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Chapter 3

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
3.1 Overview
3.1.1 The word trigonometry is derived from the Greek words trigon and metron
which means measuring the sides of a triangle. An angle is the amount of rotation of a
revolving line with respect to a fixed line. If the rotation is in clockwise direction the
angle is negative and it is positive if the rotation is in the anti-clockwise direction.
Usually we follow two types of conventions for measuring angles, i.e., (i) Sexagesimal
system (ii) Circular system.
In sexagesimal system, the unit of measurement is degree. If the rotation from the
1
initial to terminal side is th of a revolution, the angle is said to have a measure of
360
1. The classifications in this system are as follows:
1 = 60
1 = 60
In circular system of measurement, the unit of measurement is radian. One radian is
the angle subtended, at the centre of a circle, by an arc equal in length to the radius of the
circle. The length s of an arc PQ of a circle of radius r is given by s = r, where is the
angle subtended by the arc PQ at the centre of the circle measured in terms of radians.

3.1.2 Relation between degree and radian


The circumference of a circle always bears a constant ratio to its diameter. This constant
22
ratio is a number denoted by which is taken approximately as for all practical
7
purpose. The relationship between degree and radian measurements is
as follows:
2 right angle = 180 = radians
180
1 radian = = 5716 (approx)


1 = radian = 0.01746 radians (approx)
180
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 35

3.1.3 Trigonometric functions


Trigonometric ratios are defined for acute angles as the ratio of the sides of a right
angled triangle. The extension of trigonometric ratios to any angle in terms of radian
measure (real numbers) are called trigonometric functions. The signs of trigonometric
functions in different quadrants have been given in the following table:

I II III IV

sin x + +
cos x + +
tan x + +
cosec x + +
sec x + +
cot x + +

3.1.4 Domain and range of trigonometric functions

Functions Domain Range


sine R [1, 1]
cosine R [1, 1]

tan R {(2n + 1) : n Z} R
2
cot R {n : n Z} R


sec R {(2n + 1) : n Z} R (1, 1)
2
cosec R {n : n Z} R (1, 1)

3.1.5 Sine, cosine and tangent of some angles less than 90

0 15 18 30 36 45 60 90

6 2 5 1 1 10 2 5 1 3
sine 0 1
4 4 2 4 2 2
36 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

6 2 10 2 5 3 51 1 1
cosine 1 0
4 4 2 4 2 2

1 not
25 10 5
tan 0 2 3 3 5 2 5 1 3 defined
5

n
3.1.6 Allied or related angles The angles are called allied or related angles
2
and n 360 are called coterminal angles. For general reduction, we have the
n
following rules. The value of any trigonometric function for ( ) is numerically
2
equal to
(a) the value of the same function if n is an even integer with algebaric sign of the
function as per the quadrant in which angles lie.
(b) corresponding cofunction of if n is an odd integer with algebraic sign of the
function for the quadrant in which it lies. Here sine and cosine; tan and cot; sec
and cosec are cofunctions of each other.

3.1.7 Functions of negative angles Let be any angle. Then


sin () = sin , cos ( ) = cos
tan ( ) = tan , cot () = cot
sec () = sec , cosec ( ) = cosec
3.1.8 Some formulae regarding compound angles
An angle made up of the sum or differences of two or more angles is called a
compound angle. The basic results in this direction are called trigonometric identies
as given below:
(i) sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
(ii) sin (A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
(iii) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
(iv) cos (A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
tan A tan B
(v) tan (A + B) =
1 tan A tan B

tan A tan B
(vi) tan (A B) =
1 tan A tan B
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 37

cot A cot B 1
(vii) cot (A + B) =
cot A cot B
cot A cot B 1
(viii) cot (A B) =
cotB cot A
2 tan A
(ix) sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A =
1 tan 2 A
2
1 tan A
(x) cos 2A = cos2 A sin2 A = 1 2 sin 2 A = 2 cos 2 A 1 = 2
1+ tan A
2 tan A
(xi) tan 2A = 2
1 tan A
(xii) sin 3A = 3sin A 4sin3 A
(xiii) cos 3A = 4cos3 A 3cos A
3 tanA tan 3A
(xiv) tan 3A = 2
1 3tan A

A+ B AB
(xv) cos A + cos B = 2 cos cos
2 2
A +B BA
(xvi) cos A cos B = 2sin sin
2 2
AB AB
(xvii) sin A + sin B = 2sin cos
2 2
A B AB
(xviii) sin A sin B = 2cos sin
2 2
(xix) 2sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A B)
(xx) 2cos A sin B = sin (A + B) sin (A B)
(xxi) 2cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A B)
(xxii) 2sin A sin B = cos (A B) cos (A + B)

A
A 1 cos A if 2
lies in quadrants I or II
(xxiii) sin
2 2 if A
lies in III or IV quadrants
2
38 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

A
A 1 cos A if 2
lies in I or IV quadrants
(xxiv) cos
2 2 if A
lies in II or III quadrants
2

A
A 1 cosA if 2
lies in I or III quadrants
(xxv) tan
2 1 cosA if A
lies in II or IV quadrants
2

Trigonometric functions of an angle of 18


Let = 18. Then 2 = 90 3
Therefore, sin 2 = sin (90 3) = cos 3
or sin 2 = 4cos3 3cos
Since, cos 0, we get
2sin = 4cos2 3 = 1 4sin2 or 4sin2 + 2sin 1 = 0.

2 4 16 1 5
Hence, sin =
8 4
5 1
Since, = 18, sin > 0, therefore, sin 18 =
4

2 6 2 5 10 2 5
Also, cos18 = 1 sin 18 1
16 4
Now, we can easily find cos 36 and sin 36 as follows:
62 5 2 2 5 51
cos 36 = 1 2sin2 18 = 1 =
8 8 4
5 1
Hence, cos 36 =
4

6 2 5 10 2 5
Also, sin 36 = 1 cos 2 36 1 =
16 4
3.1.9 Trigonometric equations
Equations involving trigonometric functions of a variables are called trigonometric
equations. Equations are called identities, if they are satisfied by all values of the
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 39

unknown angles for which the functions are defined. The solutions of a trigonometric
equations for which 0 < 2 are called principal solutions. The expression
involving integer n which gives all solutions of a trigonometric equation is called the
general solution.

General Solution of Trigonometric Equations


(i) If sin = sin for some angle , then
= n + (1)n for n Z, gives general solution of the given equation
(ii) If cos = cos for some angle , then
= 2 n , n Z, gives general solution of the given equation
(iii) If tan = tan or cot = cot , then
= n + , n Z, gives general solution for both equations
(iv) The general value of satisfying any of the equations sin2 = sin2 , cos2 =
cos2 and
tan2 = tan2 is given by = n
(v) The general value of satisfying equations sin = sin and cos = cos
simultaneously is given by = 2n + , n Z.
(vi) To find the solution of an equation of the form a cos + b sin = c, we put
b
a = r cos and b = r sin, so that r 2 = a2 + b2 and tan = .
a
Thus we find
a cos + b sin = c changed into the form r (cos cos + sin sin ) = c
c
or r cos ( ) = c and hence cos ( ) = . This gives the solution of the given
r
equation.

Maximum and Minimum values of the expression Acos + B sin are A 2 B2

and A 2 B 2 respectively, where A and B are constants.

3.2 Solved Examples


Short Answer Type
Example 1 A circular wire of radius 3 cm is cut and bent so as to lie along the
circumference of a hoop whose radius is 48 cm. Find the angle in degrees which is
subtended at the centre of hoop.
40 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

Solution Given that circular wire is of radius 3 cm, so when it is cut then its
length = 2 3 = 6 cm. Again, it is being placed along a circular hoop of radius 48 cm.
Here, s = 6 cm is the length of arc and r = 48 cm is the radius of the circle. Therefore,
the angle , in radian, subtended by the arc at the centre of the circle is given by

Arc 6
= 22.5 .
Radius 48 8
3
Example 2 If A = cos2 + sin4 for all values of , then prove that A 1.
4
Solution We have A =cos2 + sin4 = cos2 + sin2 sin2 cos2 + sin2
Therefore, A1
Also, A = cos2 + sin4 = (1 sin2 ) + sin4
2 2
2 1 1 2 1 3 3
= sin 1 = sin
2 4 2 4 4

3
Hence, A 1 .
4
Example 3 Find the value of 3 cosec 20 sec 20
Solution We have

3 1
3 cosec 20 sec 20 = sin 20 cos 20

3 1
3 cos 20 sin 20 cos 20 sin 20
= = 4 2 2
sin 20 cos 20 2 sin 20 cos 20

sin 60 cos 20 cos 60 sin 20


= 4
sin 40
(Why?)

sin (60 20 )
= 4 =4 (Why?)
sin 40
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 41

Example 4 If lies in the second quadrant, then show that

1 sin 1 sin
2sec
1 sin 1 sin
Solution We have

1 sin 1 sin 1 sin 1 sin 2


= =
1 sin 1 sin 1 sin 2 2
1 sin cos 2
2
=
| cos |
(Since 2 = || for every real number )
Given that lies in the second quadrant so |cos | = cos (since cos < 0).
2
Hence, the required value of the expression is = 2 sec
cos
Example 5 Find the value of tan 9 tan 27 tan 63 + tan 81
Solution We have tan 9 tan 27 tan 63 + tan 81
= tan 9 + tan 81 tan 27 tan 63
= tan 9 + tan (90 9) tan 27 tan (90 27)
= tan 9 + cot 9 (tan 27 + cot 27) (1)
1 2
Also tan 9 + cot 9 = (Why?) (2)
sin 9 cos9 sin18

1 2 2
Similarly, tan 27 + cot 27 = = (Why?) (3)
sin 27 cos 27 sin 54 cos36
Using (2) and (3) in (1), we get
2 2 2 4 2 4
tan 9 tan 27 tan 63 + tan 81 = 4
sin 18 cos 36 5 1 5 1
sec8 1 tan8
Example 6 Prove that
sec 4 1 tan 2

sec 8 1 (1 cos8 ) cos4


Solution We have =
sec 4 1 cos8 (1 cos 4 )

2 sin 2 4 cos 4
= (Why?)
cos8 2sin 2 2
42 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

sin 4 (2 sin 4 cos 4 )


=
2 cos8 sin 2 2

sin 4 sin 8
= (Why?)
2 cos8 sin 2 2

2sin 2 cos 2 sin8


=
2 cos8 sin 2 2

tan 8
= (Why?)
tan 2
Example 7 Solve the equation sin + sin 3 + sin 5 = 0
Solution We have sin + sin 3 + sin 5 = 0
or (sin + sin 5) + sin 3 = 0
or 2 sin 3 cos 2 + sin 3 = 0 (Why?)
or sin 3 (2 cos 2 + 1) = 0
1
or sin 3 = 0 or cos 2 =
2
n
When sin 3 = 0, then 3 = n or =
3
1 2 2
When cos 2 = = cos , then 2 = 2n or = n
2 3 3 3

which gives = (3n + 1) or = (3n 1)
3 3
n
All these values of are contained in = , n Z. Hence, the required solution set
3
n
is given by { : = , n Z}
3
Example 8 Solve 2 tan2 x + sec2 x = 2 for 0 x 2
Solution Here, 2 tan2 x + sec2 x = 2
1
which gives tan x =
3
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 43

1 7
If we take tan x = , then x = or (Why?)
3 6 6
1 5 11
Again, if we take tan x = , then x
or (Why?)
3 6 6
Therefore, the possible solutions of above equations are
5 7 11
x= , , and where 0 x 2
6 6 6 6

Long Answer Type

3 5 7
Example 9 Find the value of 1 cos 1 cos 1 cos 1 cos
8 8 8 8

3 5 7
Solution Write 1 cos 1 cos 1 cos 1 cos
8 8 8 8

3 3
= 1 cos 1 cos 1 cos 1 cos
8 8 8 8

2 2 3
= 1 cos 1 cos (Why?)
8 8

2 3
= sin sin 2
8 8
1 3
= 1 cos 1 cos (Why?)
4 4 4

1
= 1 cos 1 cos (Why?)
4 4 4
1 2 1 1 1
= 1 cos = 1
4 4 4 2 8
2 4
Example 10 If x cos = y cos ( + ) = z cos ( + ), then find the value of
3 3
xy + yz + zx.
44 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

Solution Note that xy + yz + zx = xyz .


1 1 1
x y z
2 4
If we put x cos = y cos ( + ) = z cos = k (say).
3 3
k k k
Then x= ,y= and z =
cos 2 4
cos cos
3 3

1 1 1 1 2 4
so that = cos cos cos
x y z k 3 3

1 2 2
= [cos cos cos sin sin
k 3 3
4 4
+ cos cos sin sin ]
3 3

1 1 3 1 3
= [cos cos ( ) sin cos sin ] (Why?)
k 2 2 2 2
1
= 0 0
k
Hence, xy + yz + zx = 0
Example 11 If and are the solutions of the equation a tan + b sec = c,
2ac
then show that tan ( + ) = 2 2 .
a c
Solution Given that atan + bsec = c or asin + b = c cos
Using the identities,


2 tan 1 tan 2
2 and cos 2
sin = 2 2
1 tan 1 tan
2 2
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 45


a 2 tan c 1 tan 2
We have, 2 b 2

1 tan 2 1 tan 2
2 2

2
or (b + c) tan + 2a tan + bc=0
2 2


Above equation is quadratic in tan and hence tan and tan are the roots of this
2 2 2
2a bc
equation (Why?). Therefore, tan + tan = and tan tan = (Why?)
2 2 bc 2 2 bc


tan tan
2 2
Using the identity tan =
2 2 1 tan tan

2 2

2 a
2 a a
We have, tan = b c = ... (1)
2 2 1 b c 2c c
b c
Again, using another identity


2 tan
tan 2 = 2 ,
2 2
1 tan
2

a
2
c 2ac
We have tan = 2 = 2 2 [From (1)]
a a c
1 2
c
Alternatively, given that a tan + b sec = c
46 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

(a tan c) 2 = b2(1 + tan2)


a2 tan2 2ac tan + c2 = b2 + b 2 tan2
(a2 b2 ) tan2 2ac tan + c2 b 2 = 0 ... (1)
Since and are the roots of the equation (1), so

2ac c2 b 2
tan + tan = 2 2 and tan tan =
a b a2 b2

tan tan
Therefore, tan ( + ) =
1 tan tan

2ac
a2 b2 2ac
= 2 = 2 2
c b2 a c
a2 b2

Example 12 Show that 2 sin2 + 4 cos ( + ) sin sin + cos 2 ( + ) = cos 2


Solution LHS = 2 sin2 + 4 cos ( + ) sin sin + cos 2( + )
= 2 sin2 + 4 (cos cos sin sin ) sin sin
+ (cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 sin 2)
= 2 sin2 + 4 sin cos sin cos 4 sin2 sin2
+ cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 sin 2
= 2 sin2 + sin 2 sin 2 4 sin2 sin2 + cos 2 cos 2 sin
2 sin 2
= (1 cos 2) (2 sin2 ) (2 sin2 ) + cos 2 cos 2 (Why?)
= (1 cos 2) (1 cos 2) (1 cos 2) + cos 2 cos 2
= cos 2 (Why?)
Example 13 If angle is divided into two parts such that the tangent of one part is k
times the tangent of other, and is their difference, then show that
k 1
sin =sin
k 1
Solution Let = + . Then tan = k tan
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 47

tan k
or =
tan 1
Applying componendo and dividendo, we have
tan tan k 1
=
tan tan k 1

sin cos cos sin k 1


or = (Why?)
sin cos cos sin k 1

sin ( ) k 1
i.e., = (Why?)
sin ( ) k 1
Given that = and + = . Therefore,
sin k +1 k 1
= or sin = sin
sin k 1 k 1
Example 14 Solve 3 cos + sin = 2
Solution Divide the given equation by 2 to get

3 1 1
cos sin or cos cos sin sin cos
2 2 2 6 6 4

or cos cos or cos cos (Why?)
6 4 6 4

Thus, the solution are given by, i.e., = 2m
4 6
Hence, the solution are
5
= 2m + and 2m , i.e., = 2m + and = 2m
4 6 4 6 12 12
Objective Type Questions
Choose the correct answer from the given four options against each of the Examples
15 to 19
4
Example 15 If tan = , then sin is
3
48 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

4 4 4 4
(A) 5 but not (B) or
5 5 5
4 4
(C) but not (D) None of these
5 5
4
Solution Correct choice is B. Since tan = is negative, lies either in second
3
4
quadrant or in fourth quadrant. Thus sin = if lies in the second quadrant or
5
4
sin = , if lies in the fourth quadrant.
5
Example 16 If sin and cos are the roots of the equation ax2 bx + c = 0, then a,
b and c satisfy the relation.
(A) a2 + b 2 + 2ac = 0 (B) a2 b 2 + 2ac = 0
(C) a2 + c2 + 2ab = 0 (D) a2 b 2 2ac = 0
Solution The correct choice is (B). Given that sin and cos are the roots of the
b c
equation ax2 bx + c = 0, so sin + cos = and sin cos = (Why?)
a a
Using the identity (sin + cos )2 = sin2 + cos2 + 2 sin cos , we have
b2 2c
1
or a 2 b 2 + 2ac = 0
2
a a
Example 17 The greatest value of sin x cos x is
1
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 2 (D)
2
Solution (D) is the correct choice, since
1 1
sinx cosx = sin 2x , since |sin 2x | 1.
2 2
Eaxmple 18 The value of sin 20 sin 40 sin 60 sin 80 is
3 5 3 1
(A) (B) (C) (D)
16 16 16 16
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 49

Solution Correct choice is (C). Indeed sin 20 sin 40 sin 60 sin 80.

3 3
sin 20 sin (60 20) sin (60 + 20) (since sin 60 = )
2 2

3
sin 20 [sin2 60 sin2 20] (Why?)
2
3 3
sin 20 [ sin2 20]
2 4
3 1
[3sin 20 4sin3 20]
2 4
3 1
(sin 60) (Why?)
2 4
3 1 3 3
=
2 4 2 16
2 4 8
Example 19 The value of cos cos cos cos is
5 5 5 5
1 1 1
(A) (B) 0 (C) (D)
16 8 16
Solution (D) is the correct answer. We have
2 4 8
cos cos cos cos
5 5 5 5
1 2 4 8
2 sin cos cos cos cos
5 5 5 5 5
2sin
5
1 2 2 4 8
sin cos cos cos
5 5 5 5 (Why?)
2sin
5
1 4 4 8
sin cos cos
5 5 5 (Why?)
4sin
5
50 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

1 8 8
sin cos
5 5 (Why?)
8 sin
5
16
sin sin 3
5
5

16 sin 16 sin
5 5

sin
5
(Why?)
16 sin
5
1
=
16
Fill in the blank :
Example 20 If 3 tan ( 15) = tan ( + 15), 0 < < 90, then = _________
Solution Given that 3 tan ( 15) = tan ( + 15) which can be rewritten as

tan( 15) 3
.
tan( 15) 1

tan ( 15) + tan ( 15)


Applying componendo and Dividendo; we get 2
tan ( 15) tan ( 15)

sin ( 15) cos ( 15) + sin ( 15) cos ( 15)


2
sin ( 15) cos ( 15) sin ( 15) cos( 15)

sin 2
2 i.e., sin 2 = 1 (Why?)
sin 30


giving
4
State whether the following statement is True or False. Justify your answer
1
1
Example 21 The inequality 2 sin + 2cos 2 holds for all real values of
2
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 51

Solution True. Since 2sin and 2cos are positive real numbers, so A.M. (Arithmetic
Mean) of these two numbers is greater or equal to their G.M. (Geometric Mean) and
hence
2si n + 2 cos
2 sin 2 cos = 2sin +cos
2
sin cos 1 1 1
sin cos
2 2 2 2 2 2

1
sin
2 2 4


Since, 1 sin 1, we have
4
1 1
2si n 2cos s in cos
1
2 2
2 2 2 2
2

Match each item given under the column C1 to its correct answer given under column C2
Example 22
C1 C2
1 cos x x
(a) (i) cot 2
sin x 2
1 cos x x
(b) (ii) cot
1 cos x 2
1 cos x
(c) sin x (iii) cos x sin x
x
(d) 1 sin 2x (iv) tan
2
Solution

x
1 cos x 2sin 2
2 x
(a) = tan .
sin x x x 2
2 sin cos
2 2
Hence (a) matches with (iv) denoted by (a) (iv)
52 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

x
1 cos x 2sin 2
(b) = 2 cot2 x . Hence (b) matches with (i) i.e., (b) (i)
1 cos x 2sin 2 x 2
2

x
1 cos x 2 cos 2
2 x
(c) = cot .
sin x x x 2
2sin cos
2 2
Hence (c) matches with (ii) i.e., (c) (ii)
(d) 1 sin 2 x = sin 2 x cos 2 x 2 sin x cos x

= (sin x cos x ) 2

= sin x cos x . Hence (d) matches with (iii), i.e., (d) (iii)

3.3 EXERCISE
Short Answer Type
tan A sec A 1 1 sin A
1. Prove that
tan A sec A 1 cos A

2 sin 1 cos sin


2. If y , then prove that is also equal to y.
1 cos sin 1 sin

1 cos sin 1 cos sin 1 cos sin


Hint :Express .
1 sin 1 sin 1 cos sin

m n
3. If m sin = n sin ( + 2), then prove that tan ( + ) cot =
m n

sin ( 2 ) m
[Hint: Express and apply componendo and dividendo]
sin n

4 5
4. If cos ( + ) = and sin ( ) = , where lie between 0 and , find the
5 13 4
value of tan2 [Hint: Express tan 2 as tan ( + + ]
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 53

b a b a b
5. If tan x = , then find the value of
a a b a b
9
6. Prove that cos cos cos3 cos = sin 7 sin 8.
2 2
1 9
[Hint: Express L.H.S. = [2cos cos 2 cos3 cos ]
2 2 2
7. If a cos + b sin = m and a sin b cos = n, then show that a 2 + b2 = m2 + n2

8. Find the value of tan 2230 .



sin
2 sin cos
2 2 2 sin ]
[Hint: Let = 45, use tan
2 1 cos
cos 2 cos 2
2 2
9. Prove that sin 4A = 4sinA cos3 A 4 cosA sin3 A.
10. If tan + sin = m and tan sin = n, then prove that m2 n2 = 4sin tan
[Hint: m + n = 2tan, m n = 2 sin, then use m2 n2 = (m + n) (m n)]
pq
11. If tan (A + B) = p, tan (A B) = q, then show that tan 2 A =
1 pq
[Hint: Use 2A = (A + B) + (A B)]
12. If cos + cos = 0 = sin + sin, then prove that cos 2 + cos 2 = 2cos ( + ).
[Hint: (cos + cos) 2 (sin + sin) 2 = 0]
sin ( x y ) a b tan x a
13. If , then show that [Hint: Use Componendo and
sin ( x y ) a b tan y b
Dividendo].
sin cos
14. If tan = , then show that sin + cos = 2 cos.
sin cos

[Hint: Express tan = tan ( ) =
]
4 4
15. If sin + cos = 1, then find the general value of .
16. Find the most general value of satisfying the equation tan = 1 and
1
cos = .
2
54 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

17. If cot + tan = 2 cosec, then find the general value of .


18. If 2sin2 = 3cos, where 0 2, then find the value of .

19. If secx cos5x + 1 = 0, where 0 < x , then find the value of x.
2
Long Answer Type
20. If sin ( + ) = a and sin ( + ) = b, then prove that cos 2( ) 4ab cos ( ) =
1 2a2 2b2 [Hint: Express cos ( ) = cos (( + ) ( + ))]
1 m
21. If cos ( + ) = m cos ( ), then prove that tan cot .
1 m

cos ( ) m
[Hint: Express and apply Componendo and Dividendo]
cos ( ) 1
22. Find the value of the expression
3
3 [sin4 ( ) + sin4 (3 + )] 2 {sin6 (
+ ) + sin6 (5 )]
2 2
23. If a cos 2 + b sin 2 = c has and as its roots, then prove that
2b
tan + tan = .
ac
1 tan 2 2 tan
[Hint: Use the identities cos 2 = 2 and sin 2 = ].
1 tan 1 tan 2
24. If x = sec tan and y = cosec + cot then show that xy + x y + 1 = 0
[Hint: Find xy + 1 and then show that x y = (xy + 1)]
8
25. If lies in the first quadrant and cos = , then find the value of
17
cos (30 + ) + cos (45 ) + cos (120 ).
3 5 7
26. Find the value of the expression cos 4 cos 4 cos 4 cos 4
8 8 8 8
4 4 3
[Hint: Simplify the expression to 2 ( cos cos )
8 8
3
2
3
2 cos2 cos 2 2 cos 2 cos 2
8 8 8 8
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 55

27. Find the general solution of the equation 5cos2 + 7sin2 6 = 0


28. Find the general solution of the equation
sinx 3sin2x + sin3x = cosx 3cos2x + cos3x
29. Find the general solution of the equation ( 3 1) cos + ( 3 + 1) sin = 2

[Hint: Put 3 1= r sin, 3 + 1 = r cos which gives tan = tan ( )
4 6

= 12 ]

Objective Type Questions


Choose the correct answer from the given four options in the Exercises 30 to 59 (M.C.Q.).
30. If sin + cosec = 2, then sin2 + cosec2 is equal to
(A) 1 (B) 4
(C) 2 (D) None of these
31. If f(x) = cos2 x + sec2 x, then
(A) f (x) < 1 (B) f (x) = 1
(C) 2 < f (x) < 1 (D) f(x) 2
[Hint: A.M G.M.]
1 1
32. If tan = and tan = , then the value of + is
2 3


(A) (B) (C) 0 (D)
6 4
33. Which of the following is not correct?
1
(A) sin = (B) cos = 1
5
1
(C) sec = (D) tan = 20
2
34. The value of tan 1 tan 2 tan 3 ... tan 89 is
(A) 0 (B) 1
1
(C) (D) Not defined
2
56 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

1 tan 2 15
35. The value of 2 is
1 tan 15

3
(A) 1 (B) 3 (C) (D) 2
2
36. The value of cos 1 cos 2 cos 3 ... cos 179 is
1
(A) (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) 1
2
37. If tan = 3 and lies in third quadrant, then the value of sin is
1 1 3 3
(A) (B) (C) (D)
10 10 10 10
38. The value of tan 75 cot 75 is equal to
(A)2 3 (B) 2 3 (C) 2 3 (D) 1
39. Which of the following is correct?
(A) sin1 > sin 1 (B) sin 1 < sin 1

(C) sin 1 = sin 1 (D) sin 1 = sin 1
18
180
[Hint: 1 radian = 57 30 approx]

m 1
40. If tan = , tan = , then + is equal to
m 1 2m 1

(A) (B) (C) (D)
2 3 6 4
41. The minimum value of 3 cosx + 4 sinx + 8 is
(A) 5 (B) 9 (C) 7 (D) 3
42. The value of tan 3A tan 2A tan A is equal to
(A) tan 3A tan 2A tan A
(B) tan 3A tan 2A tan A
(C) tan A tan 2A tan 2A tan 3A tan 3A tan A
(D) None of these
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 57

43. The value of sin (45 + ) cos (45 ) is


(A) 2 cos (B) 2 sin (C) 1 (D) 0

44. The value of cot cot is
4 4
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) Not defined
45. cos 2 cos 2 + sin 2 ( ) sin 2 ( + ) is equal to
(A) sin 2( + ) (B) cos 2( + )
(C) sin 2( ) (D) cos 2( )
[Hint: Use sin A sin B = sin (A + B) sin (A B)]
2 2

46. The value of cos 12 + cos 84 + cos 156 + cos 132 is

1 1 1
(A) (B) 1 (C) (D)
2 2 8

1 1
47. If tan A = , tan B = , then tan (2A + B) is equal to
2 3
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
13
48. The value of sin sin is
10 10

1 1 1
(A) (B) (C) (D) 1
2 2 4

5 1 5 1
[Hint: Use sin 18 = and cos 36 = ]
4 4
49. The value of sin 50 sin 70 + sin 10 is equal to

1
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) (D) 2
2
50. If sin + cos = 1, then the value of sin 2 is equal to

1
(A) 1 (B) (C) 0 (D) 1
2
58 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS


51. If + = , then the value of (1 + tan ) (1 + tan ) is
4
(A) 1 (B) 2
(C) 2 (D) Not defined
4
52. If sin = and lies in third quadrant then the value of cos is
5 2

1 1 1 1
(A) (B) (C) (D)
5 10 5 10
53. Number of solutions of the equation tan x + sec x = 2 cosx lying in the interval
[0, 2] is
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3
2 5
54. The value of sin sin sin sin is given by
18 9 9 18

7 4
(A) sin sin (B) 1
18 9

3
(C) cos cos (D) cos sin
6 7 9 9
55. If A lies in the second quadrant and 3 tan A + 4 = 0, then the value of
2 cotA 5 cos A + sin A is equal to

53 23 37 7
(A) (B) (C) (D)
10 10 10 10
56. The value of cos 48 sin 12 is
2 2

5 1 5 1
(A) (B)
8 8

5 1 5 1
(C) (D)
5 2 2
[Hint: Use cos A sin B = cos (A + B) cos (A B)]
2 2
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 59

1 1
57. If tan = , tan = , then cos 2 is equal to
7 3
(A) sin 2 (B) sin 4 (C) sin 3 (D) cos 2
a
58. If tan = , then b cos 2 + a sin 2 is equal to
b
a
(A) a (B) b (C) (D) None
b
1
59. If for real values of x, cos = x , then
x
(A) is an acute angle (B) is right angle
(C) is an obtuse angle (D) No value of is possible
Fill in the blanks in Exercises 60 to 67 :

sin 50
60. The value of is _______ .
sin 130

5 7
61. If k = sin sin sin , then the numerical value of k is _______.
18 18 18

1 cos B
62. If tan A = , then tan 2A = _______.
sin B
63. If sin x + cos x = a, then
(i) sin6 x + cos6 x = _______
(ii) | sin x cos x | = _______.
64. In a triangle ABC with C = 90 the equation whose roots are tan A and tan B
is _______.

2
[Hint: A + B = 90 tan A tan B = 1 and tan A + tan B = ]
sin 2A
65. 3 (sin x cos x) 4 + 6 (sin x + cos x) 2 + 4 (sin6 x + cos6 x) = _______.

66. Given x > 0, the values of f(x) = 3 cos 3 x x2 lie in the interval _______.
60 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS MATHEMATICS

67. The maximum distance of a point on the graph of the function y = 3 sin x + cos x
from x-axis is _______.
In each of the Exercises 68 to 75, state whether the statements is True or False? Also
give justification.
1 cos B
68. If tan A = , then tan 2A = tan B
sin B
69. The equality sin A + sin 2A + sin 3A = 3 holds for some real value of A.
70. sin 10 is greater than cos 10.
2 4 8 16 1
71. cos cos cos cos
15 15 15 15 16
72. One value of which satisfies the equation sin4 2sin2 1 lies between 0
and 2.

73. If cosec x = 1 + cot x then x = 2n, 2n +
2
n
74. If tan + tan 2 + 3 tan tan 2 = 3 , then
3 9
1
75. If tan ( cos) = cot ( sin), then cos =
4 2 2
76. In the following match each item given under the column C1 to its correct answer
given under the column C2 :
(a) sin (x + y) sin (x y) (i) cos2 x sin2 y
1 tan
(b) cos (x + y) cos (x y) (ii)
1 tan
1 tan
(c) cot (iii)
4 1 tan

(d) tan (iv) sin2 x sin2 y
4