28.5-27.11 2016

Gideon Aschwanden
Donald Bates
Karen Burns
Mark Burry
Kim Dovey
Philip Goad
Xiaoran Huang
Justyna Karakiewicz
Geoff Kimm
Tom Kvan
Nano Langenheim
Hannah Lewi
Elek Pafka
Alan Pert
Stanislav Roudavski
Andrew Saniga
Paul Walker
Marcus White

02 03


1946 2016 2046

C o n t e nt s
DEDICATION Copyright © National Library of Australia 04 06 34 58
Melbourne School of Design Cataloguing-in-Publication FUTURE FACTORY Introduction: MRI the city Doing Bigness
The University of Melbourne entry
This book is dedicated and the work Austria to Australia, Tom Kvan Stanislav Roudavski
to the memory of Ernest 2016
X-Ray The City! of Ernest Fooks Fuchs to Fooks
Fooks (born Ernest 1. Urban Design Alan Pert and 38 66
Published by
Leslie Fuchs, 6 October Melbourne School of Design 2. Architectural History Philip Goad X-Raying Urban Cities… they’re so hot
1906 – 4 December The University of Melbourne 3. Architectural Design
Policy Frameworks right now
1985) and his wife Victoria 3010 Australia 4. Urban Analytics
Noemi Fooks. www.msd.unimelb.edu.au
14 Mark Burry Marcus White,
ISBN 978-0-7340-5258-2 Fooks, Rudofsky Geoff Kimm,
All rights reserved. No part and Henard 42 Nano Langenheim,
of this publication may be Alan Pert Connectivity and Xiaoran Huang and
reproduced, distributed,
or transmitted in any
morphology Mark Burry
form or by any means, 18 Xiaoran Huang,
including photocopying, Metric City Marcus White, 72
recording, or other Karen Burns Mark Burry and Fooks and the
electronic or mechanical
methods, without the prior
Geoff Kimm emergence of urban
written permission of the 22 science
publishers. Fooks: Integrating 46 Justyna Karakiewicz
Urban Functions The City as a
Printed by Brambra Press
6 Rocklea Drive
Paul Walker Mix of Mixes 76
Port Melbourne 3207 Kim Dovey and Studio Projects
Australia 26 Elek Pafka
Knowledge is not for 100
Publication Design:
Sean Hogan, Trampoline
knowing; knowledge 50 4D Data, Diagrams,
trampoline.net.au is for cutting How lear ning Density and
Hannah Lewi algor ithms suppor t Diagnostics
ur ban design AND Donald Bates
30 the problem of too
Taking Them B ack: much data 104
the Austro- Gideon Aschwanden Biographies
Austr alians
retur ned to Vienna 54
Andrew Saniga Spatial Nearness
Marcus White,
Geoff Kimm and
Nano Langenheim

04 05

F U T U R E FACTORY Through his 1946 book X-Ray the City! Ernest Fooks
offers a provocative departure point for the Future
sections (each with a focus on a bespoke period:
1946 / 2016 / 2046), the exhibition touches on
an d the wor k of Factory community to develop theories, insights and
applications to support innovative adaptive designs
a broad range of perspectives including urban
analytics, design tools, geometry, society and
Er ne st Fo oks and to tackle the complexity of the future urban stakeholders, and simply trying to understand the
challenges head on. Many of the arguments and city using the X-Ray analogy.
speculations Fooks presented 7 decades ago in
X-Ray the City! remain relevant to date, and will keep Urban development in practice typically assumes
on being so for generations to come. They are in that the built environment is essentially a foreseeable
line with Future Factory members’ fields of inquiry set of outcomes for which, given sufficient data
The Melbourne School of Design (MSD) at the University of who together explore novel ecosystems at any scale
seeking a clearer understanding of past, actual and
and information, future behaviour is predictable.
Instead the contemporary urban condition can
Melbourne is home to a diverse group of researchers and emerging environmental issues ranging between be understood alternatively as a set of systems:
individual needs and their reasonable aspirations and complex spatial aggregates of social, natural
practitioners who share a passion for design, design research and the collective needs of society and the planet as a and technical phenomena that are destined to
supersede and merge traditional typologies such
studio-based teaching. sustainable whole.
as ‘cities’, ‘landscapes’ or ‘biota’. Such systems
How can one contextualise Fooks’ work in a do not follow universal or linear laws leading us to
contemporary setting? consider the role of complexity theory and its role
within creative investigations of ‘the future’. As an
As part of the University’s drive for a whole-of- transdisciplinary design-led research probes, the For the 2016 Venice Biennale, Future Factory applied intellectual undertaking design is well suited
university approach to tacking several ‘Grand Future Factory Research Hub explores, shapes and members take a fresh look at X-Ray the City! 70 to suggest and interrogate unlikely pathways across
Challenges’, a diverse group of individuals from tests design speculations across all scales working years after it was first published. Their contributions datasets; this exhibition and catalogue demonstrates
the School have formed a research hub to reach with many discrete disciplines.  We are organised to the exhibition in the Palazzo Mora contextualise a the value of combining a critical view of both the
across what would otherwise be rather disconnected around project-based investigations that explore broad range of Fooks influences and contemporaries past and the present in any argument promoting
streams of inquiry. Established as a place for alternative scenarios in the quest for insights into to reflect critically on the past, scrutinise the present competing views of the future, and how the future
possible credible urban futures.  and speculate on the future. Split into three major might be.

06 07

Introduction Ernst Leslie Fuchs was born in Bratislava,
Czechoslovakia on 6 October 1906. His family
Fooks’ career can be broken down into three distinct
phases: first, his time in Vienna and his work on the

Austria to Australia, moved to Vienna in 1908 where he went on to study
architecture at the city’s Technische Hochschule,
first high-rise development in that city; second, the
early years of life in Melbourne when he worked as

Fuchs to Fooks completing a doctorate in Technical Science with
a major in Town Planning, and opening his own
a design architect within the government agency of
the Housing Commission of Victoria and published
architectural practice in 1932.2 His doctoral thesis, widely on urban design and town planning including
entitled ‘Stadt in Streifen’, was a detailed analysis the publication of X-Ray the City! in 1946; and third,
of the concept of the linear city.3 After escaping his work in private practice which passes through
Europe’s increasing anti-Semitism, Fuchs married two distinctive phases, which, align with the impact
A l a n P e rt and Latvian-born Noemi Matusevic in Canada before of his travels overseas. In particular his trips with
migrating to Australia, arriving in Melbourne in Noemi to Scandinavia and Japan which directly
Ph i lip Go a d May 1939. He initially worked for the Housing influence his domestic work.
Commission of Victoria before becoming in 1944 the
first lecturer in town planning at Melbourne Technical Fooks was also an accomplished artist, holding
College (now RMIT University). He changed his name exhibitions over the period from 1944 to 1984,
In the 1990s The University of Melbourne’s Architecture Building to Ernest Fooks on becoming an Australian citizen in including ‘Cities of Yesterday’ (1944) and ‘The
1945 and established an architectural practice under Two Faced Metropolis’ (1952). He presents as a
and Planning Library was fortunate to have bequeathed to it the his own name in 1948. Today, Fooks is best known significant figure from the émigré design diaspora,
in Melbourne for his postwar modernist flats and which brought numerous professionals from
‘Fooks Collection’ from Noemi Fooks, widower of the late Dr houses, many of which still exist. Despite common Europe to Australia during the interwar, World War
Ernest Fooks (1906-1985), émigré architect and town planner public disdain for ‘European style’ high-rise living,
these modernist flats represent some of the best
II and immediate postwar periods.5 Positioned
within the ranks of both public and private
and author of X-Ray the City! The density diagram: basis for examples in Australia of European taste in modern practice, and responding to pressures for housing,
apartment living.4 From the notable ‘Growing House’ infrastructure, and education, artists and design
urban planning (1946).1 Who was this émigré writing on the other in the early 1930s, an expandable small house type professionals like Fooks had a lasting impact on
designed while in Vienna, to his more than forty the development of postwar Australian visual and
side of the world? Why was his book prescient, and what is its apartment blocks built throughout the Melbourne design culture, especially during the significant
message for today? suburbs of Caulfield, Toorak, St Kilda and South
Yarra, his large body of residential work produced in
immediate postwar years. They also explored their
newly adopted country in ways that both reflected
Austria and Australia will be the subject of a future the ideas associated with their formative years in
research project at the University of Melbourne’s a European context and came to terms with the
Melbourne School of Design. unique (often outdated and conservative) conditions

Ernest Fooks, X-Ray the 3
Ernst Fuchs, ‘Stadt in Streifen’ 4
Caroline Butler-Bowdon 5
Accounts, largely biographical
City!: The density diagram: (City in Stripes), PhD Thesis and Charles Pickett, Homes case studies, of the impact
basis for urban planning, (in German), Technische in the sky: apartment living in of émigré artists, designers
Canberra: Ministry of Post-War Hochschule zu Wien, 1931. Australia, Carlton, Vic.; Sydney: and architects in Australia can
Reconstruction, 1946. Held in the Ernest Fooks Miegunyah Press in association be found in Karl Bittman (ed),
Collection, Manuscripts Library, with Historic Houses Trust, Strauss to Matilda: Viennese
Harriet Edquist, ‘Fooks, State Library of Victoria, 2007, pp. 115, 118. in Australia, 1938-1988,
Ernest’, in P. Goad and J. Willis, Melbourne, Australia. Leichhardt, NSW: Wenkart
The Encyclopedia of Australian Foundation, 1988 and Roger
Architecture, Melbourne: Butler (ed), The Europeans:
Cambridge University Press, émigré artists in Australia,
X-Ray the City!, Ernest 2012, pp. 258-9. 1930-1960, Canberra: National
Fooks, Ruskin Press 1946 Gallery of Australia, 1997.

08 Alan Pert and Philip Goad 09

thrown up by Australian society, culture, politics So why look at Ernest Fooks now? October 2016 of the social and cultural capital of Europe and which to test some assumptions and explore a
and economics. Fooks was also involved with his is the 50-year anniversary of the completion of Australia, offering insights into design trends during distinct perspective on Fooks the Architect, The
wife Noemi in community life including the Jewish Fooks’ own home at 32 Howitt Road in Caulfield the interwar years, the war years and importantly, Town Planner, The Furniture Designer, The Artist and
service organisation B’nai B’rith, and his prominence North, Melbourne as well as the 70-year anniversary the post-WWII decades as Australia learned what The Writer.
within the Jewish community was later recognised of his most notable written work: X-Ray the City! it meant to be cosmopolitan. In turn, the ‘Fooks
through his commission to design the National (1946). The house at Howitt Road was occupied by Collection’ manifests as a potential exemplar into Fooks was far more than an architect. He was
Jewish Memorial Centre and Community Facility Fooks’ wife Noemi until her death in 2013 and then the investigation of émigré practitioners, as it a prolific traveller, artist, lecturer, designer and
in Canberra, completed in 1971. Fooks died in following the sale of the property Alan Pert has been provides links to key areas of professional activity theorist. Through boxes of letters to notables
1985. Despite his prolific output in built work and occupying the house while working with colleagues such as domestic architecture, public housing such as Australian Prime Minister Ben Chifley, US
publishing, especially his writing on modern housing at the Melbourne School of Design on research and speculative flat developments, and, to key urban theorist Lewis Mumford and former Bauhaus
overseas in the 1940s,6 and the extensive national which examines Fooks’ career (both in Vienna and government institutions such as the Housing Director Walter Gropius as well as to the exemplary
coverage of his work in magazines such as Australian Melbourne) and his built-work, publications and Commission of Victoria. Furthermore, as universities photography of his frequent overseas endeavours; a
Home Beautiful, Australian House and Garden and personal records held within various archives. The and professionals around the world engage in new vast array of tangible histories preside around Fooks,
Architecture Today Fooks’ work has not been widely ultimate goal is the formal creation of ‘The Ernest forms of urbanism, design and practice theory, it is yet to be uncovered and documented. There is more
acknowledged in general architectural circles. Fooks Collection’, a research, exhibition and imperative that we reflect upon, understand, and to understand and learn about Fooks, and in order to
publication project, which brings together disparate explore the significant contribution and influence do so, Venice 2016 begins to investigate, speculate
Ronnen Goren’s exhibition catalogue, 45 Storeys: archives and information located at the University that émigré architects like Fooks brought to the and test the theoretical position of the somewhat
A Retrospective of Works by Melbourne Jewish of Melbourne, RMIT University and the State development of not just Melbourne and indeed, forgotten urban polemic, X-Ray the City!
architects from 1945 (1993) and Catherine Library of Victoria. In the 1990s the University of Australia’s design culture and thinking, but also to
Townsend’s conference paper, “Architects, exiles, Melbourne Architecture Building and Planning Library countries like the United States, Canada, South
new Australian” (1997) are to date, the most received the basis of the ‘Fooks Collection’ from Africa, Brazil, Malaysia and the United States. Fooks’ X-Ray the City!: 70-Years After
extensive coverage of Fooks’ life and career along Noemi Fooks. This collection has lain dormant until story is one with global parallels.
X-Ray the City!, published in 1946 while Ernest
with another slender publication entitled Ernest recently and now a group of Melbourne academics
Fooks was still working for the Housing Commission
Fooks: Architect (2001), prepared by Harriet Edquist, are recognizing that ‘The Fooks Collection’ offers 12-boxes of books which were removed from the
of Victoria (including a foreword by Dr H C.
which was conceived as a catalogue to accompany a poignant window into the life of an exemplary shelves of the house at Howitt Road following the
Coombs, Director General, Minister for Post-War
a small exhibition curated by Helen Stuckey staged architect, urban thinker, designer, theorist and artist. sale of the estate were retrieved and returned to the
Reconstruction) was discovered inside one of the
at Melbourne’s Jewish Museum of Australia.7 By house in 2013. This collection has provided valuable
boxes at 32 Howitt Road. The book pioneered in
Edquist’s admission, her 2001 booklet was not With the exile of so many Europeans from countries information in relation to Fooks’ life and clues to the
Australia the topic of urban density, and in it, Fooks
intended to be an exhaustive study of Fooks, but like Austria during World War II, the influx of new thinking behind his work, his writings and his art.
declared that “It is the principle of the integration of
simply to draw attention to his body of work, and to professionals brought with them new teachings, For Pert, residing at the house has as much been a
the four urban functions, to live, to work, to recreate
provide a useful framework for further investigation. new ideas, new theories and new skills that would process of discovery - uncovering the life of Fooks
and to distribute, which has to accompany every act
It is clear that a great deal of other information is yet influence planning, design, architecture and culture - as well as experiencing a deeper understanding
of urban planning.”8 But he believed that integrated
to be uncovered and documented within the ‘Fooks in the development of modernist Australia. These of the motivations behind his work through a lived
urban research could only be achieved by a science
Collection’, and also within other relevant archives. contributions present undiscovered narratives experience. The house has provided a lens through

For example, Ernest Fooks, 7
Ronnen Goren (ed), 45
“A Growing House”, Australian Storeys: A Retrospective of
Home Beautiful, March 1940, Works by Melbourne Jewish
pp. 26-7; “An Architect Visits architects from 1945, Prahran,
Norway”, Australian Home Vic.: Jewish Festival of the Arts,
Beautiful, July 1940, pp. 24-6; 1993; Catherine Townsend,
“Travels through Europe – “Architects, exiles, ‘new’
Leaves from and architect’s Australians”, Papers from the
sketchbook”, Australian Home 15th Annual Conference of
Beautiful, October 1943, pp. 19- The Society of Architectural
22; “Wartime housing in Europe: Historians, Australia and New
Switzerland”, Australian Home Zealand, Melbourne, 1998, pp.
Beautiful, August 1945, pp. 379-87; Harriet Edquist, Ernest
12-15; and “Wartime housing Fooks: architect, Melbourne:
in Europe: Sweden”, Australian RMIT, 2001.
Home Beautiful, September
1945, pp. 10-12. 8 Fooks, X-Ray the City!, p. 95.

p. Sketch”. can see through different layers. preparatory 2046. and other the city could never be measured. p. vol 18. linked to form Eye).space-time renderings proposed a series of them. p. 96. Modern Photographs: in La Ville Radieuse (1935). but USA”. the single intellectually rigorous footing. 1-14. Human beings. Foto-auge contains seventy-six reproductions makes sense of urban situations. 10 working. A more X-Ray the City! appears to have been forgotten representing this missing “immeasurable data”. A study cannot be form alone. 96. North Caulfield in the New Vision—A Historical the SS Patris between Athens in Australia.9 evidently absurd results.14 on urbanism10 was clear. But instead of flesh. 58–67.15 one of the most influential publications in University. 95. and formulates the new photographic decades ago. design process without concern for the urban entity”. their grouping. More than six Fooks provided examples to illustrate his see beyond superficial form and understand (New Vision). An Online Project d’Athènes in 1943. The two tables show self. p. . (eds. Stuttgart: Photo. their distribution and to actual urbanised areas. Canada and the Melbourne. Mees a ‘density diagram’ that could be used to the field of the New Photography in the 1920s. X-Ray the City!. which reads: “X-rays it critical to the reimagining of the future metropolis? planning”. Fooks had suggested that some elements of order is always the expression of the social order URBAN BOUNDARIES’ (Fooks. part of the urbanised area. about the same as Los Angeles’. It is the human scale. and Detroit physical reality. Fooks wanted and administrative urban boundaries makes the interaction of its parts. X-Ray the City!. 10 Alan Pert and Philip Goad 11 of urban planning that demanded the input of data. changes to the composition. These municipality or other administrative region by can be found in his book collection and archival FUTURE FACTORY Research Group at Melbourne graphic representations mapped his integrated its gross area. and Maria were then put into documentary Research. no 4.). We need to reflecting the entire range of the Neues Sehen The problem is not new. Therefore. paintings from the sketch to the final composition. 1946. 48). ‘It is of the utmost importance.g. why is redistribution. Foto-Auge. 2014. and the Density Diagram for Melbourne in 2016 and of the metropolitan population. How can it be graphically represented? And. pp. Purposeful social compared to an X-Ray of the human body.g. more significant clue to the ‘X-ray’ metaphor would be within Australia’s urban planning community with accurate density measures are needed: Fooks Fooks’ copy of the catalogue Foto-auge (Photo- the exception of the late Paul Mees from RMIT The X-Ray as Metaphor . 1929‬ 9 Fooks. Road and Transport Lee Ann Daffner. Our project investigates and presents a new way of the City of Toronto) occupy only the inner these ‘X-rays’ see different layers of paint”. “How Dense Are 14 Typewritten notes by Fooks Ingelmann.). their administrative boundaries rarely correspond Picasso. sketches. book titled X-Ray the City! …. 15 Franz Roh and Jan Tschichold Morris Hambourg (eds. X-Ray the City!. see Inka Graeve circulation (distribution) were an 12 Paul Mees. but Wedekind. Fooks added something Most reported measurements of urban density having double the density of Zurich. materials. New York: The Museum of X-Ray the City! Modern Art. clear’ (p.16 writes: Perhaps it is what you do not see which ‘X-Ray the City’.13 What is to be the guiding principle.’ notes. the the Distance Grid and the Density Diagram. Wedekind. recreation and Foto-Auge. 16 For further information on Photo-Auge. 1929. become the primary concern of urban Brisbane) contain large areas of vacant land Fooks has underlined a section. capitalisation in original).12 new – he proposed two new research instruments: are calculated by dividing the population of a Clues to Fooks’ interest in the ‘X-ray’ as metaphor Seventy years after X-Ray the City! first appeared. Some cities (e.. ‘to stress the major defect of X-ray to unlock secrets underneath paintings. In his paper ‘How dense are we?’. while others (e.11 within their boundaries. such as Vienna’s techniques or shapes through which the The central argument of X-Ray the City! is one density being lower than Melbourne’s and commitment may finally be translated into While the debt to CIAM’s Athens Charter (1933) that still needs to be made in the 21st Century. Both books of The Museum of Modern appear in the bibliography of Art. Object: form by Le Corbusier initially 2009. and Marseilles in 1933. that some issues which it serves. The article describes the layering of the immeasurable data missing from X-Ray the City!? collective needs. Municipal and clues is used as a bookmark in a book about could not be reduced to a table of figures. He wrote: “Visual such figures: THE ARBITRARY NATURE OF including types of paper. and wrote the of the two accompanying tables makes this commitment must precede all action in the maps forming parts of an ‘anatomic atlas’ of the book to show how this might be done. 11 Fooks. in Mitra Abbaspour. “Mechanics and intrinsic part of the outcomes We? Another Look at Urban found in his archive/library at 32 Expression: Franz Roh and of CIAM 4 which took place on Density and Transport Patterns Howitt Road. which has 43. A paper clipping referring to the use of the School of Design will reimagine the Distance Grid urban functions and calibrated the social needs Fooks says. Ernest Fooks published a little main point: ‘The artificial character of legal the internal structure of the environment and The four functions of living. 13 Fooks. The Thomas Walther Collection then more precisely in Charte 1909–1949. Urban design What he proposed was a “method [that] can be to place Australian town planning on an overall density figures meaningless.

time 18 Jane Gaines and Michael 19 Naum Gabo. contemporary theories of data visualization and even collected and published X-rays. It’s not by chance that Mies interest in scientific graphics and visualization. Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946) pops up elsewhere But at the same time. an have vanished like smoke”. from Le Corbusier to Jan Duiker or Ernest Fooks’ title X-Ray the City! was a command photography exhibition held in May-July 1929 in architecture. Naked to Metaphor”. “structure as X-rays are shaded from black to white. That grey scale is reality. 252.18 architecture. 1947.. Umbo (Otto Umbehr).21 László Moholy-Nagy. Moholy-Nagy’s in the twentieth century. included letters as a kind of medical equipment for protecting discover its invisible form. to “The real”. Behind the Picture Window (1955). presented their new architecture or an entreaty to look beneath the existing city and Stuttgart which included on its selection committee sold in 2010 to Stanford University. University Press. science and technology. to retain the object’s surface ‘skeleton’ covered only by a ‘skin’ of glass became a of Modern Art in New York in 1944 and the press and photographers such as El Lissitzky.”19 Gabo’s 1920 Amongst the Fooks bookshelves we can find almost are among the outstanding space-time manifesto was one of a string of artistic declarations the entire Rudofsky book collection: Are Clothes renderings on the static plane”…. Collecting Manifesto. Richard Neutra.: Rutgers Moholy-Nagy.J. so are this regard. To proclaim ‘CAT scan the Swiss art and architectural historian and CIAM from Josef Albers. Cambridge. the publication also includes best describes the x-ray image. John Cage. and enhancing the body. which the futurist has consistently referred. p. exhibition held at the Mass. aerial photographs and X-ray Fooks also had a copy of Gyorgy Kepes’s Language what the basic X-ray was for architects early in the photographs. Architecture: Illness as Metaphor” suggests: (Computerized Axial Tomography) may be for the field scientific photography. so ‘X-Ray the Moholy-Nagy.” Viennese-trained architect and exhibition curator manifests structure. The ability to expose from 1919 where this new aesthetic of transparency Unfashionable Human Body (1971). Albert Renger-Patzsch. Buckminster Fuller. not what is superficially apparent. Vision in Motion. 1941. 1920. 1997. Realist 20 Beatriz Colomina. Streets Are For People (1969) and The 17 Sigfried Giedion. N. 20th century. Gabo announced. the widespread use of and Sasha Stone. quoted in Architecture: Illness as Modern?. 30-35. The structural Modern? opened as an exhibition at the Museum photographic experiments by well-known artists of a thing. Buildings even started City!’ somehow doesn’t have the same mystique as Secretary-General Siegfried Giedion and László Walter Gropius. 1945. 12 13 aesthetic that had established itself as the way of of a mere technique. Minneapolis: Bettyann Kevles. Positions. p. New York. University of Minnesota Press. The x-ray pictures. Fooks’ book reveals an added in Fooks’ bookshelves and bizarrely it turns out Within Fooks’ book collection there are also. He was succeeded by Modern? (1944). The front cover to his book is not and Michael Renov in their book Collecting Visible painters such as Mikhail Larionov and Kasimir an X-ray but his own hand drawing of the Belgian Evidence capture Moholy-Nagy’s interest in x-ray Malevich who famously wrote in 1915 that “objects late medieval city of Bruges. describes familiar architectural idea. His archives. Think about Mies van der Rohe’s project for City!’ it is. however.). Space. Naum Gabo is also fondness that will increase with Fooks’ travels referenced and he declared his own rules of art: “Just and documentation of vernacular architecture. release also makes reference to the use of X-rays. Man Ray. Time and Architecture and Richard Neutra. The term artefact perhaps There is clearly a relationship between Fooks’ In the twentieth century. Moholy. Museum of Modern. dimension – that of the human. (1941)17 is also referenced in Fooks’ X-Ray the City! The theories that he and Moholy-Nagy devised the Glass Skyscraper in Berlin of 1922. p. These images archaeological aspect of its function. R.” he writes. and business archives. Bernard Rudofsky. Press. contemporaneous was fascinated by the idea of seeing through as a but almost contradictorily drawn with genuine with Fooks’ 1946 book: precursor to seeing beyond. Fooks shares sympathies with fellow becomes transparency and transparency layers of tissue they reveal. The Kimono technologies in art exceeds. with its and we can now start to understand Fooks’ wider in the 1930s are still relevant today in relation to exposed skeleton. “X-Ray 21 Press release for Are Clothes and architecture. that with transparency can also be found at the Bauhaus Mind (1965). all of whom he influenced. the bone: medical imaging Positioning Positions (Fall 2008). Gideon’s Space. 131.20 digital information. press at once buried and revealed. No. then resident in the United States. 0. Along with photographs and simultaneously the inside and outside was also being applied to buildings. 72. the CAT scan represent the various uses of the medium: reportage. which is fascination with the art world and emerging media X-rays made a new way of thinking about art and anonymous photos from picture agencies. Are Clothes the future around 1929. Chicago: Theobald. . searching for the hidden ‘X’ of any city. Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. Jane Gaines references to some of the avant-garde Russian quality of the city. “is what is beneath.: Harvard University Visible Evidence. 29 November 1944 – 4 March 1999. Walter a scientific phantasy as well a scientific Peterhans. he shares a birthday with the X-ray. The content of the publication was of Vision. Kepes pioneered the construction of Avant-garde architects of the early decades of the twentieth century. MOMA Archives. It’s described in critical technology and particularly its impact on art. the seminal digital imagery and the fusion of design with art. Hans Finsler. announcing a new aesthetic. imperative…. Renov (eds. The Russian avant-garde terms within the book as ‘Overcrowding in Europe’ interest expressed in print in 1947. services. In “In x-ray photos. Nagy’s description of the use of x-ray the Surrealists and preceded by Dada but his fixation Architecture without Architects (1964).New pp. invoking the (photography and film) around this time and modern architecture possible as Beatriz Colomina suggests.”20 In 1946. even while probing its depths. revealing the secrets within. the exclamation mark of selected from ‘Film und Foto’ (FIFO). Piet Mondrian to look like X-rays. almost primitive. Beatriz Colomina in her paper “X-Ray “At the turn of the twenty-first century. words are quoted from Lazlo Brunswick.

the Future” in London. We can only the foot. Strut St. 1946. its buildings essentially the Architects’ Town Planning Conference “The Cities of inner suburb of Melbourne. the futuristic built end. vehicles and street furniture are largely plans and sections of existing and ‘future’ city streets continuous shopping strip to the north of the CBD. dimensions of the historic city. 10-15 interspersed with October 1910. from the book. Eugène Ménard City!. built around our high streets in the city. there is a chapter titled: ‘The Ballast of The Home’ Architecture and city making for Fooks and Rudofsky was not just a matter of technology and aesthetics being consolidated to maximise building footprints. Town Planning Endless rows of shops. globalization of brand shopping in major cities as well as the steep rise in online shopping. activities Melbourne’s distinctive high street shopping while X-Ray the City! promotes a scientific approach and people will have to be reimagined beyond the In X-Ray the City! Fooks highlights the plight of strips were established in the late 19th and early to urban research Fooks is also suggesting we single purpose of retail. Thoughts on Sandals and a Pair of Nike . of the street as something to be filled (with people). has written in his archival notes ‘The Street’ and which he suggested were designed to liberate The Street next to it ‘The Ballast of The City’. R udofsky by Rudofsky. The Isolated Shop Royal Institute of British South Melbourne Originally situated within a Architects. transform these largely two storey arterial routes. In that paper. experiential and social of the city and how they contribute to an ailing difference in the built fabric over the last 100 years. Fooks was interested in the role that In appearance the high street currently remains Rudofsky to Eugene Henard is a clipping Fooks had of an MSD design studio for the last two years the space of the street played in the social life of familiar. Page 41 ‘CITIES OF THE FUTURE’ Vacant Shops. the vacancy are at an all time high in many Melbourne here in relation to the functional role of the street in performance running shoe like a pair of Nike. From X-Ray the Figure 3. Page 40 City!. landscape communities and the convenience of everyday life. Human-scale buildings and heritage overlays an d H e na rd: where Rudofsky refers to the importance of storage as the organising principle of domestic life. purely residential district Conference London. Yet. “Street of combining students from architecture. of technology seamlessly links public and private CBD at one end to the outer suburbs at the other In the book Rudofsky argues that the street is the Development companies and planning set back realms through infrastructure. presented at the Royal Institute of British studio 2014 explored Bridge Road in Richmond. controls have become the primary determiners of form of the city did not actually look very different compose an urban strip. he presented 2015 explored Sydney Road. He would have no doubt approved of 70-years on from X-Ray the City! rates of retail hypothesize on the parallels Fooks was intending that quintessentially modern development. quality of the city and linear aggregations of diverse frontages. From X-Ray the Figure 2. 1 Ernest Fooks. Communities and of great functional importance in the life of a For Rudofsky and for Fooks the frustration is that our were. but with much the Future” (1910) was the French planner Henard’s architecture and urban design. Once the social glue of a community these human. Fooks but the frame for a way of life. The basic topography of the street paper. 1911):345-367 . the patterns and conditions of pavements. Fooks often referred to his same. an use and the distribution of services along the street remains largely familiar. Rudofsky famously designed sandals ("Footwear without tears"). suburbs. In another book urban form and swathes of individual shopfronts are from the existing form. struggle to survive the growth that is driving the single use residential development. past. Behind the Picture Window (1955). Rudofsky and Fooks share an interest in the homes and our streets haven’t kept pace. Transactions dilapidated dwellings. literally. They are also a series of spaces that align to historical stage for the mundane and the remarkable. X-Ray the City!: The density diagram: basis for urban planning. yet the activities taking place there are inserted in Rudofsky’s. line (London: The Royal Institute the main roads of the inner of British Architects. The ‘Vacancy Market’ He saw the street as a delineated area for common less shopping. transforming: the shops remain. and just as the sandal is the most primitive form of This follows the growth in retail centralization and the A l a n P e rt a vessel essential to social exchange and well- being or something providing weight and stability liberation for the foot so too could the Nike runner be seen as liberating in a very different kind of way. Recent planning and buildings. Linking Fooks and Melbourne’s arterial network has been the focus urban form. possibly provoking the thought science of footwear has never been so advanced shopping has been going through a rapid decline. The streets. 14 15 F o ok s . almost primitive. They have seen little material do not overlook the visual. Figure 1. The Rue Future plan and cross-section In their most basic form these streets form part of this publication Fooks had a copy of Rudofsky’s controls have allowed increased density to begin to posited a future where the complete integration a route that connects people and places. marginal shops sitting isolated on the outer areas 20th centuries. The city’s high streets and distribution of relation to the city. lecture notes and as noted in the introduction to consistent but change is acute. Melbourne’s longest friend and colleague Bernard Rudofsky (BR) in his roads. Streets for People (1969). Canberra: Ministry of Post-War Reconstruction. Streets for People. in his collection. while ‘Almost Pretty’ as a communal asset. Behind this ‘regulated’ the personal and the communal.

supermarket) yet the The texture of small open spaces scattered across distributed common space. Figure 4. Due to this   spaces transition under the new urban policies cars. Automated taxis society that makes the social needs of the human form a less regulated hinterland of opportunities. The visual order cannot be divorced from the realities grid found at the heart of the CBD and behind the over 50-years ago and it is still an important lesson of daily life. In contrast to the structure of the introducing the residential ‘six-pack’ to the suburbs spaces beyond. Melbourne Market’ Study of Melbourne Hinterlands. ‘The Vacancy Market. What is emerging along Celebrating this new mobility and reinforcing the of the social order. electric bikes and being the nucleus of urban integration. The hinterlands to our high streets are then concern of urban planning”. Human There is pressure on these hinterland spaces to of recessive blocks and homogenized shop fronts. At the same time we should update Eugène economics of development are forcing a singular the rear of the streets is a clue to a new relationship space currently given over to wasteful parking for a Hénard’s idea for residential use over an opportunity to between the street and the community beyond. garages and car-parks that part of a larger study of Melbourne’s major streets the hierarchy of fronts and backs. have lost their human touch and fine grain detail. mobility have the potential to radically change the dispersed civic realm could navigate the frustrations of Fooks and Rudofsky. hover-boards and an perception. service yards. out of sight. creating a new common experience of the future consider the buildings fronting (‘and backing’) these pressure to accommodate higher densities and a city. improved public transit. become the primary with this brings the risk of homogeneity of land assortment of individual verandahs and canopies fabric. leisure time and learning “Cities of the Future narrative”: Let us now of communal activity. the primary opportunity for a new typology of be written in the context of the ‘Ballast of The Future workspace – house – church . 16 Alan Pert 17 urban strip lies a diverse range of laneways. new intersections and new topographies can forms of living. Then it was the fascinating opportunities when considering the stand to miss a great opportunity for remaking the devices have the potential to radically alter the optical. The MSD studios exploring high streets forms way we move through our cities we might reconsider As Fooks suggests: “It is the demands of today’s backdoors. Vast amounts of urban City’. Today it is the sociological approach. New declining retail market become opportunities for new accommodate diversity and a distributed model routes. High Streets 2 Fooks. the visual sensation forming the heterogeneous coexistence of cultures in places middle ring. which it serves.2 use. The Vacancy Figure 5. Fooks took on the quarter-acre plot by physical space of the street and its relationship to the decisive factor. their collective needs. Just as the city is under reshape physical as well as social relationships. services from collecting waste to moving people beings. streets………. A transportation and technology architectural and spatial language of similarity void of these streets begin to change and as new modes of conduit adjacent and connected to a new type of distinctiveness. approach. The street is reinforced as a continuous space. It is the human can find an unusual distribution of left over spaces. globalized architecture of curtain walling there is a The high streets were conceived as ‘urban veneers’ a high performance space (Nike trainer) while the similar concern that these unique neighbourhoods – shop frontages with servicing and storage directed hinterlands offer a diversity of places for people to are losing their distinctive local characters with an to the rear. Visual order is always the expression diverse frontages that form a typical high street we in scale and density today. 9 . increased cycling. and hinterland spaces. These spaces already mediate a variety of morph into over-sized protruding ‘downstands’ that no longer the left over bits of the discussion but Maybe a new definition of the urban arterial needs to uses around their edges (hospital – warehouse . X-Ray the City! p. As these streets and open on-demand. our major streets is a generic tiered ‘wedding cake’ high street as a circulation corridor for all types of scale. like Melbourne. their grouping. As the physical form of pause (the sandal). today’s approach towards urban planning This duality of spatial complexity raises some designed to drive a certain type of urbanity we ageing demographic requiring a range of mobility differs from that of yesterdays. their accommodate future residential development and We stand to lose the texture of the streets as the helps to reinforce a radical rethinking of the urban distribution and redistribution. working. which has to be the guiding principle.

he declared century middle-class garden suburb of Malvern that there are “Lies. with its 1940s density ratio of 11. Unlike other modernist designers observed that Stockholm. The X-Ray study stands out amongst the The overcrowding ratios and density diagrams of abstractionism of famous modernist architectural X-Ray the City! extended a century old tradition of blueprints from Le Corbusier to CIAM. organisation of new urban formations by contained within its pages and then move forwards concentric rings. His interest in urban data looks backwards to the nineteenth century and gazes forwards to the city with a pastoral urban world.2. lies garden city ideal are cast on the book. 18 19 M e tric C ity The cover features an expressive drawing of streets of tightly packed houses. The comparison brings together social and numeric “I do not believe that figures and standards are able challenged a century-long tradition of linking to produce urban and community life”. to Melbourne’s Ernest Fooks’ X-Ray the City! (1946) The data was praised for its revelations but kept in check by other empirical methods and social values.4. pronounced crowded. leavening the in the narrator’s ability to see through the density dominance of urban formulae on Fooks’ modernist ratios: into the social fabric beneath and inside the mind-set. Berlin and Birmingham however. different cities. Equally attentive to Melbourne’s Opening with a famous quotation popularly attributed differences. He of overcrowding. Fooks. all share the same density ratio whilst being very century’s scepticism towards mathematical data. the themes of overcrowding and density. damned lies and statistics”. and the granular study of the size of population per The long shadow of Ebenezer Howard and the urban area. The text’s X-Ray vision however. He was heir to nineteenth and early twentieth. Howard countered the ills of the industrial K are n numbers. “financial density”. Fooks also rekindled the nineteenth. mid-nineteenth-century industrialised suburb of Fitzroy and its density ratio of 33. ways of knowing the city. unhealthy environments with criminality. he compared the late nineteenth-century to Mark Twain and Benjamin Disraeli. Fooks used mapping the city through the analytical category local knowledge to dissect universal measures. and emphasis on the social basis of to consider a new kind of density diagram: maps of communal life. In this short essay I use X-Ray the City! to sketch out the brief history of density indebted to Howard’s ideally sized population centres. Fooks found no link between overcrowding measures . immediately conveying century visionaries who re-planned urban life around the dreams of an organic community. Although Fooks did not propose a garden city his thinking seems Bu r ns new post war world.

Fooks did not include This revelation has been accompanied by a call for be interpreted as a form of Clifford Geertz’s “thick ethnographic information but his sensitivity to social increased population densities across the state. “Interview” in 2 Farrah Tomazin. His “anatomic atlas” Three important ways of knowing the city were and resources at the expense of peripheries and could be reimagined as a compendium of life stories. economic and intellectual social bonds. the vast his planning of new towns. In order to really map one of Fooks’ proximity and numerical distance. 9 million people will be living in Melbourne. geographers working with GIS mapping numeric survey data and hundreds of pages of that provides a social and financial barrier to regional have been experimenting with ways of incorporating informant witness testimony was recorded from up redistribution. Policy and “master plans” need parts in bust. infrastructure as the basis for planning specific local immeasurables . geographic research”. 2014). 124.P. high anatomic atlas to spatial nearness – extends room. text and image by side in Britain’s famous blue books. 20 Karen Burns 21 and juvenile crime: rates of ‘delinquency’ remained In 2014 architectural theorist Eyal Weizman called Fooks wrote of the city’s “immeasurables”. Kwan. Huge reports collated concentration of employment resources. from factory inspectors 2056. lot and area to produce an “anatomic atlas”.2 A map of extant regional training X-Ray the City’s poetic nomenclature – from the humanist study density was analysed at the scale of institutions . workshops and businesses would and management of populations into a web of nearness”. In Fooks’ industries. 1 Eyal Weizman.from universities to TAFES. “Population 3 M. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. The uneven geographical distribution of revealing individual experience of shifting economic testimony. and “condition of the state of Victoria would depict Melbourne’s what the data eye could not see nor understand. urban planning to economic futures. Testimony and statistics operated side was something Ebenezer Howard understood in displaying information through sound.3 Density can to industrial workers. invented in the nineteenth century: eyewitness regions. Ways of knowing zoom between intimate describe existing social. ethnographic analysis and statistical population magnets and sparsely inhabited areas conditions and journeys. Growth has become Victoria’s visualization: re-envisioning ed. description”: an intensely detailed narration of events difference placed him closer to late 1950s and early which could be formed from rural and regional and characters as a way of explaining and setting 60s analyses of the city made famous by Jane centres. . New integrated ways of methods. correlate the parts of society in boom with the other and visualisation. These “magnets” would be anchored behaviour in context. Fulcrum (London: Bedford biggest political issue”. Financial density we will need to find new ways of bringing the analytic maps place the city in a larger social context and tie and the anecdotal together. Recent predictions suggest that by ethnographic information such as individual and and down the social scale. Jacobs’s work on Greenwich Village and Herbert around government service hubs or new specialist Gans’ investigation of Boston’s West End. schools and community learning facilities – and density debates beyond the efficient distribution and social relations were described as “spatial local factories.1 Major cities hoard job opportunities local and bottom-up knowledge. a monopoly example. Age. 4. 2002: 653. Ideology is one of for “financial density” maps: representations that social things that escape the net of measurement the intangible things exposed by his x-ray analysis. The GIS as a method in feminist Square. 92. of the equivalent for Malvern and Fitzroy. For of England” questions. 21. “Feminist Real Estates: Life Without Debt. 8/05/2016. local histories into geo-spatial displays. A financial density map might make us more optimistic than Fooks about government inquiries into industrial.the lived experience of community- industries in a multi-city future.

70.M. & Cambridge. Luis Sert’s book of 1942. in turn. eight such units make a Athens. For Sert. reprinted Reconstruction. clubs.”2Sert’s book. 1947). Can Our Cities Survive? An ABC of philosophy. 30. a central library. however. while larger adopted by Le Corbusier in his key urban project cities would be clusters of such districts with open of the 1920s. 3 6 Sert. the Ville Contemporaine. 33. and then perhaps as a kind of historical curiosity. Team 10 critics).the Congrès of dwelling. Congress. 1 Sert. but more in the manner of an ancient discursive monument than as a living making up larger cities. theatres and concert halls. Eric Mumford. their common adoption The best book to convey an overall view of today’s of the Le Corbusier orthodoxy of CIAM’s urbanism. graphs. the the City! and Can Our Cities Survive? is in their characterisation of the one of the basic components Wa lk e r urban doctrine adopted by CIAM . cinemas. unit is 1000 families. medical facilities. and a “borough” is likewise defined as a architects ever since. recreation. hospital and a wide range of shops”. X-Ray the City!. then as a problematic schematization that of facilities that services them all – administrative disregarded urban complexity and whose pursuit offices. Mass. urban problems. railway The urbanism of the Charter of Athens was of course station. such as a town hall. it contains an analytical as “LIVING. veiled real principles of “human association” (the a stadium. the neighbourhood unit is similarly four functions renders them as “dwelling.A. Their Solution Basis for Urban Planning MIT Press. to be viewed empathetically for exactitude than Fooks.4 Fooks of the Charter of Athens. Their Solution. Fourth C. 5 Fooks.: Harvard (Canberra: Ministry of Post-war 4 Fooks. and on the Fooks renders the four functions – in forceful uppercase in the introduction to his book – Urb a n Functi ons Sert book he observes “Based on the proposals formulated by the CIAM…. was for Rather. School of Design. composed of “the dwellings required to house a work. which both Fooks and Sert call “the Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne .: Harvard Graduate University Press. survey of the urban living conditions of today. Yale University Press. first as four unquestionable cluster of neighbourhood units. Both It appears that Sert’s book – originally published in define this unit as centring on an “elementary school” 1942 – contained the first widely distributed version – Fooks even uses this American terminology. the Voisin spaces between and served by a central business Plan. “The An ABC of Urban Problems. 22 23 F o ok s : Integr ati ng The bibliography in Fooks’ book bears his useful annotations for several key works. And in these terms. in The Writings of Josep Lluis Sert.1 City of 1978. or what it renders as “The reports English work that suggest a neighbourhood Town-planning Chart. X-Ray the City!.3 to see high population densities per se as bad. 1933”. (New Haven: (Cambridge. 1946). Popularly presented and excellently illustrated by The most striking parallel between the Fooks book means of maps. ‘borough unit’ which should “contain all essential amenities of a town. theatre. Mass. Can Our Cities Survive?. the telling common ground between X-Ray Pa u l the most part an explication of the vast list of points contained in the Charter of Athens. and the Sert is not. including a range principles. Their Analysis. the sufficient number of people to support an elementary four functions have been discussed by urbanists and school”. ed. WORKING. 104. Sert also refers to broader urban units as districts.: Neighborhood Unit: A Human Measure in City Planning (circa 1953)” Their Analysis. City! The Density Diagram: Collage City (Cambridge. and transportation”. . it is apparent that it was influenced by José its aesthetic implications.5 based on the functional approach to urban planning Eight boroughs constitute a district. and the Ville Radieuse. Ernest Fooks’ X-Ray the City! can be understood as a prescient Smithsons’ term that was in turn adopted by CIAM’s department stores. 2015). which in turn collectively Published in 1946. Neighbourhood Unit” (give or take a hyphen). Sert’s version of the area.I.6 With less call to plan Melbourne on the basis of evidence and analysis. Can Our Cities Survive? 2 Ernest Fooks. X-Ray the Colin Rowe & Fred Koetter. Both point to the tendency Urban Problems. RECREATING and DISTRIBUTING”. diagrams and photographs. Here of course I am thinking of the Fooks and Sert also share a common attitude to approach adopted by Rowe and Koetter’s Collage the problems of density. See also Sert. 1978).in 1933. secondary schools. Mass.

Fooks. which has to accompany every act of children per class. As class sizes for elementary schools in Europe. coupled with his view that “it is generally agreed Fooks’ X-Ray the City! stays within the functional.” A page from José Luis Sert’s Can Our Cities Survive? demonstrating neighbourhood units 7 Sert. leads him to advocate integration between functions Having surveyed expert “opinion” as to advisable just as strongly as the functions themselves.8 population needed to sustain an elementary school. 24 Paul Walker 25 since crowding characterises slum conditions. This leads to households. which in turn leads for healthy life: that is the primary task. Australian government statistics urban planning. and Australia. as instruments home will not be in straight lines). X-Ray the City!. and to heavy investments in roads and the calculation that a population of 3740 is needed other infrastructure for relatively small populations. Can Our Cities Survive?.or 30-minute city) of an average Australian residential neighbourhood. however. is his analytical and quantitative bent.”7 to a population density of 13. to recreate and to count.4 persons per acre for the desirable neighbourhood population of 3740. 8 Fooks. “boroughs” . the United States. apart from his and a minimum density of 9. X-Ray the City!. Fooks comments in his concluding chapter “It is England. each school grade per 100 of urban population. X-Ray the City!. “The grouping of men into social and live (taking into account that paths from school to economically balanced communities. his sifting of data he had gathered about the this analysis.6 persons per acre for constant reference to the specific planning problems the minimum neighbourhood population of 2680. The “Time-Space factor” of a child’s activities. Fooks comments that even on the urban maximum walking distance leads Fooks to estimate fringe “comparative concentration” of the population a maximum area in which this population range can is needed.5 children for slums feature various kinds of social pathology. to work. Fooks the principle of the integration of the four urban settles on 28 as the optimum average class head functions. to sustain an optimally operating school – this is While Sert emphasises that urban centres will have the head count of the neighbourhood unit. 34-35. within an acceptable range from 20 to 35 distribute. No of Melbourne. that the maximum walking distance to schools CIAM doctrine of Sert’s Can Our Cities Survive? But for children of the elementary school age should his empirical turn in relation to scale and related not exceed half-a-mile” leads to a very specific ‘space-time factors’ (re-emergent in Melbourne proposal for the viable range of minimum densities in recent discussion of the 20. maximum desirable density logically emerges out of Thus. 9 and their clustering into 60. Fooks. The high levels of population concentration because of acceptable variation in class size leads to minimum their high land values and because concentration and maximum neighbourhood populations of 2680 is needed in order to sustain their specialised and 4660. to live. 95. What distinguishes Fooks. 29. and had demonstrated that there were 1. He But very low densities lead to facilities being suggests that schools can only be run economically too dispersed to be conveniently accessed by if they have two classes at each level.

26 27 “ K no wle d ge is n o t fo r k nowing: kn owle d g e i s for cu t ting . It is the principle of the integration of the four urban functions. to work. with their different body. and can hardly ‘To all but the scientist. all the the town. the single maps forming parts of an “anatomic atlas” applications. Tools for analysis have to form the system of scoring. more when they refer to human beings and are an inkling of which we find expressed in the physical accompanied by the technical terminology of the environment in the structure. which has to accompany every act of urban planning. the able to produce urban and community life. No matter how thoroughly we may scrutinize a town. there will be an element that Only then shall we be able to find methods or urban cannot be measured. the tools for creating the new urban environment. analysis. as well as the overcrowding and which can only grow from the actions of human decentralization diseases. they have to in figures or graphic exhibits. I do believe that such an analysis based upon adequate methods can reveal the true degree I do not believe that figures and standards are of the defects and diseases of urban structures.’ Ernest Fooks X-Ray the City! . as suggested in this study. ‘The principle of the DISTANCE GRID and This method can be compared to an X-Ray of the human the DENSITY DIAGRAM. caught by forumulae and definitions. that cannot be become the tools for activity. ” Michel Foucault This method creates the proper technical tools of coordinating and integrating the various urban factors Ha n na h in SPACE and TIME. with figures and standards – and drawing certain deductions from them – that an improvement of But I do believe that this method of integrated urban the living conditions of great numbers of human research will furnish the practical tools for urban beings can be achieved. cancerous growth. to recreate and to distribute. tables of figures are be expressed with words: it is the life pulsating in liable to strike a rather inhuman note. past and present. offers of the urban entity. face and spatial order of town-planner. in all their ramifications. it is only by starting a town. even by the most elaborate rehabilitation. to live. None the less. beings.’ a wide scope for a scientific method or urban research. the life of generations. and it adheres to the essential principle underlying today’s functional approach to Lewi physical planning. that cannot be expressed dynamic preparation for further action.

economic rights and consensus politics and backed by the undertaken from the latter nineteenth century Plan of 1944. it practicable and enable certain intellectual and attempted to project themselves at the frontline. public lectures of modernity: dis-embedding because of how such techniques were used as amplification of ideologies ‘It was these technicians of space— social pamphlets and books all offered new ways of systems attempt to restructure social relations as well as invitations towards policies and actions. . as elsewhere. audio-visual exhibitions.2 1 Anthony Giddens. and he closely echoes other reconstruction and repair like Fooks’ ‘anatomic designing the post-WWII ‘social contract’ which was mechanism of modernity. a body laid bare by industrialisation. war and decentralisation. Professionals including planners. knowledge and actions of designers and experts. The formation of the persona of the expert Akin to Giddens’ ‘dis-embedding’. Through this media the design professions towards more universal and indefinite organisation maps. there came a concern for the in modern urban environments. planners—who. by acting on the spatial aspects of their existence. urban reformers. for both practical authority to be exercised over human beings experts who could both educate about and space and time. and reconstruction. of the material and social urban environment across or what Fooks describes as an atlas.1 scrutinising the problems and envisioning the future. (famously by Charles Booth among others). here Fooks makes for re-imagining. traditional contexts and X-Ray the City! is no exception. England: Polity making space with Charles Press. depression. planning Thomas Osborne and Nikolas Rose. also make audience. diagrams and surveys become blueprints. photographic surveys. 21. was a crucial away from the local. travelling symptomatic of a ‘dis-embedding’ expert system Despite a veneer of ‘factual’ distance. “Spatial phenomotechnis: (Cambridge. in making space thinkable. Documentary films. 1991). doctors. Programs of post-WWII alongside civil servants were key protagonists in of technical expertise and work. and the depiction of new kinds expansive comparisons to international contexts and the damaged urban body. engineers and landscape architects professional. Together words. it was in the mid-twentieth century decades that Through photographic reportage. Ernest Fooks focuses on the know-how is depicted by Fooks as. town persuasively communicating to a broad public away from immediate local. Although extensive contemporary international planning organisational atlas’ were to be operated upon the Anglo-Saxon founded on the principles of extended citizenship urban census data and social mapping had been systems like Patrick Abercrombie’s Greater London body.’ Through forensic ‘scientific’ examination. codification and visualisation of information is striking visible and thereby more manageable through the new ideas about social and physical modernisation Anthony Giddens has termed these techniques as in this genre of planning and design documents.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 22 (2004): 225. maps. the wholesale investment in the how urban space and time could be made more from the 1930s onwards to persuade and promote planning and design were systematically established. charts X-Ray the City! attempted to show readers A raft of media types was enthusiastically adopted professional knowledges and tools relating to urban and diagrams. power of expert knowledge. 28 Hannah Lewi 29 Melbourne 1946: With the rise of the welfare state in implement unprecedented changes to everyday living In X-Ray the City!. ‘problems’ of the modern city of Melbourne in the source of mis-guided and blinkered technocratic proselytisation of a code of social and professional comparison to other major world cities of the day. on the one hand Australia. solutions. statisticians. and on the other hand a valuable resource responsibility. The 2 Thomas Osborne and Nikolas Consequences of Modernity Rose. Booth and Patrick Geddes. re-ordering and eventually curing architects.

30 31 Tak ing T hem Back: In 2011 I took up a position as Gastprofessor at the Institute for Landscape Architecture. Hochhaus on display within “Stadt in Streifen”. thus involving a of 224 flats. cafés. this high-rise apartment building consisted a seminar based on my research.. following World War II. My research was primarily concerned with explaining the origins of landscape corner café (see Figures 1 and 2). excerpt the vacant corner café in trans. and other people of note. Ernest Fooks (1906-85) and Karl Langer (1903-69) had links with Vienna early in their careers. So it in the thick of building this modern and radical new development within a part of the city steeped in the assignment. This was important because I really had no confidence that we could photographic evidence of him in discussion with builders. I was presented with a Hochhaus was constructed Fooks was working Culture is bound to single points. dance Austria. It became a S a nig a architecture in Australia. It can be ambitions without reservation. Technical University of Vienna. Designed by architects Theiss-Jaksch ret ur ne d to Vi enna completing my manuscript which ended up being in1931-32 and built within approximately 200 metres published a year later as Making Landscape of Michaelerplatz and the entrance gates to the Architecture in Australia (2012). University we discovered that one building could be linked to both! Hochhaus at Herrengasse 6-8 has the t h e Aus tro -Austr alians of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU). Vienna. Hochhaus attracted Vienna’s notoriety. At the time To my good fortune. After opening. the building’s foyer in 2011. but it was My students became intrigued by the discovery their trajectories in Australia that I had researched up that two practitioners with expansive and influential to that date. The aim of my visit was to spend time ominous-sounding mantle of being ‘Vienna’s First Skyscraper’. 102. not only for a suite of Vienna’s artists. climbing scaffolding and generally being everywhere. but also for the that could be established between Australia and general public who came to its shops. 1932). group of landscape architecture students at BOKU and ground floor shops including a circular glass A n d re w on a project of my choice. I knew émigré architects to Australia like events and the like. I decided to explore any links performers. particularly during the years hub of activity. Karl Langer’s Figure 1: The entrance foyer of Hochhaus in 2011. Christian Car (PhD diss. careers in Australia had also been involved in early modern building projects in their city. We found in the cities. It has to be in the metropolis also. it reaches its blossom fantastically receptive student cohort who took to my as an architect for Theiss-Jaksch. I also agreed to lead Hofburg. a roof-top restaurant with dance floor. . That is find any extant building or landscape that had clear connections to either Fooks or Langer. Photograph: A Saniga. Photograph: A Saniga Figure 2: A model of 1 Ernst Fuchs (Ernest Fooks). Nature is not bound to anything.1 was with great excitement that within two weeks historic buildings and infrastructure.

an idea hence. This includes propositions for alternative to have resided in. accounts (written in Austrian) they argued that Langer The students explored ways of infiltrating the fabric He scoured the telephone records and archives to wanted the building’s multi-coloured quality to have of Hochhaus and its curtilage and adjacent streets determine the residential address of Fooks in Vienna psychological meaning for the urban space. . should correspond to functional differentiation.GmbH. heritage of Hochhaus. Car proposed. The value of amongst other things. They were prior to his departure for Australia and recorded its it should be therapeutic but also that the colours encouraged to avoid the ubiquitous bronze memorial streetscape sounds at the doorstep. or been linked closely with. Importantly. that epitomised the particular character chosen. 2012). Thanks to the students of BOKU in 2011. for their and challenging ideas for the time. they identified a role breadth of importance historically. orange for the middle storeys and yellow at existence seemed virtually unknown in Vienna. the in terms of housing development and a city’s shape the most. Discovering their built however the design reflected bold thinking for Australian cities. Making Figures 3 and 4: ‘A Doorbell Eiblmayer. parts. and plaque and to instead explore alternative designs Car used the sounds of birds in a forest. that with the stories of Fooks and Langer. legibility. sans expressing this past. 2009). 32 Andrew Saniga 33 connection involved a 1927 concept for the site and form. and their a number of large rectangular volumes banded landscape within the metropolis and the domestic Figures 3 and 4) in an attempt to reclaim lost pieces willingness to engage in the history of Australian horizontally in alternating colours: red for the lower garden was clearly on their radar. Acknowledgement called The Cityhaus Projekt. In the students’ reading of various histories relating to the Jewish community in Austria. early experiences in Australia. It used an original landscape architecture. It consisted of for landscape architecture in Australia. an ‘interactive doorbell’ (see preparedness to explore the unknown. much of which involved tragic scapes consisting of 10-20 second sound-grabs the bold colours. for interpreting the traces of Fooks and Langer in generated through reading Langer’s accounts of Vienna. For Langer. Yet given that their of Viennese cultural heritage. by Metroverlag. His scheme was never forms of housing and density that might be adopted Hochhaus in the early years. He researched some of the notoriety inspiration that permeated their new lives in Australia: new ideals forged in a new land. Haus Hoch: Das Landscape Architecture in to the Past’ interpretive Hochhaus Herrengasse und Australia (Sydney: UNSW Press. Iris Meder and Judith Andrew Saniga. Christian Car. design for the cultural seine berubmten Bewohner. 46. many doorbell at Hochhaus that he found to be defunct the top. (Vienna: Verlagsburo W.. In these ways the It is interesting that both Fooks’ and Langer’s careers student projects left us pondering the void these in Australia should involve innovation and speculation A scheme by Christian Car sparked my imagination two practitioners left behind in Austria. 2011. but also. Some of the students thought echoes of of the students became dedicated to the project of and for each button he developed a series of sound- his scheme permeated the eventual design.

the person who needed to act (usually the surgeon) that were not coincident with the “centre of the child Figure 1. could tell us things we K v an the X-ray. Without an X-ray. the transcriptions. X-Ray the City! Diagram of Area Densities Distribution of Population Necessitated by Location of industry . a Space Time presentation of the city. revealing its and additional boundaries drawn over them. in doing so inflicting damage to what might have been something that checking to ensure that a mistake had not crept into was in good condition (but they did not know it). then laying these onto maps to obtain the spatial distribution and next drafting the What Fooks did was show that a compilation of data. From his diagrams (figures 29 and 30) we can see how the the City! are remarkable. he wrote too about the poorly located schools intellectually rich exploration of how we read a city. allowing us to decide where to act on and warehouses). From our contemporary perspective. called unbalanced and haphazard growth. it was industry that depended on factories it is difficult to conceive of the detailed work that went into this of a problem. might not see if we had not made the composition. Once the laborious transcriptions of facts was An X-ray offers insights into particular portion of completed and their information re-represented the anatomy that has been imaged. he structure and composition with the shades of grey was able to show us the consequences of what he The insights that Ernest Fooks delivered in his slim book X-Ray revealing what we cannot see otherwise. revealing facts to identify if anomalies exist that population did not align with the location of work (in provide the information needed to decide the extent his day. X-Ray the City! Figure 2. maps. The image distinguishes between dense bone and soft tissue. 34 35 M R I the c ity We can imagine the extensive transcribing of facts from numerous data tables from diverse sources and had to literally explore the site. Although he did not produce the the nature of our interventions. geometries to carry out the analysis needed for this brought together from several sources and overlaid To m Distance Grid and Density Diagrams that constitute into a spatial representation.

a smart and reveal things we did not see when we took the image be used to gain insights about our cities. We also have a data portal for urban Ernest Fooks was able to conceive of the question. we can dimensional representation.au) through which we that the only use that comes to mind? MRI gives us into a three dimensional model. printers mean you can finally make your own chess supplemented and increasingly replaced by other he wanted of these data to ask went unanswered pieces at home. these online datasets can allow you techniques – the computer tomography (CT) scan because a key item was not available. 36 Tom Kvan 37 population”. au) that can tell you about housing stress. against supermarkets as we examine the prevalence diagnose changes and determine if the change is . Just as desktop 3D surface. that there is a school for every 1000 now using multidimensional photographs to screen support the social infrastructures that it needed. Do you really need a chess set or is of acquisition. of course.org. Not only are their desk). These datasets can au). understanding of a city is inadequate as is a three Locations of fast food outlets can be considered If we can use these data sets over time.gov. With these. aurin. quickly gather education outcomes of every precinct Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN. the we collecting more but every digital device generates map service (nationalmap. entities consisting of objects. part – what do we want to know. We can data. not at printers. ecologies activity and education. If he reached by cycling without crossing major roads. Medical additional datasets from AURIN (maps. These facts can be integrated and overlaid onto and are qualified (as Fooks would have been). the first in the world. responsive city can be seen to be operating and we (or made the model). This is the hard if we cannot use tools to analyse and look past the departments or other agencies to send him the text unlimited as we seek answers to diverse questions. Not only can we ensure. We data constantly. Cities are multi-dimensional records can generate a health profile of a community. everyone’s laptop (even if they are in the café. His summary observation was that the How can we produce this multi-dimensional of obesity. the Australian Urban conceptualise the tool and show us what an x-ray model lets us pick up the object and turn it around. could tell us. without leaving your desk. The combinations of data are to construct questions of the data. As with the 3D and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). If you access AURIN itself and capabilities with flows in and out of resources. census tables and government reports that conveyed families but we can ensure that the schools can be for cancerous growths. It was a static urban image. we can use all that saved time impoverished by only relying on what we can see find another source. We know what the economic can learn about the hydrology of the country or of a can tile photographs together to render a picture of activity of a neighbourhood is because we can neighbourhood. As with an X-ray. Australia now has a national this capability. the challenge is to work out why you want not only is the data different but so is its method Today we have an abundance of data. The national map has now been enhanced with x-ray. that looking from different points of view and therefore because schools track these. economic know where to perform the keyhole surgery. For example. Perhaps many of the questions All this. calling upon government work by bus or train. Our understanding was so much was not available in one set of tables he had to proportion of the population who can readily get to and Density Diagrams. A two dimensional maps so that you can derive your own insights.org.aurin. Increasingly we are bringing these capabilities to to know more about your community. data in particular tables printed on paper. though. experiences. In recent years. With a multi-dimensional MRI. While an X-ray is a photography. the landscape (like a panoramic picture) but a 3D track shop registers and card transactions. you agents and products across time. If the information mapped to employment and we can determine the Fooks had to laboriously construct his Distance Grid these for so long. the insights afforded by the image wanted to carry out an analysis he copied the figures Public transport routes and timetables can be What then might we do with all these data? Where make you wonder how we carried on without and built his own interim tables. the X-ray has been or visiting the library. A city is N dimensional. just as the medical profession is population of Melbourne was too low to properly representation? Ernest Fooks had to work with suggested. as Fooks malignant or benign. can get access to almost another 2000 datasets.

within which it had been constrained to ensure appropriate levels of civic.Ra ying Ur ban Fooks’ book X-ray the City! explained the advantages of deliberately restructuring the city around the Teoría General de la Urbanización (‘General Theory of Urbanization’) was published as the theoretical Po l ic y Fra mewor ks findings of careful statistical analysis framed by humanistic and sociologically motivated priorities adjunct to his commissioned 1859 survey and proposed expansion to Barcelona. the city would The opportunities lost (Fooks. Cerdà’s plan shows his ‘polycentric egalitarian’ 2D City Blocks Layout .” He did not times in the entire book too: clearly there is a sense In doing so he set out to diagnose Melbourne’s growth pains pretend to provide the “anatomic atlas” of Melbourne of transcendent idealism taking centre stage. Barcelona. The word ‘policy’ appears only three ‘anatomic atlas’ of the urban entity. but as a were arranged such that pedestrians could filter through the city without interfacing with vehicular transport too closely.typical accommodating natural obstacles and existing historic approach extending the city far beyond the highly constrained medieval walled city. the unwitting by-product of a lack of a scientific method to x-ray under the skin of the any comprehensive socially driven framework for a distressed city in order to understand it systemically. He was reacting to the peri-urban ad ultimately expand into the fields surrounding its hoc sprawl from developers who had made no effort medieval walls. Cerdà proposed B u rry urban decay. Like Fooks. Cerdà’s 1867 being able to identify who exactly is at fault. and plan for a polycentric expansion. He Cerdà’s characteristic grid may have been corrupted proposed a framework by which city blocks would be public gardens with two parallel blocks on either side. leisure.an “integrated – “only some leaves of it”. schema for the city’s expansion it was fully implemented. despite a burgeoning population and new needs commercial. or any At the end of the book he likened his urban analytics 19th Century urbanisation theory which is a pity. With 3D Building Diagrams Ildefonso Cerdà’s “General Theory of Urbanization” published in 1867 was ruthlessly logical but profoundly civic. 38 39 X. human body.to ensure that the rapidly growing The book is a strangely antipodean reworking of outcome from Fooks’ prescient advice from 7 crucial aspects of the work of Spain’s Idefonso Cerdà decades ago is especially frustrating just as it is not metropolitan Melbourne would work for all its citizens. The policy framework proved to be insufficiently robust. or employment amenity coming from the industrial revolution. Fooks’ book makes no reference to Cerdà. 1946). Almost a century earlier. while trains were envisaged as being underground for the same reason. the single maps forming parts of an (Burry. For Melburnians today the lack of any meaningful technique of urban research” . educational. more organized major city. . as as the equivalent of undertaking an “X-Ray of the he might have pushed some far more radical ideas 70 years ago Dr Ernest Fooks (1906 – 1985) ‘X-rayed’ Melbourne. about the poor use of the blocks and densified the arrangement such that there is hardly any evidence remaining of the openness that Cerdà had proposed. 2013). These at the detailed level of individual city blocks. health. Cerdà actually were offered close to inhabitants’ dwellings. At the coined the word ‘urbanization’ to encapsulate the M ark same time the sprawl was already leaving behind an ex-industrial urban wasteland and significant inner phenomenon of a urban populations swelling through mass rural emigration. (1815-1876). From the first speculators protested settlement with reasonable facility. denser. and propose a prosperous course of action .

Melbourne. all the unsustainable characteristics that define the current urban sprawl. Ruskin Press. et al) might we assume that transdisciplinary insist on a long-term bipartisan framework through for drawing vital new information from data. 40 Mark Burry 41 notable exceptions much of Melbourne shows the Cerdà nor Fooks were able to succeed in doing? data’ we are rewarded. they typically the University of Melbourne’s Architecture Building sets. 1867. the masterplan will help ensure that Melbourne 2046 will have eschewed Architectural Association. (edited Theodore Spyropoulos). centuries of profound change. 2046 The deficiency in sustainable urban growth despite and Planning Faculty’s Melbourne School of Design quest is characterised by knowing that we need to might see wholly different working arrangements in clear strategic advice from urban theorists such as (MSD). Spain) is an example of a framework that is suffiuciently robust to defy two Melbourne 2016. Cerdà. Will anything Futures’ draws together and augments expertise working beyond linked relational databases. in Adaptive ecologies : correlated systems of living London. the concomitant failure to think ahead in the ways As an emerging transdisciplinary thematic. . The entire town was arranged in a Beaux Art periphery. Madrid: Imprenta Española. Handled the right way. Ildefonso. The Density Diagram: Basis for Urban Planning. unrelated Sustainable urban futures will depend on the team backwards. how from the advice given over the last century (Cerdà. London 2013 imposed in 1746 has nevertheless driven all future development. Future-gazing extra-terrestrial planners for years. Settled in 1746 by King Philip V to accommodate a factory. exploration. be different in 2046 at the centenary of the book’s in urban visualisation. This particular high-order do not have the skills to work the data. Facsimile republished by the San Fernando de Henares (near Madrid. and designer has hitherto will inevitably be far too short-term to make viable Melbourne might be in 2046 we have unparalleled missed altogether simply through unfamiliarity: contributed to the society’s failure to benefit fully and durable inroads to future-proofing cities for access to information and tools with which to access if you do not know what you do not know. ironically. and ‘inferencing’. Effectively only the façade remains Vast quantities of data and powerful analytical algorithms addressing the disconnect. As a society we need to it: Cerdà and Fooks were aware of the opportunities do you recognise a potential ‘answer’ when it is Fooks. Without crucial foreground for any such speculation. Fooks would be entirely familiar with the Instituto de Estudios Fiscales. emerging viable solutions to that X-Ray the City! sought to promote. do not individually recognise. Expert data managers. Burry. and urban make the most of big data the principal challenges The designer might well be able to see such publication? policy through a whole-of-university strategy. statistician. Political they could not have foreseen the gifts that strategic worrying about adept as they are in absorbing the of providing a more robust long-term framework parties can espouse radically competitive policies thinkers have today in this regard: ever deeper and emergence of something unexpectedly useful from transcending the short-term expectations of the most to move forwards while ensuring that the framework richer sources of data to be X-rayed in the quest for delving into the unknown as part of their creative avaricious of developers and cynical of politicians? remains robust by not doing anything to set it radically fresh insights. Mark. the In presuming that unknown unknowns might in a position to mutually comprehend once the dots and make make their decisions accordingly. 1946. At lies in being successful working with unrelated data emergent possibilities but. Teoría general de la urbanización y aplicación de sus principios y doctrinas a la reforma y ensanche de Barcelona. Ideas and computation in contemporary urban design: tradition in response to the factory. How will we break the cycle that neither datasets explored via an unstructured route could being able to fuse data analysis with creative When we know what we are looking for within ‘big exploration. of the original building yet despite the majority of the buildings in the town being from the 20th Century. If an unbridgeable divide between a robust policy framework in place their decisions endeavouring to look today at how the City of the risk that something potentially vital might be data parser. To unimagined problems can be identified and taken-up. fully sustainable growth. the building has gone through peri-urban excrescence that characterises the entire urban profound changes from being a hospice to its current use as the town hall. as if X-Ray the City! had never been published. could Cerdà and Fooks reveals one of the more ironical outcomes derived from credibly argued scenarios ‘unknown unknowns’ that both challenged NASA’s be working closely with designers looking for an paradoxes of democracy: urban futures depend supported by abundant evidence. but are nevertheless politicians are inclined to look to the next election and respectful engagement with the past. In yield unanticipated and useful insights there is are connected. 1968-1971. ‘Urban there are tools with which to correlate even when more intriguing still. Fooks. Even when what we are well yield extraordinary new insights into problems typical blight of unbridled land speculation and all looking for lies across several unrelated sets of data that no one even conceived as being existential and. Ernest X-Ray the City!. but revealed? For the designer this is hardly a risk worth teams of the future will have a far better chance which all decisions will be shaped as policy. but which also led elegant solution to a query into a problem that they on ultra-long-term strategic thinking whereas scenarios need to be undertaken with a scholarly to many unanticipated yet valuable discoveries. for example. Image credits: all aerial photographs from Google Maps. seen to the left of the green square in the blow-up. urban analytics. Urban Futures research posits possible know what we do not know that we do not know: the place.

Fooks’ observation deficiencies.” (Fooks.density figures lose their practical value He also suggested new methods to refine — the research on population density and its distribution — 'urban decay' issue was demonstrated as clear if they are not related to an area. example of the misuse of facts (as ‘data’). “. T1024 Node Count Figure 5. Population Figure 2. 1946. 42 43 Co nne c tivi ty and mor phol ogy problems are with us today. All have conceived as being possible. p29) He introduced the problems for refining urban density by taking X-Ray the City! as a historical review designers with the opportunity to access and analyse urban density and population distribution as three information with a complexity at an order of speed layers: spatial nearness. and therefore he focused his urban statistical data had been extensively applied. hierarchy and the size of and depth such that those of the 1940s could not social units. He summarised the quality of urban His critical recognition was that the population In X-ray the City! he indicated that misconceptions revealed that a balanced distribution of the living conditions based on the physical features of as a whole is the foremost consideration in urban drawn from an insufficiently critical appraisal of population must be differentiated from an even dwellings and space and environmental factors. Europe and US in order to demonstrate that higher density does not necessarily lead to environmental Going back to the 1940s. Dr Fooks indicated the major challenge for G eo ff Kim m for digital tool users to understand not only how meaningful data analysis was the arbitrary urban to manipulate software but also grasp the intrinsic boundaries (figure 1) . in particular analytics and its subsequent implementation. these aspects could not be properly realised without the unprecedented data-bombardment that we face knowing the limitations and boundaries of data today may confuse us or worse and. how to interpret data and how data can be used to inform today with a profundity Based on these insights he summarised the 70 years ago. Nevertheless. . T1024 Integration Figure 4. T1024 Total densities according to population density R1600 metric [Segment Length Wgt] Segment Length R1600 suburban boundaries R1600 metric metric. meaning of data flow. and spotting discrete functions. continental essentially derived from human activity. cases. T1024 Total Depth Figure 6. Dr Ernest Fooks observed that urban vitality is that Fooks was able to presume instinctively. on the democratic. The emergence of the Internet and ‘big data’ affords architects and urban represents a function of man's social activities. CartoDB and MapZen Using examples of municipal borders which are M a rc us W hite are readily accessible to people even with limited mapping experience. who can directly download ubiquitously defined through jurisdiction and thereby through administrative process and geographical M a r k B urry urban meta-data and create visual analyses based on it. The layout. planning. the size of which distance grid by introducing the following key ideas: in a more demographic perspective. even make things more difficult to read. Web Xi ao ra n H u ang applications such as Mapbox. whereas there is an accessibility today that borders disadvantages of existing paradigms and cited several cities drawn from the UK. It therefore becomes especially important today fundamentals such as the need to have an address... Similar 3 4 5 6 Figure 1. Diagram of Figure 3.

Bill Hillier and Julienne Hanson other aspects that have an affect on population an arbitrary margin the data is considered in a city distance-density figures and distance-density factors started crystallising space syntax theories and distribution. determined. Topographical relationships with Fooks’ era.censusdata. p95) their intrinsic connections with urban vitality (Bill precincts offering less choice." (Fooks. density notions. 1946.. Replacing the vague overall density figures. 2011 Census QuickStats. networks cannot be simplified through Fooks’ radial interpreted as the number of intersections that need to propose a new design methodology to distribute References Fooks. abs. distribution resembling a pie-chart.land.gov. Illustrating the distribution of the population within network with current population map. (Department of with higher resolution and complexity as ubiquitous indeed ground-breaking especially for that time.. Huang 2016. and the road segment. 2013) With the assistance of shifts in urban morphology development during the ubiquitous and the relationship between their transit participants to give it life. a south. visualised. http://www. 2002 Data 2013 overlapped overlapped with urban morphology coloured with with network choices map. but instead could Infrastructure. The choices network map urban living conditions. the boundaries has been considered as principle transit node in gradually fade. and the value and scarcity an applicable unit to test. morphology and density density figures State Government of Victoria. The graphs and maps generated by this concept can describe the relative connectivity “A town must be regarded as a flexible shell. and spatial vitality (figure 8). is population.. Network grid. this method reveals "urban gravity is usually easy to determine. 1946. We which described a proactive parametric thought be tilted more in relation to business and centrality of of the 2013 census data and the Government’s envision with optimism a design shift in the near process. but without contemporary analytical tools. Werribee. and Julienne Hanson. by the late 1970s. arrangements. (figure 7) 2016) Consequently we have been able to zoom urban areas by means of the diagram of population Emerging technologies and mass computation into a precinct scale and select one viable test bed density in its various forms. 44 Xiaoran Huang. the distance grid is biased the network. From although besides the centrality there are many to reduce system redundancy.Planning for sustainable growth. analyse a network of choices and potentially show municipalities than other candidate precincts with according to further analysis with population layout work.” (Fooks. Compared west Melbourne suburb with a high choices factor. This method could potentially evolve His ideas and the resulting paradigm proposals were for density data would not simply derive from a the ‘Melbourne 2030’ Planning. Geoff Kimm 45 1. A ‘busy’ or at least a prosperous space is usually of Transport. guiding radical In contrast today. “Melbourne 2030 . measuring Fooks was not able to interpret and engage with the better location in terms of urban vitality. Vicmap Transport. how spatial laws mediate the social construction of urban space.” (Fooks. offices. 1984) can even be a vitality determining force. 2002) Emerging as a consequence computing and big-data are further developed. we are facilitated next 30 years (figure 9). techniques. number of choices could be considered as offering density and morphology.vic. and arbitrary (‘political’) boundaries with Fooks’ grid distance map. Bill. Marcus White. 1984. Australia. and Hanson. Mark Burry.. in which the higher population through cannier management of urban expressing the crucial environmental factors of figures. The introduction of clearly-defined notions for model.. Ministry of Post-War Reconstruction. Melbourne Census Figure 8. (Department data (as output) and designers (who demand deeper distributed areas based on evenly subdivided radii. Albeit the site has 3.urban in urban space. p81) by using road centrelines as graph axes. 3 (2002): 153-179. Choice map Figure 9. one of the to meet the constantly changing needs of the probable urban futures with more rigorous life and urban facilities tend to become concentrated smallest components in the urban design scenario. Proposed urban Sustainability and Environment Melbourne. Since the in Melbourne has been chosen and weighted with population distribution. B. 1946. 2016. population figure https://services. Planning and Local Infrastructure.. multi-centred cities are becoming triggered by plenty of social activity with sufficient Government of Victoria. in precincts offering higher number of choices — data outside the boundary was able to be deleted rather than stick solely to Euclidian distance. p32) interpretations of far richer sources of data compared near this centre of gravity. The relative location is nevertheless scale. in many cases. which provides the possibility of marrying in their various forms. A design process based on density of urban land are generally measured by the distance between transit networks could be better articulated In one of our case studies.The principle of the DISTANCE GRID and the Spaces are not backgrounds of social and economic a ready-densified district like the CBD area some in relation with adjacent choices figures. the data as effectively as his instincts no doubt centrality of each road segment can be mapped and segment length to achieve a more accurate result. Hillier. recreation and distribution. Apart from Urban density and height limitation were assigned “.(Hillier. 2. Australia. It is important to realise the ‘distance-density’ to be passed to reach a street. a radical population growth can be future that builds more effective bridges between big through setting it in a singly-centred origin with anticipated during the coming decades.” Urban Design International 7. tools of integrating the various urban factors in subdivisions of urban precincts that can be used to may have great potential to become emerging and the residential area could be potentially applied SPACE and TIME. we can therefore compare the existing (Source data: State Government of Victoria. planning information with local design strategies. However.. “A theory of the city as object: or.”Cambridge: Press syndicate of the University of Cambridge (1984).au/landchannel/content/ vicmapdata?productID=3 data source: Australian Bureau of Statistics . and connectivity is far better informed than possible from it. and density in a more topological perspective. 2011. which are used to describe urban spatial one of the most vital factors and. the suburban precincts with high choice level factors Public open space. (figure 8) DENSITY DIAGRAM is to create the proper technical activities but are constituent parts of them.gov. crowding notions. 2002).” Victorian Government Department of Figure 7. white paper. in the past. J. Ernest. X-Ray the City!: The density diagram: basis for urban planning. A ‘choices map’ could be advanced digital toolboxes today. (figures 2-6).au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/ quickstat/2GMEL?opendocument&navpos=220 Department of infrastructure. 1946. “The social logic of space. (figure 2. Hillier et al. State and more detailed data-driven input). for four urban functions: live. based on the distance make it feasible today to consider city connectivity The most populated areas are mainly concentrated (a central area near Werribee train station). commercial amenities. Bill. no. Hillier. able Compared with the 1940s.

organized as a attractions such as shops and theatres. While parks and El ek P a fk a design and planning parallel of the use of the x-ray in medicine or security screening. something is working or to identify problems. While triangle to capture different levels of mix between it requires sophisticated techniques. If we ask why anyone might be in any To ensure that the significantly higher urban impact intellectual rather than technical tool. Most categories incorporate aspects of others and such categories are inherently unstable We have mapped three cities with very different histories and morphologies: New York. The maps triangle shows three primary kinds of mix: live/visit data for workplace and visitation sites is multiplied are not illustrations. Just as x-rays (yellow) is mostly linked to lifestyle (where we live. walkability. a filter that makes the extent to which different these cities is that functional mix is not one thing eat and play in conjunction with work. in other words the floor area interpretation to reveal how the city works. by 2 and 5 times respectively to determine the are cross-sections of the body of evidence. Education has been included with office and industry functions K i m D o ve y and In this work we conceive of mapping as the urban problem with the mapping of functional mix has long been that the greater the mix the harder it is to comprise the ‘work’ category. Here we develop a overlap. Good maps are given urban location at a given time. All functional categories other than mix. health or streetlife. they have an empirical base sense to say that they ‘live’ there. work/visit (cyan) is the ways we shop.but what kind of functional categories Aggregating Functions The L/W/V Triangle (adapted from Hoek 2008) MANHATTAN: CADASTRAL MIX WALKABLE MIX (one square km catchment) . they are findings. office. Our approach is adapted from the work of squares are not part of the floor area databases. ‘work’ there or used a 1:2:5 weighting ratio of live/work/visit but cannot be easily reduced to numbers and need are ‘visiting’ some kind of facility or amenity. The related floor space. 46 47 Three Cities Th e C ity a s a The concept of functional or land-use mix is seminal to urban studies: the mixing of functions shortens make sense? The diagram above shows how the range of most commonly used functions might M i x o f M ixes distances between attractions. live/work (magenta) mix is the colour represented in the maps. A key combined to create the category of ‘visit’. transport. The Live/Work/Visit Triangle A key goal of mapping functional mix is to better understand productive alliances between attractions . it is primarily an them.suburbs are simple but intensive cities are complex. The x-ray is a to map . education and industry are from the cities of New York. increases walkability and stimulates streetlife intensity. they are significant attractors and we have coloured technology that filters layers of data to produce an Hoek with a division of functions into three primary them with a darker green to distinguish from other image from which we can read the ways in which categories of live. functions contribute to the functional mix legible -that the best of cities are a mix of mixes. so maps shop. work and visit. Barcelona new tool for mapping and understanding functional with new functions and distinctions emerging and Bogotá. then it makes of visitation functions is evident in the maps we like x-rays of the city. The ratio is thus are cross-sections of the city. Barcelona and Bogotá. eat and play). tested on detailed floorspace use databases depending on whether we seek to understand residential. What they reveal in commute.

Joost. hear centre of the triangle or whiteness on the map. editors. 2008. and Mirjana Ristic. It can be tempting kind of mix that emerges at streetscape scale. Ternary graphs of this data from the three cities show how their many neighbourhoods are distributed We present these maps at two scales of analysis. Elek Pafka Hoek. Our use of the multiplier is a loose A Mix of Mixes correlate for tuning an x-ray machine in order to render particular distinctions visible. There is no ideal mix but rather many yellows (live/visit) of Barcelona and the cyans (live/ kinds of productive mix. The degree of means of understanding how such differences work lightness represents the intensity of mixing and the together shade of colour represents the type of mix. While functional mix is deeply complex. index for functional mix because the good city is a scale analysis where each hectare is mapped mix of mixes. it is to address the monofunctional corners. On across the Live/Work/Visit triangle . The task for urban design work) of Manhattan. London: Bloomsbury. Yet and smell in the city.the the degree of on-site mixing most pronounced in the mix of mixes. nor blues and greens of Bogotá.each hectare is the left is the mix for each plot of land revealing the a dot with a walkable catchment. Mapping Urbanities. the spectacle of streetlife and the deeper potential lies in understanding the range face-to-face encounter. “The Mixed Use Thinking. New York: Planning and Analysis”. Routledge.roughly the scale cities are cities of difference and we need better of walkable access (500 metres). BARCELONA: CADASTRAL MIX WALKABLE MIX (one square km catchment) corporationsandcities. forthcoming. Kim. 48 Kim Dovey and Elek Pafka 49 on the map. thus the map visualises both the quantity and quality of the walkable mix.org. On these maps we can read of different kinds and degree of functional mix . contrasted against the reds. http://www. .great square kilometre (100 hectares) . to replicate white neighbourhoods. and planning is not so much to lighten the map. Index as a Tool for Urban 2016. according to the mix that is accessible within a it goes to the heart of what makes a city tick . BOGOTÁ: CADASTRAL MIX WALKABLE MIX (one square km catchment) References Dovey. This to measure the mix in terms of closeness to the is the ‘experiential mix’ of what we can see. Urban Design Dovey. There can be no single The right hand map for each city applies a multi. Kim.

With data collected for each sufficient for tax purposes contemporary information person and building at multiple times within a day the spans to employment sector. 50 51 Ho w le a r ning al gor i thms s u ppor t In 1946 Fooks invented a new method to understand the city through urban data better by increasing the Current data is collected constantly on the activity and characteristics of individual properties and u rb a n d e sign AND the probl em of granularity from large. education. distorted political boundaries to concentric rings. This showed that the centre of First data is collected without a particular question Melbourne is depopulating. the CBD as centre. on Melbourne. When in Fooks’ time residential location of people was t oo m uc h data to the other extreme. popularion and activity density . scientists and governments first identified a problem and consequently defined what data is required to Within the last 70 years the granularity and number find gain insights and find a solution. Diagram of Figure 3. purpose built information structures that couldn’t be Figure 1. Fooks’ work shows that rearranging the The problem with this ever-increasing avalanche of representation of information can yield new insights. This led to of urban datasets have become finer and greater. Diagram of Figure 2. information is to gain insights. What is different since Gideon He used population data available on the level of this is not a new problem that has been solved in each Municipality – he then calculated the population many occasions by data visualisation and statistics? A s c hwa nd en density for concentric rings of one-mile width with The current problem differs in three ways. age. Today the problem has shifted people making letting grow constantly. This is different to hundreds of years where increased population density (see Figure 1). Melbourne Roads Population Density transportation. while the fringes have an in mind. to Since Fooks our relation to data has changed question shifts to ‘How can we aggregate this data name a few of the over 2000 datasets are available over space and time to make it meaningful?’.

Figure 4. Also. 52 Gideon Aschwanden 53 used beyond the identified purpose. organised along political borders that are based datasets in a high dimensional space. In this These three challenges can be overcome by using land use patters. 20 or 100 parameters is new political boundaries. added the picture and understanding becomes but of a myriad of interacting and counteracting clearer. industry or jobs etc. highlight a problem area and are as wide as they are tall. but it comes very close. purpose artificial intelligence. structure any data with a high number of dimensions neighbourhoods based on similarity. The result of multiple risk factors and not a single virus. beyond the capabilities of human cognition. street characteristics. population two dimensional space closeness is equivalent intelligent software. one neighbourhood unstructured. and choose your next residential location. it starts with a anymore linear. Like dreaming. the problem of too much data is a structure of such datasets is impossible. method is called pre-specific modelling or model free constantly (see Figures 2 and 3). (see Figures 5-10) The second change is in the dimensionality of data. The software solved problem for which we have tools that support The third and last way the current problems on historical boundaries and don’t reflect the uses the data and learns the characteristics of the our efforts of understanding the world better. differ from the past is that the problems are not current structure of the city. into 2 dimensions + colour (see Figure 4). . borders etc. The leading to a huge number of parameters to track that are similar to each other: the neighbourhood. The understanding the software has is still factors. The following To solve this problem software is written that The neighbourhoods that the software identified have collected even without a clear purpose. For example having a heart attack is the The neighbourhood structure of the city is fluid and a high dimensional. and can be example uses a Self-Organising Map that can collects data about each place and tries to find the very distinct characteristics. Finding similarity is closely related to the CBD. manner that allows humans to understand the The city of more than 4 million people is still Software on the other side can handle multiple To summarise. defined by detached and finds similarities. The software then continues to find to structure data without prior knowledge of the characteristics is defined by multiple parameters clusters of similarity. Visualising in a Back to Fooks’ place of investigation: Melbourne. Each cluster represents places purpose or the question we would like to ask. constantly reconfiguring. A neighbourhood is defined software then projects this high dimensional space by a myriad of characteristics like travel behaviour. Self Organising Figures 5-10. incomplete and dirty. not readable by humans. Current software allows us characteristics. Contemporary problems in health or neighbourhoods do not reflect the current random distribution and with each new data point transportation are the result not of a single parameter municipality structure of the city. Each one of these to similarity. Self Map Organising Map Clusters . between two places that are defined by one attribute houses. Today data is modelling and learns from examples. This is not yet a general. the current individual places. can be done in a simple map but finding similarity These neighbourhoods can now be used to draw Contemporary datasets contain multiple attributes between places with 10.

WeChat. and our ‘tailor’ is not a human. tobacconist. 54 55 ‘ S p atia l N ear ness’ . we now have an endless list distance to services encourage walking over car use   of social communication media such as Twitter. in the Greek period or in the our doors in ubiquitous white vans or. Promoting an active community achievements are not able to diminish the importance requires radically different strategic approaches of SPATIAL NEARNESS for creating community life. The method for accessing goods and services has also positive impact on social inclusion. and YouTube. Towns in those UAV delivery. Aliexpress. but a buffers’ or ‘circular catchments’ (distance from All images: Nano Langenheim Figure 1: White and Kimm’s Figure 2: White and Kimm’s Figure 3: White and Kimm’s Figure 4: White and Kimm’s PedCatch animated PedCatch animated PedCatch animated PedCatch animated pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool applied to calculate the applied to calculate the applied to calculate the applied to calculate the walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian catchment for Albert Park catchment for  Albert Park catchment for Carlton catchment for  Carlton Primary School Primary School detailed Gardens Primary School Gardens Primary School   view   detailed view   . In 2016. consider the location of services with respect to uses and location changed dramatically. out of their cars. to urban transformation in the coming decade not even nowadays. the sphere of man’s social activities like Amazon and Taco Bell begin to experiment with was limited by walking distance. by quad-copter drones. such services (they come directly to us). Despite these periods were limited in size. modelling walking proximity to walkable access to a cobbler. He considered proximity and accessibility as a key ingredient to healthy cities using the term ‘Spatial piece of parametric software generating patterns for cheap overseas labor to stitch together. or the medieval market place. Facebook. usually formed the utmost limit for an effective social is even more important than it was in 1946. when the entire region becomes necessitating innovative urban design to get people the natural unit of social life (Fooks 1946 p. coal merchant or services has been limited primarily to ‘Euclidean of population density. We have Pro x im ity and Accessi bili ty Nearness: Condition for Community Life’: access to online produce purchase systems such as Ebay.   Our communication technology has advanced in Pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods within walking unimaginable ways. Ten or fifteen minutes' dramatic changes to how we access goods and walking distance to the communal facilities. telephone $55 billion every year and has begun to overtake and wireless have immeasurably increased the smoking as the country’s leading cause of premature Na n o La ngenhei m sphere of man's social activities. as companies Middle Ages. obesity and being overweight costs Australia over G eo ff Kim m intercourse […] Modern transport facilities. and Taobao delivering goods to In previous civilizations. but these technical death and illness. We seldom need convenient Until very recently. ‘Spatial Nearness’ M a rc us W hite as the Greek Agora.28). resulting in higher levels of physical activity and a In the 1940s Fooks identified the need for planners to carefully SnapChat.

on Sustainable Urbanism. and do not consider time related factors such as traffic lights2. Figure 7: White and Kimm’s Figure 8: White and Kimm’s Figure 9: White and Kimm’s Figure 10: White and PedCatch animated PedCatch animated PedCatch animated Kimm’s PedCatch animated pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool applied to calculate the applied to calculate the applied to calculate the applied to calculate the walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian catchment for Middle Park catchment for Middle Park catchment for Port catchment for Port Figure 5: White and Kimm’s PedCatch animated pedestrian Figure 6: White and Kimm’s PedCatch animated pedestrian Primary School Primary School detailed Melbourne Primary School Melbourne Primary School access tool applied to calculate the walkable pedestrian access tool applied to calculate the walkable pedestrian   view   detailed view catchment for Kensington Primary School catchment for Kensington Primary School detailed view      1 Badland. topographic/elevation data with worldwide coverage. Implementations 51st IFHP   World Congress. Figure 11: White and Figure 12: White and Figure 13: White and Figure 14: White and White.. contribute to the development of more walkable of proprietary GIS software with additional network agent‑based modelling analysis method that can be spatial data and integration with the more commonly and accessible communities for all. Marcus 2 for planning. access nature of the tool means that it is available   This method is grossly inaccurate and does not The tool was developed and tested with the input to all. sourced and open source network data sets and planning and public health advocacy and the open. the height of this elevation figures have been accepted in computing the size catchment area versus circular buffer ratios. it is generally agreed that the maximum walking modelling work by White3 and is designed to be to increasing catchments such as pedestrian links. (Fooks 1946 p. no. vertical and of the social unit supporting an elementary school The method adopted for this study involved porting streets crossed.5D (2D with height) costly. used by researchers. railway lines distance to school for children of the elementary accessible to non‑specialists and displays walkability Users can produce a range of metrics such as are to be lifted from the ground plane to remove school age should not exceed half -a-mile. Geoff Kimm. interventions. aged care facilities or medical is needed.] measurement of the sphere of influence of a an animation software based agent-based modelling (children. 1 Cities Impacts: Indicators: view   view (2013): 1. numbers and relationship with future built form.pedcatch. ‘on-grade-crossings’. 2007.. older adults) and set gradient limitations could dramatically impact on accessibility. and complex three dimensional accessibility catchments with an emphasis on mobility impaired of new schools. 2007 . numbers of crossings. PedCatch The resulting tool has proven effective and flexible. there are opportunities to walking distance would be justified only by a strict.” International journal 2007 Copenhagen Future of Primary School Primary School detailed Primary School Primary School detailed of health geographics 12. Little has changed since Fooks’ PedCatch (www. (for people with mobility impairments). and Billie A&M University. walkability. “Densification. Texas the Battle for Middle Earth. 56 Marcs White. Melbourne densifies. Recent development from stakeholder working groups and provides an tool. and test different walking speeds diagonal circulation inside and outside of buildings [. as currently proposed for Melbourne. average walking speeds. pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool pedestrian access tool Christopher Pettit. Gus MacAulay.35). source data from the Australian Urban Research improve walking and cycling accessibility to services radial street pattern which is not desirable. As community facility by a circle drawn at the maximum tool to a vector based GIS web tool using an open. There is considerable scope for extending this Our PedCatch tool demonstrates the potential to allow ‘what if’ scenario testing.” in proceedings 3 Marcus White. into consideration spatio-temporal aspects with the-crow-flies). Serryn of the International Conference Pedestrian Catchments and Kimm’s PedCatch animated Kimm’s PedCatch animated Kimm’s PedCatch animated Kimm’s PedCatch animated Eagleson. It builds on prior agent based pedestrian facilities and impacts of potential urban interventions accessibility in hyper-dense urban scenarios. If. planners and used walkability indexes. to continue to analysis plugins (ESRI Arc Map with Network.com) is our online map allowing a diverse group of stakeholders to test a potential for future development as cities become observations in the 1940s: tool that provides modelling of urban pedestrian variety of urban scenarios such as optimal location denser. we are continuing to develop the tool set taking (particularly in the case of QGIS)1. Can Agent Based Pedestrian applied to calculate the applied to calculate the Giles-Corti. Hannah. “Using simple Modelling be Used to applied to calculate the applied to calculate the agent-based modeling to inform Inform Urban Morphology” walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian walkable pedestrian and enhance neighborhood in proceedings of the IFHP catchment for Carlton catchment for Carlton catchment for South Yarra catchment for South Yarra walkability. the tool will be capable of testing Children cannot walk long distances to school. including incorporating diverse spatial and non. and Infrastructure Network (AURIN) as well as crowd The PedCatch tool has the capacity to influence through strategic architectural and urban design seldom possible. Suzanne Mavoa. urban designers. require a high level of expertise to operate [Figures 1-14]. Nano Langenheim 57 services such as railway stations and schools as. These analysis via an intuitive animation-based interface. on this modelling though it can be prohibitively spatial nearness to key infrastructure and services Though currently limited to 2. improve Spatial Nearness aiming for an optimal Analyst plugin) makes a dramatic improvement policy makers and the wider community to assess ‘Condition for Community Life’.

by the inefficiency of manual processing.”4 This question of experimental physics that was done by individuals boundaries. between these periods: a practical attitude towards bigness. it job and his data are obtained from a limited selection focuses on one characteristic that is comparable of existing sources. XL (New York. for typically. 510. the data collection methods. Julian Rutten. after the Second World War as a practice that was distinct from the previous forms of science that were One such defect was to do with “the arbitrary “small”. Reconstruction. The main device introduced by Fooks is the distance grid or the diagram of population density. 1946). 509. The 4 Fooks. we don’t tools might result in the return of the regular-pattern design look like in a world know what to do with it. By contrast. Derek J. Gwyllim Jahn. and more rapid returns on personal initiatives. 1995). a project by 1 Ernest Fooks. it’s uniformity – it is made of even cells. The data are influenced by science emerged in the US weapons laboratories their providers. in 2016. the future “[b]ecause there is no theory of Bigness. His site of application S t a nisla v the propositions made by Fooks at that time with is comparably large – whole cities. S. Little Science. with local resources. big fluid. Agency. this article uses the essay called money and governed by hierarchical bureaucratic X-Ray the City! that was written by architect and processes. possibilities for such difference were limited: on one hand. Bigness. we don’t know how to plan it. 1963). 1995). X-Ray the City! 2 Rem Koolhaas et al. Tom Morgan Urban Planning (Melbourne: Press. with little collaboration and with remains important in the contemporary.”2 But was he right? Fooks saw defects in the way statistical data was collected and analysed and his proposal was to sample and map the available data differently. and Stanislav Roudavski. 58 59 Do i ng B ig ness Written as a provocation that reflects on some of the relationships between data. bigness pre-existed Koolhaas. The contemporary tools are allowing for greater What will architectural architectural thinker Rem Koolhaas insisted that variety and yet. supported by huge amounts of and design. as will be discussed below. Alexander Holland and The Density Diagram: Basis for L. and near the symbolic future moment in 2046 when patterns with statistical tools is also similar to the big science approaches but his analysis is a one-man Fooks’ essay will be 100 years old. NY: Monacelli Mangle of Practice: Time. Big mistakes are our only connection to totalitarianism. 43.1 The discussion below compares some of but are modest by comparison. Press. 3 Andrew Pickering. we don’t know when to use it. . his search for R oud a vs k i two subsequent periods: the situation now. a prominent architect and city.3 Fooks’ hopes to underpin design by town planner Ernest Fooks in 1946 as its starting science are related to the spirit of such undertakings point. Specifically. we don’t know where to put superposition. Stanislav Roudavski. M. Writing in 1995. the NatureTrader. the standardisation and the data of ambient intelligence? it. near the midpoint of the timeline its universality – it is meant to be applicable to any established above. governmental – data sources. 43. This *** diagram has several core properties: it’s geometry – it is concentric. And Big Science yet. X-Ray the City!.. and Science (Chicago. habitable environment where it was conducted by large teams of physicists and engineers. Big Science (New York: Columbia University Press. world of data. or – more generally – of patterns. by the small number of available – In other domains. Small science referred to the traditional nature of urban boundaries. de Holland. other Ministry of Post-War London: University of Chicago other credits: Alexander credits: Julian Rutten. a project by PocketPedal. even if in a new guise. Solla Price. and on the example in the form of “big science” that emerged other.

60 Stanislav Roudavski 61 suitability of particular phenomena for quantification and easily accessible. An experience of the world where all experience is 5 E. CA: Sage. Such concerns were are of low cost and. making arbitrary boundaries will turn into a network of connected objects. at multiple scales and can be only right. narratives. increasingly. Tennis rackets. 2014). everything is one market. This network of objects is predicted to link many billions of devices. data have retained their value. some say Today is characterised by the potential of big-data more than 50 billion by 2020. however. Fridges. The types of data The relationship with data enabled by such methods defects change with technology but some defects is much more active than before. 32. and so. That these new hybrid ecologies are more tightly timely and of high resolution. database formats. Most objects consuming and expensive to generate. . X-Ray the City!. historically.. or where it might lead. they always remain. use and transmit data. 6 Fooks.”6 physical space or site ownership. data owners. standards. Often. coarse can make. With the advent of networked the relationships of interconnected entities and computing. Data continues to be highly political. manually and many of these boundaries come to data science and business intelligence. analyse that have a name already exist in versions that and interpret. All environment is mapped. contemporary – and future – data. reliant on human imagination. All units trade. interpretation of the already-existing environments. And yet. identities. All mapping units are standardised. the whole world dynamic information. named. As reported by the big-data of the common things are already connected. Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences (London. these data the environmental concerns. When every person will tools to make decisions on small-grain. proprietary and phones and tablets provide universal windows into expensively traded. data-dependent. Open Data. past trends. or prescriptive – using models to specify metadata specifications and so on. able to meet boundaries such as those that are to do with the constantly changing needs of the population. given the newly common appreciation for fertile for exploratory data analysis. see Rob Kitchin. on the past. Pets. The Data Revolution: Big Data. dependent on craftsmanship. Such connected representations of phenomena. the nature of boundaries than with data scarcity. On provide new support for the design approaches the other hand. Everything is commodified. Many still further obsolete. often. compatible with the Fooks’ insistence that “[a] town collection techniques can overcome many traditional must be regarded as a flexible shell. – openly available NatureTrader. Boundaries take form of pattern discontinuities that can appear as The resulting analytics can be descriptive – reporting indices. devices do not need independent interfaces. data have been time- Livestock. but support dashboards with which these objects can be their production has become significantly easier controlled. that of data on the environment. Oaks. is becoming increasingly more Big Data apparent. Such tools the fore because they are intrinsic to automation. Availability of such data led as well as by the character of specific systems. All units are sentient and can act. It is impossible optimal actions with resulting approaches going by to understand or process large volumes of data the names such as data mining. the reverse influence. Such data come from integrated with the surrounding environments is heterogenous sources. to the emergence of new data-analytic toolsets that data streams. As the city are designed to cope with the data abundance rather becomes increasingly cyber.g. Thousand indexed. becomes more general. and the result is an increasingly overwhelming flow of relational data that is finely differentiated. resolution choices.5 It provided static and. local and have several connected devices. Smart good-quality data were valuable. Consequently. predictive analytics. still primarily focus on the understanding and decidedly contingent. for example through such visions as the Internet of Things. predictive – modelling the future from the communication protocols.

Solutionism and the Urge to Fix performed. 8 For “nearness” and Everything. their grouping.enthusiastic embrace of networked technologies see Evgeny Morozov. building proof-of-concept machines that automate why are cities still growing so rapidly? The fact aspects of decision-making. see Ibid. ambient intelligence. “It is the development than those that are commonly STOP/GO BRAIN SPEED BRAIN human scale which has to be the guiding principle. promoted by the pervasive-computing and big-data GO. Human beings. analysis Fooks argues that technical achievements of of behaviour. 95 . Such services can comprise analytics. Future techniques the environment and its users or the data and the promise substantially greater data resolution but they city motivates the introduction of new toolsets. stakeholder relationships Cognition and can also be encountered under the themselves are changing under the impact of names of automated analytics. illustrate: if spatial nearness is no longer significant. Their ambition is to that utility services such as water supply. CAR! data. In addition. 62 Stanislav Roudavski 63 unfamiliar to Fooks and the discourse of his time. therefore. To Save that places stakeholders in the midst of data. become the RISK BRAIN primary concern of urban planning.. or one way to resist. Designing occurs in the magic circle. Big Cognition The situation where the amount of available data is The uniformity of standardising tools such as overwhelming. first TURN BRAIN data.”9 In this. also make it impossible for humans to peruse this attitudes and behaviours. Such ambitions are seen by some of SPATIAL NEARNESS for creating community as a pervasive threat of automation while others life.. 9 Ibid. 10 For the criticism of solutionism motivated by over. 96. It conditions. The result can take form of cultural institutions such as schools or kindergartens modular services or so-called “cognitive platforms”. historically nuanced understandings of technological His essay is concerned with humans only. such as x-rays. Click Here: Technology. GO — YEAH! FASTER. To human interference. The ambition of the industry is. 2013). All action is rehearsed. the single ecosystems and is becoming more accepted in maps forming parts of an “anatomic atlas” of the regard to artificial agents.10 FASTER! their distribution and redistribution. conceptualised in the early 1990s. their between data producers and data consumers. This new paradigm. drainage. their collective needs. sewerage. He claimed that his “method can be is by now uncontroversial in relationship to living compared to an X-Ray of the human body. HAZARD BRAIN cognitive computing and deep learning. become grown into the bodies under study.. enthusiasts.”11 This metaphor stops to work when tools. simplification is necessarily lossy. 26. An approach to design 7 Ibid. Problems that Don’t Exist (New York: Public Affairs. his argument is compatible with more see this trend as a radical opportunity to construct PocketPedal. X-Ray the City!. For example. garbage construct cognitive technologies that can support disposal. 11 Fooks.8 The exact nature and influence that can support autonomous operation without The virtual cycling world of these new relationships is far from obvious. FASTER. emerges as more important than the nearness to to define communication standards and procedures THE PHONE physical locations. natural-language 1946 were “not able to diminish the importance parsing and so. All “community life”. the role of “spatial nearness” as a condition for “community life” – a relationship emphasised by Fooks – is diminishing as new social As the number of connected entities grows. the logic of Fooks’ method as TOO RISKY! need to pay attention to or consult with nonhuman an all-revealing x-ray breaks down in these new stakeholders is becoming increasingly evident. design is negotiated. urban entity. electricity and multiple applications. is termed here Big SHARP RIGHT! and more significantly. visual recognition.”7 Today. gas. Every decision is supplied with an alternative. played. the At the same time. Already now. requiring some form of automation. organisations are is accessed through a device familiar all. and where there is no clear distinction Fooks’ distance grid can miss local variations. are harder to distribute might be one of the reasons. the aggregations become possible through electronic task of managing them becomes harder and more networks and the proximity to data and data sources expensive. 28. All data is felt.

Srnicek. Jennifer Sigler. S. M. Chicago. Melbourne. Postcapitalism and a World without Work (London: Verso. These get to the city? processes from shopping. This scepticism towards such decreases your road beliefs rejects the fascination with the Internet along Price. too weak. to plant growth. In these conditions. Little Science. One Fooks. breakneck speeds. 516. and have enough health reckless guy in to survive a crash or two. data production. 1963. Sticking to the bike lane means you will a MAMIL. to traffic. The Data Revolution: Big Data. not all events will be swallowed by light. Agency. too defiant. ambiguity and How safe is you too subversive. Hans Werlemann. You are much more as the right to be lazy and the guaranteed basic likely to end your minimum income. and Alex Williams. In this Some vehicles pay attention to you. Nick. The second and contrasting Morozov. Rem. 2015). Thousand Oaks. NY: Monacelli Press. Koolhaas claimed that “[n]ot all architecture. This may be illustrated by lanes and colliding the contrast between two radical approaches. too “nothing” to be part of mendacity – can be as essential to the operation riding? The health the constellations of Bigness. On your way to the city you’ll storage to value-making. – including hypocrisy. all events or – to put it unfancied inefficiency. and city. to crash. M. Colliding with traffic existing life-patterns. bike health will slowly recharge. To Save Everything. redundancy and opportunism Compliance with road differently – all matter. remaining within delectable for the bigness of Big Cognition. the restriction have to negotiate a on freedoms such as the freedom to mention.”12 Today. The solutionism believes that Public Affairs. ending the Try to stay within the bike lane! Here. too unrespectable. the bike lane. design actions have diverging References Riding outside bike potentials for activism. 2013. the game 13 Nick Srnicek and Alex Morozov. X-Ray the City! The Density Diagram: Basis for Urban with traffic decreases Planning. systems including.14 The logic Postcapitalism and a World without Work. To Save Everything. S. Derek J. Can you actionable intelligence.. Bruce Mau. it seems that of the inclusive political processes as the similarly indicator reflects how safely you ride. There are many “needs” too unfocused. analysed and unique expressions of complexly interrelated St Kilda Rd lacks affected as they occur. 2015. Click Here: Technology. will cause your cyclist BIKE LANE THE PLAYER of this second approach is to see that imperfection. freedom to act or the freedom to know. New York: health per the severity Columbia University Press. predictive. all program. Evgeny. Being in the bike lane has its own Tap to pedal. tap dangers: watch out for those opening the sides of the cars doors! phone to turn. you. New York: than simply riding at for all solutionism. ride in a high score approach seeks to encourage general scepticism by cycling safely Solutionism and the Urge to Fix Problems that Don’t Exist. self-contradiction. not all program. amorphousness. in real time. 1995. too secret. You are awarded CA: Sage. In 1995. Big Science. London: University of Chicago Press. L. You’re a hipster girl. a gain more points. . all processes and all life are are necessary for the robust operation of living rules. all architecture. Inventing the Future: impacting an obstacle deserving of the unquestioning respect. 64 Stanislav Roudavski 65 systems that can self-improve through the running ambiguity. systems. his twenties. not unimportantly. London: Verso. Data in manufacturing. Elimination of such features can lead proper cycling toolsets from accumulation to action and from to severe restrictions on the operation of known infrastructure. points for every ten and analysis. problems that need fixing. characteristics that common sense interprets others not so much. the route full of traffic. London. inconsistency. Many different types of they can function as valuable “features”. communication Infrastructures and Their Consequences. 12 Koolhaas et al. 1946. network technologies can find the answer to most Pickering. and HAZARDS of the world’s problems and optimise most of the Science. Inventing the Future: Click Here. Instead of being “bugs”. On low bike health. and navigating obstacles increases health. Williams. of these seeks to formulate new labour demands presuming the inevitability of automation at all levels: SCORE Kitchin. interface and mechanics. XL. Bigness. with the presumption that the network is an eternal entity with intrinsic and immutable properties. along St Kilda Road. Andrew. XL. L. PocketPedal. shift and other such phenomena are not necessarily the You are a cyclist riding from historical enumeration to real-time. features can be valuable because they are historically THE ROAD to energy fluctuations can be seen. de Solla. 14 515. The Mangle of Practice: Time. New York. YOUR GOAL of continuous experiments and by doing this. 1995. it. your This cyclist is game. Ernest. Rob. Melbourne: Ministry of Post-War Reconstruction. with it such seemingly counter-intuitive arrangements Office for Metropolitan Architecture. redirecting data behaviours. of the collision.13 The next step within this logic is to metres successfully not just accept but to demand full automation and cycled towards the Koolhaas. 2014. Open Data. negatively and Big Cognition promises to eliminate HEALTH too weak.

This climatic impact then leads to ‘dark’. using a Seek Thermal™ camera. Though much of this growth is in the form of further car dependence… and so goes the downward component of healthy cities. Advances in Meteorology. Image shade measurement at precinct scale – plan view. when the shadows Australian cities are also particularly susceptible to walking to services is greatly reduced. (2014) The “urban age”in Kwinter. Springer. comfortable microclimates can lead to greater car- dependence – which increases emissions pollution citizens access to sun light. International Journal of H. and Schmid.. which suggests the need for heavily intensification in existing urban areas. Australia showing street tree’s shade with shade measurement at precinct scale – aerial view. . Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2010. intense heat wave in Oklahoma City. Just as Fooks become spatially complicated overlays in relation to shaded streets particularly in walking proximity to M a rc us W hite identified population densities and “arrangements of overcrowded settlements” as a major challenge for health in densifying cities. Footscray in Melbourne. And in the cool. 731–755. and Crawford. ‘dank’ or oppressive. Tazi. G. the likelihood of people temperate Melbourne winter. the densification of Melbourne will come with However these same deep street canyons can trap third of Australian adults are also currently suffering Na n o La ngenhei m equally significant challenges if it is to continue as longwave radiation. impacting local atmospheric vitamin D deficiency8 from a lack of sun exposure Xi ao ra n H u ang one of the most liveable cities in the world. and Obrist..-U. Actar. deep shaded street canyons of schools and business districts to protect people from sun exposure while engaging in active transport. 66 67 Ci t i e s … they’re so hot Our cities are growing at unprecedented rates undergoing rapid urbanisation and intensification1–3.51). on surface temperature.. Figure 4: Urban street tree impact study showing light- shade on a 41 degree day in Swaby Square. lateral expansion (usually referred to as sprawl). R. S. B. N. Boeri. with its high rate of skin cancer. B.   conditions.   a significant proportion will continue as urban   Australia has one of the highest rates of skin cancer densification with both building and population Heat retention. H. hot in the city tonight… city.. question.   1 Brenner. 2 Koolhaas. these deep canyons also decrease impacts of climate change with increasing extreme Figure 1: Photograph of seagulls sitting under a tree’s  Figure 2: Photograph of Vipoint Street Footscray in Figure 3: Urban street tree impact study showing light. adds to the impact on global climatic instability. and urban mobility. C. K. G. J. (2010) The impact of the Urban and Regional Research.. with thermal image overlay taken thermal image overlay taken using a Seek Thermal™ by Marcus White. contributing to the phenomena known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) where temperatures which suggests an opposing street design which preserves solar access through the cooler months of M a r k B urry There is a strong relationship between urban microclimates and walking comfort and accessibility within urban centres can be considerably higher when compared to surrounding rural areas4-7 and May to August. P. C. contribute to Vitamin D deficiencies and result in environments perceived as r i g ht no w Melbourne’s population is predicted to reach 8 million people by 2050. S. Less are long..   and spatial nearness. Compounding these health and comfort issues uncomfortably hot or cold. Australia.. 3 Rode. (2013) Trends and 4 Basara. Basara. Photographs by Marcus camera demonstrating the dramatic impact of street trees     White. (2000) Mutations.. In Melbourne. in the long term. thereby discouraging walking or other active modes of transport – a critical Hot in the city. G eo ff Kim m sanitation and health of a population (Fooks 1946 high density streets might be seen as an advantage. challenges: global urbanisation Illston. a counter health issue is that nearly one p. becoming Australia’s biggest and. Photographs by Marcus White. urban heat island during an Wiley Online Library 38. Marcus White. If the temperature is contributing to heat related fatalities. However. N. Image by Melbourne. sunlight access and thermal comfort in the world. spiral.

Sage Publications on Urban Form . 13 White. thermal comfort.        9 Patz. Nature climate change: Applying Reconstruction. City fabrics Summer? designed to seasonally adjust foliar cover and ground the city at street level than a coat of reflective white with deep ‘urban canyons’ are an unintended shading making it ideal to include in dense cities paint12.ISUF2014 Elsevier 11. in summer... thermal harness individual species traits and strategize and diversity is an integral part of street design potentially leads to winter “Dark Cities” like those comfort. and Williams. of environmental research and Faculdade de Engenharia da public health. Wiley Online vitamin D deficiency and its identify predictors of risk climates. T.. Image by Marcus White and of Platanus orientalis 7m spacing. D. Lu. consequence of densification . M. J. variation such as those experienced in Melbourne.. 1744259111420076. R. urban heat island: comparison D. 310–317. While making and storm water pollution mitigation and a host of So how do we balance the need for protecting Additionally. which result in streets. J. diagram: basis for urban Exploring the building energy canyons with real-time Teaching Resources. in winter. Pinho P Batista a national. regional climate change on (2013) Heat waves and planning. D. Ebeling. or as analysis tools into the design decision making elements of Spatial Nearness. Magliano. and it swallows annually about one-fifth of its You’re in the jungle baby… Urban street trees using and the performance of the city fabric for the health Even in deep urban canyons which might experience natural light”11 p. C. Nature. the health belief model to of buildings in four distinct future in Urban Morphology: design and urban canopy layer Climatology. Eds. Journal of Building 21st International Seminar climate.. micro-climates and health and integrate specimen placement and spacing. R. been a popular field of study recently. access.. 69 Xiaoran Huang. E. Image by Platanus orientalis 7m spacing. D. Wiley Online Library 77.. (2005) Impact of I. adjust levels of sun exposure to the street through The impact of green-roof on building temperature has contribute to human health and comfort through air   building awnings or other ‘tacked on’ additions.23. determinants in Australian perception and adaptive Physics. T. Mark Burry weather events such as heat waves9 which are likely work or school. White and Nano Langenheim. Grant.. Multidisciplinary Universidade do Porto. Campbell. may not provide flexibility integrates spatio-temporal characteristics of transformation increase the potential for walking to the vulnerability of active transport users to both for residents to use these spaces for passive clothes trees into the process of designing streets using Figure 5: Aerial rendered view of Arden Macaulay area Figure 6: Aerial rendered view of Arden Macaulay area Figure 7: Solar radiation exposure analysis of Arden Figure 8: Solar radiation exposure analysis of Arden digital model showing potential planting of Corymbia digital model showing potential planting of Platanus Macaulay area digital model showing potential planting Macaulay area digital model showing potential planting of maculata 7m spacing in summer. if used in clever ways which The choice of street tree species. P. T. A. Ministry of Post-War impacts of green roof design light based sky view factor of scale model and field P. A.. S. and Gibson. D. (2012) Prevalence of Publishing Group 438. maximising exposure to sun (and dangerous Summer UV and a lack of Winter light. M. Geoff Kimm. drying or social gatherings and has been shown to to increase in frequency. Journal of J. overlaid with particularly in cities with large seasonal temperature seen in the cult classic by Alex Proyas in 1998. Nano Langenheim. New York City described by Fooks – “The smoke of process. & Langenheim. IAUC geometry and the nocturnal Z. A. (1988) Street observations. E. Dense cities can also potentially algorithmic botany and flexible urban models of residents of dense urban settlements. population-based study. K. Clinical endocrinology. cent. Zimmet. Foley. human health.. trees contribute become summer ‘urban furnaces’ like China’s Building form has a limited capacity to seasonally   to city cooling through evapotranspiration and Chongqing. 10 Akompab. Elley. Sikaris. urban form. heat retention. Vegetation. high levels of overshadowing all year. (2011) (2014) Measuring urban canopy layer heat island. is fundamentally have no greater cooling benefit to the building or a consequence of climate change10.. solar access. P. Energy and buildings. Gagnon.. (2004) The urban 7 Oke. People and animals know the benefits of its factories reduces the sun shine to almost 40 per   improves both the perception of Spatial Nearness shade in heat mitigation [see Figure 1 and Figure 2].. Image by Marcus and Nano Langenheim. T. how can innovative strategic approaches to urban and highly sun exposed in Summer increasing be prohibitively expensive.  Image by Marcus White orientalis 7m spacing. R. Lendrum. In Our common 6 Oke. 26–35. X. Nano Langenheim.. M. P. decisions–a modeling study modelling. limitations for building over shadowing roof spaces trafficable and habitable environments aesthetic considerations. A. and Nanjing cities. 5 Mills. Bi. A. J. intensity and duration as vitamin D) in winter but minimising UV exposure in Vegetation on the other hand. seasonal change. . W.. adults aged 25 years and older: behaviours in Adelaide. J. Library 1. and Augoustinos. (1981) Canyon 8 Daly. the City!: The density B. size. G. T. J. fully over shadowed in Winter certainly sensible – making these spaces ‘green’ can Our approach for modelling urban street trees.More density puts It is critical for planners and urban designers to where building form is adjusted to maximise solar   more pressure on our public spaces to “perform”. health data and land use data Australia13. M.. and C. 2164–2184.. Walker. pp 239–304. understand the relationship between accessibility. people from excessive UV exposure and heat are often legislated to Summer and Winter equinox’ for residents in dense cities with small apartments is   whilst encouraging active modes of transport? And.. 103–113.. (1946) X-Ray 12 Sailor. Marcus White and Nano Langenheim.). Dunstan. Australia. N.. (Oliveira V. Wuhan. 11 Fooks. 237–254. M. Digital Publishing Institute 10. International journal L. and Shaw. placement Densification puts pressure on solar amenity which. in winter. Z. R. 68 Marcs White. Holloway.

. species and placement   is not a pure deterministic engineering discipline of are strategically prioritised to radically improve the Urban Canyon assessment –  opening up to the sky brute-force optimisation.). Geoff Kimm.. Archadia C. results in potential development envelopes within inherent in the still widely used method of ‘Hunch which inform growth rates and aspects of projected which any buildings can be built without casting a and Guess’ in urban planning”11 p.. A. M. pp 525–535. Image by Marcus White. pp 111–124.55. when we have hunches. Eds. C. H. M. Conference of the Architectural Science Association 2015 (Crawford. ‘negative shadow’ object derived from angles of the Fooks identified the intuitive urban design decision We can prioritise the environment of the street. M. Department of Geography Building and Planning (UniMelb). Diagram showing plaza space light source for real-time Sky View Factor calculation extrusions tapered to match the altitude and azimuth developed by White and Langenheim. Urban canyon analysis tools can be used for our hunches are informed by rigorous analysis . or CAT scans and MRIs   ‘hacked Go-Pro video processing’ method today. Nano Langenheim. Eds. reality simulations. (2010) Homo 15 White. M Challenges in the City In Research for a Better Built Environment: 49th International Ostwald M Downton P & Mina. The technique creates planning… permissible building envelopes by subtracting a solid Figure 9: White’s “Subtracto-Sun” public space solar Figure 10: GPU based calculation using a hemispherical amenity preservation tool. 70 Marcs White.. just using a four-dimensional subtractive volumetric View Factor calculation developed by White and as surgeons will use bioinformatics through virtual modelling method developed by White14. of RWTH Aachen University.15 called Langenheim13 [see Figure 10]. Though we morphology in a given urban fabric and also shadow onto the public space during the designated believe there is still some room in the urban design modelling the shade over time and season that time range [see Figure 9]. ‘Subtracto-Sun’. and Schneider. with “errors modelling both the daylight hours trees will receive. a surrounding potential building envelope to ensure no shadow falls on the plaza during specified times. Press. the post digital (Burry. pp 107–126. Aachen Germany. Image by Marcus angles of the sun at a range of day times. (2015) Measuring sky view factor of urban Faber: Modelling identity and Demographic and Climate canyons using hacked Gopro hemispheric video processing.   14 White. A. or integrated into proposed solutions will work.).). . we can test them using the design process using GPU based calculation previously “immeasurable data” with rigorous spatio- Preserving open space amenity can be achieved using a hemispherical light source for real-time Sky temporal simulations to evaluate our proposals. (Pfaffenbach. This approach making process in 1946 as problematic. Kimm. carved from White. a technique which utilises   parametric digital sun systems with real-time More than “Hunch and Guess” urban design and flexible Boolean operations. (2014) Global 16 White. G. 71 Xiaoran Huang and Mark Burry algorithmic botany and flexible urban models13. microclimate of our city streets [Figure 3 to Figure 8]. sun during a given range of times. process for intuition and hunches – that urban design trees provide if spacing. Ed. R. Rather than ‘guess’ at solutions or ‘guess’ our Subtracto-Sun – the solar carvery developed by White and Kimm16. Faculty of Architecture. and Stephan.the assessment of existing city canyons using the equivalents to X-Rays.

to increase their was to be surrounded by an open space to provide degree of segregation. aligned to one cultural reference. but not all. etc. published. Johnson in 1943 as a part of comprehensive 1943 County of London Plan by Forshaw and Abercrombie. and 1943 County of London Plan. separated the many districts of London by naming The act established New Town Development them after their dominating element. In a mid-twentieth century response to the conflict of their immediate This innovative map was intended as a grand past.000 people with an elementary The proposal is to emphasise the identity of school and service zones.K. shops.000 to 10. each of these districts seems to be (Abercrombie 1943). Each of the districts the existing communities. Some of the communities. this might be intended to create monoculture Three years before Ernest Fooks’ book X-Ray the City! was master plan for rebuilding London after the war. space either within its boundaries or immediately adjacent. “Law” and so on. Abercrombie defined and the New Towns Act was promulgated in London. London Social and Functional Map 1942. as Fooks described his nucleui of integration with in the same year that Fooks’ book was issued. Abercrombie subdivided London into districts of settlements. public buildings. . The major purpose of 1943 town halls. The aim would be to provide is organised around communities. open spaces. Furthermore. with each of them K ara k ie wicz each community with its own schools. was to strengthen and of a neighbourhood unit of 1000 families. As in Fooks’ model County of London Plan. drawn by Arthur Ling and D. The Abercrombie city entities. Thus we Corporations that were responsible for the delivery can see on the map districts named “University”. and management of new towns. and where necessary a “natural cut-off between it and its neighbours” J u styna to reorganise them as separate and definite (Forshaw. The development Figure 1. Patrick Abercrombie and John Forshaw produced the particular character and generalised their spatial limits by showing them as rounded blobs. Abercrombie 1943). Each district has its shopping street with recreational em e rg e nc e of ur ban 1) identified London as “highly organized and inter-related system of communities” (Forshaw. the London sustain these communities: communities were subdivided into neighbourhood units of 6. Just Three years after this map was published. indicated by red dots. something we might seek to avoid today although very evident in Fooks’ post-war Melbourne. dominating elements. defining a separate place with a specific identity. 72 73 F o ok s a nd the The image included in this report London Villages: Social and functional analysis of London (Figure “Government”. “Press”. have s c i e nc e Abercrombie 1943).

Nevertheless. Disturbance theory has been applied by compared with a reliance upon the creating the new urban environments. puzzle. quality of life for its residents. ecologists who suggest that natural systems require evolutionary chaos. “Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen On a New the time that random variation would take place could attain a state of equilibrium and therefore are aware that using science in the quest for exact Kind of Rays: translation of a paper read before the Würzburg (Wagner 2014). Wagner new forms and impose them onto the city structure give us insights in city structure and provide tools believes that adaptation is not driven by chance believed that the new environment improved for modelling what is happening around us. Marshall (2009). But if we want to be as insightful as Fooks. M. Hodder and Stoughton. M. (Fooks scientific inspiration of Geddes with Abercrombie’s (Wagner 2014. a growing recognition that the certainty it offers is Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company. industry. or apply methods of complexity With this in mind students from MSD.95) professional pragmatism. J. As Wagner suggested: Watanabe. while Town Planning Review. (2002) Induction Cities: a Method for Evolutionary system. periodic disruptions in order to evolve (Barnett and Barnett. Marshall (2009) The evolution of cities: Geddes. he must have been very aware of what was functions and their interpenetration. Much of the planning decades on. we can use assumed) agreed upon certain fundamentals preparation for further action. His artefacts but rather as a dynamic system. (Abercrombie. we could look to more Batty. (1896-01-23). These Forshaw. Complex adaptive was writing X-Ray the City! The environment of CES conceptualises the city as an artificial system systems and disturbance theory are developed on Batty. (2014) Arrival of the Fittest: Solving evolution’s greatest In this context Fooks’ work is decades years ahead of his time. For example. subjects in all of philosophy. the tools interventions in the city and thus influence the way Ray of the city in 2046. The University This clearly illustrates Fooks’ understanding of the science with its well-established methodologies. a theory that description reads very much like CAS theory. which still has its votaries. A. we cannot rely just guide the city to an desired ideal end state. J. H. selection may explain the survival of the fittest. of the Fittest (Wagner. a few steps ahead of our time. Both theories to predictions. down planning as he stated unequivocally in his that he deploys are not adequate to deliver what he city functions. damned cannot explain the arrival of the fittest (de Vries 1904. 221).826 on evolutionary processes. Torrens (2002) Modelling Complexity: the limits management and control and the will to create able to be optimised on many levels. the city structure but it cannot give us answers or about the future and articulate their dreams and assumed that social problems could be solved by he frequently refers to elements that cannot be provide us with design solutions. Liverpool University Press. of parts and functions but also the close meaningful theories about cities. Abercrombie (1943) 1943 County of London but by a set of laws that allow nature to discover Plan. We are shedding new light developed at that time. 74 Justyna Karakiewicz 75 framework of these new towns was drawn up to The term of integration connotes not only a significant gap between these data and our on one of the most durable and fascinating ensure the provision of mixed housing. Basel: Birkhauser When we begin to study nature’s libraries we system. Without a theory to guide his way.M. Although he never referred to the theory of If Ernest Fooks was writing his book today. his access to ever more data on urban life. When through modelling and that master planning could possible (Batty and Torrens 2001).6: pages 551-574. p. p. dealing with city development. R. recent developments in science such as the Arrival This was intellectual environment in which Fooks systems. New York: Springer systems. there remains INTEGRATION concept states that: Figure 2. We now have (de) Vries. it is aspiration for the next 30 years. Vol. open space and transport infrastructures. London. and P. Perhaps this is what manipulating the physical built environment (Batty measured and their influence on the city as a whole. p. however. McGrath. which combines the is older than life. Urban development moves too Physical and Medical Society. operates. 1937. they have to disturbance theory (part of CAS theory) to test these such as: the necessity of planning as become the tools for activity. edited By ancient fallacy this. p. p. grows and develops. but it Wagner. His our understanding of what is happening within projects describe how our next design leaders think work was rooted in “physicalism”. (1904) Species and Varieties: Their Origin by Mutation. in Resilience in Ecology and Urban Design. and S. (Fooks Possibilities (An Inaugural Lecture). P. And we learn services. A. 7) Design. the same could be said of urban Pacific. the tools for Abercrombie. Whether we try to that life’s creativity draws from a source that Fooks refers to this framework frequently in his interdependence of those numerous parts and develop new a physicalism.826). Infrastructure for the 21st century by Justyna Karakiewicz . CyberGeo 201 the premises of Darwin’s evolution theory. As we gain of technology.97). going on in the UK and has possibly drawn ideas 1946. S. and perhaps older than time book. 1895” optimization was not only possible but achievable answers to important problems is not any longer quickly for evolution alone to deliver changes. M. however. a whole composed of an indefinite number knowledge of how cities work and thus more robust. (2013) Disturbanism in the South invisible guiding hand behind the clouds – an Margetts. Today we have at our disposal CAS and CES Pickett. with Adam Smith’s 1946. New York: Penguin Group first planners who visualised the city as a dynamic lies. one today we call a complex adaptive p. and P. we of Melbourne were asked to develop their tools and Abercrombie just like Fooks shared the belief that cities not as collection of integrated or interrelated can be confident that the role of science may deepen their ideas for Melbourne 2046. and Margetts. after the bright new future new molecules and mechanisms in a fraction of and modelling was based on the belief that a city promised by scientific methods has palled. 80: Issue. and statistics. we Stanton. capable of learning and readapting. (Control Engineering System) theories to help us. CAS enables us to understand cities as natural Abercrombie and the new Physicalism. (quoted by Fooks 1946. Even in nature natural illusory. 16). 2013). the rigorous understanding of data that can guide our Fooks would have done if he was describing an X- and Marshall 2009). lecture at the University College in 1937: dreams of offering: The tools at our disposal today allow us to create I would like to remark that we are (it is The tools for analyses have to form the dynamic References “what if scenarios”. Abercrombie advocated top. Cadenasso. London: Macmillan. The following six planning should be supported by science. or even systems theory. 2014). as suggested by Batty and from Abercrombie. he would aren’t just investigating life innovability or that complex adaptive systems (CAS) since it was not most likely start again with this quotation. (1937) Planning in Town and Country: Difficulties and scenarios. We might posit that Fooks was one of the There are three kinds of lies: lies.

it is a hierarchical structure that referred to the size of population density. and social unit Class I. Two main theories are considered as our essential references—Fooks’ ideas from his book X-ray the city! : the density diagram: basis for urban planning and “ERG” theory. furthermore. it can be understood as a tree structure and staring from bottom as individuals. III and IV. is a reasonable proposal for Melbourne 2046 that largely focuses on the current situation. The density number decides which function should be placed in which class. agent behavior simulation and optimisation algorithm are three major methods that mainly helped us design. Each class covers different function spotting (Fooks). following by residential units. and take a bottom-up design method to approach our concept. Fractal structure. 76 Yu Wan and Cheng Chen 77 Pro je c ts Our project is aiming to create reasonable spaces that can avoid several potential issues that Fooks argued in his book. The project is based on two major parts: Module and Journey. Density as an expansion. II. The fractal structure can represent the idea of “Limitation Growth” and “Function spotting” in size of social unit’ in Fooks’ theory. . The functions in each social unit are developed gradually from private to more public. The module has been developed as a mathematically fractal structure.

We “relatedness” and “growth” of ERG theory. the Journey is more only can see the multiple function space and the optimised about personal experience and preferences. and self-growth. the essential principle underlying current functional approach to physical planning is to integrate the four urban functions. work. the colour gradient demonstrates how functions are merged with each other at an abstractive aspect. the development of module has three stages: “Solid—Liquid—Gas”. Consequently. The journey path is built by a random moving rule. where the path each agent will go is based on their personal preference. recreation and distribution. for instance. 78 Yu Wan and Cheng Chen 79 SOLID--LIQUID--GAS JOURNEY As the stated by Fooks. the 3D traffic system in our module. And if we set the destination more than one. meditation rooms for people social. Function is not “function” anymore. these four urban functions will become more blurred and will mix together. as the second stage. uncontrollability and equivocality. in another word is random behavior but the final destination will be the same. and it starts with each close social function spotting. landscape view. the result will be much more complex. Besides the function of transportation. And later we modelled this simulation result into 3D space. However. living. The journey is deeply relevant to in a fully blurry level. This picture is the module looking at the first stage—Solid. The whole module becomes instability. We assume that in the future. relax. Instead of optimization. and rational calculation. fancy restaurants. information exchange hubs. big shopping malls. Liquid. agents have one single destination. Gas is the last stage of the module. the whole urban functions are gradually mixed. the journey also illustrated other functions that related to ‘E’ and ‘R’ part. all urban functions mixed The journey can be understood as the “bridge” that connects with each module. efficiency. . For example.

housing and open spaces for leisure. By understanding the current situation. and industrial crops such as soya beans will accelerate produced products. and that became an unlimited years to recover. For developed counties. Decomposer in the nature system iv) sewerage. vi) telephone and public gave us hints and insight in handling waste. In this project. and it can also being is addicted to energy. there is no waste. iv) gas. the problem also provides opportunities to convert chemical energy from we face is only how much we need to pay. 2) Recreational. especially the way how we dispose waste and over. Reed Sze Lok Chan. we are applying the concept services has not been changed since the date that it has been from the nature and inserting a missing part of urban organism. one of the reasons is that each of the infrastructure It converts the current negative disposal to resources that can costed huge amount of investment. In our design. we need changed by the adaptive use of internet and the advance of decomposers. alone was not responsible for poor urban living conditions. 80 Chun Long Fok. Ernest Fooks published his book X-Ray the City! and to where we live. Waste become a resources. 4) to think about what architecture and urban design can make utility services: i) water supply. without taking serious system should be further expend in large scale of urban farming consideration of the way how we live and the consequences of or planting industrial crops that can both provide food for urban our being. developed. It costs irreversible environmental impact the energy regeneration rate to increases the efficiency of the overall decomposer system. many of social services have been order for waste to become the resource in urban area. conveyances. why don’t we make us of it? We believed that necessity in urban planning in the future and noted that density everyone in the futurewill not simple be a consumer any more. groundwater contamination and toxic the soil voiced his concerns regarding construction and environments in that it takes few decades to be recovered. but all of us will become the source of the decomposer engine. contribution and improvement. except the “Utility services”. does not act on a single purpose which handling waste. and it takes at least 20 – 40 recontribute to the utilities system. The form of utility decomposition. iii) drainage. Yu Fu 81 URBAN DEC O M PO SE R In 1946. . The limited resources to support services. dweller. 3) Health facilities. it it seems that we take utilities services for granted. obviously human sewerage and food waste to electricity and heat. That that the quality of urban living was related to community life and it will change the relationship between social service and urban access to quality facilities. The urban decomposer way to access “necessities” in urban. Bacteria from nature are the natural engines of science research. ii) garbage disposal. and only take the benefit from carry out water treatment for both rainwater and sewerage. dweller from linear “supply and demand” to “interdependent” Fooks specifically addressed that social services are including:. Since creating waste post-war Melbourne. v)electricity. Fooks foresee that apartment living as a is unavoidable. we want to explore a different resource to generate what we need. In nature. but in In the past seven decades. that motivate our team 1) Educational.

Bubbles on the river is one of our prototype design of further transportation. by having a mega amount of water as product after sewerage treatment and rainwater harvesting. the island has multiple purpose including but not limited to act as a pier for water transportation between towers. The configuration of each decomposer tower can be unique. Stage 3. By having a simple structure tower. Unlimited recourses mean electricity and heart will also be non-stop generating. . a new layer of water storage and distribution method will be created. Stage 2. Industrial crops are planted on both surface and islands.82 Chun Long Fok. it gives the tower capability to glow vertically according to different stage of urban development. Stage 1. as well as swimming or taking a sailing boat trip to home and work. urban dweller can also get different experience on decomposer bridges through walking along the sky- river. which can also establish a new connection that connect urban dwellers to access of wide range of amenities and public spaces. which explores the enjoyment and happiness about transportation. Erection of decomposer tower at urban voids. Establish connection between towers. a place for relaxation and urban farming. as part of the urban farming associating with urban decomposer system. Decomposer network influent urban form and planning such that the overall system hybridised with surrounding environment. Diagrams on the above shown prototype design of islands. [Implementation of the tower] The decomposer tower will be implemented in stages. it is designed to give responses to its surrounding buildings and urban context. Instead of having traditional lagoon system that will take large amount of floor space to hold infrastructure for sewerage system. Reed Sze Lok Chan. [Island] There is a unique island on each of the decomposer tower. Spaces in between decomposer equipment’s creates platform to hold different social services and enjoy ultimate city view. [Sky-bridge] Besides having activities on the island. By adopting existing underground sewerage system and introducing organic waste collection point. Yu Fu 83 The initial design concept intents to combine decomposer system and rainwater collection system. the decomposer tower will process unlimited raw material from urban and operating in 24 hours and across the year. the decomposer system is developed vertically that minimise the footage of the tower that it can fit in a such demanding urban environment.

We propose for a way that information could be gathered in real- time through the use of sensors placed around the urban fabric. we see more mixed use buildings and homes that are stacked vertically but functions are minimal. 84 Cheng Shun Ren Leon. . There is so much potential for energy to be harnessed from human’s daily activities. Furthermore. It is a system that is able to react to potential problems as well as the emergent properties from the population and subsequently have the urban fabric reconfigured. Energy Generation Human beings are the largest consumers of energy on this planet and we must accept that we are part of the overall system and cannot properly control how the overall system operates. walking should be encouraged within the urban fabric. The reaction time taken to make changes to the urban settlement is always a long process and by the time the implementation has taken place. Sensors would be able to analyse the information gathered from the movement patterns of an individual.5 Dimension dimensional. Zhao Qing Quan 85 Introduction 2016 2026 2036 Volatile Melbourne is about creating a system where information is the integral aspect that flows through the various components that would respond to fit the conditions created by the population. the problems that were initially there may have changed. To ensure that there will be enough power generated by human beings to power the system. Vol atile Mel bou r n e Information Collection 3 Dimension 4 Dimension 20 46 The information that we have gathered over the years on the human population becomes less reliable as time passes. the fact that we are still receiving information from a two dimensional map indicating the particular function from urban planning authorities is a clear indication of how our urban settlement is still stuck in a two dimensional world. Density calculated by number of people per hectare of land during Fooks’ time was very two 2 Dimension 2. Today. Zhao Su Yang. What we envision for 2046 is that humans will breach across buildings on the horizontal plane without having to proceed back onto the ground level and functions that respond to the behavioural patterns of the population.

Furthermore. the building will be into a system. the concentration of population along assembled in a day. This can generated which would power the fast travel minimised motorised transport. we have be an added bonus on top of a myriad the potential to be automated. Volatile Melbourne human beings as we are often confined destination. This of functions so that the population would be achieved by the analysis of the human system across the urban fabric and leads to breaks down the social barrier between travel though these areas to their desired population through information collection increased accessibility. it should be able to the information gathered to the overall urban This would draw the population towards the travel routes and consolidation of be disassembled with the same time. Zhao Qing Quan 87 Removal of Motorised Transport Psychological Well-being Prefabrication . 86 Cheng Shun Ren Leon. the density allow for more energy to be generated. Volatile Melbourne will be the city that changes with the people. Our knowing that the pedestrian walking the population. the higher the energy around in the area. energy nodes that harvest energy from The physicality of the urban fabric is that overall system for Volatile Melbourne. accessibility. settlement ties together the five components the areas of fast travel which would functions together with the provision of Once that is achieved. The varying needs of the human population. this process has The higher the density. . If a prefabricated building can be consolidate various functions and communicate encourage more pedestrian movement. the overall physical buildings are always seen as a permanent strategy to concentrate the human population. object. system is connected to fast travel could well-being is increased. demands. to reconfigure itself according to the varying demands of the population. Zhao Su Yang. these areas of fast travel will interaction between individuals. interactive spaces encourages social able to reconfigure itself to adjust to the of the urban population would give rise to the Furthermore. where the building functions will be shifted is a system that would be able to react to the within our private vehicles and also around the urban fabric to adjust to the irrationality of human beings and also able encourages active travel. provide a myriad if interactive spaces to quality of spaces within these areas are With the development of technology rising allow the population to be able to wander significantly increased so that it would at an exponential rate. Assembly & The City that Changes with the People Disassembly Pedestrian tends to walk more in exciting Through active travel as well as the The five components together forms the and environmentally pleasant environment. In Volatile Melbourne. By doing so.

that is. and 22 different sub classifications not within the immediate radius of the under these categories. realising the spatial nearness and urban we need to think of the city as a city. that is through infinite architecture that allows all citizens to be themselves into hybrid complexes. bottom-up approach by identifying interdependence that Fooks advocated. As buildings slowly merge another. allowing attention to in current urban design and a biological logic. better sole building with direct boundaries. yet physically genetic code. different building for the city’s architecture to expand planning practices then we can create species are able to connect and reformat rhizomically. thus woven together system. By using rules increasing diversity . less space for dwelling. more than 50% of the city embedded within all of its of the values in a building’s dna string As a result of intersection and merging components and sub-components. and a call for Usage generation Faciality the Victorian government to implement Degree of faciality Circulatory balance What results from this experiment is regulations regarding minimum size of Spatial continuity Spatial division a complex and highly interconnected apartment dwellings. This hidden potential buildings can couple with compatible to expand rhizomically. and again to increase complexity. diverse interconnected A building should not be considered as proposal for Melbourne 2046 that urban system full of multiplicity. is a speculative create a dense. we say that classification is designated a number areas not within the immediate radius our city is an interconnected. They currently do not function together and fragment themselves as a collective in a physical sense. we can identify meatball combine together thus further unique building species. closely so each building has it’s own unique of a building cancombine together. 88 Sophie Farmer and Bi Wang 89 Di v ers ity as Densi ty There is a great latent potential in our of attraction and aversion. they have no street connectivity and Each building is analysed based on the drone operated capsule flower and there is no visible relationship with their following specifics: vegetable garden. Our tall apartment and office be generated. In order to script this. buildings still function and stand occur and a new breed of building can particularly in the reformatted former separately. its underutilisation. yet our metaballs. The prime and also through hyper-hybrid formation example that can be identified is the A building is no longer seen as a through building genetic combination current utilisation of the corridor. Furthermore. corridor spaces. as well as apartment neighbouring buildings. From the 11 core categories designated and fragment themselves new lively environment for many years into for a building to be examined against characteristics from neighbouring areas the future. Examples include: buildings are cut off from the rest of the Vertical farm and energy generator. reduced as it is physically intertwined density as the final outcome. the city. focuses on taking a reductionist. If we x-ray the city buildings into different species through This kind of script can run again and look at the little things in the a process similar to phylogenetics. we continue to Density Diversity urban system that allows for increased use redundant spaces in our planning Pace accessibility through spatial nearness of such establishments. match with another building within of buildings and the creation of more the zone of influence created by the diverse species within the urban city There is increased density. with many other building species to Density as Diversity. drawn in and enhance social cohesion As buildings slowly merge together and lifestyle connectivity in a diverse. system that we do not pay so much Based on basic coupling rules following density and in turn diversity. living with neighbourhood fish farm and despite common complaints about Usage function Surface function aquarium. that is through is located within our city buildings partners to create hybrid spaces and infinite expansion based on needs of currently lacking a connection to one thus increase dense diversity. city. If there is over a 50% further increasing diversity in our architecture we do not see layers compatibility. new hybrid typologies can arise. each sub new characteristics from neighbouring we call our city a collective. Yet. different ty. allowing for the city’s architecture urban fabric today. or building and redundant spaces are that results in increased diversity and rather. a closely interconnected and hyper figurative ‘genes’ and classifying diverse system. then a positive coupling can system. expansion based on needs of the city.

90 Sophie Farmer and Bi Wang 91 .

To accommodate these new services in an efficient and secondary education. With our agents and parameters Namely. Unfortunately. parameters in order to design for 2046. transport and education. commerce. Pushing against such conditions increasing at the greatest percentage are those with capacity and resilience. intellectually rigorous footings to consider urban way. growth rate. proportion of solid/void. primary wanted to equip planners and designers with more the city footprint and the use of hybridised spaces. as a consequence. and recur according to parameters. hospitals. These municipalities adapt. Within a municipality. size limit. and adapting Fooks’ theory for the 21st Century. residential. agent gone unheeded and. As the population increases uses programmes as agents which seek population our CAM. we look at more efficient the need for hybridisation. We observed a correlation between responsiveness. 92 Faith Freeman. The agents for our CAM are transportation. in interesting and unexpected spatial configurations units. 2046 where our programmatic agents are behaving currently treat services and amenities as discrete generally have less access to services but most have We are able to program features like complexity. In doing so. Second. Observable are hybridised difficult for people to gain access to multiple services to 2046. and the relationships between observe some poor urban conditions in Melbourne. today we (people/hectare). places of work. emerge. It allows us to review multiple healthcare. the gross number of people and The prime method employed for our project was agents and agents. Ernest Fooks and exciting uses of space through a contraction of within municipalities so too do the required services. we need to look at hybridised spaces. within a limited area. We were able to produce a scenario for amenities. property prices. lower property prices complex adaptive modeling (CAM) which allows us to established we constructed our CAM using Quelea in populated suburbs with little access to services and generally result in a greater number of residents quickly produce an exciting system where agents can grasshopper. Our model In designing the individual hybrids that emerged in cities on access. we ran the risk of designing three distinct growth according to a series of parameters. Isaac Chen and Tommy Heng 93 M O N GRE L CITY In pursuit of better urban conditions. Projecting emergence and self-organisation to agents within a to serve the population. First. an unsustainable urban sprawl of sparsely density. our lower property prices and low population density. are applied. Compounding the problem is the way we distributed less densely. density and to change the way density measurements Looking to 2046 we examined how population was we saw the opportunity to focus on access rather than and clinics. scenarios spawning from a single set of base proposition for 2046 aims to focus the design of our From this study we saw two opportunities arise. Their parametric criteria are size of unit. much of Fooks’ work has distributed across Melbourne in terms of density mobility. we observed that municipalities that are defined system resulting in a high degree of adaptive programmes between commerce. tertiary education. and isolated clusters that could potentially undermine . impeding efficient use of space and making it a greater number of cars per household. residential.

we propose the introduction of a raised diversification of an existing transport route to serve platform hovering above existing tram routes. The second.offering a dynamism and liveliness unsustainable. the use of drones to transport larger items to core systems to be developed and integrated along various places beyond the strip.94 Faith Freeman. the pneumatic In order to create a more efficient and accessible city tube system where individuals can shoot small items in 2046 we propose the adaptation of major transport from one place to another in a confined area. the trams will be converted in the future. for the future is intimately related to rationalising. and buses. utilising. In the second stage (2026-2036). . number of motor vehicles we propose the introduction of a two pronged courier service: first. To offset that risk. with careful interventions. Our aim is to provide a safe and efficient Combine with this the population projections for route for cyclists while down-scaling our reliance on Melbourne and it is clear that transforming our cities the motor vehicle. evolve into wonderful and sustainable hubs to give life to the city. In the first stage (2016- That thread took the form of the adaptation and 2026). diversifying and adapting existing transport In the third stage (2036-2046). it is estimated that 80% of the infrastructure contraction and sinking of the road that services cars in Australian cities will have been built prior to 2010. and routes in Melbourne into vibrant city arteries. On that as an artery of the city in 2046. the city over time in stages. While in their current state most of into mobile vessels for various services that slowly Melbourne’s major transport routes are inefficient and traverse the strip . Transport arteries in platform would be a tiered travelator system to move Melbourne offer great opportunities for innovation people. we propose the addition of raised bicycle networks as well as the By 2030. with the reduction in the infrastructure. Isaac Chen and Tommy Heng 95 our underlying thesis. they can to the strip. we decided these arteries will be replicable and scalable across to design a common thread for Melbourne 2046. Simultaneously.

Work and Move. The island will act as a Center for New development creating more space for Live. 96 Sirui Guo 97 L o op Me lbour ne 2 04 6 The proposal is an attempt to connect the major nodes of Melbourne by an Underground Railway transit with a HUB in the Port Philip Bay created over an artificial island. .

98 Sirui Guo 99 18.295 .

also of a clear lineage. provisional by the act of deeper investigation. new techniques. My interest here is the employment of a technology of revelation. we still marvel at the mechanics of revealing that which lies beneath the surface of our Progressive city. additional Issues of surface and depth. Caught in the trap of all encyclopaedic Do na ld endeavours. newer. projective uncertainties. more authoritative presentation of make decisions from. insufficient. numbers and decimal point accuracy is challenged daily world. ambiguities and abuses within the swirl and swarm of tendencies. but data as an indicative. or simply deciding on what basis do we more precise. hard fact. but that it is unacknowledged. while remaining attuned to the particularly social dimensions of the task at hand. Di agr ams. This is a pre-Mandelbrot fractal universe where solid after Röntgen. But his very sets. The metaphor of the “X-ray” data collection and interpretation. data is both fact and fiction. not so much that the data is un-true. more relevant “X-ray”. each time a data set is interrogated. Its it to Melbourne. additional sub-categories. bringing visibility application of statistics and collected data. Historicity would suggest that with its invention 50 years before Fooks applies In such scenarios. more nuances elaborate on the metaphor or instrumentality of the to be referenced and notated. the superficial and the attributes calling into question the relevance and substantial. several contributors Ba t e s there is always more to be gathered. the revealing of the “real” – all these substantiality of previous inferences and conclusions. others have provided a one’s faith in. Data is rather in the architectural sensibility of Fooks and his methods to coax an understanding out of data De n sity a nd Diagnostics Statistical data is the evidence basis for Fooks and his examination of Melbourne in 1946. 100 101 4 D D a ta . the demands for comprehensiveness are always undone by the acknowledgement that Diagrams Also elsewhere in this volume. what is most worthy of placing Elsewhere in this volume. Its employment by Fooks is unique. new plans. It is to that which had more or less remained unseen. And yet even today. categorisations seek a definitive determination of what is more truthful. is made tenuous and advance. Data not as introduction advances a cautionary overlay to the cold. The . the “X-ray” was a known scientific very specificity and identity. but categories yet to be identified. some 120 years Contemporary plans. with additional information.

I am not a scholar sentiment – on the benefits socially. endeavour. Rather. through affords us a glimpse at something already present with the cosmopolitanism of central Europe – now its formulation and production. the contextual growth. the Melbourne School of Design. Embedded in Fooks undertakes. a new diagrammatic logic. advancing. in a city such as Melbourne. The facts off as the natural tendency of a European émigré to This book is a trial balloon. a seriously the positive benefits of such a position discourse on the city. much less clear thematics and well opportunities for a more socially supportive urban and comprehensive understanding takes place argued positions. occurrences. provisional and without architectural and urban effects as a means and “gestalt” of the graphic. the artifice of Ernest Fooks and his autonomy to the process. It took its abbreviated form as a does not answer this simple question nor does it notated]. determined by attention to issues of infrastructure. through the first glimpse of the new diagram. Melbourne has only taken development. temporally and urbanistically on increased X-Ray the City! has generated surprising connections use of the x-ray. specific domain. is more precise and more spatial Nonetheless. the state with authority the supporting evidence for tectonic sensitivity. the push to inject a small provocation these graphic reveals are all the data sets. Our most distilled or journalistic tagline was: “What Where Fooks overrides mechanical autonomy is emphatic emphasis on the benefits of density in his can we do now (with data. That is to say that the and therefore I don’t have at my disposal the spatially. What we hope investigative mandate remains intact. 102 Donald Bates 103 machine. a preamble to a larger in 1946. is to begin a more intense investigation new graphic depiction. through design production and through but not apparent. into the large enterprise that is the Venice all the relational coordinates. both about Melbourne and its urban irrespective of the operator. data insights. development orientation is patchy. the attempting to remake a new world city into the form response to an opportunity to exhibit and to provoke confine our more ambitious mandate. In the short preparation time allocated to and more demanding speculation. than by any lingering collegiality across the Faculty of Architecture. It was accepted new techniques to expand the encyclopaedia of the graphic. acuity is the consequence of a mechanical Unlike my fellow contributors. and cartilage from marrow. Of course. and yet a of the old world. that reveals. Its scientific Density the grain of his contemporary colleagues and public graduate section. but the sense of it all is made thoughts of café societies and a golden age. techniques and practices that would allow me to density – when managed thoughtfully and with and insights. development. the process. It might be nostalgia for a type within the context of the 2016 La Biennale di it does do. in which a mostly full distant continent. . Fooks Building and Planning at the University of Melbourne. The reveal is in the insight of removed and practically destroyed in both time and idea was determined at the start. resources and one might even Architecture Biennale has stimulated a measurable backgrounds that situate this information in a say a nascent sustainability. does so very much against and more specifically within its graduate and post- graphic logic. But the text of X-Ray the City! and the advocacy that the new map. explained. clear objectives. I have only an intuition. reveals by its inherent nature. and injury from normal other observations. but also its place within a wider results have to be interpreted. only a shadow of an research. the circumstance isn’t altered. to make sense by the fabrication of a particular focuses – and I suspect. It takes my next claims. materially. presumptive inclination that seems to coincide with within the last 20 years. the graphic a skilled technician to discern muscle from bone. the new chart. techniques in his development of diagrams and maps. In what might well be called the space by WWII and resettlement on the far side of a that it would be incomplete. limited and barely the social dimension of urban policy. amenities. And even this change of representation of information and relationships. and what does that afford us?” This book don’t change [subject to all the caveats previously a post-colonial outpost at the other end of the globe. of urbanism (and resultant urbanity) more in tune Venezia. It might be written Diagnostics and technology for the city) that Fooks could not do is revelation through representation. information. It is a “shock of the old” to hear it so I am conceptually surprised and heartened by Fook’s eloquently advocated some many years back. Here analysis of Melbourne in 1946. At the same time.

Vice Chancellor Campus brings together education Analytics at the University Inc. urban The Encyclopedia of AA and at the same time projects utilising a great Melbourne School of Design advocacy and decision an MSc in Architecture and Foundation since 1979. 1914-2014’. high-density urbanism and written digital design architecture. His research on Documents on Art. His interests and transportation in Hong the use of the Microsoft and urban designer. work and theories social issues in architecture and Architecture 1917-1967 and the Architectural researcher with Dr. that she developed in her tools in diverse areas founding Director of AURIN. She has including complex systems the Australian Urban pedestrian connectivity and design at the University together and augmenting School of Architecture. ‘Bauhaus modelling’ developer who holds of academic and research with over fifteen years of fabric to improve health. an add-on networks hosted at the of Architecture. image processing. In this those on urban place of Melbourne. in Australia (2008). and urban and Redmond Barry distinction in 2014. conservation collections Postcolonial place and purpose. lies primarily in the of applications for routing Environments Applied Australia to be selected for professional experience in of Architecture. and design management. goal of tackling three University of Melbourne. He has Sagrada Família Basilica corporate towers. In 2014. Urban Lab in the Bartlett doctoral thesis. shopping malls. He is assisting Distinguished Professor in to work in Gensler. Current Xiaoran Huang is a Ph. design. practice experience in a economic opportunities. To In December 2014 2008) ‘Fluid City’ (Routledge the Australian exhibit at as a design tutor and then add-ons for industry tools. as Associate Professor. waterfronts and the politics Australian Architecture established the practice variety of technologies and delivered an award making support in complex a doctoral degree from the pioneering distant of public space.understanding our history.D. Network. for his pioneering work in urban design project tools in urban planning. solar Dr Karen Burns teaches consolidate research in design and the morphology he worked in the Bio. She later joined including object-oriented winning building to host the built environments that are ETH Zurich where he also collaboration with his include ‘Framing Places: co-curator of ‘Augmented the Bartlett School programming. The project the United States. and arborist. since 2014 applying his Planning in Melbourne urban research projects building systems (cooling Gaudí. which allows a landscape architect history. and heritage. Books (2012). She trained of Architecture (University universities. Desiring Practices. two main themes: of Architecture and Urban émigrés on art. Justyna developed for the popular urban research. and the Spaces. theory urban futures by drawing of informal settlements. Modern Times: The Association. She was the leader scripting environment in the of Melbourne. She is a practitioner. with a major in computer for campus developments. His research analysing and designing researcher and lecturer in place. inclusion in the 2010 Venice Switzerland. He has published widely and Shanghai. for housing. Building and technology and works on fabrication methods and of the architect Antoni and urban design has (2006). Planning at the University others: Assemblage. design of new media for Deleuze and Architecture. Building and Australia. and both recent and past. internationally recognised climate change. position he is developing identity. She is currently . She is Lecturer in Urban co-director of Parlour urban futures perspective. Research Information modelling. MAD than 60 locations. From 2013 . He has been included investigations of Untold Story of Modernism Justyna was appointed software development during which time he led relating to precinct and heating architecturally Senior Architect to the housing. funded project. which examines a Bachelor of Science strategies with opportunities design and construction transportation and internationally on Kim Dovey is Professor the impact of European Dr Justyna Karakiewicz. He infrastructure to support Associate Professor in and post-1960s theory and policy. lie in parametric design Kong and is currently Kinect as a 3D point cloud horticulturist. Architects and Landscape has published two books. and a full-time tutor of the skills to a range of research the establishment of the scaled data modelling for optimized systems). Singapore and and Planning. education and on ‘Enhancing precinct structures. cross-Faculty linkages. and developed a national digital Hannah Lewi is an architecture and design analytics. and the Melbourne. Gideon Aschwanden co-editor of Parlour and and resilience . a BSc degree in urban in urban design and in Australian Stock Exchange research on learning and explored transit oriented the Faculty’s capacity to transit-oriented urban planning. representing history and De-Signing Design. Her essays expertise in urban Professor Philip Goad received a master degree in competitions and her finite element analysis. for both architectural and working on new tools for scanner. amenity preservation. health. who has published Australia’. White Architecture. Her interests Journal of Architectural ‘Grand Challenges’ He teaches architectural actively involved in many of the Linear City research Rhinoceros 3D modelling Nano Langenheim is span modern architecture Education. He is currently the walkability: improving and Global Developments in landscape architecture of Melbourne with a focus and developing broader lead investigator on an design process by Geoff Kimm is an in which role he provides (RMIT). 104 105 Bi og ra p hies Dr. and was hyper-development. AD. She is a supporting sustainability with a special focus on urban scales. most recently the private and public from Princeton University procuring ‘challenging’ Planning at the University of Modernism and Australia: as an architect at the of Melbourne). ‘Becoming Places’ the Venice International the University of Hong Kong modelling and simulation. both Architecture in the Faculty history have been widely with the University of the Faculty of Architecture. Building research projects include candidate at the University engagement of complex buy and sell orders Research Network). which has on nineteenth-century visualisation. called ‘Implementing worked as a researcher at University of Melbourne (Routledge 2009) and Architecture Biennale. Tom is facing densification and taught graduate students in colleagues based on-site Mediating Power in Built Australia: regenerating lost of Architecture at the services. He used around the world in more program optimisation. She has expertise where his teaching and architecture. he was PCKO. Quokka tool. of China and has been papers. of Melbourne. Geoff serving from 2007 – 2015 realm. theory and design. He has developed custom. He is co-editor of Melbourne. creative clusters. digital environments with Harrison and White deepen his knowledge he Mark Burry joined the 2005). Building and published in amongst Melbourne’s collective Building and Planning at the Architecture Cooperation 13 book chapters and 48 for the Grasshopper visual University of Melbourne. design and RIBA. he won numerous architectural and emergent behaviour. Form’ (Routledge 1999. horticulture and on learning algorithms Professor Mark Burry research and industry Australian Research Council implementing agent-based experienced software leadership in the alignment Arboriculture (Burnley UoM) to evaluate the urban is a practising architect connections. currently Associate science. urban is Chair of Architecture Architecture from UCL with work has been exhibited computer vision. and architectural history. projects in Beijing. and wellbeing. fostering health on Australian architecture. Nano’s the use of digital evaluation in Barcelona. architecture.2014. a Bachelor of With many years in senior diverse range of award He joined the University putting theory into Design in the faculty of architecture education in Professor at University of Environments and Master leadership roles in three winning projects in both of Melbourne in 2015 practice with regard to Architecture. Hohhot project examining density package. He holds adaptive systems theory between clients and to the delivering multidisciplinary Biennale. user interfaces. University College London databases.through an modernism and buildings is currently focusing more resilient urban Professor Tom Kvan is Pro landscape architecture. In 1984. web graduate school. Design Westminster University has been a collaborating as Dean of the Faculty of in algorithmic botany research was on digital life. and the essay . He is the founding Director the Rhetoric’ was one the Future Cities Laboratory as Professor of Urban Urban Design Thinking Justyna’s expertise high-availability network of LEaRN (the Learning of only 16 projects from in Singapore and has Futures at the Faculty (Bloomsbury 2016).

He has been Architecture Biennale. history of University campus NORD were also awarded and self-organisation. (RMIT University) and a to the current Australian Building Design Magazine is an architect and Dr Andrew Saniga is Senior the Journal of the Doctorate Degree (Spatial exhibition and book on and RIBA and Scottish Senior Lecturer in Digital Lecturer in Landscape Society of Architectural Information Architecture ‘The Pool’ for the Venice Architect of The Year 2007. He holds an Honours Australia and New Zealand). and design. parametric and heritage landscapes. Architectural Historians of awards including. theory. theory and well as regional centres the lead investigator on award and was recently Elek Pafka is a Research partner in the AHRC funded practice of place-making. Geddes summer schools. of urban life. Architect of The year’ (UK). Award for his “contribution research projects on the Prize in 2012. while ‘Shingle House’ for University of Melbourne. and and new design approaches focuses on the relationship revolution. Auckland Alan Pert was appointed (Ernst Fuchs) while working practised architecture in awarded the Victoria Medal University Press. public servants and Architecture and the Asia and Europe. Building and which was modeled on research methodologies. researcher. He is currently residential architecture Glasgow. studios co-work space in virtual and augmented infrastructure in cities as & India. and an the Doolan Prize for a complex geometries in Australia and he has museum buildings in excellence and community exploration of citizen-led Creative Industries & Artists and digital fabrication. Architecture in Australia the work of the architect research into architectural Planning at the University the experimental networks The outcomes of his (2012). design design in Australia. Vertical development. theory and practice. Assistant Dean (IT) and . Architectural Design at the Architecture. ISEA. Professor of Architecture on the restoration plans for several European countries. functional mix Melbourne in 2012 Alan has projects at the University of forms of the landscapes Living: the Architectural and high-density living. an AIA digital heritage. North America. had a teaching that make Australian cities. ‘pulse’ of the city. as well as policy makers. Before arriving of the battles fought over Victoria University Press. He was degree in Architecture She is historical advisor (YAYA) in 2006 awarded by Dr Stanislav Roudavski co-editor of Fabrications. the Australian Institute of director of Harrison and the boundary between which was set up in 2016 Petersburg (RU). Centre and the Remaking and works of Ernest Fooks engagement at MIT and Dr Saniga’s book was of Wellington. His an Australian Research awarded the Graham Treloar Fellow at the Faculty of ‘Invisible College’ project. Walker is co-author and exhibited throughout urban form and the intensity brings together academics. In 2013 architecture. Stanislav the right to determine the Wellington. and on transit orientated education. been researching the life Cambridge. Planning and Historians. speculative and the conservation research has encompassed Victorian Emerging Architect planning and architecture in Substation for London 2012 designing. 2000. and colonial education. His research of the early scientific practice and research have who have shaped the the United States. NORD (Northern Office meet the current crisis of from the University of of architecture at the Program Coordinator at the and past president of of Research & Design). With Justine have been widely published between material density. creative and management of mid-twentieth century Award. and Patrick been disseminated through nation’s landscape and Australia. international exhibitions designers. His design Architecture. profiles the people John Andrews in Canada. Urbanism at the University New Zealand 2007-2011. and practice-based book. and remote towns. He has issues of regeneration. Alan is also chair of of Master of Architecture Award for Research and award winning architect in October 2012. His architecture in Australia National Emerging Architect is engaged in two major list for the RIBA Stirling generative processes in research is predominantly & New Zealand. landscape design 2001-2011. (2013) and the National and Director of Melbourne Fooks modernist heritage Stanislav holds degrees Landscape Architecture Dr Marcus White is an School of Design (MSD) house. the Academy of Arts in St. University of Cambridge on architecture history. Alan is also a environments. computing. lecturer. Alan’s the Strategy Board for the / Master of Fine Arts from Communication (2014) from and urban designer. Walker’s recent Scholarship. It tells the story New Zealand Modern. In to deliver a transformable of Science in Computer. Melbourne School of Design SAHANZ (the Society of NORD has won numerous diversity in housing choices of Philosophy from the Walker’s teaching focuses – University of Melbourne. the recipient of numerous She has recently written Living Architecture reached Stanislav’s research of Melbourne. Making Landscape Council funded project on Fellowship. New Zealand involvement”. Master Landscape Architects. explored landscapes and Australia. ‘Young in Victoria. White. technology history. participated in research conservation and in Melbourne. emergence concerned with the history contemporary museum to architectural practice. architects. of landscape architecture architecture. 2014. 106 107 the national vice-chair 2002 Alan established model of housing to Aided Architectural Design Paul Walker is a professor Master of Urban Design of Docomomo Australia. Since arriving in worked on research distinctive shapes and with Julia Gatley. the AIA the representation of urban the Year’ and the Primary and design. artists and including ACADIA. And was included in the long. urban modelling of Melbourne. affordability and lack of Strathclyde (UK) and Doctor University of Melbourne. design. Australia & Laboratory). He teaches and a contributing editor design awards including extensively on the history the RIBA Manser Medal interests include philosophy landscape architectural to Architecture Australia the RAIA Haddon Travelling of film and other media in shortlist for ‘House of of ecology. It multiple publications and forged a profession: Clark. the inaugural AIA the twentieth century. methods of mapping the local people to tackle FutureEverything and activists. others. co- research interests lie in ‘Melbourne Housing Expo’. 2016. of Looking for the Local: Australia.