Quiz # 3

MECH 280 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia

March 29, 2005

Open book / notes. State all assumptions used and show all work. No computers.

1. (10 marks: minus 1 for incorrect answers) Answer the following (true or false):
a. The Navier-Stokes equations describe turbulent flows.
b. The smallest eddies in a turbulent flow approach that of the mean free path
in molecular motion.
c. Describing turbulent flow using the ‘Eddy Viscosity Hypothesis’ implies
isotropic turbulence.
d. Minor losses are always small in comparison to pipe friction losses.
e. The turbulence intensity of isotropic turbulent flow can not vary with
f. The laminar pipe flow friction factor is independent of pipe roughness.
g. It is impossible to have laminar flow if the Reynolds number is greater
than 2300 (for pipe flow).
h. A constant minor loss coefficient implies fully turbulent flow.
i. The laminar pipe flow friction factor cannot be determined analytically
and must be determined experimentally.
j. In pipe flow the friction factor does not change with Reynolds number if
the flow is ‘fully turbulent’.

2. (10 marks) Under laminar conditions, the volume flow Q through a small
triangular-section pore of side length b and length L is a function of viscosity µ,
pressure drop per unit length ∆p/L, and b.
a. Using the pi theorem, rewrite this relation in dimensionless form. How
does the volume flow change if the pore size b is doubled?
b. We can extend the above problem to the case of laminar duct flow of a
non-newtonian fluid, for which the simplest relation for stress versus
strain-rate is the power-law approximation:

⎛ ∂u ⎞
τ =C⎜ ⎟
⎝ ∂y ⎠
The constant C takes the place of viscosity. If the exponent n is less than
(greater than) unity, the material simulates a pseudoplastic (dilatant) fluid.
The analog for Power-law laminar triangular-duct flow is Q = fcn(C, ∆p/L,
b). Rewrite this function in the form of dimensionless Pi groups.

3.) . (Note: you need to take into account minor losses. as in Fig. For water flow at 20°C. (10 marks) A pipe connecting two reservoirs. estimate (a) the volume flow through the pipe and (b) the pressure drop across the orifice plate. contains a thin- plate orifice.146. P6.