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tem I-Øns‚ hnhn[ `mK-ß-fn¬ \S∂ Nne hnπ-h-ß-sf-°p-dn-®mWv Cu ]mT-`m

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KØv N¿® sNøp-∂-Xv. Ahn-S-ß-fn¬ \ne-hn-encp∂ `cW hyh-ÿ-Isf am‰n ]pXnb
H∂ns\ ÿm]n-°pI F∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p Ah-tbm-tcm∂pw e£y-an-´-Xv. B[p-\nI
temI-Ønse a\p-jy-Po-hn-Xs- Øbpw a\p-jys‚ ImgvN∏ - m-Sp-Is- fbpw cq]-s∏-Sp-Øp-
∂-Xn¬ Ah \n¿Æm-bI ]¶v hln-®p. Nqj-W-ap-‡-amb Hcp temIsØ krjvSn-
°m-\mbn \ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-I¿ \S-Ønb t]mcm-´-ß-sfbpw Ah¿ A\p-`-hn® XymK-
sØbpw hne-a-Xn-°m\pw AwKo-I-cn-°m\pw ]Tn-Xm-°sf t{]cn-∏n-°p∂ Xc-Øn-
em-IWw ]mT-`mKw hn\n-abw sNtø-≠-Xv. ]mT-`m-KØv ]cm-a¿in-®n-´p≈ Nn¥-I-cpsS
Bi-b-ß-tfbpw Ah-bpsS kzm[o-\-sØbpw Ipdn®v IqSp-X¬ At\z-j-W-߃
\S-Øm≥ ]mT-`m-K-Øns‚ hn\n-abw ]Tn-Xm-hns\ klm-bn-°-Ww.

cpsS Bi-b-߃ N¿® sNbvXvsIm≠v {^©v ∂p. dn∏-ªn-Iv.k ¨bmXv N¿® sNbvXv Ipdn-∏m-°p-∂p. $ Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX-{¥y-ka .n\v hnhn[ t\Xm.nse Nne temIsØ kzm[o-\n® hnπ-h-߃ `mK-߃ hmbn®v djy≥ hnπ-h-Øn\v hgn-sX- fn® LS-I-߃ N¿® sNøp-∂p.\ . thmƒs´-b¿.c . $ s\t∏m-fn-bs‚ ]cn-jvIm-c-߃ hni-ZoI-cn- fn-b≥ ˛ `c-W-]-cn-jvIm-c-߃.∏-Sp-Øp.ns‚ ]›m-Øew $ Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX-{¥y-k-a-c-Øns‚ ]›m- ›m-Øe .c. Ø-ehpw {]m[m-\yhpw hni-Ie . $ amIvknw-tKm¿°n-bpsS AΩ. $ 1776 se kzmX{¥y {]Jym-]-\sØ hni-I-e\w $ {^©vhnπ-hØ .Ø ns‚ hnhn[ L´. $ {^m≥knse kmaq-lnI Pohn-Xs .w-˛A .ns‚ ]›m-Øew hni-Ie .ß sf $ djy≥hnπ-h-Øn\v Imc-W-amb LS-I-߃ $ djy≥ hnπhw ˛ Imc-Wa .temINcn-{X-Øn¬ djy≥hnπhw kzm[o-\hpw {]m[m-\y-hpw.P .t. $ Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX-{¥y-k-a-c-Øn\v temI-N- tIm¨{K€v ˛ kzmX.psS tamN-\Ø .emwKvam¿®v˛. $ ssN\-bpsS hntam-N\w˛ssN\-bnse hntZ. $ temI-Ønse hnhn[ hnπ-h-ßsf Xmc-Xayw sNbvXv ]´nI Xbm-dm-°p-∂p. dqt€m.mb LS-Iß .{ ¥y.[ n.\w sNøp-∂p. tPm¿÷v hmjnw-KS. temIsØ kzm[o-\n® hnπ-h-߃ Bi-b-߃/[mc-W-Iƒ ]T-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃/]T-\-X-{¥-߃ ]T-\-t\-´-߃ $ hnπhw ˛ Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX-{¥y-k-a-cw-˛-].n-s‚ kzm[o\w hne-bn-cp-Øp- ]X\w ˛ a\p-jym-h-Imiw {]Jym-]\w ˛ `c. kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw-˛. .h . dm≥U-˛s . Øew hni-I-e\w sNøp∂p.m-°p-∂p. ∂p. $ ]n¬°m-e.sf ]´n-Is . $ djy≥ hnπ-h-Øns‚ kzm[o\w N¿® sNøp- ∂p.J ym.I : So®¿sSIvÃv 66 X bqWn‰v s{^bnw 1.o-bs. sNbvXp-sIm≠v Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX-{¥y-k-a-c. hnπ-h-Øn\v ]›m-Ø-e-sam-cp-°nb LS-I-ß. sNep-Ønb kzm[o\w Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂p. sk≥˛1911se hnπ-hw-˛-Ip-an-¥mMv `c-Ww-˛-am. \n-Iƒ ˛ sa¿°‚-en-kw˛ tIm≠n-s\‚¬ $ Ata-cn-°-bpsS `q]Sw ]cn-tim-[n®v 13 tImf-\n. $ {^©vhnπ-hØ .m≥am¿´n≥. {_p-hcn hnπhw ˛H-IvtSm-_¿ hnπhw ˛ $ s\t∏m-fn-bs‚ ]cn-jvIm-cß . sam≠-kvIyq XpS-ßn-b-h.] . sNøp-∂p.Ø.X yw. hni-Za. $ ssN\-bpsS tamN-\-Øn\v hgn-sX-fn® hnπ-h- ß-sf-°p-dn®v skan-\m¿ \S-Øp-∂p. hni-I-e\w sNøp-∂p. N¿® $ {^©v hnπ.˛ .W w. W-L-S\ ˛ tZiob I¨sh≥j≥ ˛ s\t∏m. sam≠kvIyq ˛ ^nkn.¨.˛ .Ø-°p-dn-®p≈ $ em‰n-\-ta-cn-°≥ tZiobka-c-Øns‚ ]›m- $ em‰n-\-ta-cn-°≥ hntam-N\w˛]-›m-Ø-ew-˛-an.a-cn-°b .\w $ {^©v hnπhw ˛ a[y-h¿K-Øns‚ Db¿®. dqt€m. $ em‰n-\t. Øns‚ {][m-\y-sØ-°p-dn®v Ipdn∏v Xbm-dm-°p. °p∂p.` .{ ]. cn-{X-Øn-ep≈ {]m[m\yw hne-bn-cp-Øp-∂p. $ s^{_p-hcn hnπhpw HIvtSm-_¿ hnπ-hhpw Xmc- Xayw sNbvXv Ipdn∏v Xbm-dm-°p-∂p.] \w ˛ Iƒ ]´n-I-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. $ temI-Ønse hnhn[ hnπ-h-߃ Xmc-Xayw thm-sk-Xp-Mv˛. s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. N¿® sNøp-∂p. tSmƒtÃm-bn-bpsS bp≤hpw kam-[m-\hpw F∂o IrXn-If .sk-a¨t_m-fn-h¿-˛k .a .t. sNøp-∂p. ^vtfmNm¿´mbn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.ƒ˛s^.nse 13 {_n´ojv tImf.sN\m °ƒ hln® ]¶v N¿® sNøp-∂p.I.© p. sf-°p-dn®v Ipdn∏v Xbm-dm-°p-∂p. tZiob Akwªn ˛ _mÃn¬tIm-´-bpsS $ thmƒs´-b¿. $ em‰n-\-ta-cn-°-bnse bqtdm-]y≥ B[n-]Xyw $ ssN\okv hnπ-h-Øns‚ hnhn[ L´-߃ im.a-cn-°b . $ {^©vhnπ-h-Øns‚ hnhn[ L´-߃ ]´n-I- tbm-{Im-‰p-Iƒ ∂p.

temI.{ ¥y.° ≥ kzmX.W w.X m.s ∏. `q]Sw ]cn-tim-[n®v Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX- hp-c-tbmsS hnπ-h-߃°v s]mXp-hn¬ {¥yk-a-c-Øn¬ ]¶m-fn-I-fmb 13 tImf- t{]c-I-amb Nne LS-I-ß-sf-°p-dn®v \n-Isf ]´n-I-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.X..c n. ß-sf-°p-dn®v N¿® sNømw F∂ apJ.´ p≈h Is≠- Øp∂p. sa¿°‚-enÃv \b-Øns‚ Ata-cn-°≥ P\X apg-°nb "{]mXn-\n-[y.k .n- Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX-{¥y-k-acw te°v \bn® Imc-W-ßsf hni-I-e\w Ata. Øp∂p.c . N¿® sNøp-∂p. kzmX-{¥y-Øn\v a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øn. A[ym-b-Øn-te°v.a . 67 . ]mSn-√. $ `c-W-Øn¬ ]¶m-fnØw \¬ImsX Øns‚ hnhn[ `mK-ß-fn¬ kzmX{¥yw P\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v \nIpXn ]ncn-°m≥ \ntj-[n-°-s∏´ P\X \S-Ønb hnπ-h.k . `mK-ambn {_n´≥ tImf-\n-I-fn¬ \S-∏m- an√msX \nIp-Xn-bn√' F∂ ap{Zm-hm.e Øv sNøp-∂p.√ mØ ep≈ {]m[m-\y-sØ-°p-dn®v CXn-eqsS `cWw P\-hn-cp-≤-am-Wv. $ P\.h n\v t_m[y. AXn-s\-°p-dn-®p≈ thWw. °nb hnhn[ \nb-a-ß-sf-°p-dn®v Nne IysØ°pdn-®p≈ N¿®-bn-eqsS ]mT.¿ $ At\z-jW .c n°≥ kzmX. N¿®-bn-eqsS ]mTw Bcw-`n-°mhp-∂-Xm- Wv. Ggmw ¢mkn¬ N¿® $ \yqlw-]vsj-b¿ sNbvX \thm-∞m-\-Øns‚ khn-ti-j- $ \yqtbm¿°v X-I-sfbpw kzm[o-\-sØbpw Is≠-Øp- $ akm-®p-sk‰vkv ∂p.rjvW $ sh¿Po-\nb $ {]mtZ-inI `mjI-fpsS hf¿® $ tacn-em‚ v $ ⁄mt\m-Zbw $ t\m¿ØvItcm-en\ XpS¿∂v Ata.p≤n $ Zem-hb. $ tdmUv sFe‚ v $ am\-hn-IX - $ IWIvSn-I´v $ imkv{X-t_m[w $ s]≥kn¬hm-\nb $ bp‡n-Nn¥ $ \yqsPbvkn $ hna¿i-\_ . AXn-eqsS P\.S . sNbv X v NphsS X∂n. $ tPm¿Pnb XpS¿∂v Ata-cn-°≥ P\-Xsb ka-cØ .a - $ kuØvItcm-en\ csØ hni-I-e\w sNøm-hp∂-XmWv. kzmX-{¥y-Øns‚ {]m[m-\ysØ°pdn®v ߃ Bh-iy-s∏´ Imcy-߃ Is≠- t_m[y-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ Ipam-\m-ims‚ Ihn. kqN-\-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ N¿® `mKw Bcw-`n-°p-∂p.I m..\ n[yan. X-bnse hcn-Iƒ ]mT-Øns‚ XpS-°- $ `c-W-Øn¬ P\-߃°v ]¶m-fnØw Øn¬ X∂n-´p-≠v. ]Tn.{ ¥y.ß ƒ°v {]mXn.

I : So®¿sSIvÃv temIsØ kzm[o-\n® hnπ-h-߃ .. sFIy-\m-Sp-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw hm-°p-∂-Xv.] p.k v X . $ hne-°-b‰w $ Db¿∂ \nIp-Xnbpw Ãmºv \nb-ahpw hne-°-b-‰- Øn\v Imc-W-ambn $ NqjWw $ Ib-‰p-aXn \nb-{¥-Ww. AXn-te°v \bn® kw`-h-߃ hyh-ÿ-s°-Xn-cmbn t]mcm-Sm≥ Xbm. $ Cw•ojv ssk\ysØ tImf-\n-I-fn¬ \ne- \n¿ØWw $ F√m tcJ-I-fnepw Cw•-≠ns‚ Ãmºv ]Xn-°- Ww.. $ Cw•≠pw tImf-\n-Ifpw XΩn¬ $ AXn-\m¬ {_n´-\n¬ \n∂pw tamN\w bp≤w Bcw-`n-®p. $ Ata-cn-°≥ P\-Xb . $ tImf-\n-I-fnse $ hmWn-Py-cw-KØv sIm≠p h∂ \nb-{¥- Xt±-i-hm-WnPyw Wßfpw \nIp-Xn-Ifpw Xt±-i-hm-Wn-Py-Øn\v {]Xn-Iq-e-am-bn. Fß-s\-sb√mw {]tNm-Z-\-taIn F∂v Ata-cn-°≥ sFIy-\m-Sp-I-fpsS N¿® sNbvXv Ipdn∏v Xbm-dm-°m-hp-∂- cq]o-I-cWw Xm-Wv. ^vtfmNm¿´mbn Ah-X-cn-∏n-°m-hp-∂-Xm- b-߃ ]mT-`m-KØv \¬In-bn-´p-≠v.Ø ns‚ klm. .Ø m¬ dmb Ata-cn-°≥ P\-Xbv°v hgn-Im-´nbpw {Kq∏n¬ N¿® sNbvXv Hcp {]tNm-Z\ .. Ãmºv \nb-aw. $ Ah-Imi \ntj[w $ Ib-‰p-a-Xn°v \nb-{¥Ww sIm≠p h∂p. Ah Wv.nse 13 tImf-\n-Iƒ.psS Bi.psS auen-hI .I . $ tkz—m-[n-]Xyw $ tImf\n P\-X-bpsS Ah-Im-i-ß-sfbpw kzmX- {¥y-sØbpw \ntj-[n-°p-∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p sa¿°‚- enÃv \nb-a-߃ CØcw Hcp kml-Ncyw \ne-hn-ep≈ Ata-cn-°b .m-i.p-amb Nne Nn¥-Ic.‡ . 68 . X kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw-˛. {_n´o-jp-Im-cpsS NqjW sNbvXp.nbpw Hcp Zzo]pw am{X-amb $ Cw•-≠nse cmPm-hn\v ]cmXn \¬In {_n´≥ Zo¿L-Imew Iog-S°n `cn-°p- â ∂Xv bp‡n-k-l-amb Imcy-a-√.m-Wv.h . 1774 ßsf {_n´≥ \ntj-[n-°p-Ib .. $ H∂mw tIm≠n-s\‚¬ tIm¨{K€v $ hSs° Ata-cn° F∂ h≥I-csb â hntZ-ii . t\Sm\p≈ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ Ata- cn-°≥ P\X ]¶mfnI-fm-I-Ww. Cw•ojv ssk\ysØ \ne-\n¿Øm-\p≈ \n¿t±iw F∂nh Nqj-W-Øn\v hgn-sX-fn-®p. \nIpXn h¿≤-\hv. ]mT..b .{_n´-s\- hyh-ÿsb am‰n adn-°m≥ Ata-cn-°≥ Xn-cm-bn kacw \SØn kzmX{¥yw t\Sp- P\-Xsb \n¿_-‘n-X-am°n F∂-XmWv Ibpw Ah IqSn-t®¿∂v Ata-cn-°≥ tPm¨ BUw-kns‚ {]kvXm-h\ shfn.

S . $ s^U-d¬ cmjv{Sw tPm¨tem°v 1776 Cw•. XXz.n¬ ]¶m-fn-bmbn.s ≠∂v s\‚¬ ssk\y-Øns‚ Xe-h\ . em-ime ÿm]n-°p-∂X . ]uc-hm-Im-i-Øns‚ {]m[m-\yhpw At±lw Ønb kzm[o-\-sØ-°p-dn®v ]mT-]p-kvX.{ X.\ m. I-Øns‚ klm-b-Øm¬ N¿® sNbvXv Ipdn-∏m-°p-∂p.N n.F. cp∂ tXmakv sPt^-gvk¨ Ata- dm-°n. kzmX{¥y {]Jym-]-\-Øn¬ hy‡-am-°n.b n.c n. Ncn-{X-Im-c\pw XXz-Nn-¥-I-\p-am-bn- $ Ata-cn-°bv°v Hcp `c-WL .s bbpw At±lw \nin.psS BZy {]kn-U‚m.I m.n¬ \n∂pw t\Snb $ c≠mw tIm≠n-s\‚¬ tIm¨{K€v hnh-c-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ C¥y- â bpsS `c.I .\ mb $ tIm≠n-s\‚¬ tIm¨{K€v kzmX. C¥y≥ `c-W-L-S-\-sb- 69 . Ata- bn. P\-߃ XΩn-ep≈ Hcp Icm-dns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn- emWv `c-Wm-[n-Imcn `cWw \S-Øp-∂-Xv. c≠p XhW Ata-cn-°≥ {]kn- $ tPm¿Pv hmjnwKvS¨ Ata-cn-°≥ U‚m-bn-cp∂ At±lw sh¿Po-\nb k¿h-I- sFIy-\m-Sp-If .´ p.c n.\ Xbm.g v N .≠ p.b n¬ Ata.\ Bh-iy-s∏-´p.c p∂p tPm¨ {¥y-{]-Jym-]\w \S-Øn.X - ambn hna¿in-®p. cn-°-bpsS kzmX{¥y {]Jym-]\w $ Ata-cn-°≥ sFIy-\m-Sp-Iƒ (bp.b .\ . hln-®p. \n∂mWv `c-W-IqSw cq]w-sIm-≠-Xv.Ø n¬ sNep. At±-l-Øns‚ A`n-{]m-b- 1781 Øn¬ {]IrXn \nbaw Imcy-£-a-ambn \S-∏n- $ Cw•≠pw tImf-\n-Ifpw XΩn-ep≈ em-°m-\p≈ am¿K-Øns‚ Bh-iy-I-X-bn¬ bp≤w Ah-km-\n-®p. 1783 $ ]mcokv DS-ºSn {]Imcw Cw•≠v 13 tXmakv sPt^-gvk¨ tImf-\n-I-fpsS kzmX{¥yw AwKo- I-cn-®p.≠ n.K v S ¨ tIm≠n- Bi.∏´ `c-WL .ß ƒ Dƒs°m. tem°v.mbn Is≠-Øp-∂p.¥ .\ mb {it≤.S.cw apt∂m-´p-h® GsX√mw $ tPm¿÷v hmjnw.S.c . â $ dn∏-ªn-°≥ `c-W-coXn $ tXmakv s]bn≥ Cw•-≠n¬ \n∂v th¿]n-cn-bm≥ tImf\n P\-X-tbmSv $ Fgp-Xs . Xbm-dm-°p-∂-Xn¬ kp{]-[m\ ]¶v kv. cn-°bnse 13 tImf-\n-Iƒ F¥p-sIm≠v XpS¿∂v Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX-{¥y-k-acw {_n´-\n¬ \n∂pw kzmX{¥yw t\S-W-sa∂pw ]n¬°me temI.W .° ≥ kzmX-{¥y-ka. GIm-[n-]-Xy-sØbpw cmP- hm.L .F) cq]o-Ir-X-am-bn.b .N . 1775 °p-dn®v ap≥¢m-€p-If .

m¿ hniz-kn-®p.v. $ `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ [q¿Ø-∑m-cm-bn-cp- Ata-cn-°≥ sFIy-\m-Sp-I-fpsS ÿm]-I-cn. cmP-hm-gvNsb i‡.s Im≠v th¿]n-cn-tb≠Xns‚ Bh-iy-I-Xbpw P\- A∂sØ kmaq-lnI ÿnXn-sb-°p-dn®v ßsf t_m[y.¶ n¬ hmjnw. hmfp-b¿Øn-bXv hn^-e-am-tb-t\''.∂ p. tXmakv s]bn≥ Ah hni-Ie . X kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw-˛. \n∂ kmaq-lnI hyhÿ amd-W- W.U .b n¬ sh®v acn. $ H∂pw c≠pw FtÃ-‰p-I-fm-bn-cp∂p ambn FXn¿Ø At±lw kam-[m-\-]-c-amb {^m≥kn¬ Db¿∂ kmaq-ln-I-]-Z- hnbpw AhImi-ßfpw BUw-_c P\m-[n-]-Xy-Øn-\mbn \ne-sIm-≠p.S p.‰ n.⁄ \pw Fgp.e \w sNbv X p. ""tIma¨sk≥kns‚ cN-bn-Xm-hns‚ t∏mepw ]cn-lk . ssIh-is .o-hn-Xa .√ m.mWv \bn-®X .° nƒkv Hm^v sa∂v B{K-ln-®p.I bpw $ GIm-[n-]-Xy-`-c-W-amWv {^m≥kn¬ sNbvX Nn¥-I\pw hnπ-h-Im-cn-bp. °. $ cmPm-[nImcw ssZh-Z-Ø-amWv F∂ dn®v tPm¨ BUwkv C{]-Im-c-amWv ]d-™.X . $ ]ptcm-ln-X-∑mcpw {]`p-°-∑mcpw P\- c\pw imkv{X-⁄-\p-amb s_©.S . sem-cm-fmb At±-l-Øns‚ {]m[m-\y-sØ-°p. \b.\w sNøp-∂X .b n. Ch¿ kº-∂cpw A`ykvX hnZy-cp- ∑m-cpsS Nne A`n-{]m-bß .y-hÿ .W .K v S ¨ $ P\-߃ Zpcn-XP .b n.s h.I . sNøp-∂-Xn-eqsS {^m≥kn¬ \ne-\n∂ 70 . XXz-Øn¬ cmPm-°∑ . Ah hni-Ie .fpw Ah-cpsS am-bn-cp-∂p.‰ ns‚ `mK- Øns‚ Nn{Xhpw ]mT-`m-K-Øns‚ Bcw- ambncps∂.j ≥ Xbmdm°p.b mb B¿´n. Ata-cn-°-bpsS BZysØ `c.b n.\w Dƒs∏-´n-cp-∂n-√.c p∂p s_©-an≥ {^m¶vfn≥ G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ P\-hn-`m-K-߃ D≠m-bn-cp-∂X . t]\.e m.b-°p-dn®v [mcW t\Smw. ∂p.I : So®¿sSIvÃv temIsØ kzm[o-\n® hnπ-h-߃ `c-Wh .n-®p. Øns‚ tIma¨sk≥kv F∂ eLp-teJ kp{]-[m\ ]¶v hln-®p.a mb thgv k mbv sIm´m.s ∏.s .t d.c .Ø p.{ ¥.c p∂p tXmakv s]bn≥. a[y-h¿Kw. am. $ aq∂masØ FtÃ.∏-Sp-Øn. \ne-\n-∂n-cp-∂X .\ . ßsf NqjWw sNbvXv kºØv an≥ {^m¶vfn≥ Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX.I m. tIm¨s^.° p. X∂n-´p-≈h Is≠-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.¶ nepw Ah¿ a[y.X nepw a[y-h¿Khpw aq∂m-asØ At±lw {][m\ ]¶v hln-®p.∂ . Pohn-Xhpw \bn-®X .n-eqsS NphsS Cw•-≠n¬ P\n-°p-Ibpw Ata-cn.t I.Ø n¬ `-Øn¬ \¬In-bn-´p-≠v.X n¬ At±. I¿j-Icpw ssIsØm-gn-ep- `c.a sØ FtÃ.Ø p. Imcpw aq∂m. FtÉpw {^©v hnπhw I®-h-S-Øn-te¿s∏-´n-´p≈ \K-c-hm-kn-I-fmb P\-ß-fm-bn-cp∂p s]mXpsh {^m≥knse {^m≥kv `cn-®n-cp∂ _p¿_¨ cmPm-°.v.∂ .h ¿K.v.c p. {¥y-{]-Jym-]\w Xbm-dm-°p-∂-Xn¬ $ aq∂m-asØ FtÉv {^m≥kn¬ \ne- ]¶m-fn-bm-bn.b n. $ P\-ß-fpsS {]mY-anI Bh-iy-ß-sf- Xv.l - [mcW t\Sm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.L . dn∏-ªn- XpS¿∂v {^©v kaq-l-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ °≥ Bi-bhpw Ata-cn° {_n´-\n¬ \n∂pw Nm¿´v hni.{ µ.v.

bn¬ {]Xn-^-en-°p∂p F∂ t{ImUo-I- H∂pw c≠pw FtÃ-‰p-Iƒ Hcp FtÃ. ]´nI F∂nh hni-Ie. {]m[m\yw ]cn-tim-[n-°p-∂p.nse kzmX-{¥y-ka. bp‡n-Nn-¥. {^©v hnπ-h-Øn\v tijw {^m≥kn¬ A[n-Im-c-Øn¬ h∂ s\t∏m-fn-bs\ {^©v hnπhw F{X-am{Xw kzm[o-\n®p? 71 . bm¬ aq∂m-asØ FtÃ-‰n\v `qcn-]£w [n-]-Xyw. h¿K-Øns‚ Db¿® XpS-ßn-bh-°mWv {^©v hnπ-h-Øns‚ hnhn[ kw`-h- {^m≥knse Nn¥-I¿ Du∂¬ \¬In.` - bn-´p≈ Nm¿´pw a\p-jym-h-Imi {]Jym- tØbpw AXns\ XpS¿∂p≈ kw`-h- ]-\hpw hni-Ie . FtÉv Hmtcm AwK. h-Øn\v bqtdm-∏n-s\-bmsI kzm[o-\n- ∂p. Ata-cn-°b . At±-l-Øns‚ hm°p-Iƒ F∂v Is≠- Øp-∂p. AXn-\m-emWv {_n´-s\-Xn-cmb kzmX-{¥y. ka-Xzw.W . {^©v hnπ- cp∂p.∂ . a[y. {^m≥kpw {_n´\pw i{Xp-°-fm-bn-cp. ßsf ]mT. XpS¿∂v {Kq∏p-I-fmbn {^©v hnπ-h-Øns‚ kzm[o\w tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn- {^m≥knse hnπ. kzmX-{¥yw.v Ata-cn-°b .Ø ns‚ Bcw. adn®v Hmtcm FtÃ-‰n\pw Hmtcm enÃv \b-߃s°-Xn-cmb Bi-b-߃ thm´v hoXw \¬In-bm¬ H∂pw c≠pw F∂n-h° .psS kzm[o\w Ch- [mcW t\Sp-∂p.b . FtÃ-‰ns\ tXm¬]n-°m≥ Ign-bpw. apt∂m-Sn-bmbn ]mT-`m-KØv X∂n-´p≈ cn-°≥ tImf-\n-I-fpsS hS-°p-`m-K-Øp≈ sat‰¿Wn.Ø ns‚ Im\U {^m≥kns‚ \nb-{¥-W-Øn-em-bn.‰ n. Øm¬ hne-bn-cpØn kzmX-{¥yw. c-W-tØmsS N¿® ]q¿Øn-bm-°m-hp-∂- ‰n\v Hcp thm´v F∂pw aq∂m.° ns‚ A`n.∏mƒ P\m-[n.Ø ns‚ klm.nse XXz-Nn-¥I .l n® P\.k v X .{ ]m. Hmtcm FtÃ.a sØ Xm-Wv. kzmX-{¥yw.{^m≥kn¬ \ne-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ hyh.\w sNbvXv Ipdn∏v Xbm- ß-sfbpw Ipdn®v ]mT-`m-KØv X∂n-´p≈ dm-°p-∂p.s a∂v B{K. °m≥ Ign-™-Xns‚ DZm-l-c-W-amWv k-a-c-Øn\v {^m≥kv ]n¥pW \¬In-b-Xv. FtÃ-‰p-Iƒ°v H∂n®v \n∂v aq∂m-asØ ]-Xyw.] p. sØ. a\p-jy-h-Im-i-߃.s\t∏m-fn-b\pw{^©v hnπ-hhpw ÿm\w ]´n-I-bn-eqsS Is≠-Ømw. ߃°pw Hmtcm thm´v hoXw \¬In- Xm-W.h .c.I .¿ P\m. e`n-°pw.\w sNbvXv Zcyw F∂o e£y-ßf .s ebpw Hmtcm AwK- Xayw sNbvXv Ipdn∏v Xbm-dm-°m-hp-∂.b - bXv.° p. H∂m-asØ FtÃ-‰ns‚ thm´v = 285 ÿnXn amd.d n®v N¿® sNøp.X ns‚ ImcWw {_n´s‚ \nb-{¥-W-Øn-ep≈ Ata.Ø n\pw Hmtcm thm´v F∂pw Bh-iy-s∏-´-Xns‚ ASn. ]mT-`m-KØv X∂n-´p≈ aq∂m-asØ FtÃ-‰ns‚ thm´v = 621 Bi-b-ßsf Ata-cn-°≥ hnπ-h-Øn\v t{]cWtbInb Bi-b-ß-fp-ambn Xmc. kaXzw kmtlm-Zcyw F∂o e£y-߃ ]q¿W- Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX{¥y-k-a-chpw ambn t\Sm≥ Ign-™n-√ F∂v Is≠- {^m≥kpw Øp-∂p.sØ {^m≥kv XpS¿∂v {^©v hnπ-h-Øns‚ kzm[o-\- ssk\yhpw kºØp \¬In ]n¥p-W-®p.mbn \ne-sIm-≠t. c≠m-asØ FtÃ-‰ns‚ thm´v = 308 ߃°v Nne Nn¥-I-cpsS Bi-b-߃ 593 {]tNm-Z-\-ta-In. kmtlm- Nm¿´v. sa¿°‚.

sNøp. $ \nb-a-kw-lnX $ tdmUp-Iƒ \n¿Ωn®p $ kn¶nMv ^≠v $ ^yqU-en-k-Øns‚ A¥yw $ I¿j.I .mb kv]m\n-jv. $ _m¶v Hm^v {^m≥kv ÿm]n-®p.c n.psS Pohn-Xk .Ø n¬ Cu $ tImf\n ta[m-hn-If . $ em‰n-\-ta-cn-°≥ cmPy-ß-fnse `mj Ihn-X-bn¬ \n∂pw NphsS X∂n-´p-≈h GXmWv? $ K{_n-tb¬ Km¿ky am¿t°kv F∂ Is≠-Ømw. ®Xv? $ tImf-\n-If .j v I m. $ C‚¿s\-‰n-s‚bpw a‰v ]pkvX-I-ß-fp- °n. AXn\v tijw Ahsb {^©v hnπ-hw apt∂m´p h® s\t∏m-fn-bs‚ ]cn-jvIm-c-߃/ Bi-b-߃/e£y-߃ \b-߃ $ a[y-h¿K-Øns‚ Db¿® $ ]ptcm-ln-X-∑m-cpsS ta¬ \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp-Øn. $ F¥p-sIm-≠m-bn-cn-°mw bqtdm-]y≥ tbm-Ks . sSbpw klm.psS Pohn-Xhpw D].b nse {]mNo\ °≥ {]tZ-i-ßfpw cmPy-ßfpw Is≠- kwkvIm-c-tI-{µ-amb am®p-]n-Iv®p-hn-s\. tNmZyßfpsS DØ-cß .psS hn`-hß.I - fm°n.∂ p. X kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw-˛. Bi-b-ß-fp-ambpw Xmc-Xayw sNbvXv kvXIw ]cn-tim-[n®v s\t∏m-fn-bs‚ \b.I : So®¿sSIvÃv temIsØ kzm[o-\n® hnπ-h-߃ F∂ tNmZy-tØmsS ]mT-`mKw Bcw-`n.nse P\-ßsf ASn-aI .ƒ tImf\n ta[m.p-J. kºØpw P\-ßf . t]m¿®p-Kokv 72 . saIvkn-°≥ Fgp-Øp-Im-c≥ GXp $ P\-ßf . °p-dn-®p≈ IhnX hni-I-e\w sNbvXp- sIm≠v ]mT-`mKw Bcw-`n-°mhp∂-Xm-Wv. ]mT-`m-KØv X∂n-´p≈ ]´nI ]q¿Øn-bm- ßfpw ]cn.ƒ Is≠--Øp- ߃°mbn Ah¿ tImf-\n-I-fnse ∂p.° .e \w °p-∂p.I sc Irjn.ß fpw hni. XpS¿∂v {Kq∏p-I-fmbn ]mT-]p.Øp-∂p. $ ]ptcm-ln-X-∑m-cpsS ta¬ \nb-{¥Ww $ \nb-a-kw-lnX $ tZio-bX $ KXm-KX ]ptcm-KXn $ _m¶v Hm^v {^m≥kv $ \nb-a-kw-lnX em‰n-\-ta-cn-°≥ hnπhw `q]-S-Øns‚ klm-b-Øm¬ em‰n-\-ta-cn- sXt° Ata.a .` qanbpsS DS. `mj-If .m.f .∏-Sp-Øn. `mj-bn-emWv Xs‚ IrXn-Iƒ cNn- hn-Iƒ sIm≈-bS.c . {^©v hnπh-Øns‚ e£y-ß-fp-ambpw °p-∂p.b .n-®p.

mWv em‰n≥ Ata-cn-°≥ hnπhw F∂ [mc-Wt.e m. N¿® t{ImUo-Ic .h .n¬ \S-∏n-em-°n. fp-tS-Xm-IW . em‰n.m-Wv.\ . Iƒ°pw P\-߃°pw \¬I-Ww. A∂sØ djy≥ kaq-l-sØ- Xn-Ifpw tImf-\n-If .t a. ^pSvt_mƒ Sq¿W-sa‚mWv tIm∏ Ata-cn-°. t\mh-ense Hcp `mKw ]mT-]p-kvX-I- $ em‰n. Im-iß.a-cn-°≥ cmPy-ßf . B‚≥sN-t°m-hv.f n- s]se. °p-dn®v hy‡-amb [mcW t\Sm≥ Ign- $ saIvknt°m $ sImfw-_nb bpw.c n. $ sXmgn-em-fn-Isf NqjWw sNbvXv apX-em-fn-am¿ em`w D≠m-°p-∂p.bmsS entbm tSmƒtÃm-bv.w-. CØcw Bh-iy-߃ D∂-bn-°m≥ P\- CØ-c-Øn¬ Pohn-Xhpw kwkvIm-chpw ßsf t{]cn-∏n® LS-I-߃ Fs¥-√m- \jvS-s∏´ Hcp P\X Ah hos≠-Sp-°p- am-bn-cp∂p? ∂-Xn-\mbn \S-Ønb t]mcm-´a .\ .s ‚bpw ASn- $ tImf\n P\-Xb .Ø n.° ≥ cmPy.I m.e \w kwkvImcw XI¿∂p. sNbvXp-sIm≠v ]mT-`mKw Bcw-`n-°m-hp- $ bqtdm-]y≥ kwkvIm-chpw Pohn-X-co.∂-Xm-Wv.i ob Øn¬ X∂n. $ tImf\n P\-Xsb ASn-a-I-fm-°n.ß ƒ°mbn \S. $ F∂m¬ sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ°v Hcp Ah- Øn.w.psS $ sh\-tkze $ CIz-tUm¿ HutZym-KnI `mj-If .n-°p-∂p. $ hmWn-Py-\n-b-{¥-W-߃ G¿s∏-Sp. F∂nh em‰n-\t. $ F√m A[n.° ≥ cmPy. ad-tUm-W.\ .ß n. \-ta-cn° temI-Øn\v \¬Inb {it≤-b-cmb $ F√m D¬∏m-Z-t\m-]m-[n-Ifpw P\-ß- Ifn-°m-cm-Wv. N\w h®p ]pe¿Øn.Ø p∂ $ F√m-hcpw A[zm-\n-°W. an°-hmdpw em‰n-\t.t a. XpS¿∂v bqtdm.t a.c psS ]y≥amcn¬ \n∂v tamN\w t\Snb Nne kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-Iƒ hmbn®v N¿® sNøp- em‰n-\-ta-cn-°≥ cmPy-ßsf `q]-S-Øn¬ ∂-Xn-eqsS A∂sØ djy≥ kaq-ls .c n. sa€n XpS-ßn-b-h¿ em‰n.≠ v .Ø- \n∂v Is≠Øn ]´nIs∏Sp-Øp-∂p.c hpw sXmgn. Xn¬ Ih¿s∂-Sp-Øp.psS kºØv h≥tXm- ÿm\w sXmgn-em-fn-If .f .b psS Xt±.a-cn-°≥ cmPy. em‰n-\-ta-cn-°bpw ^pSvt_mfpw sXmgn-em-fn-I-fpsS Bh-iy-߃ Fs¥- em‰n-\-ta-cn-°≥ P\-X-bpsS Poh-hmbphmWv √m-am-bn-cp-∂p? ^pSvt_mƒ.ß sf _m[n®sXß-s\-sb∂v Is≠-Øp-∂p.´ p. °p-dn®v AXn¬ \n∂pw NphsS X∂n-´p- $ tImf\n P\-X-tbmSv hwiob hnth. $ F√m DXv ] m. \. 73 .p-an-√. $ kzIm-cy-kz-Øp-Sam k{º-Zmbw Ah- ßfpw ^pSvt_mƒ cwKØv {it≤-bc. AXv hni.I .t \hv XpS.b .w. km-\n-∏n-°W. Chm≥ Xp¿K.Z .m-bXv? $ s]dp $ {_ko¬ XpS¿∂v hnhn[ {Kq∏p-I-fmbn ]mT-`mKw $ s_mfo-hnb $ Nnen N¿® sNbvXv bqtdm-]y≥ tImf-\n-hmgvN $ A¿P‚o\ em‰n.m-Wv.c n.≈h Is≠-Ømw. djy≥ hnπhw Is≠-Ø-ep-Iƒ Dƒs∏-SpØn Ipdn∏v amIvknw tKm¿°n-bpsS "AΩ' F∂ Xbm-dm-°p-∂p.° .

N¿® sNbvXv Ipdn-∏ns‚ `mK-am-°-Ww.[ n®v djy≥ hnπ.m-cp-sSbpw am¿IvknÃv km-\n-∏n-®-Xm-bn-cp∂p s^{_p-hcn Bi-bØ . Cu tNmZy-ßsf XpS¿∂v HIvtSm-_¿ $ Im¿jnI ˛hym-hk .t im.w-KsØ hntZi CS-s]. S¬. Iƒ.Ø n\v tijw Øns‚ hnhn[ Imc-W-߃ Is≠Øn ho≠pw as‰mcp hnπhw IqSn djy- N¿® sNbvXv Ipdn∏m°p-∂p. XpS¿∂v t_mƒsj-hn°v hnπ-h-Øn\v XpSßnb LS-Iß . $ k¿ N{I-h¿ØnamcpsS `cWw Ah- $ kmln-Xy-Im-c∑ .psS ]¶v.X z. KXm-KXw. $ s]mXp DS-a-ÿ-Xbv°v {]m[m\yw $ ^mIvS-dn-Iƒ. $ se\ns‚ t\Xr. $ {]`p-°-∑m¿ `qhpS-a-I-fmbn XpS¿∂p $ I¿j-I¿°v `qan hnX-cWw sNbvXp.\w sNbvXv djy.e mfn h¿K.c Ww hln® ]¶v N¿® sNøm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.\ n. bn-cp∂p? Xyw.h . ]mT.e p≈ $ H∂mw temI bp≤-Øn-te‰ Xncn-®-Sn- t_mƒsjhn-°p-If .I . kv X Iw ]cn. P\-ßsf as‰mcp hnπ-h-Øn\v t{]cn- $ djy-˛-P-∏m≥ bp≤-Øn¬ djy-t°‰ ∏n-®p. bn¬ \S-°m-\p≈ kml-Ncyw F¥m- $ k¿ N{I-h¿Øn-am-cpsS GIm-[n-]. \bn® kml-Nc . X kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw-˛.k v X Iw hni.` .psS kzm[o-\w.n-te°v I-fpw. sIc≥kvIn XpS- h-Øn\v tijw am‰-ap-≠m-bn-√.ƒ. $ s^{_p.Is≠Øn Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p.Ø n.e \w sNbv X v $ hymh-km-bn-Ic .w.N cyw Ipdn∏v Xbm-dm-°p-∂p. ]cm-Pb .nse hnπ-h-Øn-te°v \bn® kml-N-cy-߃ D¬]m-Z\ apc-Sn-∏v.h cn hnπ.h .I : So®¿sSIvÃv temIsØ kzm[o-\n® hnπ-h-߃ XpS¿∂v hnhn[ {Kq∏p-I-fmbn ]mT-]p. hnπ-hØ . $ sa≥sj-hn-°p-Ifpw t_mƒsj-hn-°p- $ djysb s^{_p-hcn hnπ-hØ . F∂nh s]mXp DS-a-ÿ-X-bn-em-°n.ns‚ t\´-ßfpw $ I¿j-Icpw sXmgn-em-fn-Ifpw t\cn´ ]cn-an-Xn-Ifpw F¥m-bn-cp∂p? Zpcn-Xß . -s^-{_p-hcn hnπhw HIvtSm-_¿ hnπhw $ sa≥sj-hn-°p-Iƒ t\XrXzw \¬In $ t_mƒsj-hn-°p-Iƒ t\XrXzw \¬In $ H∂mw-tem-I-bp-≤-Øn¬ \n∂p $ H∂mwtemI bp≤-Øn¬ \n∂v ]n∑m-dn-bn√ ]n∑mdn $ k¿N-{I-h¿Øn-bpsS `cWw $ sa≥sj-hn-°p-I-fpsS `cWw Ah-km-\n-∏n®p Ah-km-\n-∏n-®p. CXv ßnb t\Xm-°f . t{SmSvkvIn.° m.ƒ°v Du∂¬ \¬In- tijw djy-bn-ep-≠mb am‰-߃ hne- bm-IWw N¿® \S-tØ-≠-Xv.y-߃s°m∂pw hnπ- $ se\n≥. \¬In-bn√.m-bnI cwK-ßf. 74 .b mb kml. Xmc-Xay ]´nI hni-Ie . $ s^{_p-hcn hnπ-hØ . Cu LS- bn-cpØn s^{_p-hcn hnπhpw HIvtSm- I-߃ djysb s^{_p-hcn hnπhØn- _¿ hnπ-hhpw XΩn¬ Xmc-Xayw sNbvXv te°v \bn.ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xn¬ HIvtSm-_¿ hnπhw bn¬ Hcp sXmgn. _m¶p-Iƒ.ns‚ {][m\ t\´w.S .n-s‚bpw kzm[o-\w.] p.

f n¬ k¨bmXv sk≥ \S-∏m-°nb ]cn- jvIm-cß .] w.ƒ. k¨bmXv s k∂ns‚ t\Xr. N¿® sNbvXv Ipdn-∏m-°p-∂p. ]y-∑m-cpsS Øn-I-ambpw $ IΩyq-Wn-kt.I .mb \ne-]mSv P\X kmº. XpS¿∂v ssN\-bn¬ hntZ-im-[n-]-Xy-Øn. ssN\okv ssN\ bqtdm.Ø m¬ {Kq∏p.w. P\X bqtdm. fmbn hn`-Pn- ambpw °-s∏´p XpS-ßnb LS-I-ß-fmWv amthm-bpsS XI¿∂p t\Xr-Xz-Øn-ep≈ hnπ-h-Øn\v hgn-sbm- cp-°n-bXv F∂ [mcW N¿®-bn-eqsS ssN\-bpsS ssN\okv Zu¿_eyw apX.n-s‚bpw $ sImtfm-Wn-b¬ i‡n-Iƒ ssN\. ]y-∑m-cpsS hntZ-im-[n-]-Xy-Øn¬ \n∂p≈ ssN\- Py-Xz-i-‡n-Iƒ ASn-a-Ø- ssN\sb Øn¬ Iogn.n-°\.X z. $ ssk\nI GIm-[n-]Xyw am\-kn-I.∏-´n-cn-°p. $ hntZ-i-i-‡n-Iƒ ssN\-bn¬ kzoI- s\-Xn-cmbn \S∂ t_mIvk¿ Iem]w cn® \b-ß-fpsS {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ. IΩyq-Wn-k-tØmSv kl-I-cn®v \oßnb fn¬ kzoI-cn® \b-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw Ipan-¥mMv `c-W-Øn-s\-Xn-cmbn IΩyq- Fß-s\-sb√mw hyXym-ks . Wn-Ãp-Im¿ hnπhw \S-Øm-\n-S-bmb ∂p.b . $ Irjn-bp-sSbpw hyh-km-bØ . ß-fpsS khn-ti-jX. Bcw-`n-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. Øns‚ klm. ssN\okv hnπhw $ tZio-bX $ hntZ-im-[n-]X.∏-Sp-Øp- ∂p. °ns‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn-ep≈ Ipan-¥mMv `c- W-Øn-s\-Xn-cmbn amthm-bpsS t\Xr-Xz- Xpd∂ Øn¬ IΩyq-Wn-Ãp-Im¿ hnπhw \S-Øm- Idp∏v hym]mcw \p≈ kml-Ncyw {Kq∏p-I-fn¬ N¿® hmXn¬\bw sNbvXv Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p. sk∂ns‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn-ep≈ Iem-]w. Xpd∂ hmXn¬ \bhpw a‰v cmPy-ß.‡ . ]ptcm-KXn bn¬ \S-∏n-em-°nb Idp∏v hym]-mchpw $ IΩyq-Wn-kt.ƒ ]´n-Is .p-Iq-ea . kml-Ncyw F¥m-bn-cp∂p? Cu tNmZy-Øn-\p≈ DØcw ]mT-`mKw Cu tNmZy-sØ-Øp-S¿∂v NnbmMv ssIj- ]cn-tim-[n®v Is≠-Øp∂p. bpsS tamN-\hpw ssN\ dn∏-ªn-°m- NqjWw embn bXpw Hcp skan-\m-dmbpw \S-Øm-hp-∂- sNbvXp Xm-Wv. se-SpØv km{am.Ø n¬ $ t_mIv k ¿ Iem. $ hntZ-ii. k¨bmXv $ amthm-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn-ep≈ IΩyq- sk≥ ssN\-bn¬ kzoI-cn® ]cn-jvIm-c- WnÃv hnπhw.Øm-Sp≈ FXn¿∏v Itºm-f-ß. k¨bmXv \S∂ hnπhw F∂nh ]mT-]p-kvX-I.bm-Sp≈ FXn¿∏v \b-sØbpw kw_-‘n® Ipdn-∏p-Iƒ $ P\m-[n-]Xyw hni-I-e\w sNbvXv sIm≠v ]mT-`mKw $ tkmjy-en-kw.W .I .Øm-Sp≈ kl-Ic . 75 . Ip´n-I-fn¬ cq]-s∏-S-Ww.y-tØm-Sp≈ FXn¿∏v Idp∏v hym]m-c-sØbpw Xpd∂ hmXn¬ $ cmP-hm-gvNt.

bqWn-bs‚ bp-sSbpw hntZ- kzmX-{¥y-{]. kzmX-{¥y-ka . sam≠kvIyq. \w. tkmjy-enkw Bi-bß. amthm sPt^-gvk¨ .n. s‚bpw Wn-kØ .P\m-[n-]X. h¿K-Øns‚ tkmhn-b‰v aw.\w. ka-Xzw. Øn-s‚bpw GwK¬kv.ƒ amIvknw- {¥yw.c .ƒ tXma-kv dqt€m. apt∂-‰w. tØm-Sp≈ ]ptcm-ln-Xt. k¨bmXv KvS¨.cmP-hm-gvNb . X kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw-˛. IΩyq-Wn-kw. ]´nI {Kq∏p-If .ns‚ ssN\ dn∏-ªn- \m-Sp-If..n¬ N¿® sNbvXv ]q¿Øn- Xn-eqsS skan\m¿ {]h¿Ø\w \S-Øm. jym-hI. hnπ-hß . a\p. Øn-s‚bpw Imƒam¿Ivk. bm°n NphsS X∂n-´p-≈Xv t]mse Ah- hp-∂-Xm-Wv. tXmakv tIman-cm≥U. tKm¿°n.y- tamN\w `q{]-`p-Xzw. XpS¿∂v ]mT.psS cmP-hm-gvN.psS XI¿®.ƒ Ata-cn-°≥ {^©v em‰n-\t.mi cq]o-Ic . P\-Iob cn-°≥ sFIy. sXmgn.I : So®¿sSIvÃv temIsØ kzm[o-\n® hnπ-h-߃ Cu aq∂v taJ-e-Isf kw_-‘n® hnh. IΩyq-Wnkw XXz-߃ s]bn≥. hym]\w. em‰n-\-ta-cn-°.psS cmPm-hm-gN v - ߃ kzmX-{¥yw. hnhn[ hnπ-hß . IΩyq. a[y. kzmX-{¥yw. {^m¶vfn≥. Bi-bß . ^yqU-en-kØ .yw. sk≥. s{^U-dnIv Øns‚ tamN.psS cWØns‚bpw bpsS tamN\w h¿K-Øns‚ Øns‚ hym]- tamN-\w.1949 t\Xm-°ƒ tPm¿Pv hmjnw.yw Xt±-iob emfn h¿K tamN-\w.k¿∆m-[n-]Xyw im-[n-]X .y-Øn- Jym-]\w {]Jym-]\w s‚bpw XI¿® 76 . thmƒ´-b¿. °ns‚ cq]o-I-c- cq]o-Ic. Ata-cn-°≥ tkmjy-en-kw.bn¬ \n∂p≈ Ata-cn-°≥ kmtlm-Zc .acn≥ djy≥ ssN\okv kzmX-{¥y-ka. Xp¿K-t\-hv.a.v kzmX{¥yw a[y-h¿K. X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p.sf kw_-‘n® Xmc-Xay I-fn¬ N¿® sNbvXv Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂.w. B‚≥ sNt°mhv {][m\ ^e. hntZ- tImf-\n-If. em‰n-\-ta-cn-°. Ata. kzmX.sXmgnemfn IΩyq-Wn-k- ߃ tImf-\n-If . kmtlm-Zcyw tSmƒtÃm-bn. kwkvImc. sska¨ Ic≥kvIn sk XpwKv s_©-an≥ s_mfn-h¿. A¥yw. £Ww FXn¿∏v [m-hnXzw F∂n- h-tbm-Sp≈ FXn¿∏v. Ata-cn-°≥ cmP-`.Ww im-[n-]X .W.K Øv N¿® sNbv X c-߃ aq∂v {Kq∏p-Iƒ tiJ-cn®v {Kq∏p. Øns‚ kwc.` m. cmP-hm-gvN- Ata-cn-°≥ Db¿®. t{SmSvkI v n. {^©v hnπ-h. tPmsk tPm¨ Unkm≥ BUwkv am¿´n≥ {][m\ e£y. {^m≥knkv se\n≥.. bpsS tamN-\w. ka-Xzw. a[y- h¿K-Øns‚ Db¿® kzm[o-\n® tPm¨ tem°v.cw hnπhw hnπhw hnπhw hnπhw Ime-L´w 1775-˛1783 1789 1800˛-1825 1917 1911.

? hne-bn-cp-ج tNm-Zy-߃ $ kzmX-{¥y-Øn-\mbn temI-P\ .m-°p-I.psS tamN-\Ø . A Burland B[p-\n-I-bp-K-Ønse hnπ-h-߃ ˛ tIcf `mjm C≥Ãn-‰yq´v temI-N-cn{Xw (c≠mw-`m-Kw) tIcf `mjm C≥Ãn-‰yq´v 77 . $ djy≥ hnπ-h-Øns‚ kzm[o-\sØ {^©v hnπh-Øns‚ kzm[o-\-hp-ambn Xmc- Xayw sNøp-I.ƒ ssN\okv P\-Xb . M.mtbm? hne- bn-cp-Øp-I.n¬ Ata-cn-°≥ kzmX-{¥y- k-a-c-Øn-\p≈ {]m[m\yw hne-bn-cp-Øp-I. F _n $ s\t∏m-fn-b≥ $ t_mƒsj-hn°v $ k¨bmXv sk≥ $ tIma¨sk≥kv $ se\n≥ $ hm´¿eq $ tXmakv s]bn≥ $ Ipan-¥mMv $ em‰n-\-ta-cn°≥ hnπ-h-Øns‚ ]›m-Ø-esØ°p-dn®v Hcp Ipdn∏v Xbm-dm-°p-I.C.X \S-Ønb t]mcm-´ß .Eric Hobswam A History of Modern Time from 1789 .C.n\v Imc-Wa . $ ]n¬°me kaq-l-Øn\v {^©v hnπhw \¬Inb kw`m-h-\-Iƒ Fs¥√mw? $ NphsS X∂n-´p≈ ]´nI ]q¿Øn-bm-°p-I. $ {^©v hnπ-hØ.Arjundev Peoples of the Sun . Ketelbey The story of civilization . d^-d≥kv Age of Revolution . $ IΩyq-WnÃv Bi-bß .f .Arjundev Contemporary World History .D.ns‚ ]›m-Øew hni-Za .

j . hnπhw F∂m¬ F¥m-sW∂pw AXns‚ kz`mh khn.I : So®¿sSIvÃv temIsØ kzm[o-\n® hnπ-h-߃ So®-dpsS hne-bn-cp-ج ]q¿W `mKn-I.t i.f psS {]m[m.° p. 4. X kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw-˛.ß .I ƒ F¥m. P\m-[n-]-Xyw.sa®-s∏ -ambn ambn SptØ-≠Xv 1. 3. 78 . kzmX-{¥yw. kaXzw XpS-ßnb Bi.d n®v t_m[y-s∏´p F∂v Dd-∏m-°n. 2.b .X . temI-Ønse hnhn[ hnπ-h-ß-fpsS Xmc- Xayw sNøm≥ Ignbpw F∂v Dd-∏m-°n.s W∂pw Xncn-®-dn-bm≥ Ign™p F∂v Dd-∏m-°n.\ y.s Ø. 5. temI-Ønse hnhn[ hnπ-h-ß-fpsS ]›m- Ø-ehpw kzm[o-\hpw hni-I-e\w sNøm≥ Ign™p F∂v Dd-∏m-°n. t\m´p-_p°pw t]m¿´vt^m-fn-tbmbpw hne-bn- cp-Øn. ]T-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ F√m-t]cp-sSbpw ]¶m-fnØw Dd-∏m-°n. 6.