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16- Bit Processor

:
16-bit is a computer hardware device or software program
capable of transferring 16 bits of data at a time. For example,
early computer processors (e.g. 8088 and 80286) were 16-bit
processors, meaning they were capable of working with 16-
bit binary numbers (decimal number up to 65,535). Anything
larger and the computer would need to break the number into
smaller pieces.
In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or
other data units are those that are at most 16 bits (2 octets) wide.
Also, 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based
on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit is
also a term given to a generation of microcomputers in which
16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The signed range
of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits is -32,768 (-1 ×
215) through 32,767 (215 - 1); the unsigned range is 0 through
65,535 (216 - 1). Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16-
bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KiB of byte-
addressable memory.
16-bit architecture
The MIT Whirlwind (c. 1951) was quite possibly the first-ever
16-bit computer. Other early (c. 1965–70) 16-bit computers
include the IBM 1130, the HP 2100, the Data General Nova, and
the DEC PDP-11. Early (c. 1973–75) multi-chip 16-bit
microprocessors include the National Semiconductor IMP-
16 and the Western Digital MCP-1600. Early (c. 1975–76)

single-chip 16-bit microprocessors include the National Semiconductor PACE. 80486. or software programs capable of transferring data 32-bits at a time.967. operating systems. The Intel 8088 was binary compatible with the Intel 8086. and the TI TMS9900. 32. the WDC 65C816. The range of integer values that can be stored in 32 bits depends on . memory addresses. In computer architecture. and Pentium) they were 32- bit processors.294. 80386. (e. or other data units are those that are at most 32 bits (4 octets) wide. 32-bit computers and operating systems are being replaced by 64-bit computers and operating systems such as 64-bit versions of Windows 7. address buses. the Intel 80286. Other notable 16-bit processors include the Intel 8086. A 32-bit register can store 232 different values. 32-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers. the HP BPC. With computer processors. often versions of Windows that are 32-bit are referred to as WOW32. even though its external bus was 8 bits wide. Today.Bit Processor : Computers. 32-bit integers. 32-bit is also a term given to a generation of microcomputers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.295). Also.g. which means the processor were capable of working with 32 bit binary numbers (decimal number up to 4. and arithmetic instructions could operate on 16-bit quantities. or data buses of that size. and the Zilog Z8000. Anything larger and the computer would need to break up the number into smaller pieces. and was 16-bit in that its registers were 16 bits wide. A good example of the first 32-bit operating system is OS/2 and Windows NT.

294. the range is 0 through 4. and -2. With the two most common representations.147.295 (232 .147.the integer representation used.967.647 (231 .483.483.648 (-231) through 2.1) for representation as an (unsigned) binary number. .1) for representation as two's complement. One important consequence is that a processor with 32- bit memory addresses can directly access at most 4 GiB of byte- addressable memory (though in practice the limit may be lower).