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# Calculus I

Preface

Here are the solutions to the practice problems for my Calculus I notes. Some solutions will have
more or less detail than other solutions. The level of detail in each solution will depend up on
several issues. If the section is a review section, this mostly applies to problems in the first
chapter, there will probably not be as much detail to the solutions given that the problems really
should be review. As the difficulty level of the problems increases less detail will go into the
basics of the solution under the assumption that if you’ve reached the level of working the harder
problems then you will probably already understand the basics fairly well and won’t need all the
explanation.

This document was written with presentation on the web in mind. On the web most solutions are
broken down into steps and many of the steps have hints. Each hint on the web is given as a
popup however in this document they are listed prior to each step. Also, on the web each step can
be viewed individually by clicking on links while in this document they are all showing. Also,
there are liable to be some formatting parts in this document intended for help in generating the
web pages that haven’t been removed here. These issues may make the solutions a little difficult

Area Between Curves

1. Determine the area below f ( x ) =3 + 2 x − x and above the x-axis.
2

Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before
starting the actual problem. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the
upper/lower functions and the limits for the integral.

Step 1
Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of.

We are assuming that, at this point, you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that
we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here.

Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of.

© 2007 Paul Dawkins 1 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

For all we know the limits are close to those we guessed from the graph but are in fact slightly different. The limits are where the parabola crosses the x-axis and so all we need to do is set the parabola equal to zero (i. That is especially true here where finding them directly takes almost no time.lamar. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 2 http://tutorial.e. Doing this gives. So. y =3 + 2 x − x 2 ) and the lower function is the x-axis (i. However. x = 3 So. we should never just assume that our graph is accurate or that we were able to read it accurately. Since we weren’t given any limits on x in the problem statement we’ll need to get those. Calculus I Step 2 It should be clear from the graph that the upper function is the parabola (i. where it crosses the line y = 0 ) and solve. We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps.aspx . y = 0 ). we did guess correctly.e. The area is. 3 + 2 x − x2 =0 → − ( x + 1)( x − 3) =0 → x=−1. Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integral and evaluate it. From the graph it looks like the limits are (probably) −1 ≤ x ≤ 3 . to determine if we guessed the limits correctly from the graph let’s find them directly.e.math.edu/terms. but it never hurts to be sure.

at this point. We are assuming that. you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of. Step 2 It should be clear from the graph that the right function is the parabola (i. Calculus I ( 3x + x − 13 x 3 ) 3 3 A= ∫ 3 + 2 x − x 2 dx = = 2 32 −1 3 −1 2. Since we weren’t given any limits on y in the problem statement we’ll need to get those. However. This is especially true when the © 2007 Paul Dawkins 3 http://tutorial.aspx .e. we should never just assume that our graph is accurate or that we will be able to read it accurately enough to guess the limits from the graph. 2 Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the right/left functions and the limits for the integral. Determine the area to the left of g ( y )= 3 − y and to the right of x = −1 .lamar. x= 3 − y 2 ) and the left function is the line x = −1 .math.edu/terms. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of.

you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here. We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. 3. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of.math. the limits on y that we need) do not occur on an axis (as they don’t in this case). at this point. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 4 http://tutorial. The intersection points are where the two curves intersect and so all we need to do is set the two equations equal and solve. the limits on y are : −2 ≤ y ≤ 2 . Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integral and evaluate it. Calculus I intersection points of the two curves (i. to determine the intersection points correctly we’ll need to find them directly. The area is.aspx . y = sin ( x ) . y = 2 So. Doing this gives. x = −1 and x = 2 . Determine the area of the region bounded by = Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem.edu/terms. 3 − y2 = −1 → y2 = 4 → y= −2. So. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the upper/lower functions and the limits for the integral.lamar.e. We are assuming that. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of. 3 − y 2 − ( −1) dy (4 y − y3 ) = 2 2 2 = A ∫−2 = ∫ −2 4 − y 2 dy = 1 3 −2 32 3 y x 2 + 2 .

© 2007 Paul Dawkins 5 http://tutorial. So.04355 2 2 A= ∫ −1 1 3 −1 Don’t forget to set your calculator to radians if you take the answer to a decimal.lamar. We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. Next. Calculus I Step 2 It should be clear from the graph that the upper function is = y x 2 + 2 and the lower function is y = sin ( x ) . The area is. x 2 + 2 − sin ( x ) dx = ( x 3 + 2 x + cos ( x ) ) = 9 + cos ( 2 ) − cos (1) = 8. Note that this is something that we can’t always guarantee and so we need the graph to verify if the curves intersect or not. because the curves do not intersect we will be able to find the area with a single integral using the limits : −1 ≤ x ≤ 2 .edu/terms. Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integral and evaluate it.math.aspx . We should never just assume that because limits on x were given in the problem statement that the curves will not intersect anywhere between the given limits. we were given limits on x in the problem statement and we can see that the two curves do not intersect in that range.

For this problem we were only given one limit on x (i. Determine the area of the region bounded by y = . We will take the region to the left of the line x = 4 and to the right of the intersection point.e. The region is then the one shown in graph above. This means that one of the given curves must be on each boundary of the region. We also can’t take any portion of the region to the left of the intersection point. at this point.aspx . Therefore we can’t use any portion of the region to the right of the line x = 4 because there will never be a boundary on the right of that region. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 6 http://tutorial. We are assuming that. x Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem.edu/terms. Because the first function is not continuous at x = 0 we can’t use any region that includes x = 0 . x = 4 ). Therefore any portion of the region to the left of the intersection point would have to stop prior to the y-axis and any region like that would not have any of the given curves on the left boundary. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the upper/lower functions and the limits for the integral. y = 2 x and x = 4 .math. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of.lamar. To determine just what the region we are after recall that we are after a bounded region. you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here. Calculus I 8 4. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of.

We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. 4  2 x − dx =( x − 8ln x ) 2 =12 − 8ln ( 4 ) + 8ln ( 2 ) =6. x= 2 − y 2 . Doing this gives. So. This is especially true when the intersection point of the two curves does not occur on an axis (as they don’t in this case). y = 1 and y = −2 . It should also be clear from the graph and the limits above that the upper function is y = 2 x and 8 the lower function is y = .math. x Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integral and evaluate it.edu/terms. we should never just assume that our graph is accurate or that we will be able to read it accurately enough to guess the coordinates from the graph. However. 8 = 2x → x2 = 4 → x= −2. Calculus I Step 2 We now need to determine the intersection point.aspx . x = 2 x Note that while we got two answers here the negative value does not make any sense because to get to that value we would have to go through x = 0 and as we discussed above the bounded region cannot contain x = 0 . The intersection point is where the two curves intersect and so all we need to do is set the two equations equal and solve. Therefore the limits on x are : 2 ≤ x ≤ 4 . The area is.4548 A =⌠ 8 2 4 ⌡2 x 5. Determine the area of the region bounded by x= 3 + y 2 . to determine the intersection point correctly we’ll need to find it directly. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the right/left functions and the limits for the integral.lamar. Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 7 http://tutorial.

edu/terms. Calculus I Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of. Step 2 It should be clear from the graph that the right function is x= 3 + y 2 and the left function is x= 2 − y 2 . because the curves do not intersect we will be able to find the area with a single integral using the limits : −2 ≤ y ≤ 1 .aspx . we were given limits on y in the problem statement and we can see that the two curves do not intersect in that range. We should never just assume that because limits on y were given in the problem statement that the curves will not intersect anywhere between the given limits. at this point. Next. So. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 8 http://tutorial. We are assuming that. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of. Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integral and evaluate it. Note that this is something that we can’t always guarantee and so we need the graph to verify if the curves intersect or not.lamar. you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here.math.

Determine the area of the region bounded by x = y 2 − y − 6 and = x 2y + 4 . you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of. We are assuming that. Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem. The area is. 3 + y 2 − ( 2 − y 2 ) dy = 1 + 2 y 2 dy = ( y + 23 y 3 ) 1 1 1 A= ∫−2 ∫ −2 −2 = 9 6.aspx .edu/terms. Calculus I We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. The region needs to be bounded by one of the given curves on each © 2007 Paul Dawkins 9 http://tutorial. at this point.math. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of. Note that we won’t include any portion of the region above the top intersection point or below the bottom intersection point. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the right/left functions and the limits for the integral.lamar.

Step 2 It should be clear from the graph that the right function is = x 2 y + 4 and the left function is x = y2 − y − 6 . Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integral and evaluate it. y = e . Determine the area of the region bounded by y x x2 + 1 . Likewise. if we went past the bottom intersection point we would not have a lower bound on the region. y 2 − y − 6 =2 y + 4 → y 2 − 3 y − 10 =( y − 5 )( y + 2 ) =0 → y =−2.edu/terms. we should never just assume that our graph is accurate or that we will be able to read it accurately enough to guess the coordinates from the graph. If we went past the top intersection point we would not have an upper bound on the region. Since we weren’t given any limits on y in the problem statement we’ll need to get those.aspx . Doing this gives. So. 2 y + 4 − ( y 2 − y − 6 ) dy (10 y + y 2 − 13 y 3 ) = 5 5 5 = A ∫ −2 = ∫ −2 10 + 3 y − y 2 dy = 3 2 −2 343 6 − 12 x = 7. Calculus I boundary. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 10 http://tutorial.e. y =5 Therefore the limits on y are : −2 ≤ y ≤ 5 . However. x = −3 and the y- axis. We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. The area is. Note that you may well have found the intersection points in the first step to help with the graph if you were graphing by hand which is not a bad idea with faced with graphing this kind of region. to determine the intersection points correctly we’ll need to find them directly. The intersection points are where the two curves intersect and so all we need to do is set the two equations equal and solve. the limits on y that we need) do not occur on an axis (as they don’t in this case).math. This is especially true when the intersection points of the two curves (i.lamar.

we were given limits on x in the problem statement (recall that the y-axis is just the line x = 0 !) and we can see that the two curves do not intersect in that range. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the upper/lower functions and the limits for the integral. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of.lamar.math. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of. Calculus I Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem. because the curves do not intersect we will be able to find the area with a single integral using the limits : −3 ≤ x ≤ 0 .aspx . Note that this is something that we can’t always guarantee and so we need the graph to verify if the curves intersect or not. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 11 http://tutorial.edu/terms. Next. We should never just assume that because limits on x were given in the problem statement that the curves will not intersect anywhere between the given limits. Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integral and evaluate it. however you should be able to sketch the graph of the second equation by hand. So. Step 2 − 12 x It should be clear from the graph that the upper function is y = e and the lower function is =y x x2 + 1 . Note that using a graphing calculator or computer may be needed to deal with the first equation.

The area is.aspx . at this point. 8. including substitution since that will be needed here. Step 2 In the problem statement we were given two limits on x. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 12 http://tutorial. so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the upper/lower functions and the limits for the integral. Determine the area of the region bounded by = Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem.math. x = −4 and x = 2 .lamar. as seen in the sketch of the graph above the curves intersect in this region and the upper/lower functions differ depending on what range of x’s we are looking for. Calculus I We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of. y = 6 − x − 2 x 2 . However. We are assuming that. ( ) 0 (x + 1) 0 3 A =∫ e − 12 x − 12 x 3 3 − x x + 1 dx = −2e 2 − 1 3 2 2 = − 73 + 2e 2 + 13 10 2 =17. you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of.17097 −3 −3 y 4 x + 3 .edu/terms.

Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integrals and evaluate them. We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. Determine the area of the region bounded by y = . The intersection points are where the two curves intersect and so all we need to do is set the two equations equal and solve. Doing this gives.aspx . x =12 Note that you may well have found the intersection points in the first step to help with the graph if you were graphing by hand which is not a bad idea with faced with graphing this kind of region. This is especially true when the intersection points of the two curves do not occur on an axis (as they don’t in this case). So. Calculus I Therefore we’ll need to find the intersection points. 4 x + 3 − ( 6 − x − 2 x 2 ) dx + ∫ 6 − x − 2 x 2 − ( 4 x + 3) dx + ∫1 4 x + 3 − ( 6 − x − 2 x 2 ) dx −3 1 2 = ∫ 2 A −4 −3 2 −3 1 2 = ∫ 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 dx + ∫ 3 − 5 x − 2 x 2 dx + ∫1 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 dx 2 −4 −3 2 ( x 3 + 52 x 2 − 3 x ) + ( 3 x − 52 x 2 − 23 x 3 ) + ( 23 x 3 + 52 x 2 − 3 x ) 1 −3 1 2 = 2 2 3 −4 −3 2 = 25 6 + 343 24 + 8 = 81 343 12 1 3 9. However. x= − .math.lamar. = ( x + 2) . x =1. we should never just assume that our graph is accurate or that we will be able to read it accurately enough to guess the coordinates from the graph.edu/terms. 2 y x+2 2 © 2007 Paul Dawkins 13 http://tutorial. −3 ≤ x ≤ 12 and 12 ≤ x ≤ 2 ) for which the upper/lower functions are different. 6 − x − 2 x 2 =4 x + 3 → 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 =( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) =0 → x =−3. from the graph then it looks like we’ll need three integrals since there are three ranges of x ( −4 ≤ x ≤ −3 . to determine the intersection points correctly we’ll need to find them directly. The area is. So.

math. at this point. Therefore we’ll need to find the intersection point. Doing this gives. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the upper/lower functions and the limits for the integral. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of. to determine the intersection points correctly we’ll need to find it directly.aspx . as seen in the sketch of the graph above the curves intersect in this region and the upper/lower functions differ depending on what range of x’s we are looking for. we should never just assume that our graph is accurate or that we will be able to read it accurately enough to guess the coordinates from the graph. So. you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here. However.edu/terms. The intersection point is where the two curves intersect and so all we need to do is set the two equations equal and solve. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of.lamar. Step 2 In the problem statement we were given two limits on x. We are assuming that. Calculus I Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem. 1 = ( x + 2) → ( x + 2) = → x + 2= 1= 1 → x= −1 2 3 3 1 x+2 © 2007 Paul Dawkins 14 http://tutorial. This is especially true when the intersection point of the two curves does not occur on an axis (as they don’t in this case). However.

10. at this point. from the graph then it looks like we’ll need two integrals since there are two ranges of x ( − 32 ≤ x ≤ −1 and −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 ) for which the upper/lower functions are different. Calculus I So. We are assuming that. The area is. We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 15 http://tutorial.edu/terms. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the right/left functions and the limits for the integral. x = 5 .math.aspx . you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here. Determine the area of the region bounded by = Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of.lamar. y = −3 and y = 3 . Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integrals and evaluate them. −1 1 = ⌠ A  1 2 ⌠ − ( x + 2 ) dx +  ( x + 2 ) − 2 1 dx ⌡− 32 x + 2 ⌡−1 x+2 ( ln x + 2 − ) +( ) −1 1 = ( x + 2) ( x + 2) − ln x + 2 1 3 1 3 3 3 − 23 −1 = − 247 − ln ( 12 )  +  263 − ln ( 3)  = 678 − ln ( 12 ) − ln ( 3) =7.9695 x y 2 + 1 . Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of.

So. The intersection points are where the two curves intersect and so all we need to do is set the two equations equal and solve. from the graph then it looks like we’ll need three integrals since there are three ranges of x ( −3 ≤ x ≤ −2 . we should never just assume that our graph is accurate or that we will be able to read it accurately enough to guess the coordinates from the graph. However. So. Calculus I Step 2 In the problem statement we were given two limits on y. as seen in the sketch of the graph above the curves intersect in this region and the right/left functions differ depending on what range of y’s we are looking for. to determine the intersection points correctly we’ll need to find them directly. y =2 Note that you may well have found the intersection points in the first step to help with the graph if you were graphing by hand which is not a bad idea with faced with graphing this kind of region.lamar. Doing this gives. Therefore we’ll need to find the intersection points.aspx . This is especially true when the intersection points of the two curves do not occur on an axis (as they don’t in this case). y 2 + 1 =5 → y 2 =4 → y =−2. Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integrals and evaluate them.math.edu/terms. However. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 16 http://tutorial. −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 ) for which the right/left functions are different.

edu/terms. y 2 + 1 − 5 dy + ∫ 5 − ( y 2 + 1) dy + ∫ y 2 + 1 − 5 dy −2 2 3 = A ∫ −3 −2 2 −2 2 3 = ∫ −3 y 2 − 4 dy + ∫ 4 − y 2 dy + ∫ y 2 − 4 dy −2 2 ( y3 − 4 y ) + ( 4 y − 13 y 3 ) + ( 13 y 3 − 4 y ) −2 −2 3 = 1 3 −3 −2 2 = + 7 3 32 3 + = 7 3 46 3 11. Having the sketch of the graph will usually help with determining the right/left functions and the limits for the integral. Calculus I We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps. The area is. We are assuming that.aspx . at this point. Step 1 Let’s start off with getting a sketch of the region we want to find the area of. Here is a sketch of the bounded region we want to find the area of. you are capable of graphing most of the basic functions that we’re dealing with in these problems and so we won’t be showing any of the graphing work here.math. x = e1− y .lamar. Determine the area of the region bounded by x = e1+ 2 y . y = −2 and y = 1 . © 2007 Paul Dawkins 17 http://tutorial. Hint : It’s generally best to sketch the bounded region that we want to find the area of before starting the actual problem.

The intersection point is where the two curves intersect and so all we need to do is set the two equations equal and solve. © 2007 Paul Dawkins 18 http://tutorial. as seen in the sketch of the graph above the curves intersect in this region and the right/left functions differ depending on what range of y’s we are looking for. e1+ 2 y e1+ 2 y =e1− y → =1 → e3 y =1 → y =0 e1− y So. to determine the intersection points correctly we’ll need to find it directly.aspx . Calculus I Step 2 In the problem statement we were given two limits on y. In this case it seems pretty clear from the graph that the intersection point lies on the x-axis (and so we can guess the point we need is y = 0 ). we should never just assume that our graph is accurate or that we will be able to read it accurately enough to guess the coordinates from the graph. However. However.edu/terms. for all we know the actual intersection point is slightly above or slightly below the x-axis and the scale of the graph just makes this hard to see.lamar. Step 3 At this point there isn’t much to do other than step up the integrals and evaluate them. from the graph then it looks like we’ll need two integrals since there are two ranges of x ( −2 ≤ x ≤ 0 and 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 ) for which the right/left functions are different.math. However. Doing this gives. Therefore we’ll need to find the intersection point. So.

math. 0 1 A= ∫−2 e1− y − e1+ 2 y dy + ∫ e1+ 2 y − e1− y dy 0 ( −e1− y − 12 e1+2 y ) + ( 12 e1+ 2 y + e1− y ) 0 1 = −2 0 = e3 + 12 e −3 − 23 e  + 1 + 12 e3 − 32 e  = 22.edu/terms.aspx . The area is. Calculus I We are assuming that you are comfortable with basic integration techniques so we’ll not be including any discussion of the actual integration process here and we will be skipping some of the intermediate steps.9983 © 2007 Paul Dawkins 19 http://tutorial.lamar.