English(Program

(
School(of(International(Liberal(Arts(
Miyazaki(International(College(
Speaking(Handbook!! !

Contents(
A(note(to(students(..................................................................................................(1!
Oral(communication(1((English(1)(...........................................................................(2!
Classroom!English!.....................................................................................................................!2!
General'classroom'English'....................................................................................................'2!
Requests'...............................................................................................................................'2!
Responding'to'a'request'.......................................................................................................'2!
Showing'understanding'........................................................................................................'2!
Showing'you'don’t'understand'.............................................................................................'2!
Working'with'a'partner'........................................................................................................'3!
Expressing'opinions'..............................................................................................................'3!
Expressing'lack'of'certainty'..................................................................................................'3!
Showing'you'have'no'opinion'...............................................................................................'3!
Showing'you'agree'...............................................................................................................'3!
Showing'you'disagree'...........................................................................................................'3!
Managing!conversations!(1)!.....................................................................................................!4!
Beginning'a'conversation'.....................................................................................................'4!
Sustaining'a'conversation'....................................................................................................'5!
Concluding'a'conversation'...................................................................................................'6!
Responding'appropriately'....................................................................................................'7!
Recounting!past!events!............................................................................................................!9!
Beginnings'............................................................................................................................'9!
Continuing'............................................................................................................................'9!
Ending'...................................................................................................................................'9!
Advice!.......................................................................................................................................!9!
Explaining'a'problem'..........................................................................................................'10!
Asking'for'advice'................................................................................................................'10!
Giving'advice'......................................................................................................................'10!
Responding'to'advice'.........................................................................................................'11!
Oral(Communication(2((English(2)(.........................................................................(12!
Managing!conversations!(2)!...................................................................................................!12!
Bringing'others'into'a'discussion'........................................................................................'12!
Suggesting'alternatives'......................................................................................................'12!
Offering'different'opinions'.................................................................................................'12!
Moving'on'to'a'new'topic'...................................................................................................'12!
Expressing!possibility,!probability!and!certainty!....................................................................!13!
Possibilities'and'probabilities'.............................................................................................'13!
Certainties'..........................................................................................................................'13!
Giving!instructions!..................................................................................................................!13!
Sequencing'instructions'......................................................................................................'13!
Stressing'importance'..........................................................................................................'13!
Oral(Communication(3((English(3)(.........................................................................(14!
Managing!Conversations!(3)!...................................................................................................!14!
Justifying'opinions'..............................................................................................................'14!
Clarifying'meaning'.............................................................................................................'14!
Giving!definitions!....................................................................................................................!15!
Expressing!the!unreal!past!......................................................................................................!15!
Expressing'criticism'............................................................................................................'15!
Expressing'regret'................................................................................................................'16!

...........'16! Emphasizing!and!qualifying!statements!.........................!17! Emphasizing'...........................................Reporting!opinions!and!summarizing!........................................................!16! Reporting'on'a'group'discussion'...................................................'17! ! ! .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................'17! Qualifying'....................................'16! Reporting'other'people’s'words'...............

!something!to!help!you!in!your!future! life.! Phrases(for(communication( The!handbook!contains!lots!of!phrases!that!can!be!used!in!various!situations.!You!can!use!it!as!a!study!guide!to! help!you!in!your!English!courses.!Mistakes!are!a!natural!part!of!learning.!If!you!use!it.!Maybe!you!won’t!make!the!same! mistake!next!time.! • If!you!do!make!makes.! You!can!change!the!language!in!the!phrases!to!fit!your!situation.!It’s!not!just!a!subject!to!pass!at!school.! • Try!to!use!what!you!learn!in!your!other!classes.! • Don’t!worry!about!making!mistakes.! Learning!whole!phrases!is!a!useful!way!to!improve!your!communication!skills!and! fluency!because!a!lot!of!the!language!we!use!every!day!is!based!on!simple!phrases! that!we!have!remembered!as!‘chunks’!of!language.!It’s!always!good!to!ask!questions.!we!don’t!have!to!think!about!grammar!rules!or!vocabulary!when!we!speak.! Please!remember!that!the!phrases!in!this!book!are!just!suggestions.!try!to!learn!from!them.! • Listen!to!other!students!and!learn!language!from!them.! ! ! ! ! 1! .!you’ll!remember!it! better.!We!hope!this!handbook!will!be!useful!for!you! throughout!your!four!years!of!study!at!MIC.!By!storing!these!phrases!in!our! minds.!we!want!you!to!learn!to!communicate!and! express!yourself!in!English.!to!make!jokes! and!to!have!fun.!You!can!also!use!it!as!a!reference!if!you!aren’t!sure! how!to!say!something!in!English.!Here!is!some!general!advice!for!improving!your! communication!skills:! • Think!of!English!as!a!communication!tool.! • Ask!questions!if!you!don’t!understand.! • Language!is!for!communication.! and!this!helps!us!to!speak!more!fluently.! Speaking(in(English(at(MIC( Here!at!Miyazaki!International!College.!so!use!it!to!express!your!ideas.! • Try!to!use!new!language!whenever!you!can.A(note(to(students( Welcome!to!the!Miyazaki!International!College!English!language!program!! This!speaking!handbook!contains!examples!of!language!that!will!help!you!to! communicate!in!your!courses!and!around!campus.

Oral(communication(1((English(1)( Classroom(English( • At!MIC.! understand!this.!I!don’t! ! understand.!If!you!have!questions!or! problems.!we!want!you!to!communicate!only!in!English.! you).! me?! what!you!said.!please!use!simple!classroom!English.! …!in!English?! ! ! Requests' Can!I!(borrow! May!I!(go!to!the! Could!you!(help! your!eraser)?! restroom)?! me)?! ! ! Responding'to'a'request' ! Yes.!! Gotcha.! Okay.! I!understand.!(I!don’t! I!would!(help! have!an! ! eraser).! course.!(got!you)!! ! ! Showing'you'don’t'understand' ! I!don’t! Excuse! I!couldn’t!catch! Sorry.! ! ! ! ! Sorry.! General'classroom'English' What!does!…! How!do!you! How!do!you! mean?! pronounce!…?! spell!…?! Can!you!say! I!have!a! How!do!you!say! that!again?! question.! ! ! ! ' ! 2! .!of! Sure.!but…! ! ! Showing'understanding' I!see.! Got!it.

! ! I!know!what! I!feel!the! ! I!agree.! the!answer!is?! What!do!you!think! Okay.! you!mean.! you!mean.! don’t!agree.! know.! ! ! Showing'you'agree' ! ! That’s! Exactly.! no!idea.!but!I! But!how! ! think!so.!…! What!I!think!is…! ! ! Expressing'lack'of'certainty' ! I’m!not! I!wonder! I!guess! ! sure.!but…! I’m!sorry.!I!have! I!really!don't! ! I’m!not!sure.! ! ! Showing'you'disagree' ! I!don’t! Yes.!how!about! about!(question!one)?! the!next!question?! ! ! Expressing'opinions' I!think!(that)…! In!my!opinion.! I!see!what! I!think!so! ! right.!but…! ! ! Showing'you'have'no'opinion' ! Sorry.! same!way.!but…! Perhaps…! sure.! too.!but…! if…! that…! Maybe…! ! ! It’s!difficult!to! I’m!not!really! ! say.! about…?! ! ! ( ! 3! .Working'with'a'partner' Can!I!work!with! Let’s!work! What!do!you!think! you?! together.

! • In!this!case.! Excuse!me…! you!have!a!minute?! but!can!I!(request)?! ! ! ! Sorry!for!interrupting.! ! ! I’d!like!to!talk! I!need!some! I!have!a!small!problem!that! ! to!you!about…! advice!about…! I’d!like!to!discuss!with!you.Managing(conversations((1)( Beginning'a'conversation' • Conversations!can!start!in!many!different!ways.! ! ! ! General'conversation'starters' • Sometimes.!but!you!think!they!might!be!busy.g.!but! ! can!I!ask!you!something?! Are!you!busy?! ! ! Explaining'your'business' • You!should!also!explain!what!you!need.!but!do! I’m!sorry!to!bother!you.!you!might!want!to!start!a!conversation!just!for!enjoyment.! ! Getting'attention'politely' • If!you!need!to!talk!to!someone.!a!homework!assignment.! e.!life!at!MIC.! ! ! ! Excuse!me.!or! another!common!situation! ! ! ! ! ! 4! .!a!class!you!are!taking.!you!need!to!begin!with!a!topic!that!your!partner!can!discuss.!the!weather.!there!are!some! simple!phrases!to!politely!get!attention.!and!the!language!you!use! depends!on!the!situation.

!have!you!finished!your!homework!for! Academic!Writing!yet?! ! Speaking'of…'links!from!one!topic!to!a!related! Speaking!of…! topic.! B: Yeah.!do!want!to!go!and!see!a!movie!tonight?! ! ! This'would'be'inappropriate'(in'fact.!I’m!pretty!worried.! A: Are!you!okay?! B: Well!actually.! B: I!see.'rude)' ! because'A'has'ignored'B’s'problem.! ! FollowTup'questions' ! ! ! When!did! How!did!you! Why!(not)?! you…?! feel?! ! ! ! ! ! What! What!kind! happened! How!long…?! ! of…?! next?! ! ! ! Introducing'a'new'topic' ' By'the'way.! ! By!the!way.! A: Oh.Sustaining'a'conversation' • When!you!are!speaking!with!a!partner.! • Asking!follow`up!questions!and!introducing!new!topics!are!good!ways!to! continue!a!conversation.!when!do!you!want!to! ' work!on!our!project?!! ! • Note:!Although!introducing!new!topics!helps!to!sustain!a!conversation.' ! ! ! ! ! ! 5! .!I!see.!By!the!way.…! A: …so!that’s!my!opinion.!Speaking!of!homework.!I!agree!with!you.! ! A: By!the!way.!I!can’t!find!my!wallet!anywhere.! A: I’m!planning!to!finish!my!essay!tonight.!be! careful!to!only!change!the!topic!when!it!is!appropriate.…!introduces!a!completely!new!topic.!you!should!try!to!continue!the! conversation.

!For!example.! ! ! It’s!been!nice! I’d!better!go! Well.! ! Thanks.! ! Thanking' • Conversations!often!have!a!natural!ending.! now.!you!should!signal!this!to!your!partner.!an!easy!way!to!finish!is!to!thank!your! partner.!I!should!(go! ! talking!with!you.!don’t! just!walk!away!from!them.!you!might!have! finished!discussing!some!questions!with!a!classmate.! your!help.! Thanks!very! I!really!appreciate! much.! • If!the!conversation!is!ending!naturally.!you!should!politely!signal!that!you! want!to!finish!it.! • You!should!be!careful!not!to!appear!rude!to!your!partner.! Thanks!a!lot.!(+!Reason)! to!my!next!class)! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6! .Concluding'a'conversation' • When!you!want!to!finish!a!conversation.! Casual! Casual! Casual! More!polite! ! ! Signalling'a'conclusion' • If!your!conversation!has!no!natural!ending.!For!example.

! B:!Have!you?! B:!Are!you?! A:!Yes.! you!should!try!to!show!interest!as!well.! Really?! ! ! • Tag!responses!are!a!simple!way!to!show!interest.!If!they!feel!something!is!interesting.! ! ! • Note:!Only!use!these!expressions!if!you!do!understand.! keys.! ! Showing'you'understand' I!see.!Expressions!for!when! you!don’t!understand!are!on!page!2.! • You!should!say!something!that!shows!you!understand!their!feelings.! A:!I!am!feeling!sick!today.!you!should!show!happiness.! ! ! Showing'interest' Yeah?! OK.!Just!match!your!response!to! your!partner’s!comment.!a!little.!I’m!still!learning.!it!was!a!school!trip…! A:!Mmm.!I!might!go!home!early.! B:!Did!you?! B:!Can!you?! A:!Yeah.! news.!If!they!are! happy.!I!went!to…! A:!Well.! A:!I!have!been!to!Taiwan.!For!example…! Bad!response! Good!response! Oh.! Responding'appropriately' • In!a!natural!conversation.!that’s!great! Oh.! ! ! ! ! 7! .! a!job.!You!must!be! I!lost!my!car! I!was!offered! happy!about!that.! Gotcha.!For!example…! A:!I!went!to!Kagoshima!last!weekend.! Right.! A:!I!can!play!the!guitar.!too.!it!is!important!to!respond!to!your!partner! appropriately.

! pity!/!a!shame).! If! we! had! won.! A: My! high! school! baseball! team! lost! yesterday.!For!example…! ! A: I!was!offered!a!job!after!graduation!! B: Oh.! B: Oh.! ! ! ! ! 8! .!that!must!have!been!disappointing.! That’s!(terrible! Oh!no!! /!awful).!We!use!it! to!show!we!understand!people’s!feelings.!that’s!good!news.! we! would!have!gone!to!the!Koshien!tournament.!my!parents!are!happy!too.! What?!! No!way!! ! ! Showing'empathy' • The!word!must'can!be!used!to!show!that!something!is!easy!to!guess.!You!must!be!happy!about!that.! ! ! Showing'surprise'or'shock' You’re!(joking!/! Really?! not!serious).! A: Yeah.! Well!done!! Congratulations! ! ! Showing'sadness'/'sympathy'/'negative'emotions' I’m!sorry!to! That’s!(too!bad!/!a! hear!that.Showing'happiness'/'positive'emotions' That’s!(nice!/!great! That’s!(good!to!hear!/! Sounds!(good!/! /!wonderful)!! great!news).! interesting!/amazing).

! In!this!situation.…! So!then.…! ! Continuing' ! Then…! So.…! ! ! Ending' ! In!the! Finally.!(Person!B:!May!ask!questions!to!understand!the! ! problem)! ! 3.…! To!begin! ! with.Recounting(past(events( When!you!are!telling!a!simple!story.!Person!B:!Gives!advice! ! ! 4.!the!conversation!usually!follows!a!particular!sequence:! ! 1.!Person!A:!Accepts!advice!and!thanks!Person!B! ! or! ! ! 4.!using!simple!phrases!to!show!the!order!of! events!makes!it!easier!for!the!listener!to!understand.!Person!A:!Rejects!advice!(with!a!reason)!(GO!BACK!TO!3)! ! ! ' ! 9! .…! First!of!all.…! ! end…! ! ! ! ! ! Advice( There!are!many!situations!when!you!will!need!to!either!ask!for!advice!or!give! someone!else!some!advice.! ! Beginnings' ! First.!Person!A:!Explains!their!problem! ! ! 2.

!try!to!use!some! of!these!different!expressions.!To!improve!your!fluency.!I’d…! ! ! ! Have!you!thought! It!might!be!a! Try!…ing…! about.’! Other'ways'to'give'advice'or'suggestions' There!are!many!other!ways!to!offer!ideas.! ! ! Why!don’t! How!about! If!I!were! You!could…! you…?! …ing…?! you.!something!bad!might! happen.Explaining'a'problem' ! I!have!a!problem! I!need!your!advice! I’m!a!little!worried! ! with!(topic)…! about!(topic)…! about!(topic)…! ! ! Asking'for'advice' ! What!do!you!think! What!do!you! What!do!you! I!should!do?! suggest?! recommend?! ! ! ! Do!you!have! What! any!ideas?! should!I!do?! ! ! Giving'advice' Advice'with'modal'verbs' The!modal!verbs!should.!…ing…?! good!idea!to…! ! ! ! One!thing!I’d! Maybe!you! recommend!is…! could…! ! ! ! 10! .’! Had'better!expresses!the!meaning!‘If!you!don’t!do!this.! ! ! You!should…! You!ought!to…! You!had!better…! (strong)! ! Should!and!ought!to!express!the!meaning!‘I!think!this!is!a!good!thing!for!you!to!do.!ought'to!and!had'better!can!be!used!to!give!advice.

! ! ' Rejecting'advice' • Sometimes.! that.! a!try.Responding'to'advice' Accepting'advice' ! ! That’s!a!good! Okay.!I’ll!do! Okay.! ! ! The!problem!is…! The!thing!is…! I!would!do!that.!but! then!explain!why!it!is!not!possible.!there!is!a!reason!that!we!cannot!follow!that!advice.!I’ll!give!it! ! idea.!but…! ! ! ! ! ! ! 11! .!we!should!be!polite!and!show!that!we!are!grateful!for!the!idea.! • In!this!case.

!so!what! ! (the!next!question!/! about!the!next! ! number!two)! question?! ! ! ! ! ! 12! .!but…! agree.!because….!…! like!that.Oral(Communication(2((English(2)( Managing(conversations((2)( Bringing'others'into'a'discussion' ! ! Do!you!want! How!about! What’s!your!opinion! ! to!start?!! you.! about…?! ! ! Moving'on'to'a'new'topic' ! Okay.!but…! but…! other!hand.!(name)?! about!(topic)?! ! ! ! What!do!you!think! What!do!you! Does!anybody!have! ! about!(topic)?! think.!(name)?! anything!else!to!add?! ! ! Suggesting'alternatives' ! Why!don’t! I!have!an! ! How!about…?! we…?! idea.!but!don’t! To!be! I!don’t!see!it! ! you!think…?! honest.!so!let’s!move!on!to! Okay.! ! ! You!have!a! I’m!not!sure!I! But!what! ! point.! Yes.!but!on!the! ! true.!…! ! ! ! Yes.! ! ! ! Perhaps!we!should! Maybe!we!should! ! We!could…! think!about…! consider…! ! ! Offering'different'opinions' ! ! That!might!be! Maybe.

!…! Third.!…! that.!…! all.!…! that…! that…! doubt!that…! ! ! ! Giving(instructions( Sequencing'instructions' First!/!Second!/! First!of! After! Then…! Next.(probability(and(certainty( Possibilities'and'probabilities' ! ! There’s!a! It’s!possible! Perhaps…! Maybe…! chance!that…! that…! ! ! ! Certainties' ! ! I’m!sure! I’m!certain! There’s!no! Definitely.! next!step!is…! (verb+ed).Expressing(possibility.!…! The!first!/! After!you!have! After!(verb+ing).!you!should…! you!should…! ! ! ! Stressing'importance' ! ! Make!sure!you! Be!careful!not!to! Remember!to! ! (don’t)!(verb)!…! (verb)!…! (verb)!…! ! ! ! ! Don’t!forget!to! It’s!a!good!idea! It’s!best!to! (verb)!…! to!(verb)!…! (verb)!…! ! ! ! ! ! 13! .

!I!think!it’s!my!favourite!city!in!Japan.Oral(Communication(3((English(3)( Managing(Conversations((3)( Justifying'opinions' Giving'examples' One!simple!way!to!justify!your!opinions!is!to!give!examples.! ! Clarifying'meaning' ! Are!you! Do!you! ! saying!that…?! mean…?! ! (paraphrase)!Is! ! that!what!you’re! saying?! ! So!in!other! Why!do!you! ! words.!….! A: Miyazaki!prefecture!is!well!known!for!its!farming.!…! Such!as…! Such!as…! ' ' Listing'reasons' Here!are!some!useful!phrases!for!listing!reasons.!For!example…! ! A: A:!I!really!enjoyed!my!visit!to!Hiroshima.! B: B:!Yeah?! A: A:!Mmm.!It!is!used!to!add!detail!and! emphasis!to!the!previous!comment.!In!fact.! ! Besides! The!main! First!of!all…! (that! reason!is…! Another! And!on!top! What’s! reason!is…! of!that…! more.!but!in!fact!there! are!several!other!industries!including!tourism!and!solar!power.!…! ! ! Being'more'specific' The!phrase!‘in'fact’!is!very!common!in!spoken!English.! ! ! For!example!/! ! instance.! think!that?! ! ! ! 14! .

!so!we!should!not!avoid!it.! ! You!should/shouldn’t! Why!did/didn’t! I!wish!you! ! have!(past!participle)…! you!(verb)…?! had/hadn’t!(past! ! participle)…! ! ! ! You!could!have! It’s!a!pity!you! ! (past!participle)…! (past!tense!verb)…! ! ' ! ' ! 15! .! However.! B: Democracy!is!a!system!of!government!that'allows'the'whole'population' to'choose'its'leaders.!general!term!!!!!!!!!Adjective'clause)' ! It’s!a!kind!of! A!(new!word)!is!a! ! It’s!like!a!(general! (general!term)! form!of!(general! term)!that…! ! that…! term)!that…! ! ! It!is!also!helpful!to!give!comparisons.! C: Retiles!are!cold`blooded!animals!that'have'dry'skin'and'usually'lay'eggs' on'land.!so!we!should!be! careful!of!the!words!we!choose.Giving(definitions( Often!when!we!have!to!explain!a!new!word!or!an!idea.! Notice!how!adjective!clauses!can!be!used!to!do!this.! ! It’s!similar! It’s!the! For! to…! opposite!of…! example…! Such!as…! ! ! ! Expressing(the(unreal(past( Expressing'criticism' Giving!and!receiving!criticism!can!make!people!feel!uncomfortable.!criticism!can!also!be!helpful.!general!term!and!then!add!more!specific!information.!contrasts!and!examples.! (New'word'''''''''Simple.!it!is!helpful!to!start!with!a! simple.! A: A!smartphone!is!a!cellphone!that'can'connect'to'the'Internet.

!we!thought…! ! ! ! ! We!came!to!the! We!discussed!(topic).Expressing'regret' A!regret!is!a!sad!feeling!about!a!mistake!that!we!have!made.! On!the!topic!of! ! We!decided!that…! we!talked!about…! (topic).! ! conclusion!that…! and!we!felt!that…! ! ! ! Reporting'other'people’s'words' ! According!to! (Speaker)! (The!article)! ! (source).!…! said!that…! argues!that…! ! ! ! ! This!(text)!is! (Speaker)! about…! believes/thinks! ! that…! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 16! .! ! ! I!wish!I!had/hadn’t! I!should/shouldn’t! ! (past!participle)…! have!(past!participle)…! ! ! ! ! I!regret!(`ing!verb)…! I!regret!not!(`ing!verb)…! ! ! ! Reporting(opinions(and(summarizing( Reporting'on'a'group'discussion' ! (In!our!discussion).

! good.! ! • ‘Even’!introduces!a!surprising!case.! hot!today!! ! Other'ways'to'emphasize' It!was!such!a! • ‘Such’'has!to!be!followed!by!an!adjective!+!noun!combination.! ! ! I!was!a!little! We!were! The!movie!was!fairly! disappointed.! strange.' people!can!go!surfing.' ! It!was!such!a!boring!meeting! ! that!I!was!falling!asleep!! ! ! ' Miyazaki!has!a!good! ! climate.! ! Emphasizing'with'adverbs' It!was!so! They!were!really! That’s!very! It’s!unbelievably! funny!! disappointed.!Even!in!winter.Emphasizing(and(qualifying(statements( It!is!a!useful!skill!to!be!able!to!change!the!feeling!of!your!statements!by!making!them! stronger!or!weaker.! quite!hungry.! ! Emphasizing' • Emphasizing!means!making!a!statement!stronger.!but!not!great.! ! ! ! ! ' ! 17! .! boring!meeting!! • It!is!often!followed!by!‘that’!+!result.!or!more!noticeable.! ! ! Qualifying' • Qualifying!means!making!a!statement!weaker!or!less!extreme.