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International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 16 No: 06 1

Petroleum Plant Sap as an Asphalt Modifier for
Pavement Applications
Lilian M. Gondim¹, Sandra A. Soares², Suelly H. A. Barroso¹
1
Departament of Transportation Engineering, Federal University of Ceará,
ZIP-Code: 60440-554, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
2
Departament of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará,
ZIP-Code: 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

Abstract-- This research work aims to contribute to the different types of biomass [1], [4], [5], [6]; (ii) the
development of a bio-binder for use at the paving industry, from combination of fatty acids and resinous materials, [2], [3], [7]
the modification of a petroleum based asphalt by the sap of - [11].
Euphorbia Tirucalli (Petroleum Plant). Thus, a base asphalt (PG From 2011, studies regarding the formulation of bio-
64-28) was modified with 3%, 5% e 10%, by weight, of sap of the binders were focused on modifying bituminous binders with
petroleum plant. The functional groups present in the sap were
additives from vegetal and animal origin. Some additives to be
characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy.
The parameters chosen for the analysis of the modified binders mentioned are: soybean acidulated soapstock [12], [13], waste
were the empirical characteristics (softening point, penetration); cooking oil [14], [15]; cotton biodiesel, cotton oil, castor oil,
the rheological behavior (Brookfield viscosity, complex module, palm oil, lignin [15], carnauba wax [15], [16], waste coffee
phase angle); and the effects of oxidative aging (all the properties ground [17], biomass from different sources [18]-[20];
before and after aging at RTFOT). It was also carried out specific sugarcane waste molasses [21], swine manure [22], [23],
rheological tests for the determination of Performance Grade among others. When used as asphalt modifiers, some of these
(PG) and the behavior related to permanent deformation by materials have changed consistency, thermal susceptibility
Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test. The results and/or the workability of conventional asphalt binders [12],
showed that it was possible to replace up to 10% of the asphalt
[13], [15], [16], [22].
binder by sap without observe significant changes in the
rheological properties, and still reducing the compaction and The addition of larger amounts (10% to 60%) of bio-
mixing temperatures. This result implies on major environmental products in asphalt binders is also being investigated. The
and economical effects, once a material from renewable source partial asphalt replacement with 10%, 30% and 60% of
reduces the consumption of fossil asphalt binder, and decreases polymerized cooking oil promoted a decrease on the stiffness
the fuel expenditure for the mixing and compaction procedures of the base asphalt, reducing the rutting and fatigue resistance,
as well. whereas increasing the thermal cracking resistance [14]. On
the other hand, the use of wood biomass as asphalt extender
Index Term-- Bio-binders, Euphorbia Tirucalli, Asphalt (10% to 70%) seems to improve the rutting performance, but
Modifiers, Alternative Materials diminishes the fatigue and thermal cracking resistance [23].
Among the Brazilian northeastern flora there is a plant
I. INTRODUCTION popularly known as “Petroleum Plant”, whose sap has high
Around the world, issues such as global warming, viscosity and adhesion. This plant, whose Latin name is
greenhouse gases, significant increase in population, depletion Euphorbia Tirucalli, is a shrub used in ornamental gardening,
of natural resources and the demanded expansion of urban with great adaptability to desert and high salinity
infrastructure have generated great discussion regarding environments [24]. The name Petroleum Plant was given by
sustainable development and the creation of environmental Calvin [25], when he discovered that its latex has
friendly technologies. In this context, the search for products hydrocarbons with molecular weight similar to those found in
from renewable resources, less harmful to the environment petroleum, and can be separated into various fractions
and capable of replacing the petroleum based asphalt becomes potentially able to replace petrochemical products, such as
increasingly important. gasoline. Regarding to productivity, plants with only 1 year
Since the 80´s, researchers are trying to develop the bio- old yields 10 to 20 barrels of sap per acre (1 acre = 4046.86
binders, alternative materials from renewable sources [1], [2], m²), in a year [25].
with properties similar to traditional bituminous materials, in Due to high production capacity, the renewable nature, the
particular the viscoelasticity [3]. Bio-binders can be used in presence of hydrocarbons and similar behavior to bituminous
three different ways: as asphalt modifiers, when used in low binder, the Petroleum Plant sap has potential for producing a
concentrations; as asphalt extenders, replacing 25-75% of the green binder for pavement applications. A production of a bio-
binder; or as surrogate binders, replacing 100% petroleum binder based on this sap enables sustainable development in
based asphalt [4]. underprivileged desert areas, as well as technologies that can
Studies conducted in order to fully replace the asphalt reduce costs for road projects. The objective of this work is to
binder have focused on two different methods: (i) processing produce an alternative bio-binder for use in asphalt pavement,
(decomposition, pyrolysis, distillation and liquefaction) of

162006-4848-IJCEE-IJENS © December 2016 IJENS
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International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 16 No: 06 2 from the modification of petroleum asphalt binder with the were presented in master curves. A. built by Time- addition of different contents of sap produced by Euphorbia Temperature Superposition Principle (TTSP) at Tirucalli. was performed by the Fourier Transform Infrared as described atASTM D7405-15 [34]. TA Instruments® 1637 ν C=0. in the region of 4000-400 cm-1 wave numbers. from 4000cm-1 to 400 cm-1wave numbers Thermosel control system and followed the recommendations of ASTM D 4402 [29]. after 10 The analysis of the functional groups of the dehydrated sap creep and recovery cycles of 100 Pa and 3200Pa. The measurements performed at 20 rpm were 3431 ν O-H taken into account for comparison between the tested samples. to simulate the hardening and oxidative aging that occurs during mixing and compaction procedures. respectively. Spectroscopy (FTIR). following the recommendations of ASTM D2872 [26]. The penetration was measured in a semi-automatic penetometer using a standard needle. The analysis was conducted III.FTIR spectrum of the sap. in order to evaluate the binder shear rate Wave Number (cm-1) Functional Group susceptibility. The results 162006-4848-IJCEE-IJENS © December 2016 IJENS IJENS . using K-Br pellets. 2941 ν C(sp3)-H at all temperatures. tertiary alcohols modulus (G*) and phase angle (δ) of the binders 1123 ν C-O. and the absorbance bands with the associated minutes. Functional groups from FTIR spectrum of the sap of Petroleum Plant 30. 40.01-100Hz) under 1093 ν C-O. The in natura sap of Petroleum Plant evaluate rutting potential of the RTFOT aged was oven dried at 60°C for 60 hours. 1. following ASTM D36 [28]. Chemical Characterization of the Petroleum Plant Sap The modified asphalts were prepared using an IKA RW20 The FTIR spectrum of the petroleum plant sap is shown in low shear mixing reactor. secondary alcohols stress-controlled mode (120 Pa). according to ASTM D 2493 [30]. The dry sap has softening point of 87ºC. The rotational viscosity determination of the neat and modified binder. according to ASTM D5 [27]. with  Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) to 50/70 penetration grade. aliphatic esters over a range of frequencies (0. 1701 ν C=0 A Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). for 60 Fig. unaged and RTFOT aged. The parameters fragmented to break up the lumps formed in the dehydration analyzed were the percent recovery (R%) and the process. The contents of sap used for bitumen modification functional groups are presented at Table I. in a Shimadzu® FTIR-8300 spectrometer. The softening point was determined using a ring and ball apparatus. followingASTM D7175 [31]. The base binder used in this research was a PG 64-28. in accordance 1068 ν C-O. 50 e 60 rpm. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION using absorbance spectrum. tertiaryamides. 2722 ν C(sp2)-H de aldehyde using Asphalt Institute Method. on 25 725 Angular chain deformation -(CH2)n- mm parallel plates with 1. δ O-H AR 2000 model. 1. and study their effects according to empirical and the reference temperature of 65ºC. Samples were denoted as “3%”. The neat and modified asphalt samples were submitted to short term aging on rolling thin film oven (RTFO). were 3%.0mm gap. in transmission module. primary alcohols with ASTM D7175 [31]. non-recoverable creep compliance (Jnr).  Establishment of Performance Grade (PG) and Continuous Grade. It was also determined the mixing and 2864 ν C(sp3)-H compaction temperature. at 160±5ºC and 1500rpm. Superpave specifications applied to conventional asphalts. MATERIALS AND TESTING METHODS ASTM D6373 [32] and ASTM D7643 [33]. The tests were performed using Table I spindle 21. to measure the complex shear 1151 ν C-O. 150ºC and 177ºC and shear rates of 20. DVII+ model coupled to a Fig. “5%” and “10%”. II. was adopted to investigate the rheological 1451 δ CH2 properties of the samples. at 135ºC. was held in Brookfield® viscometer. 5% and 10% w/w (weight/weight). and then mechanically samples at the PG temperature. The rheological tests performed 1375 δ CH3 were: 1297 ν C-N of aliphatic  Frequency Sweep. The samples were tested 1026 ν S=O at high temperatures only (45ºC –85ºC). The empirical characterization of the samples was conducted through penetration and softening point.

at 2722 cm-1. a broad absorption 70 band in 3431 cm-1.Penetration. The band 20 observed in 1637 cm-1may indicate C=O axial deformation on 10 tertiary amides too. the modified binder is more flexible at 25°C than the original binder. 2. 48 50 49 51 48 50 nor in aromatic rings (two or four bands at 1600 cm-1. 1151 cm-1). much larger than the asphalt RTFOT aged. 30 There is evidence of CH3 and CH2 groups of aliphatic 20 chains. qualitatively and promoted small changes in the consistency of the asphalt quantitatively. The occurrence of these groups on the sap would naturally increase the presence After RTFOT. The addition of the sap binder. concerning the carbonyl 30 group (C=0). respectively. penetration in the order of 2 tenths of a millimeter for each 5% The different behaviors observed on the penetration and of additive. (a) Bands associated with the C=C group were not observed. for pure and modified asphalt binder. The flow curves also 162006-4848-IJCEE-IJENS © December 2016 IJENS IJENS . 59 59 Penetration Value (0. biodiesel. At 25ºC reduction in penetration asphalt binders. 1580 Softening Point (̊C) -1 -1 -1 cm . The strength of the 3431 cm-1 band may suggest the 50 43 41 existence of hydroxyls of different natures. associated with O-H axial deformation. such as water and 40 alcohols. The addition of carnauba wax also causes a softening point may be due to the test temperatures. results occur when vegetable oils or biomass are added to the C. making it slightly stiffer. The signal at 725 cm may also 0 indicate the presence of saturated chains. increment of 1. The result was consistent. Thus. unaged and petroleum plant sap is 87ºC. Empirical Properties of Neat and Modified Asphalt It was observed that the addition of the sap increased Binders softening point (in only 2°C) just in low concentrations. waste cooking oil [15] and Nigella Sativa Biomass [18] all increased the penetration The flow curves at 135°C for the original and modified measurements.3% to 87. The sulfoxyde group (S=O) was detected on 1026 cm . 68 to 45 tenths of a millimeter in [15]. This indicates that. Cotton oil. International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 16 No: 06 3 Although the sap has been pre-dried.5°C at the softening point occurred with 3% The addition of the sap caused a small decrease in the and 5% of oil. Softening Point and oxidative aging of asphalt binders. 60 53 55 53 neither in aliphatic chains (between 1675 cm-1 to 1645 cm-1). since the softening point of point). but at significant (penetration test). the modified binder samples of the compounds on the modified binders. prove to be adequate for evaluating the aging process on when 10% of sap is applied. Unaged and Carbonyl and sulfoxyde groups are indicative of hardening RTFOT Aged: (a). the FTIR analysis did not in an increase in retained penetration from 70. Rotational Viscosity binder. B. 40 There is a band in 1701 cm-1. where the binder. The linear relationship between one (penetration enlarged from 70 to 160 tenths of the shear stress and the shear rate shows that the addition of millimeters).Empirical Properties of Neat and Modified Binders.Different to similar results to those obtained with vegetable oils. as -1 Unaged RTFOT well as a series of bands indicative of C-O group of sterols (b) (1123 cm-1) and alcohols (1068 cm-1. beginning of the service life.1 mm) 57 55 -1 60 herewith the band in 1637 cm . 3. the sap showed changes in binder higher magnitudes: 4% of wax reduced the penetration from compatible with those observed with the addition of wax. however. Fig. 1500 cm and 1450 cm ). the largest effect being observed with the last binders are shown in Fig. indicates the presence of 46 48 water. resulting promoting any aging effect. 2. the sap did not modified the Newtonian behavior of the asphalt binder. once this organic function is related to enhance the adhesive 0 PG 64-28 3% 5% 10% properties of asphalt binders. 1093 cm-1. at high temperatures. it is likely that this band is associated to ketones and aldehydes. due to C-H axial deformation bands (2941 cm-1 and -1 -1 10 2864 cm ) and angular deformation bands (1451cm and -1 -1 1375 cm ). the sap led decreased from 52 to 26 tenths of millimeters in [16]. whereas 5% of wax while at higher temperatures (softening point test). are shown in Fig.3%. at the petroleum plant modified binders. (b). with vegetal oil results in [15]. The presence of amides is important. This The results of the empirical tests (penetration and softening observation was unexpected. Due to the proximity to 1700. without necessarily showed higher penetration than the original binder. The axial PG 64-28 3% 5% 10% deformation of the C-H group in aldehydes is observed as Unaged RTFOT well.

With lower temperatures. It was also observed that higher contents of sap led to 600 10% RTFOT larger decreases on viscosity. with the reduction The Frequency Sweep results (G*. δ) for unaged and of 6ºC on mixing process and 7ºC on compaction. once less fuel 162006-4848-IJCEE-IJENS © December 2016 IJENS IJENS . At 177°C. since that lower slopes are observed for the of the asphalt binder can prevent excessive aging. especially at 135°C and 700 5% RTFOT 150°C. 700 PG 64-28 Unaged 350 PG 64-28 3% 5% 10% 600 3% Unaged Rotational Viscosity (cP) 300 5% Unaged 500 Shear Stress (mPa) 250 10% Unaged 400 200 300 150 200 100 100 50 0 0 125 135 145 155 165 175 185 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Temperature (̊C) Shear Rate (s-1) Fig. International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 16 No: 06 4 indicate that the sap promoted a reduction in the viscosity of is required for heating the material. PG 64-28 168+ 3 154+ 3 The decrease on viscosity of the modified samples 3% 162+ 3 148+ 3 reflected on the mixing and compacting temperatures. Sample MT CT Therefore the modified samples viscosity is more susceptible to short-term aging than the original binder. The reference temperature is 65°C. The master curves consistent with those obtained with other vegetal additives show that the Time-Temperature Superposition Principle such as CNSL [35]. after aging process. 10% 162+ 3 147+ 3 led to a reduction on both mixing temperature (MT) and D. some vegetal oils like biodiesel. As it 5% 165+ 3 150+ 3 can be noted on Table II. the viscosity-temperature Mixing and Compaction Temperatures for neat and modified binders curves became more close to each other. and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) [35]. [13]. it is possible to save energy. In addition. from the environmental and economic point of view. and remained valid for samples. 4 800 3% RTFOT Rotational Viscosity (cP) confirm the viscosity diminishment. The larger benefits were observed from the addition of 10% of sap. modified sample. On the other hand. lower heating the binder. although. the modified samples 400 have viscosity values very close to that obtained for the 300 original binder. acidulated soy 0 soapstock [12]. even after modification. The RTFOT aged samples are presented by their master curves in reductions of 6ºC to 7ºC on mixing and compaction Fig. These results show that the petroleum possible because the modified samples also exhibited plant sap has potential to be used as workability improver. This was carnauba wax [16]. 3. viscoelastic behavior in the temperature range studied. Temperature (̊C) castor oil. 200 Other bio-additives that enhance the flow capability of the 100 asphalt binders are carnauba wax [15]. in all contents. 125 135 145 155 165 175 185 [36]. soybean acidulated soapstock [12].Flow Curves of Original and Modified Binder at 135°C (a) 900 PG 64-28 RTFOT The viscosity-temperature charts presented in Fig.Viscosity-Temperature Charts of Unaged (a) and RTFOT aged (b) Binders The effect of viscosity reduction with the sap is not so pronounced on the RTFOT aged samples as it was for the Table II unaged ones. once only high temperatures with the addition of petroleum plant sap are temperatures (45°C to 85°C) were scanned. by this temperature. cotton oil and waste cooking oil increased (b) the viscosity of asphalt binders in [15]. Fig. [16]. indicating that the sap could have been degraded. indicating improvement on the 500 binder workability. Rheology Analysis compacting temperature (CT). palm oil. For all the samples. 4. the addition of sap. 5.

raising or dropping G* and δ. as The reduction on the asphalt binder stiffness caused by the described in [33]) the exact temperature were the parameter sap is consistent with the effect of most bio-additives: soybean G*/senδ reaches the reference values. 5. angle values at high frequencies is even more prominent. At RTFOT samples. but reductions Grade. 76ºC. 64ºC. waste cooking oil [14] and Nigella Sativa The Performance Grade and the Continuous Grade of the biomass [18] all diminished the stiffness. Performance Grade. The modified samples have asphalt binders is determined as the first temperature from a upper phase angles at high frequencies (low temperatures) preselected set (52°C.2 kPa for unaged and RTFOT aged samples. residue [37]. 70ºC. the classified as PG64. and yet it was not sufficient for downgrading the were noted with carnauba wax [16]. Nevertheless. were almost overlapped on both aged and unaged samples. the highest Regarding the phase angle. the asphalt binder has suitable resistance to tends to have solvency action on the asphalt binder. the raise on phase 1. It is also possible to estimate (for interpolation. over all the frequency (and PG Grade and Continuous Grade Establishment temperature) range. 58ºC. International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 16 No: 06 5 1E+6 91 1E+5 89 Complex Modulus (Pa) 87 1E+4 Phase Angle (º) 85 1E+3 83 1E+2 81 1E+1 79 1E+0 PG 64-28 3% 5% 10% 77 PG 64-28 3% 5% 10% 1E-1 75 1E-3 1E-1 1E+1 1E+3 1E-3 1E-1 1E+1 1E+3 Reduced Frequency (rad/s) Reduced Frequency (rad/s) (a) (b) 1E+6 90 1E+5 Complex Modulus (Pa) 1E+4 85 Phase Angle (º) 1E+3 80 1E+2 1E+1 75 1E+0 PG 64-28 RTFOT 3% RTFOT PG 64-28 RTFOT 3% RTFOT 5% RTFOT 10% RTFOT 5% RTFOT 10% RTFOT 1E-1 70 1E-3 1E-1 1E+1 1E+3 1E-3 1E-1 1E+1 1E+3 Reduced Frequency (rad/s) Reduced Frequency (rad/s) (c) (d) Fig. respectively. (c) G* and (d) Phase Angle for RTFOT Aged Samples Although all the G* master curves presented themselves magnitude of these effects. 82ºC and than the neat binder. This temperature is acidulated soapstock [12]. In wax [16] and CNSL [35] exceptions that increases G* values. rutting. rises were observed after the addition of sap (10%) lessened about 2ºC on Continuous addition of soybean acidulated soapstock [12]. 162006-4848-IJCEE-IJENS © December 2016 IJENS IJENS . swine manure [23]. accordance with the master curves analysis. but The high temperature of Performance Grade (PG) of opposes to rutting performance. These values are reference that at this given Lower stiffness and higher phase angles indicates that the sap temperature. all the samples of this research are swine manure [32] and CNSL [35]. biolubricant residue [37]. being the carnauba original and modified samples are presented at Table III. a small much pronounced than the ones observed with the addition of shift toward lower Complex moduli could be noticed. softening the asphalt binder. This lower stiffness is desirable for improving the fatigue resistance and the thermal cracking.Master Curves as Function of Frequency at 65ºC: (a) G* and (b) Phase Angle for Unaged Samples. characterized at high temperature only. where indicating that the applied sap has a slight tendency of G* curves for all samples were almost superimposed. what makes them more vulnerable to 88°C) at which the parameter value G*/senδ is higher than viscous deformations. biolubricant denoted as the Continuous Grade (CG). the petroleum plant sap and waste coffee ground [17]. Thus.0kPa and 2.

the rut resistance at low stress.9 64 66.1 64 67.9 64 66. showing that all contents of sap made the during mixing with the asphalt binder.63 91. esters.The temperature limits on The addition of 3% and 10% of the sap did not provide any which the base binder and the modified binders begin to have improvement in parameters related to permanent deformation. Furthermore.00 (Unaged) 64 68. on both 100 Pa to and sulfoxyde groups also identified on the sap made 3200 kPa.4 4. CONCLUSIONS diff) between 0.5 3.8 3% 6. required temperatures at about 6ºC.32 3. At shown to be very resistant to stress variations.41 3. Table IV MSCR test results for neat and modified asphalt samples at 64ºC Sample R100 (%) R3200 (%) Jnr 100 (KPa-1) Jnr 3200 (KPa -1) Rdiff (%) Jnr-diff (%) PG 64-28 2.66 92.5 64 64.8 10% 6.1 5% 19.8 14. the MSCR test results indicated that the the asphalt binder by the sap of petroleum plant. without addition of petroleum plant sap reduced the resistance to observing significant variations in the behavior at usual in- permanent deformation.9 The percent recovery represents the amount of the elastic establishment. low stress. even though the binder had already service temperatures. the percentage differences of RTFOT.7 57. at 87°C. and the non-recoverable creep sap showed similar behavior to polymerized waste cooking oil compliance measures the ratio between the permanent [14] and Nigella Sativa biomass [18].9 0.3 Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery The results of the MSCR tests for binder sample and its blend with petroleum plant sap are available on Table IV. water.4 0.6 64 66.84%. However. Another prospect is that the antioxidant complexes the non-recoverable compliance (Jnr-diff) and percent recovery are volatilized during the oven drying process of the sap or (Rdiff) increased. and still reducing the compaction and low rutting resistance. the petroleum plant response to a given stress.58 75.3 64 65.9 1. In practical terms. Regarding to rut resistance. this binder has changes is almost negligible. and tertiary amides on the The studied asphalt binder has a low percent recovery and dehydrated sap of petroleum plant.1 kPa and 3200 kPa represents the susceptibility There were identified evidences of aliphatic chains. deformation and the stress applied. like it was environmental and economical effects.5 2. There was a slight increase in the percent recovery values at probably around the softening point of the sap. which indicates that at 64ºC this material has rutting high in service temperature. even though the magnitude of the resistance for standard traffic only. since the mixing and compaction temperatures. alcohols.3 65. Otherwise. the content of 5% of sap improved after RTFOT aging (except for the penetration test).2 17.31 90.5 64.1 0. from the practical point of view. this blend has behaved just like very similar condition to those applied in the aging process in the original binder. The presence of carbonyl high non-recoverable creep compliance. process: temperature of 160°C for a period of 60 minutes is a raising the stress to 3200 kPa. decreasing the was 4. The studied properties suffered little mixing temperatures. once a material from observed on master curves and Continuous Grade renewable source reduces 10% of the total consumption of 162006-4848-IJCEE-IJENS © December 2016 IJENS IJENS . aldehydes. The percent difference in recovery (Rdiff) and in non-recoverable creep compliance (Jnr.6 3. even at higher contents. indicating that the material has low elasticity and is unfeasible the FTIR analysis for measuring the aging susceptible to permanent deformation. However. but at high stress the recovery stood practically the The additive apparently does not protect the properties of same. Possibly.6 T (C) for G*/senδ (kPa) > 2.77 4. much lower the prescribed limit of 75%. It was also found that non-recoverable compliance the sample from the short-term aging effects. the addition of percent difference of the non-recoverable compliance (Jnr-diff) the sap improved the binder workability.3 Performance Grade 64 64 64 64 Continuous Grade 66. more distinguished behavior seems to be higher than 85ºC. it was possible to replace up to 10% of Generally.93 4. binder more susceptible to stress variations. showing these blends more vulnerable to permanent binders showed almost the same properties as the base binder deformation. This result implies on major variations.6 66.6 3. since modified increased. IV. with higher percent recovery this is a reflection of the harsh conditions of the mixing and lower non-recoverable compliance at 100 Pa. although. of these parameters to the increase of tension. International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJCEE-IJENS Vol: 16 No: 06 6 Table III Performance Grade and Continuous Grade of neat and modified asphalt binders PG 64-28 3% 5% 10% Specification PG CG PG CG PG CG PG CG T (C) for G*/senδ (kPa) > 1.20 (RTFOT) 64 66. compliance at 3200 kPa is quite close to the limit value of 4 The petroleum plant sap tends to soften the base binder at kPa-1. The non-recoverable properties of the modified binders.

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