Separation and Purification Technology 154 (2015) 149–153

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Separation and Purification Technology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/seppur

Comparative decolorization of dyes in textile wastewater
using biological and chemical treatment
Huma Hayat, Qaisar Mahmood ⇑, Arshid Pervez, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti, Shams Ali Baig
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewaters for the environment when discharged
Received 6 July 2015 without any proper treatment. A comparative study was conducted to investigate the removal efficiency
Received in revised form 4 August 2015 of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity from real textile industry wastewater using
Accepted 20 September 2015
anaerobic IC reactor and Fenton’s process with and without pH adjustment. Color, COD and turbidity
Available online 25 September 2015
removal efficiencies have been studied for 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% textile wastewater. Results
demonstrated that a maximum color removal efficiency (>92%) was recorded in Fenton’s process at
Keywords:
pH 3 for 100% sample. However, maximum COD removal efficiency of 87% was observed in IC reactor
Decolorization
Mineralization
for 100% sample. Thus, Fenton’s reagent at pH 3 was found highly effective for color removal and IC
Textile wastewater reactor observed to be efficient for COD removal. Furthermore, Fenton’s process without pH adjustment
Fenton’s reagent was found higher turbidity removal efficiency as compared to other treatments. Findings from this
Biological reactor suggested that the selective treatment process could be highly promising for the decolorization of textile
wastewater and can also be practically implementable.
! 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction and reduction, electrochemical precipitation have been employed
for the removal of dyes from wastewater [24,16,23]. However,
Large amount of water used in textile dyeing processes is one of these technologies are usually not effective in color removal, or
the leading generators of liquid pollutants. The quantity of textile are expensive and less adaptable to wide range of dye containing
wastewater has been increasing along with the growing demand wastewaters [11,10,24]. Generally, dye degradation means
of textile products [6]. Textile wastewater is characterized by high decolorization and mineralization of dye in textile wastewater.
chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), Decolorization represents destruction of chromophore group of
alkalinity and total dissolved solids (TDS). The dyes are stable and the dye molecule; likewise degradation of organic compounds into
difficult to degrade due to their complex aromatic structure and CO2 and H2O is called mineralization [26]. The levels of
synthetic origin [24,15,16,22]. decolorization and biodegradation by many investigators is
Textile industry effluents are complex, containing synthetic determined by measuring the percentage of mineralization by
dyes, dispersants, bases, acids, detergents, salts, oxidants, surfac- BOD total organic carbon (TOC) and COD removal ratio by measur-
tants, inhibitory compounds, grease and oil, toxicants, many other ing the initial and final content [23]. Recently, Fenton reaction was
compounds salts depending on the particular textile process such efficiently utilized in wastewater treatment process for the
as scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing and finishing. Discharge removal of many hazardous organics from wastewater [7,27].
of the colored effluent into streams and rivers results in the deple- The traditionally accepted Fenton mechanism is represented by
tion of dissolved oxygen, causing anoxic conditions that are lethal following equations [13].
to aquatic organisms [11,10,8,9,15,23,25]. In addition, textile Anaerobic treatment presents more attractive alternative as
industry effluent usually contains 0.6–0.8 g/L dye, but the pollution they can be developed as a renewable and clean energy sources.
is due to the durability of the dyes [8]. The anaerobic treatment is best suited for handling load
Various physical, chemical and biological methods such as fluctuations, high BOD wastewater and low energy requirement
adsorption, photolysis, chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation as no oxygen has to be supplied and it also has potential for energy
production [25]. Fenton’s oxidation has been used for treating
⇑ Corresponding author. different types of industry wastes containing toxic organic
E-mail address: mahmoodzju@gmail.com (Q. Mahmood). compounds such as formaldehyde, dyestuff, phenol, and can be

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.09.025
1383-5866/! 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

EC of the samples was deter- delivered to the laboratory within a day of being taken and mined by using conductivity meter (Jenway model 470) as lS. Dissolved oxygen of the samples was determined by The laboratorial-scale experiments were involved two types of using DO meter (Jenway. Fenton’s oxidation textile wastewater. allowing the development of enzyme producing (i. Total solids were determined by following the standard method described [2]. absorption Spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer Model 920). with the inhibitory organic compounds an acclimation period In this study. Raw textile wastewater sample was taken from a textile TDS.2.5 L).51 m). Heavy metals were measured by using Atomic reagent with and without pH 3 adjustments of samples. Wastewater collection was added to cease the reaction and been analyzed for color (kmax). The calculated amount of ferrous sulfate powder and hydrogen peroxide (35% w/w) dose were added into the sam- 2. The reactor had ports for sampling. BOD/COD removal and digester degrading industry wastewater. Ambient pH. . To gradually expose the microbial community wastewater and dyes [20. Then the reactor was fed with effluent. conductivity. Table 1 Characteristics of the sample wastewater used in this study. 50%. Measurement of COD reduction was used to assess stabi- efficiency of treatments has been investigated in terms of color lization of reactor. (1)) length and a feed inlet pipe of 1. U2020).6 ± 8 75% 1:25* 1:25* Total dissolved solids mg/L 86. an attempt has been made to compare anaerobic was necessary. C0 feeding.2. the aims of this study were to investigate state COD reduction. so wastewater. temperature. according to standard method [2]. treatment processes (a) biological treatment of the industrial Sample stirring for Fenton’s oxidation was performed using Jar wastewater using IC reactor. Startup of inner loop reactor to 1100 nm wavelengths.2. decolorize and to enhance the biodegradability of textile the carbon source.3. Hayat et al. The samples were kept at 4 "C without was analyzed using a colorimetric method after digestion of the any chemicals addition.1. An outlet weir was provided at the top (1. effluent and gas collection. Experimental setup of the samples was measured by using Turbidimeter (Eutech. The samples were used after dilution to 25%. The reactor was operated at HRT of 24 h at room temperature. All the experiments were carried out in 4 mL reactor (diameter 12 cm. Decolorization and mineralization diates. 75% and in full concentration (100%).7 ± 0. conductivity and DO and turbidity The pH of the solutions and samples was monitored by using were measured using portable digital meters. contaminated soils and sludges. mixture so save the operational cost.6.6 ± 0. All the tests were performed in 250 mL glass beakers containing 100 mL sample. The reactor was operated where C0 is the initial concentration of COD of the textile during summer when room temperature was around 35 ± 3 "C. IC reactor) and oxidation (i.01 25% 1:25* 1:25* Turbidity NTU 188.21].115 DO mg/L 0.e. The samples were digital pH Meter (Jenway model 520). After 30 min of settling supernatant was collected. turbidity. toxicity The sludge used in the IC reactor was taken from anaerobic reduction. 970).7 ± 0. organic pollutant destruction. Thus. the color and odor removal [28. During the startup. Color was measured using UV/Vis spectrophotometer from 190 2. The dose of Fenton’s reagent Pakistan. The spectrum was taken with UV–Vis Spectrophotometer (IRMeCO UV–Vis.1. Turbidity 2. COD. Sampling cans were rinsed and cleaned with 2.3 ± 0 Sample Dose Temperature "C 25. DO. PAM was not added in the reaction finishing industry located in Rawalpindi (Koh-i-Noor textile Mills).6 ± 2. The reactor was provided with conical bottom of 20 cm using formula (Eq. It has been successfully used to reactor was fed with tap water containing 400 mg/L dextrose as detoxify. total height 160 cm. COD analyszed within 1 day.150 H. TS. caustic soda 2.5 * The ratios mean 1 part ferrous sulfate and 25 parts H2O2. pH – 7. Physico-chemical characteristics of samples in a COD digester (model TR320.2. TN-100). time (t). Materials and methods ple. Merck Spectroquant). It has taken almost 30 days to have steady and COD removal.22].28 100% 1:25* 1:25* Total suspended solids mg/L 1697 ± 7 COD mg/L 1132.1. TSS and heavy metals.e. for each dilution is given in Table 2. Table 2 Parameter Unit Concentration Dose of Fenton’s reagent for different dilutions. TDS. total tank capacity of quartz cuvette.5 cm diameter avoid chocking during operation. (b) chemical oxidation using Fenton’s test apparatus. the absorbance values of supernatants Raw textile industry wastewater was treated in a pilot scale IC were measured. COD removal efficiency of samples is calculated 3. wastewater are given in Table 1. / Separation and Purification Technology 154 (2015) 149–153 used for wastewaters.7 ± 0 pH 3 pH 7–8 Conductivity ls 145 ± 1. which is connected to an outlet gutter and outlet pipe C0 ! Ct " 100 ð1Þ to the effluent collection tank. where reactive dyes are being used to color cotton fabric. pH.57 50% 1:25* 1:25* Total solids mg/L 1731. the decolorization efficiency of textile wastewater using anaerobic inner loop reactor and Fenton process and to compare the efficiency of anaerobic process and Fenton process in treating real 2. Analytical procedures distilled water and then washed with sample during sample collection. and Ct is the concentration of COD at the corresponding thermostat was not operated to save the energy. The peristaltic pump was used for pumping of influent into the reactor. Fenton’s oxidation) processes for agents that are essential to induce biodegradation of dye interme- the removal of dye pollution. The solution was stirred for 30 min using jar test apparatus.

266 ± 0.1 145 ± 1.6 ± 0 114 ± 0.6 ± 7.043 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 5.9 ± 0.02 Lead (mg/L) 0.092 ± 0.3 ± 0. alkaline pH.6 ± 8 TSS (mg/L) 697 ± 6.047 6.23 ± 0.73 ± 0. higher COD and excessive turbidity 0 levels. 25% 50% 75% 100% Wastewater samples 3.3 ± 0 0.04 86.2.210 ± 0.2%.80 ± 0. Wastewater samples 75% and 100% sample after treatment with IC reactor was 76. Table 3 pre- 30 sent the characteristics of raw wastewater and its various dilutions. Parameters Dilution 25% 50% 75% 100% pH 7.015 0.085 ± 0.024 ± 0. respectively (Fig.74 851. COD removal efficiency 20 10 Fig 2a–c presents COD removal efficiency of IC anaerobic 0 reactor.2 ± 0 25 ± 0 25.001 0.05 1225.6 ± 0. Maximum color removal efficiency was shown for 40 25% sample and minimum for 100% sample and color removal effi. lower DO. 1a–c presents color 60 removal efficiency of IC reactor. The 70 COD removal efficiency during start up period was in range of 60 70–95%.021 ± 0.28 Conductivity (ls) 58.03 Zinc (mg/L) 0. the removal efficiency remained 50 40 above 90% which was considered as success of start up. Color removal efficiency 100 (b) Anaerobic IC reactor has been used for the decolorization of 90 textile wastewater.63 188.01 Chromium (mg/L) 2.047 86.385 ± 0. However. 40.79 884.094 0. / Separation and Purification Technology 154 (2015) 149–153 151 3. 89%.04 0.11 DO (mg/L) 2. 50%. Fenton’s reagent has 10 been used to compare the decolorization of textile wastewater.063 ± 0.8 ± 0 80.47 180 ± 1.6 ± 2.01 6. 77.8%.5 ± 2.01 .08 ± 0 0. H.7 ± 0.003 ± 0.001 0. respectively (Fig.58 1731.3 ± 0.45 ± 0.086 ± 0. respectively (Fig.49 1132.4% and 28%. 50%. of Fenton’s reagent with pH adjustment in 25%. the findings were quite surprising in treat. respectively.004 4. 2c).1. Fig. Hayat et al.004 0. 20 It is evident from the Table that the raw wastewater contained high 10 TS.1%.80 ± 0. 1c). 80 % Color removal 63% and 92. 25% 50% 75% 100% In IC anaerobic reactor the removal efficiency of COD in 25%.6 ± 0. the ment without pH adjustment.002 0. Fenton reagent found to be quite effective for color removal without pH adjustment as compare to IC reactor.2%.05 1444. 0 25% 50% 75% 100% Color removal efficiency using Fenton’s process without pH adjust- ment for 25%.03 Nickel (mg/L) 0.3 ± 2. Results 100 (a) 90 Glucose was fed to IC reactor during start up which was organic 80 % Color removal substrate for the anaerobic heterotrophs present in the reactor.16 812. 50%.57 Temperature ("C) 23.61 ± 0.047 79.45 ± 0.3%. However. 100 (c) In addition. 75% and 100% sample was 74%.6 ± 2. 75% and 100% sample was 28.7 ± 0. 75% and 100% sample higher COD removal efficiency as compared to other treatments. 69. Fenton reagent found to be effective for COD removal except for 50% sample. Color removal efficiency of (a) anaerobic IC reactor.001 0. 21. color removal efficiency of Fenton’s process with pH 90 adjustment for 25%.01 COD (mg/L) 282. 2a).5%.6% and 87%. was 26.485 ± 0 0.02 0. 75% and 100% sample was 82%.69 560.009 ± 0. 1. 60.008 7.02 0. with and without pH adjustments using Fenton’s reagent. 62% and 19%.0 ± 0.103 ± 0. 40 30 3. respectively (Fig. Table 3 Parameters determined for each sample dilution solutions before treatment.8%. Fenton’s reagent without and with 50 pH adjustments.05 Manganese (mg/L) 0. 37% and Wastewater samples 88. 33% and 26%. The results demonstrated 70 that the Fenton’s process with pH adjustment was found highly 60 50 effective for the removal of color in textile wastewater. Thus.08 ± 0.9 ± 5.78 1697 ± 7 TDS (mg/L) 26. The sample was used in % solutions in order 80 % Color removal 70 to acclimatize microbes grown within. 20 29.89 ± 0 7.6%.047 51.001 3.631 ± 0. 50%.3 ± 0 TS (mg/L) 506. COD removal efficiency Fig.5 ± 4. COD removal efficiency of Fenton’s findings revealed that the IC reactor was found comparatively reagent without pH adjustment in 25%. 81.9%. (b) Fenton’s reagent and (c) Fenton’s reagent with pH 3 for all samples.4 ± 0 25. 50%. 2b).25 ± 0.002 0. During last seven days.012 ± 0. respectively.8%. 30 ciency of IC reactor for 25%.5 Turbidity (NTU) 47. 50%. 75% and 100% sample was 83%.

In the Turbidity removal efficiency of IC reactor for 25%. As result Fenton’s process without pH adjustment was found Consequently.9%. 55%. and (c) Fenton reagent without pH adjustment. which was found to be higher consumption compared to physicochemical treatment methods. (b) Fenton’s reagent and 25% 50% 75% 100% (c) Fenton’s reagent with pH 3 for all samples for all samples.3. 50%. as compared to IC reactor. eco-friendly cost-competitive option that could help reduce water 93. 50%. 94.6%. / Separation and Purification Technology 154 (2015) 149–153 100 100 (a) (a) 90 90 80 80 %Turbidity removal % COD removal 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 0 10 25% 50% 75% 100% 0 25% 50% 75% 100% Wastewater samples Wastewater samples 100 (b) 100 90 (b) 98 80 96 % COD removal 70 %Turbidity removal 60 94 50 92 40 90 30 88 20 86 10 84 0 82 25% 50% 75% 100% 80 Wastewater samples 25% 50% 75% 100% Wastewater samples 100 (c) 90 100 80 (c) 90 % COD removal 70 80 60 %Turbidity removal 50 70 40 60 30 50 20 40 10 30 0 25% 50% 75% 100% 20 10 Wastewater samples 0 Fig. 4.3% and 36. respectively. COD removal efficiency of (a) anaerobic IC reactor. respectively (Fig. (b) Fenton reagent at 3.4%. 3c). and industrial wastewaters containing non-biodegradable organic tion and mineralization efficiency of anaerobic biological IC reactor pollutants [28. How- (Fig. 90.4%. 75% and 100% was 92. however. enzymatic or microbial degradation and decolorization is an cess with pH adjustment for 25%. biodegradable. The purpose of running different concentrations of based on the generation of hydroxyl radicals as a result of the . istics and gradually exposing them to high concentrations.3%. 3. 75% and past several physicochemical methods have been employed for 100% sample was 70%. But the turbidity removal efficiency of Biological treatment was found to be quite effective.3. 3a–c presents turbidity removal efficiency of anaerobic IC sample was to acclimatize the anaerobes to wastewater character- reactor. Fenton’s process without pH adjustment for 25%. Wastewater samples Fig. 75% and most of the organic matter in the effluent is toxic and or not so 100% sample was 87. 50%. 2. 3a). turbidity removal efficiency using Fenton’s pro- ever. for new alternatives to minimize environmental problems associ- ated with dye containing wastewater. Turbidity removal efficiency pH 3. Turbidity and color removal efficiency of (a) IC reactor. Fenton oxidation is one of the powerful and Fenton’s reagent as a chemical treatment with and without pH advanced oxidation processes. respectively the removal of dyes from textile wastewater effluent [23]. Discussion It is well established that the oxidation processes can be suc- cessfully used for the remediation of contaminated surface. Hayat et al. the tighter international regulations and increased higher turbidity removal efficiency as compared to other public concern challenged the textile industry to explore and go treatments.12]. 72%.152 H.8% and 93. However. Fig. 82. ground The present study was conducted to investigate the decoloriza. with and without pH adjustments using Fenton’s reagent. so biological treatment alone is not efficient [4]. 73%. Fenton Oxidation mechanism is adjustments.5.4%.

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