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Support Your Assertions

For Persuasive Writing,
Determine a Rhetorical Strategy

[pg. 187]


Support Your Assertions
Minneapolis is a lovely city. Through its heart runs the Mississippi River, cascading over
the muffled beat of St. Anthony falls. The downtown, a mix of high-rise office buildings,
classy retail centers, restored brick warehouses, and a few old theaters, gives way to
neighborhoods of tree-lined boulevards and corner shops. Near its western border a chain
of lakes is surrounded by park land and walking paths, on the south a parkway meanders
beside Minnehaha Creek past another set of lakes and Minnehaha Falls, and on the
southeast a great river gorge slices through layered sandstone and limestone bluffs. A
center of commerce, education, culture, and recreation, Minneapolis achieves a pleasing
balance between urban appeal and natural beauty.
In that paragraph I follow a fundamental two-step pattern in writing: I make an
assertion, then I support it with examples and detail. Without that second seep, I would be
asking you, my reader, to accept on blind faith my opinion (“Minneapolis is a lovely
There are many ways to support your assertions. In this chapter, I discuss some of
the more common ones.

Names. every detail should help explain or illuminate the subject. but a fully developed paragraph will usually make use of more than one.” Show them: “This year grievances increased by 14 percent. Support your points with evidence that is specific. 189] this simple guideline: If a detail does not contribute in some significant way to achieving your purpose. consider your audience. “Cut what does not contribute to the whole. relevant details. Use anecdotes. relevant. “Susan works hard. whether you are describing a scene for the purpose of creating a certain mood or describing “a mechanism and the function of its parts”—to use Judith VanAlstyne’s words in Professional and Technical Writing Strategies—so that the reader can “judge the efficiency. Your thesis or statement of purpose (which I discussed in Chapter 6) will help you determine which details are relevant and which are extraneous. concrete details. Offer enough—but not too much—detail.” which stands for Reasons. metaphor. Thinking of RENNS will help you determine whether you have provided sufficient detail. What does your reader need to know to understand your message? What does your reader already know? What needs to be pointed out or made explicit? A good assessment of your audience requires insight and imagination.” To help you decide what to retain and what to cut. colorful. concrete. Joseph Conrad advised writers not to tell their readers. and direct quotes to illustrate your points. As Troyka points out. “Morale [pg. . sound. delete it.” Show them: “Last month Susan came in at 6:00 A. and adequate. How much explanation or development is required to achieve your purpose with a particular audience? As a general approach. keep in mind [{Support} pg. err on the side of including too much detail when you draft. analogy. In addition to purpose.” In Handbook for Writers. In expository writing. taste. One of your most important decisions as a writer is how much detail to offer in support of your arguments. then cut back as you edit. Examples. Illustrate your points with specific. and employee turnover by 8 percent. you must have a whole. most paragraphs do not make use of every category of details.Offer specific. your audience. Finally.” as Donald Hall points out in Writing Well. every detail—as Kurt Vonnegut points out—should remark on a character or advance the action. of course.” Don’t just tell your readers. As I discussed in Chapter 2. detailed. Numbers. Don't make the reader guess at your meaning. and touch). “But first. reliability. consider your subject. Don’t just tell your readers. every day to help complete the internal audit on time. every detail should serve a particular strategic purpose. It will also suggest ideas for different types of detail you might use in developing your thought. smell. and your subject. 188 {Keys to Great Writing}] is declining. In descriptive writing. but to show them. Lynn Quitman Troyka offers a handy memory device called “RENNS. and practicality of the mechanism. And in persuasive writing. depends on the three things you must keep in mind whenever you write: your purpose. How much is enough? How much is too much? The answer.M. A common mistake on the part of beginning writers is to offer insufficient evidence to support or explain their assertions.” In narrative writing. make sure every detail is relevant. and Senses (sight.

) Rather than say “Writing is hard work. language that refers to things that can be seen. “There’s nothing to writing. [pg. one of the most effective ways to illustrate your thinking is to tell a story. create a sense of immediacy. Rather than write about how clear-cutting a forest “changes the landscape. or touched generally makes a more vivid impression than abstract language. All you do is sit down at a typewriter and open a vein. that whenever I tell a story in my writing workshops. or contrived).” Document your sources. It not only draws on your own creativity but appeals to your reader’s imagination. Back up an assertion such as “Starting a small business is risky” with a fact such as “Twenty-five percent of them fail within the first five years. As I discussed in Chapter 2. and add emphasis to your writing. tasted.” write “Within minutes of the announcement the champagne corks were popping and project team members were hugging. summaries. Your reader wants to know not only what you think but why you think it. If you are writing without making comparisons. who once said. After an assertion such as “The first time you get up on water skis is exhilarating. the American Psychological Association (APA). smelled. Figurative language makes your writing vivid. you are neglecting one of the most powerful tools of communication. simplicity (it isn’t overly elaborate. 190 {Keys to Great Writing}] the participants momentarily open their half-closed eyes and lift their nodding heads. even though you may be finding similarity between two very dissimilar things). use the narrative appeal of character and action to reinforce a point or to teach a lesson. forced. used in English and the humanities. and your citations must follow standard documentation styles. paraphrases.” describe “a field of ruts and stubble. heard.” Rather than describe a happy occasion by writing “We celebrated our victory. colorful detail. for example.” offer a comparison such as “You feel as though you are a plane skimming across a runway and about to rake off. I like to quote other writers to support my points. Quote others to enhance your credibility.” quote a writer like Red Smith. thereby evoking an active response. the quality of your metaphors can be evaluated according co three criteria: aptness (your metaphor seems right.” As I discussed in Chapter 5.Appeal to the senses with specific.” Use anecdotes to make your point. used in . Anecdotes. I’ve noticed. For more formal types of research and academic writing. As I discussed in Chapters 6 and 7. and any facts or ideas that are not common knowledge. you need to cite the sources of quotations. concrete.” Appeal to logic with facts and statistics. and novelty (it is unexpected or offers an element of surprise). like parables. Provide the factual evidence that led you to your conclusion. Use analogy and metaphor to explain your thinking. Direct quotes bring a fresh perspective. (As I’m sure you’ve noticed by now. The three most commonly used styles are chose of the Modern Language Association (MLA). Use testimony from credible sources.

psychology. guile. There are three basic types of appeals: appeals to reason (logos). and business. the social sciences. or biases of your reader. greed. and evidence that the mind can weigh in assessing the truth or validity of the assertion. Emotional appeals are generally most effective when the reader is expected to agree with the argument. there are a number of style manuals specific to particular fields or disciplines. As Biddle points . They invite a reasoned response and are usually most effective when the reader is expected to disagree with what is being asserted. and lists of sources following the text. “The logical method is directed to the rational faculty of the audience through the reasonableness of the piece. Both styles use the same three components of documentation: signal phrases (or phrases of attribution). Despite their usefulness. used in history and book [{Support} pg. In face. Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors. and appeals to ethics (ethos). Ethical appeals rely on the reader’s sense of right and wrong. research. appeals to emotion (pathos). is often necessary to create a frame of mind receptive to your logical arguments. 192 { Keys to Great Writing}] exclusivity. 191] publishing generally. A responsible appeal to the feelings of the audience. For Persuasive Writing. as required by The Chicago Manual of Style). data. MLA and APA styles are similar. and Publishers in biology. the most effective persuasive writing makes use of all three types. In addition. Yet rhetoricians from the time of Aristotle have known that men and women are emotional beings as well as rational. and The Chicago Manual of Style. and anger. the most effective way to motivate a sympathetic audience to shell our the money is to follow the formula of “feelings first. emotional appeals often rely on what Herschell Gordon Lewis in How to Write Powerful Fund Raising Letters calls the “five great motivators”: fear.” Common in advertising and fund-raising letters. Editors. emotional appeals are sometimes neglected by writers who think them inappropriate in carefully reasoned writing. [pg. they are just similar enough to be confusing. parenthetical references for in-text citations (rather than footnotes or endnotes. Generally. far from being reprehensible. examples. According to Arthur Biddle in Writer to Writer. and data to convince the reader of the truth or validity of an argument. Determine a Rhetorical Strategy In Chapter 8. bur they differ on certain key points. instincts. such as The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual in journalism. and The Style Manual for Political Science. faces follow.” Emotional appeals attempt to arouse the feelings. I discussed how rhetorical strategy influences the arrangement and organization of your arguments. As professional fund-raisers know. I return to rhetorical strategy as it determines the type of support you use in developing your arguments. This is the classical mode of argumentation. According to Arthur Biddle: Perhaps because [emotional appeal] has been so often abused…this approach has acquired a bad name. It employs faces. Here. Logical appeals rely on evidence.

Or you could appeal co central administration’s sense of fairness by pointing out that every faculty member in the school of business got a new computer last year and that the humanities faculty always seems to come last in appropriations (ethos}..000 is $3. Consider.000. Making ad hominem (or “to the man”) attacks on the person advancing the argument rather than challenging the argument itself (a variation of which is name-calling) 6. your evidence must meet five criteria. qualified. follow Aristotle’s advice. emotional. It must be: 1. you need co appeal to them on more than one level. when writing to a sympathetic audience. avoid these six common errors: 1. Providing too few examples to support an assertion 4. well-informed. Overgeneralizing the conclusion (especially making faulty assumptions regarding an entire group. Appeal co the whole person: the head (logos).out.. As you gather your evidence to support your arguments. and that 5 percent of your department’s operating and expense budget of $60. Presenting a false premise 2.” In other words. As a rule. spiritual beings. “the audience is moved not only by what is said but by who said it.” Use a combination of rhetorical appeals. “None of the other philosophers has new computers. Accurate . for example. which amounts to a net gain of $1. To be persuasive. class. Wrongly assuming that a premise is accepted by the audience 3. Or you could argue that a cut [{Support} pg. appeal first to reasons and logic.500. and the soul (ethos). are believable because they are ethically sound. Avoid common fallacies in persuasive writing. they also depend on the writer’s credibility and reputation “as a reliable. They are rational.” they have told you. and knowledgeable person whose opinions . “so why should you?” What would you do? You could protest on the grounds chat a new computer could be purchased (with an educational discount) for only $1.500 (logos). and that a new computer would increase your department’s productivity by 5 percent. race. But your most persuasive argument would combine all three appeals. when writing to an unsympathetic or hostile audience. appeal first to feelings and emotions. with ethical appeals. Imagine you are the chair of the Department of Philosophy and your university’s central administration has proposed cutting your department’s supply budget. People are complex. 193] in your supply budget would so thoroughly demoralize the faculty in your department that they might resign and seek positions at competing institutions (pathos). the heart (pathos). experienced. the following illustration of how to combine all three rhetorical modes. Offering irrelevant evidence or examples 5. or sex on the basis of a few examples) or seeking to derive a broader conclusion than the evidence warrants Follow standard rules of evidence. If you want to change their opinion about something or get them to accept your point of view. And for most persuasive writing situations.

pp. Meaningful and appropriate to the audience “Everyone loves Jesse Ventura!” might serve co arouse a crowd at a campaign rally. to make your evidence colorful. concrete. he should run for President” compounds the error because it offers a conclusion based on a false premise and insufficient evidence. Originally published in Keys to Great Writing. For all types of writing—from sales proposals to personal essays and appellate court briefs—the pattern is the same: First you assert. relevant. Inc. Reformatted by BYU-Idaho for accessibility purposes. 21 November 2014. but it cannot be said that the statement is accurate. When you make an assertion. and colorful. then you support. “Because everyone loves Jesse Ventura and thinks he’s doing a fantastic job as governor of Minnesota. 2. supporting your arguments is one of the most powerful—and empowering—things you can do as a writer.: 2000). Specific and detailed 3. you look outward. You turn your attention to information that will help your reader comprehend your meaning and appreciate your point of view. Don’t forget your reader. To acknowledge your reader is to acknowledge that all communication involves relationship. accurate. OH: F&W Publications. Remember: The best way to support your argument is to offer evidence that is specific. . Sufficient and complete [pg. 194 {Keys to Great Writing}] 4. use detail that appeals to the senses. You concentrate on your own thoughts and how to express them. 187–194. you look inward. Relevant and connected to the argument 5. And as I have said before. For this reason. When you support your assertion. Stephen Wilbers (Cincinnati. The two steps lead in opposing directions.