen analysis of the full ALI + ASTER scene (Fig.51– 1. RSI. dimensionality is coherent noise.88.32. and by comparison of image spectra to a Thus. Interestingly. 1. the eigenvalue of the 13th MNF that the true dimensionality is much less than this.76. 8. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 179 Fig. subset includes Hyperion bands between: 0.17– 1. probably band is not very different from that of the NW subset in the range of about 16– 20 (Fig. indicates that spectral information is again present in all 13 However. 1993).E. 6. multi-dimensional visualization methods (n-D visualizer. 6) the implied information dimensionality is 80 (Fig. 5. Summary of eigen analysis for all subsets of ALI + ASTER and Hyperion data showing noise thresholds and dimensionality cutoffs. despite having (in this example) about 1/10 the (LSU) and these endmembers (including simulated shade) number of spectral bandpasses.. the high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER data capture similarly convolved spectral library (e. MNF eigen analysis of a 9  6 km2. B.g. Full scene ALI + ASTER mapping results 1. Hubbard. J. 6). 2000). 7b).02– 2. 1. and 2.

180 B. unmixing using the full scene’s coverage did not provide the data were subsetted in order to treat separately the satisfactory results.g. The spectral unmixing 4.E. 9. alunite and kaolinite . 6). MNF eigen analysis of (a) high signal-to-noise. and several mineral classes were mapped in places where they were not MNF eigen analysis of a 25  25 km2 ALI + ASTER expected. For example.64 (Fig. low signal-to-noise Hyperion data (see Table 1 for details on instrument characteristics). both the endmember selection and spectral subsets that include fewer material types. Overall. 3 and 8). low spectral resolution ALI + ASTER data compared to (b) high spectral resolution. 7. At the with this is the 13th eigenchannel value of 1. 3. J. spectral resolution of ASTER. evaporite materials within the Salar de Ascotan and the the n-D visualizer did not show distinct vertices. Another were identified using the pixel purity index and n-D example of mapping confusion is the widespread indication visualization methods. Subset mapping results I: Azufre– Cerro Colorado– San analysis revealed only limited compositional detail around Pablo the highly altered Azufre volcano. extensive areas of alunitic rocks subset centered on Azufre showed. Note that because there was no pure spectra indicates mostly gypsum. i. 6).3. Hubbard. altered rocks present on the major volcanic edifices. Except for a few extreme endmembers. To test this idea. as expected.. Consistent vegetated oasis.e. relatively subtle differences between spectral endmembers were not clearly distinguished.K. A possible solution to kaolinite endmember it was necessary to define several these mapping problems might be to analyze smaller scene mixed endmembers (e. This subset (#2) covers a 9  6 km2 portion of data common to ALI. and seven of these endmembers are of ulexite in areas where inspection of Hyperion image shown in Fig. ASTER and Hyperion as shown in subset #2 outline of Fig. dry vegetation containing Nine distinct spectral endmembers (not including shade) ligno-cellulose can easily be confused with alunite. snow. that all 13 were mapped within the Salar de Ascotan and in the MNF bands contain spectral information (Fig. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 Fig.. Ojo de San Pedro (Figs.

Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 181 Fig. hematite and other ferric iron minerals (Fig. ‘‘+’’ in legion refers to ‘‘and’’ in reference to mixed endmembers. See Fig. To better distinguish the hematitic and sulfur-bearing altered rocks the SAM algorithm was applied. 10). which were restricted mostly to the northeastern flank of San Pablo (Fig. Note that six of nine classes shown have been combined for clarity. snow/ice and spectrally featureless classes are not shown. Smectite and hydrous silica endmembers were found as well. and are also not shown in Fig. Based on . but are not Sulfur displays an absorption edge that is shifted towards shown here for sake of clarity. Two of the nine spectral endmembers identified by PPI analysis. 9. 10). including snow and ice and vegetation. Hubbard. Fig. 3 for names of geographic features referred throughout text. and the small band-to-band differences in the ASTER channels Fig.K. SAM provides a measure of similarity between reference and unknown spectra by computing a vector angle between them in n-space (Kruse et al. 9. ‘‘+’’ in spectra labels refers to ‘‘and’’ in ultraviolet wavelengths (< 0. identifiable endmembers used in spectral related to the presence of alunite versus clays (Fig. smectite and hydrous silica. Using all 13 ALI + ASTER bands. mapping of Azufre subset (Fig. Vegetation. 11). 1993). 9.. 10 shows the result of linear spectral unmixing (LSU) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) analysis of the Azufre subset using the seven spectral endmembers shown in Fig. ultimately producing endmember distributions that lacked spatial coherency. Image spectra compared with field sample spectra of selected altered rock exposures show the relatively subtle spectral effects of sulfur in the ALI VNIR channels. mixtures) to account for the kaolinite component. 11). SAM was more effective than LSU for mapping all of the altered rock classes except for snow/rock mixtures. B. 8. Spectral unmixing mapping results for the full ALI + ASTER spatial and spectral coverage. the results required unreason- ably high threshold values for separating hematitic altered rocks at Cerro Colorado from sulfur-bearing altered rocks at Azufre.E. Seven out of 10 major. J. Although LSU analysis appeared to produce more reasonable endmember distributions than in the case of the full scene unmixing results. existed only as a few isolated pixels on the flanks of Cerro Colorado and Azufre.4 Am) compared to that of reference to mixed endmembers.

spectral analysis and field validation training sites are indicated and numbers corresponding to key spectral plots are shown in Fig. ‘‘+’’ in spectra labels unique endmembers again exceeds 13. ‘‘+’’ in legion refers to ‘‘and’’ in reference to mixed endmembers. The largest and best studied of these salars. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 Fig. 11. 10 for location). 1989.4. precipitating. or contain fluid inclusions that display spectral features due to water (Crowley. halite-rich salt crusts commonly are damp with interstitial brine. Ground truth. contain Ca – Na –SO4 –Cl brines. 1994.182 B.E. Fig. and to hydroxyl. or by folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of the Coastal and Central Cordillera ranges (Stoertz & Ericksen. In areas to the north and northwest of Azufre. in order of decreasing solubility. Image endmember spectra representing the various color-coded classes are shown in the preceding Fig. ALI + ASTER Image spectra showing sulfur-bearing altered rocks MNF eigen analysis of the Salar de Ascotan ALI + at Azufre.. it can be seen that many altered rocks in debris flows and alluvial fans correspond in composition to their upstream source areas (Fig. as compared to hematitic altered rocks at Cerro Colorado (see Fig. borate. 10). Stoertz & Ericksen. and carbonate anion groups (Crowley. Subset mapping results II: Salar de Ascotan Salar de Ascotan is one of many large evaporite playas located in closed basins bounded either by the volcanic peaks of the Andean Highlands. 4. Sabins & Miller. 1974). and carbonate minerals (Chapman et al. providing an indication of their relative ages (Fig. Evaporite playas can refers to ‘‘and’’ in reference to mixed endmembers. 1993). exhibit considerable spectral complexity due to the presence . halite. 11. 1974).K. 1991). Hubbard. the mineral map. altered rocks associated with alluvial fan and debris flow deposits are partially covered by younger lava flows from the northern flank of the volcano. Although pure halite is spectrally featureless in the VNIR – SWIR. 10). borate. J. Also shown are spectra of field samples of ASTER subset (Fig. 6) reveals that the number of spectrally hydrothermally altered rocks collected from Azufre. gypsum. Many evaporite minerals exhibit VNIR –SWIR spectral features related to structural water molecules. 10. 9. Salar de Atacama and Salar de Uyuni. Azufre – Cerro Colorado subset mapping results based on spectral unmixing and spectral shape-fitting applied to the ALI + ASTER image cube.

8. such as dry halite and anhydrite. alunite salar (Fig. 12). and because varying and aluminous– clays mixtures.K.d. of many different evaporite minerals. Eleven endmembers mapped on the volcanic edifice of Cerro Carasilla. Values for (a) and (b) are shown on an equivalent linear color scale ranging from pixels with values at or near 1 (blue color) to values up to and exceeding 140 (red color). 1991. . 12. = mean deviation for population. 1993). in were identified using pixel purity and n-D visualization alluvial sediments. (b) subset linear unmixing results shown in Fig. Spectral unmixing mapping results at Salar de Ascotan. LSU analysis largely on the edges of the salar. aluminous – degrees of surface wetness cause non-linear changes in clay and alunite mixtures. and (c) histogram statistics for both. J. ‘‘+’’ in legion refers to ‘‘and’’ in reference to mixed endmembers. = standard deviation. 14 are also shown. Unclassified areas of the (Fig. 12.d. s. and in debris flow deposits exposed methods and mapped using fully constrained. RMS error distribution map covering the Salar de Ascotan for (a) full-scene linear unmixing results shown in Fig.E. Training sites indicating the location of image spectra shown in Fig. Unclassified areas of the salar are dominated by spectrally featureless materials. Note that several classes of wet brines have been combined for clarity and the vegetation class is not shown. and likely contain Fig. Hubbard.’’ and ‘‘mostly hematite. Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 183 Fig.’’ ‘‘hematite. m. Three of these endmember classes. 12) are spectrally featureless. 13. ‘‘sulfur. as shown in the histogram (c).’’ were spectral shape (Crowley. B.

providing well-calibrated datasets with to relative lack of purity. in well-exposed volcanic terranes it is usually abundant gypsum and ulexite. compared to a more uniform RMS error from the hydrothermally altered volcanoes of the surround- distribution associated with the subset results.e. This improvement) in the number. 14. The Hyperion gypsum volcanic rocks to serve as ground targets for vicarious spectrum (Fig.E.. 1992). For extracted for localities common to all three datasets. ulexite deposits reportedly occur in the northernmost parts aluminous clays. Hyperion data also can be used to help Fig. One source of ing highlands. Other possible sources of high RMS errors are either cases in which This study further demonstrates the utility of cross- modeled endmember components are absent from pixels calibration and validation between the EO-1 ALI/Hyperion causing an increase in LSU sensitivity to noise or other and Terra ASTER instruments (Hubbard et al. atmospheric compensation for the Hyperion swath. salar include three types of wet brines (these are combined as 1980. ALI + ASTER (a) and Hyperion (b) image spectra of ulexite-bearing borate and gypsum-bearing sulfute deposits. . 12. the subset LSU results show a notable decrease (i. often with disseminated fibers.. 1980). gypsum.’’ Also. corresponds to areas that likely underwent change in wetness between the acquisition dates 5. or cases where endmember components unique to Hyperion data embedded in the ALI and ASTER images certain pixels are missing altogether (Sabol et al. calibration. the Hyperion ulexite spectrum (Fig. nodules or 13c) suggests that most of the major endmember classes layers of exposed ulexite.. the gypsum and ulexite were accounted for during the LSU analysis. of the Salar de Ascotan (Ramirez & Huete. enable the use of radiative transfer based methods of Overall. broad areal coverage. Hyperion However. unaltered reference spectra in Fig. Clay initial spectral unmixing of the full ALI + ASTER scene minerals found in evaporite playa and lacustrine environ- coverage gave poorer results (Figs.K. variables. Such Representative ALI + ASTER and Hyperion spectra targets can sometimes be identified without fieldwork. with example. 14. 13b and c). Discussion and conclusions of the joined ALI and ASTER datasets. 1974). The bi-modal ments typically are detrital in origin rather than pedogenic histogram of RMS error associated with the full scene or diagenetic (Droste. 14b) shows a image spectra can then be used to scale ALI and ASTER poorer match to the spectral library spectrum probably due data to reflectance. known ground targets within the Hyperion scene. the narrow range of residual error de Ascotan is covered by moist to water-saturated crusts of values (standard deviation ¨ 16 for the salar subset—Fig. 8 and 13a). Also. zones tend to surround smaller zones containing dry halite. magnitude and distribution of initial calibration can then be refined by using spectra of pixels with higher RMS errors (Fig. Stoertz & Ericksen. 14b) matches the library spectrum well. the higher population of RMS error values. as reported by Stoertz and Stoertz and Ericksen (1974) note that ‘‘much of the Salar Ericksen (1974). Most of the higher-grade a single class in Fig. The seven most significant mineral classes mapped in the damp halite or encrusted brine pools (Ramirez & Huete. 13a) suggests it contains two ALI + ASTER-mapped smectitic clay probably is derived populations of error. Hubbard. beyond ulexite. 1961). gypsum. Locations of pixel training sites are shown in Fig. In Salar de Ascotan the spectral unmixing results (Fig. J. blebs. in common to both sets of LSU results.184 B. and mixtures containing the borate mineral. are compared to library possible to locate exposures of spectrally bland. 2003). 3). Crowley / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 173 – 186 either dry halite or anhydrite. Once fully calibrated to reflectance. 12 for sake of clarity). Such spectral complexity was the main reason why the coverage of the ALI + ASTER scene (Fig.

dealing with underdetermined spectral unmixing situations International Journal of Remote Sensing. from each other than in the Azufre subset.). vol. IGARSS’. King. 11 – 14).S. Conversely. The SAM algorithm is well suited Boardman. O.. subpixel mixtures were Publication. 10 pp. O. 95-01 (pp. T. A disadvantage of multiple coverage. 145 – 166). New York’ Cambridge University Press.. geological survey. G. B.e. Hubbard. R. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Special at the sensor spatial resolution. not very successful. Rothery.. 1998. & Pontual. 245 – 255. R. 12). A. the spectral endmembers present in the Salar Boardman. Swayze. spectra do not necessarily act as suitable endmembers for H. O. O. Exploring the spectral variability of the earth as measured by AVIRIS in 1999. A. case the spectral endmembers generally were more distinct Chapman. R. The Azufre subset example shows that distinctive Clark. Smith. Much better linear spectral unmixing results expense of developing sensors with high signal-to-noise and were obtained by spatial subsetting of the ALI + ASTER data spatial/spectral resolution. J. This study shows that complex in order to segregate endmembers from the different geologic scenes. Remote geochemical analysis: spectral effects of iron and sulfur in the VNIR. J. (1995). as well as improved mapping of greater radiometric precision than Hyperion if they are to evaporite mineral distributions within the salar. Pieters. A. A. W. (1993). egies proved to be effective for the two largest ALI + - ASTER image subsets (Azufre—Fig. tional mapping of minerals associated with hydrothermally Furthermore. Heidebrecht.E. which can reduce Crowley. as well as extensive amounts of initially performed on the full ALI + ASTER coverage was computational effort (Okin et al. and minimizes or co-acquired scenes can provide an effective mineral RMS and residual error. 10. composite backgrounds can be variable. In this annual JPL airborne geosciences workshop. A. G. and references therein). & Goetz. This enabled more detailed composi. .. Boardman. W. 23 – 26). A. Geological Survey Open File Report. Summaries of the fourth annual JPL endmembers in this particular subset were spatially distinct airborne geosciences workshop. spectra of playa evaporite minerals. & Green. spectral angle mapper analysis complex natural surfaces: A strategy for the hyperspectral era of remote sensing. 93-592 must be tailored to the scene content.2 to 3. K. On the other hand. adequately. in Adams. R. (1989). Jet Propulsion Laboratory Special Publication. 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M. but were signatures via partial unmixing of AVIRIS data.. Summaries of the ninth for discerning subtle spectral differences between materials annual JPL airborne geosciences workshop..0 microns. Smith.. W. Englert (Eds. ality-limited numbers of endmembers (Sabol et al. & Gillespie. slightly different spectral mapping strat. such as distinctions between the M. W. (1326 pp.S. Simple models for the case of the Azufre subset. (1993). with high degrees of spectral variability require data environments. Thus. as insufficient spectral resolution A long standing problem in remote sensing has been the resulted in confusion between the diverse compositional trade-off between the ability to map complex scenes and the endmembers. spectral endmembers. 16231 – 16240. In C. K. Visible and near-infrared (0.). future hyperspectral sensors must provide altered volcanic rocks. pixel purity index. Summaries of the fifth well resolved by linear spectral unmixing analysis. & Gillespie.. 1999). J. W. (1993). 00-18. A. R. B. D. Adams. relatively unimportant. J. B. O. Automated spectral unmixing of AVIRIS data the effectiveness of SAM indicates that the spectral using convex geometry concepts. Clearly.. which allows information is limited or unavailable. i. N. However. M. F.. while using the least number of mapping tool in the absence of complete hyperspectral endmembers for each pixel. the number and types of endmembers to vary for each Joined ALI + ASTER spectra derived from well-matched pixel. optimizes endmember detectability. Gallagher. E. R. J. multispectral spaceborne sensors. Calibration to surface reflectance of terrestrial imaging LSU analysis if they do not mix. when Remote sensing of evaporite mineral zonation in salt flats (salars). difficult to resolve by spectral unmixing... V. 10 and Salar de Ascotan—Fig. compared to results obtained by linear spectral unmixing. Francis.. J. and n-D visualization procedures. A. F. 95-01 (pp.K. N. V. (1989). 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