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CPD article

The responsible use of antimicrobial
therapy in the control of bovine
mastitis in dairy herds
Although antibiotic use in the dairy sector is relatively low when compared with
other species such as pigs and poultry, dairy herds are likely to come under increasing
scrutiny regarding the use of antimicrobials to prevent endemic diseases, particularly in
the context of mastitis control. While the treatment of existing infections remains an
important part of mastitis herd health, it is prudent to consider the use of antibiotics
in mastitis control within the framework of the British Veterinary Association’s recent
guide to the responsible use of antimicrobial drugs in veterinary practice. Working with
clients to avoid the need for antimicrobials using disease control programmes is the first
of eight points in the guide and the most important; the recent roll-out of the national
DairyCo Mastitis Control Plan has prompted renewed interest in the prevention and
control of new intramammary infections and therefore minimising the use of antibiotics
in mastitis control.  10.12968/live.2014.19.2.83

James Breen BVSc PhD DCHP MRCVS RCVS Recognised Specialist in Cattle Health and Production Quality
Milk Management Services Ltd, Cedar Barn, Easton Hill, Easton, Wells BA5 1DU
School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD

Key words: mastitis | antimicrobial | herd health

onvincing evidence that antimicrobial use in mastitis plement intramammary treatment (5–10%) (van Werven, 2013).
treatment and control is associated with antimicro- Importantly, the study also highlighted large differences between
bial resistance in bovine mastitis pathogens in dairy herds in the total use of antibiotics as measured by animal daily
farms has been difficult to find until a recent study on dose per animal year. Both these studies are a timely reminder of
89 dairy farms in Canada which looked at herd-level associations the importance of prudent use and the relative scale of antibiotic
between antimicrobial use and the appearance of resistant strains use for mastitis control.
of bacteria. The study found that herd-level use of some antimi- In the UK the debate around prudent antibiotic use continues,
crobials administered for mastitis treatment and control, including especially unwarranted use of specific antimicrobials considered
intramammary penicillin and pirlimycin, as well as systemically ad- useful in human medicine — changes driven by milk buyers have
ministered penicillin, were positively associated with antimicrobial already seen herds being asked to record and monitor the use of
resistance in bovine mastitis pathogens, specifically isolates of Sta- 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporin compounds, for example.
phylococcus aureus (Saini et al, 2012). In the Netherlands, a study An excellent recent review article discussed the responsible
of 385 dairy herds served by the University Farm Animal Practice use of antibiotics in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease
© 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd

(ULP) between 2010 and 2012 showed that more than 70% of (Scott, 2013), using research evidence and practical examples to
the total antibiotic use in these dairy herds was related to the con- discuss the impact of the British Veterinary Association (BVA)
trol or treatment of (sub) clinical mastitis, made up of intramam- eight-point guide for use of antimicrobial drugs in veterinary
mary dry cow antibiotic therapy (45%), intramammary treatment practice (Figure 1). Using a similar format, this article explores
for (sub) clinical mastitis (20%) and parenteral antibiotics to sup- the responsible use of antimicrobials in mastitis control.

Livestock | March/April 2014, Volume 19 No 2 83

evidence-based approach to masti- implement a small number of the same management items. and increased focus on indeed the treatment section is relatively small and priorities relat- milking routines and hygiene in an attempt to manage overall ing to treatment of infected cows are unlikely to predominate in © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd herd prevalence of infection. In recent years. This research has since gone on to become the national mastitis control in dairy herds have been based on generic farm DairyCo Mastitis Control Plan (DMCP. 84 Livestock | March/April 2014. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS WHILE MINIMISING ● Do not administer systemically to groups or flocks of animals except in very specific situations and special RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT attention should be given to the risk of antimicrobial FOR FURTHER GUIDANCE VISIT resistance as part of the benefit/risk assessment. sensitivity must mortality practice guidelines ● Keep accurate Adverse Reaction based protocols for be determined records of Surveillance ● Isolate infected ● Advise clients common infections whenever possible ● Regularly assess treatment and Scheme (SARSS) animals wherever on correct based on clinical so that a change prophylactic use outcome to help possible administration judgement and up of treatment can and develop written evaluate therapeutic of products to date knowledge be implemented protocols for regimens and completion if necessary when prophylactic of course ● Know how medication antimicrobials considered ● Avoid underdosing work and their appropriate ANTIMICROBIALS pharmacodynamic ARE ESSENTIAL FOR THE properties ● Monitor TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF SPECIAL antimicrobial INFECTIOUS AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES NOTE Fluoroquinolones and third-/ ● Use antimicrobials sensitivity trends IN BOTH ANIMALS AND HUMANS fourth-generation cephalosporins: with a spectrum as narrow as possible EVERY USE INCREASES THE RISK OF © British Veterinary Association 2009 ● Reserve these antimicrobials for DEVELOPMENT OF MICROBIAL RESISTANCE clinical conditions that respond poorly to other classes of antimicrobials and where RESPONSIBLE USE OPTIMISES antibiotic sensitivity has been carried In addition. it is intra-mammary infections as well as the ability to dramatically re- likely to be of little value for those herds where clinical mastitis duce reliance on antimicrobial therapy with the appropriate advice is the main issue. tis control. UK research has shown that a tailored ap- for antimicrobials proach to mastitis control resulted in a significant reduction in the Arguably this is the most important of the eight headings and proportion of cows affected with clinical mastitis in intervention the most applicable to the role of the modern veterinary herd herds compared with control herds by and offers a structured. The DMCP places great emphasis on un- (SCC) records to manage individually infected cows. Mastitis remains one of the most common and in significant reductions of approximately 20% in the incidence of costly diseases of dairy cows and there is huge scope to reduce clinical mastitis and in the occurrence of increases in the SCCs of the need for antimicrobials in mastitis control via prevention individual cows from below. for ● Identify likely ● While clinical ● Use only when ● Use only when ● Be able to justify ● This may be the disease control uncomplicated target organisms diagnosis is often animals are at risk necessary and your choice of first indication programmes viral infections and predict their the initial basis and evidence that supported by strict antimicrobial and of resistance susceptibility for treatment. Traditional approaches to al. usage reduces aseptic techniques dose ● Report through ● Animal Health and ● Restrict use to ill microbiological morbidity and/or alongside written the Suspected Welfare Planning or at-risk animals ● Create practice. www. often by derstanding individual herd disease patterns to prevent infection. the study also resulted health advisor. The DMCP has been adopted by ~300 veterinary sur- typically related to the control of persistent ‘contagious’ infec.mastitiscontrolplan. Work with clients to avoid the need In the last few years. ● Avoid off label use whenever possible www. The two examples in Box 1 illustrate this and and leads to over reliance on antimicrobial therapy to mitigate highlight the importance of the environment in the control of new an increased background new infection rate.Cattle RESPONSIBLE USE OF ANTIMICROBIALS IN VETERINARY PRACTICE: THE 8-POINT PLAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Work with Avoid Choose the Monitor Minimise Record and Report suspected clients to avoid Minimise use inappropriate right drug for antimicrobial prophylactic justify deviations treatment failure need for perioperatively use the right bug sensitivity use from protocols to the VMD antimicrobials ● Integrated ● For example. to above 200 000 cells/ml (Green et of new intra-mammary infections. plans (for example the Five Point Plan) that ensure all herds co. on-farm advice has also been coupled provided data) since its launch in 2009 and the scheme continues with periodic or routine examination of somatic cell count to gather momentum. geons and consultants and by at least 1100 dairy herds (that have tions. Volume 19 No 2 .uk RESPONSIBLE USE — AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE. regarding management interventions. 2006). AS MUCH AS NECESSARY Figure 1. This approach is often very costly most action plans. 1. antibiotic treatment during lactation. British Veterinary Association responsible use of antimicrobials in veterinary practice.

Equally important. hours2 and then susceptibility of field strains of E. Vetoquinol House. it can be fatal. Livestock | March/April 2014. UK: Tel: 01280 814500 Fax: 01280 825460. CATTLE o u t E . Forcyl® is sure to bowl your clients over. Grandemange (2012).vetoquinol. body temperature. delivering a full course of high-dose antimicrobial resistance developing by reaching peak marbofloxacin in a single shot with a proven 98. general condition and appetite all start to return to normal3 – and after just 4 ART4974 Further information is available on request from: Vetoquinol UK Limited. ROI: Tel: 1800 406117 Fax: 1800 406116. Vétoquinol study 634VD581.coli mastitis can be sudden. This also enables a short milk With Forcyl a significant bactericidal effect takes withhold of 48 hours.coli mastitis in a European field study. Website: www. MK18 quickly leaving the system. With its fast action and quick return place within an hour of administration and Cmax is to milking. Buckingham. 2. Vet Rec 170(2): 53. Survey of marbofloxacin susceptibility of bacteria isolated from cattle with respiratory disease and mastitis in Europe.noah.2% bactericidal concentration in less than 1. Legal Category: UK: POM-V. reached in less than 1. milk © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd production approaches pre-infection levels. Buckingham Industrial Park. Forcyl® minimises the risk of Forcyl® acts fast. c o l i m a s t i t i s Strike o t ! in a sin g l e s h Efficacy and safety of a single injection of marbofloxacin in the treatment of bovine acute E. Forcyl® contains For further information please visit www. Email: office@vetoquinol.coli. ROI: POM. Kroemer (2012). To be supplied only on veterinary prescription.4 References: 1. Vétoquinol studies 0201B8B11 & 0201B8B12. 4.5 hours. Please use medicines responsibly.2 In the following hours. Volume 19 No 2 85 . Great Proceeding of World Buiatric Congress in Lisbon 2012.

Figure 3). Avoid inappropriate use In the context of the treatment of bovine mastitis. Volume 19 No 2 . The use of antibiotic DCT in low SCC cows is dis- cussed under the heading ‘minimising prophylactic use’.6 period origin epidemiology (i.Cattle MAR Previous rollling Last rollling 3 Box 1. The herd owner was informed that the prevalence will take at least 18 months to 20 20 reduce as all cows must go through a new dry period using 10 10 several key interventions including using an internal teat 0 0 sealant on all cows at drying off and implementing a rotation Feb-13 Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 MAR policy such that late dry period and calving cows spend no more than 2 weeks in any one area.6 calculating outlet and inlet requirements to improve building 0. In practice this becomes important when consideration is given to the administration of systemic an- tibiotics to cows with increased SCC at drying off in combination with antibiotic dry cow therapy (DCT).1 0. advocated in practice to increase the chance of curing existing 86 Livestock | March/April 2014.4 0.8 additional lying space by storing straw under a tarpaulin and 0.0 1. Example Herd N — rolling 12-month case totals for last 6 months end- ing July 2013 compared to a maximum acceptable rate (MAR) equivalent to 50 cases per 100 cows/year.3 1.2 (Figure 5). 0. with a winter-associated seasonal increase 1. as new infections were overwhelmingly MAR = maximum advisable rate. cow cases 50 50 the grazing/loafing paddocks used for late dry period cows 40 40 and pre-calving heifers were not rotated (Figure 7) and poor 30 30 control of milk fever in older cows.0 0. implementation of the 70 70 DMCP highlighted key items relating to pasture management 60 60 of transition cows and pre-calving heifers including over- reliance on antibiotic dry cow therapy to prevent infection. Figure 3. DP = dry period. Example Herd N — incidence rate of clinical mastitis for 2011 (green) This herd’s data showed a typical environmental dry period and 2012 (blue). with up to 50% of eligible cows >200 000 cells/ml at DP origin DP origin Lct origin Lct origin the first test-day post calving (Figure 6) leading to persistence (1st) (rec) (1st) (Rec) of infection through the winter.7 0. Colours relate to putative case origin (©TotalVet). 2.9 cows to reduce stocking density in early lactation. Re-grouping 1.2 relating to loose yard management including stocking density. The DairyCo 1.e. creating 0.3 the rate of new clinical cases of likely lactating period origin 0. 1. mastitis pattern. Example Herd N — improvement to building ventilation prior to calving in combination with antibiotic DCT has been outlet provision following calculations prior to winter housing 2013. the majority of index cases in 1.4 Mastitis Control Plan (DMCP) process highlighted key items Rate/Cow/Year 1. and the administration of systemic antibiotics to cows with mild and moderate clinical © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd mastitis. highlighting seasonal increase in winter months (©TotalVet).1 water trough placement and poor ventilation. No. Lct = lactation. Bacteriology revealed a 80 80 predominance of Streptococcus uberis. The use of systemic antibiotics administered at drying off or Figure 4.7 1.8 in overall clinical mastitis rate (Figure 2) and clear lactating 1.5 ventilation (Figure 4) have resulted in a dramatic reduction in 0.0 Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Example Herd R: high somatic cell count (SCC)/low clinical mastitis rate Figure 2.5 a lactation cycle occur >30 days in milk. influenced by new dry period infections in the summer months. Example Herd N: high clinical 3 month month Previous 12 Last 12 months mastitis rate/low SCC months (to Aug 12) Analysis of farm data showed a typical environmental-lactation 2. this guideline has implications for the routine use of injectable antibiotics in mastitis control and the supplementation of intra-mammary use with systemic administration.9 mastitis pattern.

Lilly POM-V Vm00006/4098 Livestock | March/April Foot infections Uterine infections a veterinarian prior to use. one simple solution 87 CATTLE Tylan®200 is YOUR solution . Tylan® 200 contains tylosin.noah. meat withholding period 28 days. Advice should be sought from The dairy antibiotic from Elanco three difficult targets. Priestley Road. Further information is available from: Elanco Animal Health.elanco. Basingstoke. RG24 Tylan® is a registered trademark of Eli Lilly and Company. Telephone 01256 353131 Milk withholding period 108 hours. Use medicines responsibly. 2014 Advice©on the Healthcare MAuse of this Ltd or alternative medicines must be sought from the medicine prescriber. Volume 19 No 2 Mastitis www. www.

3 and 4. although none of these included a group the reduction in the rate of first cases in cows >30 days calved (i. nome in combination with systemic cefquinome did not further The blue bars are the percentage of new infections at 1st test day. Listeria spp. Salmonella spp. the 60 25 most effective way to improve dry period cure rate is to reduce % No. intramammary infections (IMI) present at drying off.Cattle Lact. relative increase of 9% may be inferred above what would already be achieved with antibiotic DCT if a combination approach is advised.e.e. 2009). No. for exam. lococcus aureus (6% of clinical submissions). the red line is decrease clinical persistence or recurrence when compared with the rolling 3-month average. infected making this practice questionable. % Dry new First rec. Example Herd N — lactation origin clinical mastitis (CM) rate showing three treatment groups. Ultimately. The orange line is a target of 10%. The yellow bars show the treatment of clinical mastitis in herds with high recurrence the number of cows that have calved and were submitted for milk recording for the 1st time on that test day having been dried off uninfected OR were maiden rates showed that extended therapy with intra-mammary cefqui- heifers. 40 The use of systemic antibiotics to cows with mild and moder- 15 30 ate clinical mastitis depending on the active ingredient chosen 10 is also open to question in terms of prudent use. green line) out of the total cow-days of risk (green bars) nation. with 80 herds experiencing lower dry period cure rates tending to have 30 70 increased new infection rates (Figure 8) — in other words. 88 Livestock | March/April 2014. This result suggests that there is extremely ing 991 submissions from over 500 farms indicating diagno- © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd limited scope to improve true cure rates across the dry period. Streptococcus uberis (17% of clinical submissions) and Staphy- ple only one paper exists investigating the use of systemic tilmi. monitor sensitivity teriological cure rates for existing IMI caused by Gram-positive The aetiology of bovine mastitis is varied and complex. The study used 44 cows split into others including Serratia spp. MAR extended therapy with intra-mammary cefquinome alone (Swin- = maximum advisable rate. Data to support the efficacy in terms of increased cure rates with systemic antibiotics in mild and moder- ate clinical mastitis are lacking. it is important to 100 40 remember that the apparent dry period cure rate is heavily in- 90 35 fluenced by the rate of new infection across the dry period. 1999). particularly 20 5 where the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory 10 drug (NSAID) is likely to be more beneficial in terms of cow 0 0 welfare. with a major pathogens to be >90% for quarters receiving cephalonium recent UK laboratory report of more than 6000 samples cover- (Bradley et al. if the dry period cure rate is already 90%. but also diverse cosin (Nickerson et al. True path. (©TotalVet). 2010). temic antibiotics to supplement DCT is unrewarding. risk 11 90 10 80 9 70 8 60 Cows at risk 7 CM rate 6 50 5 40 4 30 3 20 2 1 10 Figure 7. cows 50 20 the rate of re-infection. Example Herd R -— late dry period and calving cows remain in one paddock throughout the summer months. kels et al. from which at best a (orange line) (©TotalVet). Volume 19 No 2 . search of the literature for peer-reviewed evidence regarding sys. Example Herd R — dry period new infection rate. Choose an appropriate antibiotic ogen-specific cure rates in dairy herds using antibiotic DCT are (the ‘right drug for the right bug’)/ often very high to begin with. These included Escherichia coli (19% of clinical submissions). and may reduce individual cow SCC and risk of culling 24-Jul-12 20-Aug-12 24-Sep-12 21-Oct-12 27-Nov-12 17-Dec-12 28-Jan-13 25-Feb-13 17-Mar-13 30-Apr-13 28-May-13 18-Jun-13 23-Jul-13 19-Aug-13 24-Sep-13 05-Nov-13 02-Dec-13 06-Jan-14 (McDougall et al. 2013). Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 Nov-13 Dec-13 Jan-14 Figure 5. rate Lact. a sis of more than 100 different pathogens (Payne et al. an ad- % Rolling dry new (3 month) % Dry new MAR ditional 1% of the remaining 10% may realistically be expected. of apparent treated with antibiotic DCT and systemic tilmicosin in combi- lactating period origin. the green bars those with a cell count >200 000 cells/ml (new infections). 2013). i. a very recent study investigating Figure 6. A group that received systemic tilmicosin alone was re- compared to a maximum advisable rate (MAR) of 2 in 12 eligible cows affected ported to have a dry period cure rate of 9%. leading 0 0 to build up of pasture-based environmental infection. MAR Lact. a recent UK study reported bac.

Figure 9. Despite the wide range of bacterial pathogens causing bovine IMI and mastitis. The most common pathogen implicated in apparent treatment failure is S. rolling 12 month average first clinical case cure rate (green line) and rolling 12 month average all clinical mastitis cure rate (red line) (©TotalVet). aureus to be sensitive to penicillin in 87% of clinical and 84. there remain herds where routine use of non-antibiotic 10 10 approaches to mastitis control are not considered. Protocols for identification and treatment of mastitis should be reviewed if the cure rate for the first clinical case is <30% (target >40%).47% vs 0.17. Scatter plot of dry period cure rate (x-axis) against dry period new ity is useful to monitor. 2013). the same UK laboratory report found S. there has been research interest questioning the 0 0 Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 Nov-13 need for antibiotic DCT in Mastitis cure rates showing rolling 12 month average dry period cure nal and udder tissue (Corynebacterium bovis and coagulase-neg.7 as a diagnosis when investigating treatment response in cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Zoetis) in the presence of antibiotic DCT or the use of these products alone 50 50 at dry off significantly reduced the incidence of IMI and clinical 40 40 mastitis in lactating dairy cows compared with respective control 30 30 groups (Rabiee and Lean. It has been postulated that the use of antibiotic in uninfected cows may remove so-called ‘minor’ pathogens from the streak ca. combination treated quarters were 12 times surgeons. the prescription of selective DCT in dairy more likely to develop clinical coliform mastitis when compared herds is an important part of mastitis herd health and should be Livestock | March/April 2014. 2013). 80 80 agement. Volume 19 No 2 89 . a clinical guideline for © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd pared the use of cephalonium and internal sealant alone and in selective dry cow treatment means that cows without IMI will be combination in cows stratified by infection status at drying off for dried off without antimicrobial DCT. randomised control study in low SCC UK herds com.12%). cows to prevent IMI. This very prescriptive ap- both high and low SCC cows (Bradley et al. Interpreting the likely re- sistance of (particularly Gram-negative) environmental isolates 100 by drawing conclusions based on the resistance profile of previ- HP23: Dry period cure rate (rolling annual average) ous infections in the herd can be very difficult due to the huge variation in resistance profiles seen and while antibiotic sensitiv. Figure 8. Pfizer Animal Health. It is therefore important to routinely monitor clinical and subclinical cure rates (Figure 9) 50 HP22: Dry period new infection rate (rolling annual average) alongside results from 20–30 clinical cases sampled and sub- mitted for bacteriology every 12 months to ensure lactating cow therapy protocols are appropriate. bovis with low SCC quarters that had just received internal teat seal- in the 2-week period prior to calving were at significantly lower ant alone (1. 100 100 muth subnitrate in the prevention of new infection across the dry 90 90 period is well established and an effective part of dry cow man. In addition. however. rate (blue bars). CATTLE Candida spp and Prototheca spp. Orbeseal. the potential confusion that may arise infection rate from a cohort of UK herds (www. In the UK. HP22 = 79.6% of subclinical mastitis cases respectively (Payne et al. 5. aureus. 2010). 2002). While elaborate protocols to treat clinical and subclinical mastitis continue to receive much attention in terms of attempting to maximise cure rates. low SCC cows at drying off. surgeons re-evaluate the need for DCT use in low cell count A large. Despite this weight of research 20 20 evidence. protocols perhaps play a more important role in ensuring prudent use of antibiotics on a day to day basis rather than chasing a few additional cures. epidermis) and may increase the likelihood of a cow having clinical mastitis in the next lactation. In the Netherlands. resistance to antibiotic treatment is unusual HP23. These results must make veterinary risk of clinical mastitis in the next lactation (Green et al. In uninfected proach will preclude ‘on the ground’ advice from local veterinary cows at drying off.5. ative Staphylococci such as S. A recent meta-analysis of 18 research papers published 70 70 Cure rate (%) Cure rate (%) in the last 10 years found that the application of an internal teat 60 60 sealant ( means results should be interpreted with Previous work has showed that quarters infected with C. Minimise prophylactic use Clinical 1st Subclinical All mastitis Dry period case rate rate rate rate The effectiveness of internal teat sealant products containing bis.

3168/jds. UK dairy herds.ukvet. Spike TE for udder health and mastitis control in dairy herds. Fox LK. the over reliance on antimicrobial drugs to reduce engage with clients and discuss other mastitis herd health topics the impact of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy herds will such as transition cow environment management. Green LE.No = Lactation number. both alone and in combination. Shryock TR. (1999) Comparison of tilmicosin and cephapirin as therapeutics for Staphylo- coccus aureus mastitis at dry-off. doi: 10. Vet J 197(3): 682–7. Payne B. Volume 19 No 2 .tvjl.2013. McClure JT.1016/j. calving cow management and methods to optimise cow immunity to reduce the incidence of IMIs going into the next lactation. using a product with persistent Gram-negative Green MJ. CM = clinical mastitis) (©TotalVet).uk 90 Livestock | March/April 2014. Green LE. J Dairy Sci 82(4): 696–703 zz Reducing the need to treat clinical cases and intramammary infections Payne B. Bradley AJ (2013) Effect of extended cefquinome infection status at drying-off is likely to reduce the risk of coliform treatment on clinical persistence or recurrence of environmental clinical mastitis. Vet Rec 160: 287–93 McDougall S. somatic cell count.2011-5065. KEY POINTS probability of re-treatment. Coombes E et al (2013) The aetiology of bovine mastitis in remains a challenge for many herds.grell@markallengroup. the need to use antibiotics on farm — and must be veterinary led. J Dairy Sci 96(11): 6915–31. whether from political pres- drying-off lists (Figure 10). and culling of dairy cows with mild clinical mastitis. tools now exist to facilitate this via bespoke not be sustainable in the long term. somatic cell count and clinical mastitis data (L. 95(4): 1921–9. doi: 10. Medley GF. Scheifinger CC. LS Acknowledgements Andrew Bradley MA VetMB PhD DCHP DipECBHM MRCVS Martin Green BVSc PhD DCHP DIpECBHM MRCVS Chris Hudson BVSc DCHP MRCVS References Figure 10. mastitis in the next lactation. research evidence or other sources.3168/jds. The reduction in antibiotic use particularly for prophylactic use in the Conclusion dry period will mean an opportunity for veterinary surgeons to In summary. Lam TJ. An example drying off list to show suggested treatments Bradley AJ. Tiddy RM (2009) Effect of treatment with the non- steroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on milk production. Green MJ (2010) The use of a cepha- (‘Antibiotic and Teat Sealant’. Bradley AJ (2006) A national interven- tion study of mastitis control on dairy herds in England and Wales. Green MJ. Lean IJ (2013) The effect of internal teat sealant products (Teatseal zz Assessment of herd mastitis and cell count data is essential to and Orbeseal) on intramammary infection. Owens WE. In: Proceedings of the British Mastitis Conference: 1–6 Call for papers Livestock welcomes the submission of articles.03. Williams P. DeVries TJ. zz Minimising prophylactic use of antibiotics is most relevant to dry cow Scott P (2013) Responsible use of antimicrobial drugs in bovine respiratory disease. Livestock 18(4): 109–13 therapy. and somatic cell understand where infections come from — and therefore how to reduce counts in lactating dairy cows: A meta-analysis. sure.Cattle discussed regularly.2013-6544. clinical mastitis.3168/jds. van Werven T (2013) Experience of the Dutch dairy industry to reduced antibiotic use. J Dairy Sci and subclinical mastitis to improve cure rate is lacking. Bradley AJ (2002) Influence of activity) based on likely infection status at drying off using previous dry period bacterial intra-mammary infection on clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Breen JE. Epub 2013 May 21. J Dairy Sci 85(10):2589–99 PD = pregnancy diagnosis. ‘Teat Sealant’) or an option to ‘Manage lonium containing dry cow therapy and an internal teat sealant. public © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd www. Bryan MA. particularly in low cell count herds. doi: 10. Leach KL.2009-2284 zz The use and prudent use of antimicrobials are important considerations Nickerson SC. Green MJ. J Dairy Sci 92(9): 4421–31. Schukken Breen JE.g. Bradley J. selective dry cow therapy at the cow level based on likely Swinkels JM. Scholl DT. In: Proceedings of the British Mastitis Conference: 59–60 Rabiee AR. please contact georgina. J Dairy Sci 93: 1566–77 Uncertainty’ (e. doi: 10. Saini V. Barkema HW (2012) Herd-level zz Evidence for the use of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of clinical association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms.

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