A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information

system, modelling its process aspects. A DFD is often used as a preliminary step to create an
overview of the system, which can later be elaborated.[2] DFDs can also be used for
the visualization of data processing (structured design).

A DFD shows what kind of information will be input to and output from the system, where the data
will come from and go to, and where the data will be stored. It does not show information about the
timing of process or information about whether processes will operate in sequence or in parallel
(which is shown on a flowchart).

System context diagrams show a system, often software-based, as a whole and
its inputs and outputs from/to external factors. According to Kossiakoff and Sweet (2011):[3]
System Context Diagrams... represent all external entities that may interact with a system...
Such a diagram pictures the system at the center, with no details of its interior structure,
surrounded by all its interacting systems, environments and activities. The objective of the
system context diagram is to focus attention on external factors and events that should be
considered in developing a complete set of systems requirements and constraints.
System context diagrams are used early in a project to get agreement on the scope under
investigation.[4] Context diagrams are typically included in a requirements document. These
diagrams must be read by all project stakeholders and thus should be written in plain language,
so the stakeholders can understand items within the document.

Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is a standard for business process modeling that
provides a graphical notation for specifying business processes in a Business Process
Diagram (BPD),[2] based on a flowcharting technique very similar to activity diagrams from Unified
Modeling Language (UML).[3] The objective of BPMN is to support business process management,
for both technical users and business users, by providing a notation that is intuitive to business
users, yet able to represent complex process semantics. The BPMN specification also provides a
mapping between the graphics of the notation and the underlying constructs of execution languages,
particularly Business Process Execution Language (BPEL).[4]

The primary goal of BPMN is to provide a standard notation readily understandable by all business
stakeholders. These include the business analysts who create and refine the processes, the
technical developers responsible for implementing them, and the business managers who monitor
and manage them. Consequently, BPMN serves as a common language, bridging the
communication gap that frequently occurs between business process design and implementation.

Cross functional flowcharts

it is sometimes difficult to keep track of who is responsible for each step. have refined and used SADT in a wide variety of problems. . a graphical approach to system description. or functional areas are involved. This is illustrated in the flowchart below which covers a simple purchasing process. It shows how the control of the process passes from the person initiating the purchase to the Purchasing Dept.When a flowchart describes a process in which a number of different people. and for analyzing the number of times a process is 'handed over' to different people. called IDEF. introduced by Douglas T. departments. the U. decision diagram or a decision network) is a compact graphical and mathematical representation of a decision situation. Boxes within a diagram show the subprocesses of the parent process named by the diagram. In 1981. IDEF is based on the Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT). Air Force Program for Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) standardized and made public a subset of SADT. Head up each column with the name of the person or function involved in the process. Ross in the early 1970s. and first available commercially by SofTek in 1972. is to divide the flowchart into columns. in which not only probabilistic inference problems but also decision making problems (following the maximum expected utility criterion) can be modeled and solved. Inc. Arrows between the boxes show the flow of products between processes. IDEF0 diagram was originally used to apply structured methods to better understand how to improve manufacturing productivity. show it in their column. Use cross-functional flowcharts to show the relationship between a business process and the functional units (such as departments) responsible for that process. and then to the Supplier. And each time they carry out an action. A useful additional technique for tracking this. An IDEF0 activity diagram contains one level of decomposition of a process. An influence diagram (ID) (also called a relevance diagram. It is a generalization of a Bayesian network.S. IDEF0 was initially created at Northrop Corporation in 1966. Since then. system analysts at Softech.

A process flow diagram (PFD) is a diagram commonly used in chemical and process engineering to indicate the general flow of plant processes and equipment. service related industries.106. which are both equivalent representations of the same underlying semantics. Another commonly used term for a PFD is a flowsheet. The language is formally complete. The PFD displays the relationship between major equipment of a plant facility and does not show minor details such as piping details and designations. Extensions of ID also find their use in game theory as an alternative representation of the game tree. and SDL/PR is mainly used for exchanging models between tools. A system is specified as a set of interconnected abstract machines which are extensions of finite state machines (FSM). it is known as "material and information flow mapping".[7] SPECIFICATION AND DESCIRPTION LANGUAGE DIAGRAM The ITU-T has defined SDL in Recommendations Z.[6] and administrative and office processes. ID is directly applicable in team decision analysis. healthcare.[4][5]product development.[2] so it can be used for code generation for either simulation or final targets. since it allows incomplete sharing of information among team members to be modeled and solved explicitly. supply chain. As of 2016 its current areas of application include process control and real-time applications in general.[1] It can be applied to nearly any value chain. Due to its nature it can be used to represent simulation systems [1] without ambiguity and with a graphical notation.ID was first developed in the mid-1970s by decision analysts with an intuitive semantic that is easy to understand. It is now adopted widely and becoming an alternative to the decision tree which typically suffers from exponential growth in number of branches with each variable modeled.[2][3] software development. Value stream mapping has supporting methods that are often used in Lean environments to analyze and design flows at the system level (across multiple processes). it is also used in logistics. The Specification and Description Language provides both a graphical Graphic Representation (SDL/GR) as well as a textual Phrase Representation (SDL/PR). Models are usually shown in the graphical SDL/GR form. At Toyota. .100 to Z. Value stream mapping is a lean-management method for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the customer. SDL originally focused on telecommunication systems. Although value stream mapping is often associated with manufacturing.

The behavior of components is explained by partitioning the system into a series of hierarchies. behavior. communication. This was revised in 1980 with some rudimentary semantics (SDL-80). This version is accompanied by a UML-Pr . so communication is usually asynchronous. the textual form was introduced for machine processing and data was introduced. and inheritance. In 1988. The channels are of delayed channel type. abstract generic types etc. Communication between the components takes place through gates connected by channels. with the object-oriented features described by transformations into non-object oriented ones. rather than description by transformations. SDL-2010 is the latest version..The Specification and Description Language covers five main aspects: structure. The first version of the language was released in 1976 using graphical syntax (SDL-76). but when the delay is set to zero (that is. SDL-88 was released with a formal basis for the language: an abstract grammar as well as a concrete grammar and a full formal definition. The semantics were refined in 1984 (SDL-84). no delay) the communication becomes synchronous. The version released in 1992 (SDL-92) introduced object-oriented concepts such as inheritance. an updated version of SDL-2000 that was completely based on object-orientation. data.