Supercapacitors and space applications

Les supercapacités-CCT-CNES workshop First of July 2008 P. Mattesco

Contents

Who are we?
Customer
Organisation
Background on supercapacitors study
Test
Studies
Potential space applications
Satellites
Launchers
Others
Development and qualification needs
Qualification at component level
Qualification at equipment level

Conclusions
Page 2 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st

Contents

Who are we?
Customer
Organisation
Background on supercapacitors study
Test
Studies
Potential space applications
Satellites
Launchers
Others
Development and qualification needs
Qualification at component level
Qualification at equipment level

Conclusions
Page 3 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st

Astrium: a 100% subsidiary of EADS EADS Airbus Military Eurocopter Astrium Defence Transport & Security Aircraft Systems Page 4 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

Astrium: the heritage and expertise of the leading European space nations Additional locations France Limeil-Brévannes (Sodern) Houston (Texas) Stevenage Germany Poynton Backnang (Tesat) UK Leiden Colerne (Paradigm) Portsmouth Bremen Trauen Corsham (Paradigm) Brest Kourou Lampoldshausen Hawthorn (Paradigm) Paris (French Guiana) Farnborough (Infoterra) Aquitaine Ottobrunn Oakhanger (Paradigm) Biscarrosse Friedrichshafen Saudi Arabia Ryadh (GPT) Vélizy Madrid Toulouse Les Mureaux Page 5 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

Astrium’s activities are based in three key areas Astrium Space Astrium Astrium Transportation Satellites Services The European A world leader At the forefront of prime contractor in the design satellite services for civil and and in the secure military space manufacture of communications. transportation satellite Earth and manned systems observation and navigation fields space activities Page 6 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

„Solar Gene- Demonstra. „TerraSarX“ „ROSETTA“ „ANIK“ “Early Warn.g.g.g. e. & Test Engineering Innovations Page 7 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .g. Engineering Engineering Eng.g. ASG5 – Electrical Engineering Who are we? Earth Space Navigation Telecom. e.“ rator“ Electrical Engineering (ASG5) – Service Provider Technology Electrical Power Communication EMC / ESD I/F & Harness Methodology Systems Eng. e. Military Equipment & Observation Science „Galileo“ munication System Subsystems e.g. e. e.

ASG5 – Electrical Engineering Customer External Internal Customers Customers Main Services: ESA Prime BUs .Telecom Engineering DLR Other Services: .Equipment BDs .Space Transportation BNSC Page 8 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .Supply Management .Central AIT .Earth Observation. Navigation & ASG5 Science CNES Electrical .

analyses and simulations Power Engineering • Solar array. • Modeling & analysis of electrical circuitries • EPS subsystem trade offs. analysis. power regulation & distribution definition. requirement definition & tests Eng. battery. & Test • Electrical laboratory & EMC test chamber I/F & Harness • Electrical I/F definition and characterization Engineering • Electrical harness definition Technology • New EE Methodologies & Tools Methodology • Innovative Technologies to enable S/C Architecture Innovation Innovations • Characterization of Key EPS components Page 9 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . sizing and performance assessment Communication • Communication subsystem trade offs. modeling. ASG5 – Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering in ASTRIUM Electrical Engineering (ASG5) • Support to electrical architectural S/C design Electrical • Digital S/C engineering Systems Eng. antenna coupling & pattern analysis EMC / ESD • EMC-ESD design. analyses. simulations and sizing Engineering • RF compatibility.

battery. sizing and performance assessment • EPS simulations and analyses • Energy budget • Power Bus compatibility analyses • In orbit power performance prediction and correlation • Elaboration and verification of mathematical models • Definition and improvement of Power Engineering Tools • Power engineering expertise • Technology expertise in EPS equipments • Lab testing activities Transnational Power Working Group established to build up a strong power engineering expertise in on all Astrium prime sites – regularly know how exchange Page 10 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . power regulation & distribution definition.ASG5 – Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering in ASTRIUM Power • EPS subsystem trade offs and sizing Engineering • Solar array.

EPS analysis and sizing • Uses Systema modules for S/C geometry. pointing and thermal modelling • Used from phase A up to In-flight correlation • Based on a schematic approach & evolving component library : Power-Systema can simulate any mission • Accurate component models allows to reduce the margins • Simulation duration reduced by 25% since 2000 • Operational on all 3 Astrium prime sites Page 11 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . orbit.ASG5 – Electrical Engineering Power Analysis Tool: Power Systema • Power-Systema allows to perform EPS trade offs.

ASG5 – Electrical Engineering Research & Development Technology Methodology Innovations R&D New EE Methodologies & Tools Innovative Technologies to Enable Architecture Innovations Characterisation of Key EPS components Page 12 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

• Solar arrays and solar cells – full scale development of an EOL performance prediction tool • New PSS architectures… • Fuel Cells survey Page 13 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . – SAFT and MELCO Li Ion cell Batteries characterization and life tests.ASG5 – Electrical Engineering Current R&D subjects: Power • Super Capacitors – evaluation/characterisation of new products – applicability to various missions/function • Kinetic storage (flywheels) – "lobbying" at agencies with the objective to initiate a preliminary design exercise to assess actual potentialities • Li Ion battery cells – Small capacity commercial Li Ion cells characterization.

electrical/EMC set-up… – SATCOM Battery (Electrical) Acceptance Tests – SATCOM TB-TV Thermal Test Benches – EMC Qualification tests : Equipments. µ-S/L – Electrical I/F bread boarding and validation – « On call SERVICES »: Bread boarding. tests and failure investigations / reproduction – EGSE CE: EMC & Low Voltage Marking tests • R&D ACTIVITIES: – Battery cells. super capacitors. solar cells… characterization – Wireless data link Page 14 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . battery simulator.ASG5 – Electrical Engineering Electrical Laboratory : Main activities • PROGRAMS ACTIVITIES: – Electrical EGSE development: battery test bench. Instruments.

Contents Who are we? Customer Organisation Background on supercapacitors study Tests Studies Potential space applications Satellites Launchers Others Development and qualification needs Qualification at component level Qualification at equipment level Conclusions Page 15 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

SAFT… 2 dedicated test benches Page 16 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . PRI. CAPXX. POLYSTOR.SUPERCAPACITORS CHARACTERISATIONS since 1997 10 characterisation campaigns for internal and external R&D (ARIANE 5. ELNA. EPCOS. MONTENA. EADS-LV) Capacity: between 0. MAXWELL.3F and 3600F Manufacturers: BOLLORE.

.Several studies since 1997…but still no concrete project. ESA contract 2001 Requirement for supercapacitor ESA contract 2001 validation testing Application of supercapacitors to Astrium AAAF 2003 pyrotechnics firing onboard ARIANE5 Avignon Page 17 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . Voltage balancing in series connected Astrium 10th DLC 2000 supercapacitors seminar in Florida Supercapacitor specification Astrium.

Space « heritage » is very low with only one or two very specific space applications with Maxwell PC5 & PC 10 «qualified» components. Page 18 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . vacuum…) In several cases. electrical performances were not really in line with the required specification For applications requiring high energy density and high power. Lessons learnt and main concern… Exhaustive characterisation and qualification campaign have to be undertaken with focus on ageing and specific space environment (radiation. hybrid solutions = possible solutions but higher complexity and cost Low voltage devices series connection is mandatory with reliable balancing device to cope with higher self discharge current than batteries.

Survey on supercapacitors still on going in the « space community »… Industrial Astrium (ASG52) is currently testing commercial supercapacitors Development and evaluation of supercapacitors for space applications done by BATSCAP in 2006-2007 (ESA TRP contract 16514/02/NL/ND) Page 19 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

Survey on supercapacitors still on going in the « space community »… Agencies in 2008 ESA Invitation to tender: High Power battery-Supercapacitor study •Identification of potential space applications •Impact at system and EPS system level •Trade-off between high power lithium battery Baseline testing of supercapacitors project by NASA for the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Page 20 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

power and size shall be significantly improved with advanced technologies Ex: Lithium battery implementation on GEO satellites 500 3500 10 450 9 3000 400 8 350 2500 7 300 6 Ni/Cd 2000 250 Ni/Cd 5 Ni/Cd Ni/H2 1500 Ni/H2 200 Ni/H2 4 LiIon LiIon 150 1000 LiIon 3 2 100 500 1 50 0 0 0 Selfdischarge Weight (kg) Thermal dissipation (Wh) (%/day) More than 50% Much lower thermal About 2 decades less weight saving stress and reduced than NiH2 makes versus NiH2 thermal constraints ground management Page 21 easy CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . mainly in term of mass. Key success for the use of new or improved energy storage technologies at spacecraft level • The performance and design of the spacecraft.

Key success for the use of new or improved energy storage technologies at spacecraft level Time frame of development. maturity. perceived risk shall be accepted Technology Readiness Levels TRL 9 : Actual system “flight proven” through successful mission operations TRL 8 : Actual system completed and “flight qualified” through test and demonstration (ground or space) TRL 7 : System prototype demonstration in a space environment TRL 6 : System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (ground or space) TRL 5 : Component and/or elegant breadboard validation in relevant environment TRL 4 : Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment TRL 3 : Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof-of concept TRL 2 : Technology concept and/or application formulated TRL 1 : Basic principles observed and reported Page 22 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

Key success for the use of new or improved energy storage technologies at spacecraft level Maturity is achieved for terrestrial applications Home market Back-up energy on CPU boards (small size capacitors) Industry Back-up energy on CPU boards (small size capacitors) Space Minor NASA applications on ISS (electrical tools) Some predevelopment in BATSCAP (Bolloré) under ESA funding Evaluations in lab but no complete qualification on any product (≈TRL4) Page 23 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

Key success for the use of new or improved energy storage technologies at spacecraft level • Minor impacts on other subsystems and on operational requirements • Increase of supercapacitors performances • Lifetime shall be demonstrated • Involvement of supercapacitors manufacturers in space market facing very low volume • Cost • Specific payloads. Page 24 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . specific mission or extended mission or new applications could required new storage technologies such as supercapacitors.

Contents Who are we? Customer Organisation Background on supercapacitors study Test Studies Potential space applications Satellites Launchers Others Development and qualification needs Specific space requirements Example of qualification sequence Conclusions Page 25 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

motor and CMG for AOCS purpose. Potential spacecraft applications Two main spacecraft applications for high power storage technologies yet identified Satellites Pyrotechnical system Signal filtering applications High pulse payload such as radar and Lidar Actuator. …. like wheel.. Launchers Trust vector controls Pyrotechnical system ……. Page 26 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

time constant around 10 ms. storage applications capacitance between several hundred to several thousand of farads time constant around 1 s Page 27 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . Potential spacecraft applications And two ranges of requirements associated to these applications filtering applications capacitance between several farads and several hundreds of farad.

Potential space applications : future mission needs New power sources fuel cell or flywheel Supercapacitor can be used as an intermediate storage device needed to deliver fast power response time Robotic and exploration mission (ex NASA Athlete rover) Page 28 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

higher duration : pulse power of secondary batteries could be increased by combining them with supercapacitors Page 29 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . lidar applications. Extension of the mission duration higher cycles number.Potential space applications : future mission needs Increase in the demand and sizing of the on board power system radar applications High to very high peak power demand (up to several kilowatts) variable operation time (few seconds to several minutes) In some case significant orbit duty cycles.

Potential space applications : architecture Example of typical satellite electrical power subsystem main architecture User User S3R BCR BDR User S3R User Battery Battery Solar array Solar array Non Regulated bus Regulated bus Page 30 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

Potential space applications : possible architecture for pulse load Peak current Average current (> 100A) A pulsed power of 5000W during 1s requires less than 1Kg of supercapacitors no high power bundle (0.5Kg/m) Possibility of line protection Low battery cycling Representative test at unit level Page 31 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

Contents Who are we? Customer Organisation Background on supercapacitors study Test Studies Potential space applications Satellites Launchers Others Development and qualification needs Qualification at component level Qualification at equipment level Conclusions Page 32 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

Qualification Qualification could be a long story and a strong non recurring cost Qualification shall be achieved on frozen product definition. but life test or accelerated life can take several years Page 33 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . Qualification means not only product qualified but also process and operators qualified. Any change on qualified product or manufacturing line need delta qualification BOL qualification can be achieved in around 6 month.

1 Voltage range & Intensity Min Voltage (V) 100 5 22 22 Max Voltage (V) 100 20 100 100 Mean discharge current N/A NA 5 50 (A) Max discharge current 20 7 10 200 (A) Charging current (A) 20 <1 1 15 Cycling 1000 (incl Number of cycles >10000000 3000000 7000000 ground) SOC max (% of total 100 100 100 100 capacity) SOC min (% of total 100 80 25 25 capacity) Page 34 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .27 NA (< 0.Qualification can be specific depending on mission requirements Power bus Applications Pyro function Actuator drive Radar decoupling Targeted technology Super cap Super cap Super cap Super cap Electrical needs Power range Mean power (W) N/A 0 20 1500 Max Power (W) N/A 150 200 5000 Energy & Capacity Electrical requirements Total energy (Wh) 27 0.05 0.1) 0.1) NA (< 0.3 10 close to terrestrial applications Total capacity (Ah) 0.

2000Hz] [20 .100Hz] [5 .2000Hz] [20 .2000Hz] [20 .Qualification can be specific depending on mission requirements Power bus Applications Pyro function Actuator drive Radar decoupling Targeted technology Super cap Super cap Super cap Super cap Environments Climatic Cold -40 -40 -40 -40 Dry heat N/A N/A N/A N/A Moist heat N/A N/A N/A N/A Thermal cycles in moist N/A N/A N/A N/A Some environments requirements air Thermal shock N/A N/A N/A N/A are specific -9 -9 -9 -9 Vacuum 10 TORR 10 TORR 10 TORR 10 TORR Thermal vacuum YES YES YES YES •Vacuum Salt spray N/A N/A N/A N/A •Radiation Rain N/A N/A N/A N/A Rapid depressurisation YES YES YES YES Mechanical 20g RMS 20g RMS 20g RMS 20g RMS Random vibration [20 .100Hz] Acoustic vibration N/A N/A N/A N/A Constant acceleration 20g 20g 20g 20g Average shock N/A N/A N/A N/A Pyrotechnic shock 800g @ 10kHz 800g @ 10kHz 800g @ 10kHz 800g @ 10kHz EMC 80dBµA RMS 80dBµA RMS 80dBµA RMS 80dBµA RMS Conducted emission @ 100kHz @ 100kHz @ 100kHz @ 100kHz Page 35 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st Radiated emission 50dBµV/m 50dBµV/m 50dBµV/m 50dBµV/m .100Hz] [5 .2000Hz] 20g 20g 20g 20g Sinusoidal vibration [5 .100Hz] [5 .

Contents Who are we? Customer Organisation Background on supercapacitors study Test Studies Potential space applications Satellites Launchers Others Development and qualification needs Qualification at component level Qualification at equipment level Conclusions Page 36 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st .

New space applications are coming with high power requirements. Astium still involved in survey and characterisation of supercapacitors to improve their spacecraft design and system First space application will be the main driver for a qualification. Need to be supported by Agencies and supercapacitor suppliers even if the market is low and the qualification hard. Page 37 CCT-CNES-Supercapacités-2008 July 1st . Maturity is today achieved.Conclusions Performances of supercapacitors are increasing.