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7.

ASPHALT WORKS

7.1. GENERAL
All Asphalt Works shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 0 and section 7.1 through
section 7.1.3 of this specifications unless otherwise indicated in the particular specifications.
The placing of asphalt material shall be performed as a continuous operation. The mixing and
placing of the asphalt shall progress at a rate so that contamination of previous asphalt work by
dust/dirt or loss of bonding capability shall not occur. If due to a breakdown in the plant or other
emergency it shall be impossible to carry out this requirement, or if more than 48 hours has
elapsed between asphalt placement operations, a prime coat or tack coat complying with the
requirements of Section 7.4, Prime Coat, or Section 7.5, Tack Coat, of the specifications, as
directed by Company/EPC Contractor, shall be applied to the surface and no separate payment
will be made by Company/EPC Contractor for such tack or prime coat.

7.1.1 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF MATERIALS


Materials shall be so stored and handled as to assure the preservation of their quality and
fitness for the Works. Materials even though approved before storage or handling, may again
be inspected and tested prior to use in the Works. Stored material shall be located so as to
facilitate their prompt inspection. All storage sites shall be restored to their original condition at
the Sub-contractor's expense prior to acceptance of the Works.

The stockpile site shall be prepared by clearing and smoothing and must be approved by
Company/EPC Contractor. Prior to any stockpiling of aggregates, cross-sections of the
stockpile site shall be taken and control points established for use in determining the quantity of
subsequently stockpiled material.
The center of the storage area shall be elevated and sloped to the sides in order to provide
proper drainage of excess moisture. The material shall be stored in such a way to prevent
segregation and to allow proper control of moisture. Aggregate stockpiles shall be built up in
layers not exceeding one (1) meter. The height of each stockpile shall be limited to a maximum
of five (5) meters.
Handling and stockpiling of aggregates shall at all times be such as to eliminate segregation or
contamination of the various sizes. Stockpiles shall be kept flat and the formation of high cone-
shaped piles shall not be permitted. When conveyor belts are used for stockpiling aggregates,
Company/EPC Contractor may require the use of baffle-chutes or perforated chimneys. When
trucks are used to construct stockpiles, the stockpiles shall be constructed one layer at a time
with trucks depositing their loads as close to the previous load as possible. The use of tractors
or loaders to push material deposited at one location to another location in the stockpile will not
be allowed during the construction of the stockpile and their use shall be limited to leveling the
deposited material only. Stockpiles of aggregate located at permanent asphalt plant sites shall
be separated by bin walls and shall be constructed on asphaltic or concrete floors. Stockpile
locations and procedures at temporary asphalt plant sites shall be as approved by
Company/EPC Contractor.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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Intermediate storage of hydrated lime and commercial mineral filler for equipment feeding the
asphalt plant shall be silos of adequate sizes to ensure a minimum of one day's continuous
operation.
The Sub-Contractor shall tidy-up the quarry areas on completion and ensure that side-slopes
are not steeper than 1 to 2 and in a condition acceptable to Company/EPC Contractor.

7.1.2 INSPECTION, TESTING AND CONTROL OF MATERIALS


For verification of weights and measures, character of materials and determination of
temperatures used in the preparation of the asphalt mixes, Company/EPC Contractor will at all
times have access to all portions of the mixing plant, aggregate plant, storage yards, crushers
and other facilities used for producing and processing the materials of construction.
Company/EPC Contractor will have authority to take samples and perform tests thereon of any
material supplied to the site from any source whatsoever in order to establish their compliance
with the Specifications and to accept or reject as he deems necessary. Samples shall also be
taken from completed work to determine compliance with the specifications. The frequency of
all sampling and testing shall be in accordance with this Specifications and/or as directed by
Company/EPC Contractor.

7.1.3 UNACCEPTABLE MATERIALS


After having received approval of specific sources of material the Sub-Contractor cannot
change these without prior written approval of Company/EPC Contractor. Materials that do not
comply with the requirements of this Specifications shall be rejected and removed immediately
from the Site of the Works unless otherwise instructed by Company/EPC Contractor. No
rejected material, the defects of which have been corrected, shall be used until approval has
been given by Company/EPC Contractor.

7.1.4 SOURCES OF MATERIALS


The materials used in the work shall be tested and approved before use. The Sub-contractor
shall notify the Company/EPC Contractor of the sources of materials and the Company/EPC
Contractor shall approve the sources prior to delivery of materials to the Site. Where the source
of material does not meet the specification requirements, the Sub-contractor shall furnish
material from other sources. Delivery of materials produced from commercial manufacturing
processes shall be accompanied by the manufacturer's certification and test report showing the
materials comply with these specification requirements.

7.1.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


No separate measurement or payment will be made by Company/EPC Contractor for the work
or details as described in Section 0, Asphalt Works, of this Specifications. Such work shall be
considered a subsidiary obligation to applicable items in the Bills of Quantities.

7.2. EQUIPMENT FOR ASPHALT WORKS


The equipment for asphalt works to be provided by the Sub-contractor shall include, but not be
limited to, that specified herein, as required and as directed by Company/EPC Contractor.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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Method statement and equipment list shall be according to the type and number outlined in the
Sub-contractors detailed Program of Work, as approved by Company/EPC Contractor.
The machinery and tools utilized in construction of Asphalt works shall be in good working
condition and the Sub-contractor shall maintain and preserve them for the whole duration of the
job. Company/EPC Contractor shall approve the machinery and tools prior to the
commencement of work, and the Sub-contractor shall supply adequate quantities of such
machinery in first-class operating condition in order to execute the work with due speed and
precision. Equipment approved for use shall not be removed from the site without the approval
of Company/EPC Contractor.
The Sub-contractor shall furnish Company/EPC Contractor with the manufacturer's catalogues,
specifications and other published data for the equipment and machinery he proposes to use.

7.2.1 ASPHALT MIXING PLANT


All plants used by the Sub-contractor for the preparation of asphalt hot mixes shall comply with
all the requirements below under "a. Requirements for All Plants". In addition, batch mixing
plants shall comply with the requirements under "b. Special Requirements for Batching Plant"
and continuous mixing plants shall comply with the requirements under "c. Special
Requirements for Continuous Mixing Plant".
a. REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL PLANTS

i. AUTOMATIC OPERATION:

The plant shall be designed, coordinated and operated so as to continually produce


asphalt mix within the job mix tolerances specified. The plant shall be equipped and
operated so that the proportioning of the hot aggregate, commercial filler and bitumen,
together with the dry and wet mixing cycles, are all controlled automatically. Positive
interlock shall be provided so that proportioning, mixing and discharge are accomplished
by one operation without manual control of the separate phases.
ii. COLD FEED SYSTEM:

The plant shall include a sufficient number of cold storage bins so that there is at least
one bin for each different stockpile of material being used. Intermixing of material from
different stockpiles in one bin or on the ground prior to putting into the bin is prohibited.
The cold bins and loading equipment used shall be compatible to prevent overflow
between bins. Baffle plates shall also be used between bins to prevent overflow of one
bin into another. Each cold bin shall include an accurate means for continuously feeding
the required amount of mineral aggregate so that uniform production shall be approved
by Company/EPC Contractor and shall be checked and calibrated as often as he may
deem necessary to ensure its continued accuracy. Change of settings shall be made
only with the approval of Company/EPC Contractor.
iii. DRIER:

A drier of satisfactory design shall be provided. The drier shall be capable of uniformly

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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drying and heating the aggregate to the moisture and temperature required without
leaving any visible unburned oil or carbon residue on the aggregate when discharged
from the drier.
iv. DUST COLLECTOR:

The plant shall be provided with a dust collector designed to waste, or to return in a
constant and uniform flow to the hot elevator, all or part of the material collected. Prior to
permitting the return of such collected dust, Company/EPC Contractor will examine its
characteristics in relation to the mix requirements and will designate the quantity to be
returned.
The plant shall have a screen cover and such additional housings and emission control
equipment as may be necessary to ensure the proper control of dust in accordance with
all local regulations relating to control of dust.
v. SCREENS:

Plant screens shall be capable of screening all aggregates to the specified sizes and
proportions. They shall have capacities equal to or greater than the maximum rated
capacity of the plant. The screens shall be placed directly above the storage bins for the
heated aggregate and shall receive the material coming from the drier. They shall have
an operating efficiency such that the aggregate deposited in any bin shall not contain
more than 10 percent of oversize or undersize material. This screen tolerance shall not
invalidate the job mix tolerances specified.
vi. HOT BINS:

The plant shall include at least three storage bins for hot aggregate of sufficient size to
supply the pug mill when it is operating at full capacity. Bins shall be arranged to ensure
separate and adequate storage of appropriate fractions of the aggregate. Each
compartment shall be provided with an overflow pipe that shall be of such size and at
such location as to prevent any backing up of material into other bins or against the
screens. Bins shall be so constructed that samples can be readily obtained there from.
An additional dry storage bin shall be provided for commercial mineral filler and
provision shall be made for proportioning this filler into the mix.
vii. EQUIPMENT FOR PREPARATION OF BITUMINOUS MATERIAL:

Tanks for storage of bituminous material shall be equipped for heating the material,
using positive and automatic control at all times, to a temperature within the specified
range. Steam coils shall accomplish the heating, hot oil, electricity or other approved
means such that no flame shall come in contact with the heating tank. The circulating
system for the bituminous material shall be of adequate size to ensure proper and
continuous circulation during the entire operating period. Suitable means shall be
provided either by steam or hot oil jackets or other insulation for maintaining the
specified temperature of the bituminous material in the pipeline, meters, weigh buckets,
spray bars, and other containers and flow lines. The storage tank capacity shall be
sufficient for at least one day's operation. Circulation return lines to the asphalt storage

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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tanks shall be submerged to the same elevation in the storage tanks as the feeder line.
(Two or three vertical slots may be cut in the return line above the high level mark to
break vacuum when reversing the pump).
The Sub-contractor shall provide a sampling outlet in the bituminous material feed line
connecting the plant storage tanks to the bituminous material weighing or metering box.
The outlet shall consist of a valve installed in such a manner that samples may be
withdrawn from the line slowly at any time during plant operation. The location of the
sampling outlet shall be readily accessible and free from obstruction. A drainage
receptacle shall be provided for flushing the outlet prior to sampling.
viii. THERMOMETRIC EQUIPMENT:

An armored thermometer reading from 38C to 204C shall be fixed in the bituminous
feed line at a suitable location near the discharge valve at the pug mill. Similar devices
shall be fixed in the heating and storage tanks.
The plant shall be further equipped with either an approved dial-scale, mercuryactuated
thermometer, an electric pyrometer, or other approved thermometric instruments placed
at the discharge chute of the drier and in the hot fines bin so as to register automatically
or indicate the temperature of the heated aggregates. For better regulation of the
temperature of the aggregates, replacement of any thermometer by an approved
temperature-recording apparatus may be required by Company/EPC Contractor and he
may further require that daily temperature chart to be submitted to him by the Sub-
contractor.
ix. CONTROL OF MIXING TIME:

The plant shall be equipped with positive means to govern the time of mixing and to
maintain it constant unless changes by order of Company/EPC Contractor.
x. PUG MILL:

The pug mill shall include equipment to deliver the bituminous materials in a thin uniform
sheet or in multiple sprays over the full length of the mixer.
xi. TEMPORARY STORAGE OF MIX:

Plants may be equipped with skiffs or elevators for delivering hot mix to hoppers or silos
before discharging to hauling units. The skiffs or elevators shall not be sprayed with
diesel or other solvents; where necessary they may be sprayed with a minimum amount
of limewater, soap or detergent solution.
Hoppers or silos shall be of such design that no segregation or loss in temperature of
the mix occurs.
xii. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS:

Adequate and safe stairways to the mixer platform and sampling points shall be
provided and guarded ladders to other plant units shall be placed at all points required

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
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for accessibility to all plant operations. Accessibility to the top of truck bodies shall be
provided by means of a platform or other suitable device to enable Company/EPC
Contractor to obtain sampling and mixture temperature data. To facilitate handling scale
calibration equipment, sampling equipment, etc., a hoist or pulley system shall be
provided to raise or lower the equipment from the ground to platform or vice versa. All
gears, pulleys, chains, sprockets and other dangerous moving parts shall be thoroughly
guarded and protected. Ample and unobstructed passage shall be maintained at all
times in and around the truck loading space. This space shall be kept free from
drippings from the mixing platform.
xiii. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL:

Prior to the Company/EPC Contractor's approval of the asphalt plant, current


certifications must be submitted that establishes the Department has inspected and
approved the environmental control devices fitted to the plant and that it is in full
compliance with the Government's current regulations related to protection of the
environment.
b. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BATCHING PLANT

i. WEIGH BOX HOPPER:

The plant shall include means for accurately weighing each size of aggregate in a weigh
box or hopper, suspended on scales, ample in size to hold a full batch without hand
raking or running over. The weigh box or hopper shall be supported on fulcrums and
knife-edges so constructed that they will not be easily thrown out of alignment or
adjustment. All edges, ends and sides of weighing hoppers shall be free from contact
with any supporting rods and columns or other equipment that shall in any way affect
the proper functioning of the hopper. There shall also be sufficient clearance between
hoppers and supporting devices to prevent accumulations of foreign materials.
The discharge gate of the weigh box shall be so hung that the aggregate shall not be
segregated when dumped into the mixer and shall close tightly when the hopper is
empty so that no material is allowed to leak into the batch in the mixer during the
process of weighing the next batch.
ii. SCALES AND METERS:

Scales or meters used for proportioning aggregate, commercial filler and bitumen shall
be accurate to one percent of the indicated quantity. Scales and meters shall be
substantially constructed and those that are sensitive and that easily get out of
adjustment shall be replaced. Scales shall be constructed and located so as to prevent
vibration in the dial pointer.
Scales for weighing aggregate and commercial filler may be either the beam or
springless dial type and shall be of standard make and design. Graduation intervals
shall be not more than 0.1 percent of the nominal scale capacity. Dial scales shall be
equipped with adjustable pointers for controlling automatically the weighing of each
aggregate and filler. The pointer shall be set close to the dial face to prevent excessive

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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parallax and all dial faces shall be so located that they shall be in plain view of the
operator at all times. Weighing sequence of hot aggregates shall progress from coarse
to fine.
Either weighing or metering shall automatically proportion bituminous material. The
minimum graduation shall be not more than 1 liter or 1 kg. Bituminous scales and weigh
buckets shall be such that the required amount of bitumen is provided in a single
weighing and delivered to the pug mill without loss due to overflow, splashing or
spillage.Bituminous weigh buckets shall be satisfactorily insulated to prevent loss of
heat in the bitumen or accumulation of bitumen in the bucket. Bituminous metering
devices shall be rotating positive displacement pumps and shall be capable of providing
the designated quantity of material for each batch.
All scales and meters shall be approved by Company/EPC Contractor and shall be
checked and calibrated as often as he may deem necessary to ensure their continued
accuracy. The Sub-contractor shall provide and have at hand the necessary standard
weights and other necessary equipment in order to perform testing and calibration of all
scales and meters in a practical manner. An accurate platform scale with a capacity of
250 kilograms or more and an accuracy of 0.5 percent of the load shall also be
provided.
iii. PUG MILL MIXER:

The batch mixer shall be an approved twin pug mill type, capable of producing a uniform
mixture within the job-mix tolerances. The batch mixer shall be of such design to permit
visual inspection of the mix. The mixer shall be so constructed as to prevent leakage of
contents and its capacity shall not be less than 600 kilograms per batch. The mixer shall
be enclosed and shall have an accurate time lock to control the operation of a complete
mixing cycle by locking the weigh box gate after the charging of the mixer until the
closing of the mixer gate at the completion of the cycle. The mixer shall lock the bitumen
supply throughout the dry mixing period and shall lock the mixer gate throughout the dry
and wet mixing periods. The dry mixing period is defined as the interval of time between
opening of the weigh box gate and the start of application of bitumen.
The wet mixing period is the interval between the time the bituminous material is spread
on the aggregate and the time the mixer gate is opened. The control of the time shall be
flexible and capable of being set at intervals of not more than five seconds throughout
cycles up to three minutes. A mechanical batch counter shall be so designed as to
register only completely mixed batches.
The mixer shall be equipped with a sufficient number of paddles or blades in a suitable
arrangement to produce a proper and uniformly mixed batch. The clearance of blades
from all fixed and moving parts shall not exceed 20 mm except in the case of
aggregates having a nominal maximum size of over 25.4 mm in which case the
clearance shall be so adjusted as to prevent undue breakage of the coarse aggregate
during the mixing operation.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
Page 36 of 113
c. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTINUOUS MIXING PLANT

i. GRADATION CONTROL UNITS:

The plant shall include an accurate means of proportioning each size of hot aggregate.
The unit shall include a feeder mounted under the hot bins. Bins shall have accurately
controlled individual gates to form an orifice for volumetrically measuring the materials
drawn from each respective bin compartment.
The orifice shall be rectangular with one dimension adjustable by positive mechanical
means provided with a lock. Indicators shall be provided for each gate to show the
respective gate opening in inches or centimeters. The plant shall include provision for
calibration of the gate openings by means of weight test samples so that each of the
materials fed out of the bins through individual orifices may be bypassed satisfactorily to
suitable test boxes, each bin material being confined separately.
The plant shall be equipped to handle conveniently such test samples weighing 200
kilograms or more combined weight of samples from all bins; and not less than 50
kilograms for anyone bin sample. The interlocking feeders shall be equipped with a
dust-proof revolution counter with minimum graduations of one tenth of a revolution.
Mineral filler shall be proportioned separately from a hopper equipped with adjustable
feed, which may be accurately and conveniently calibrated, and which shall be
interlocked with the aggregate and bitumen feeds.
ii. BITUMEN METERING SYSTEM:

The plant shall be equipped with a bitumen meter or other proportioning device for
providing a continuous, uniform supply of bitumen to the mixer. The plant shall include a
means of calibrating bituminous material flow by spans of weight test samples in
kilograms per revolution.
iii. SYNCHRONIZATION OF AGGREGATE AND BITUMEN FEED:

Satisfactory means shall be provided to afford positive interlocking control between the
flow of aggregate from the hot bins and the flow of bitumen from the meter or other
proportioning source. This control shall be accomplished by interlocking mechanical
means or by any positive method satisfactory to Company/EPC Contractor. The hot
aggregate bins shall be provided with signal devices and controls, which shall warn of,
bin levels and which shall automatically stop the flow of all aggregate and bitumen to the
mixer when the aggregate in any one bin is so low that the feeder shall not operate at
set capacity. The bitumen storage system shall be provided with signal devices and
control which shall warn of low levels of bitumen and which shall automatically stop the
entire plant operation when the bitumen storage level is lowered to the point of exposing
the feed end of the bitumen suction line.
iv. MIXER UNIT FOR CONTINUOUS METHOD:

The plant shall include a continuous mixer of an approved twin pug mill type, capable of

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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producing a uniform mixture within the job mix tolerances. The paddles shall be of a
type adjustable for angular position on the shafts and reversible to retard the flow of the
mix. The mixer shall carry a manufacturer's plate giving the net volumetric contents of
the mixer at the several heights inscribed on a permanent gauge and charts shall be
provided by the manufacturer giving the rate of feed of aggregate per minute, at plant
operating speed.

7.2.2 EQUIPMENT FOR HAULING


Vehicles used for the transport of aggregates or bituminous mix shall have tight, clean and
smooth metal beds and shall be free from dust, screenings, petroleum oil, volatile or other
mineral spirits which may affect the material being hauled. The vehicle metal bed shall, if
required, be sprayed with a minimum amount of soapy water or lime solution to prevent
bituminous mix from adhering to the bed. After spraying, the truck shall be raised and
thoroughly drained; no excess solution shall be permitted. Use of diesel or other solvents to
spray in the truck bed is prohibited. Provision shall be made for covering truckloads with canvas
or other suitable material of such size as to protect the bituminous mix from the weather.
When necessary, in order that a bituminous mixture be delivered on the road at the specified
temperature, truck beds shall be insulated to obtain workable temperature of the mix and all
covers shall be securely fastened. Any truck causing excessive segregation of material by its
spring suspension or other contributing factors, or that shows oil leaks in detrimental amounts,
or that causes undue delays, shall, upon the direction of Company/EPC Contractor, be
removed from the work until such faults are corrected. End dump trucks shall be equipped with
chains on the tailgates for control when dumping the mix into the paving machine.
The Sub-contractor shall provide an adequate number of trucks of such size, speed and
condition to ensure orderly and continuous operations of the work.

7.2.3 SPREADING AND FINISHING EQUIPMENT


The equipment for spreading and finishing the asphalt mixtures shall be of an approved
mechanical, self-powered electronic controlled screed type, capable of spreading and finishing
the mixture true to line, grade and required crown.
The pavers shall be equipped with hoppers and distributing screws of the reversing type to
place the mixture uniformly in front of adjustable electronic controlled screeds. The pavers shall
be so designed as to allow a maximum width of paving of not less than three meters and so
that such width may be reduced as required to two meters. Pavers shall be equipped with such
provisions and attachments to suit the paving width specified for road widening as well as
paving on sloped sections. They shall be equipped with fast and efficient steering devices and
shall have reverse as well as forward traveling speeds. The operational speed of the pavers
shall be adjustable from three to six meters per minute in accordance with the instructions of
Company/EPC Contractor.
The mix shall be delivered to the paver in time to permit completion of spreading, finishing and
compaction of the mix during daylight hours. The pavers shall employ mechanical devices as
equalizing runners, straight edge runners, even arms or other compensating devices to

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
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maintain trueness of grade and to confine the edges of the pavement to true lines without the
use of stationary side forms. The equipment shall include blending or joint leveling devices for
smoothing and adjusting longitudinal joints between lanes. The longitudinal joints in successive
layers shall be offset not less than fifteen (15) centimeters. The width of surface or top course
placements shall conform to traffic lane edges as shown on the Drawings. The assembly shall
be designed and operated in such manner that it shall place the material at the required
compacted thickness.
The leading half of half roadway paving shall not get ahead of the trailing half of the pavement
by more than one (1) average full-day of paving and, in no case, shall the leading half be more
than one half (1/2) kilometer ahead of the trailing half without the written permission of
Company/EPC Contractor. If the Sub-contractor fails to comply with this requirement,
Company/EPC Contractor may suspend paving on the leading half until such time, as the Sub-
contractor shall pave the trailing half to a point approximately even with the leading half.
Electronic screeds shall include automatic feed controls to maintain a constant level of material
along the full length of the screed, automatic profile grade control and automatic slope control.
A traveling, articulated averaging beam of not less than 9.14m in length shall activate the profile
grade controller or taut string line (wire) set to grade. The automatic slope control shall be
equipped with a proportioning manual override to enable smooth transition of changing slope
rates. Company/EPC Contractor prior to use shall approve automatic screed controls.
Screeds shall be provided with devices for heating the screeds to the temperature required for
the laying of the mixture without pulling or marring. Pavers shall also be provided with the
standard attachable screed extensions.
The term "screed" includes any cutting, crowning or other physical action that is effective in
producing a finished surface of the evenness and texture specified, without tearing, shoving, or
gouging the surfaces.

7.2.4 ROLLERS
Rolling equipment shall consist of vibratory steel-wheeled rollers, steel wheel rollers and
pneumatic-tired rollers as required by Company/EPC Contractor for proper compaction and
finishing of the asphalt surface. Unless otherwise permitted, rollers shall be equipped with
reversible or dual controls to allow operation both forward and backward with the operator
always facing in the direction of movement.
a. STEEL-WHEELED ROLLERS

Steel-wheeled rollers shall be two-axle tandem rollers and three-axle tandem rollers. These
rollers shall be self-propelled and equipped with power units of not less than four cylinders
and under working conditions shall develop contact pressures under the compression
wheels of 44-64 kN per meter of width.
Each two-axle roller shall have a minimum weight of 89 kN; each three-axle roller shall have
a minimum weight of 116 kN. Rollers shall be in good working condition and shall be
equipped with a reversing clutch. Rollers shall be equipped with adjustable scrapers to keep
the wheel surface clean and with efficient means of keeping them wet to prevent mixes from

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
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sticking. These surfaces shall have no flat areas or projections, which shall mar the surface
of the asphalt courses. The threeaxle rollers shall be equipped with a center axle, which
may be operated either fixed, or floating. The three-axle tandem roller shall be so
constructed that when locked in a position for all treads to be in one plane, the roller wheels
are held with such rigidity that, if either front or center wheel is unsupported the other two
wheels will not vary from the plane more than 6 mm. Vibratory steel-wheeled rollers shall
have dual drums with a minimum weight of 62 kN. Vibrating frequency shall be between
2000 to 3000 cycles per minute with individual controls for each tandem.
All steel-wheeled rollers shall be in good condition and the Sub-contractor shall furnish to
Company/EPC Contractor the manufacturer's technical data for each roller and no roller
shall be used except after approval of Company/EPC Contractor.
b. PNEUMATIC-TIRED ROLLERS

Pneumatic-tired rollers shall be self-propelled. The rollers shall be equipped with pneumatic
tires of equal size and diameter which are capable of exerting average contact pressures
varying from 343 to 687 kN/M by adjusting the ballast and/or tire inflation pressures. The
wheels shall be so spaced that one pass shall accomplish one complete coverage equal to
the rolling width of the machine.
Where shall be a minimum of 6 mm overlap of the tracking wheels. The wheels shall
oscillate but not wobble. The roller shall be so constructed that the contact pressures shall
be uniform for all wheels and the pressure of all the tires shall not vary more than 34 kN/M
one from another.
Pneumatic-tired rollers shall be in good condition and with enough ballast space to provide
uniform wheel loadings as may be required.
The Sub-contractor shall furnish to Company/EPC Contractor charts or tabulations showing
the contact areas and contact pressures for the full range of tire inflation pressures and for
the full range of tire loadings for each type and size compactor tire furnished and used in
pneumatic-tired rollers.
The total operating weight and tire pressure may be varied by order of Company/EPC
Contractor to obtain contact pressures, which shall result in the required asphalt course
density.

7.2.5 ASPHALT DISTRIBUTOR


The asphalt distributor truck shall be of the pressure type with insulated tanks. The use of
gravity distributors will not be permitted by the Company/EPC Contractor. The distributor shall
have pneumatic tyres of such width and number that the load produced on the road surface
shall not exceed 98 kN per metre of tyre width.
Spray bars shall have a minimum length of 2.04m and shall be of the full circulating type. Spray
bar extensions shall also be of the full circulating type. The spray bar shall be adjustable to
maintain a constant height above the surface to be treated. The spray bar nozzles shall be
slotted and shall be of such design so as to provide a uniform unbroken spread of bituminous

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material on the surface. The valves shall be operated by levers so that one or all valves may be
quickly opened or closed in one operation. The distributor shall be equipped with a hose and
nozzle attachment to be used for spotting areas inaccessible to the distributor. The distributor
and booster tanks shall be so maintained at all times as to prevent dripping of bituminous
material from any part of the equipment.
The distributor shall be equipped with devices and charts to provide for accurate and rapid
determination and control of the amount of bituminous material being applied and with a
tachometer of the auxiliary wheel type reading speed in metres per minute. The spreading
equipment shall be provided with a separate power unit for the pump or a variable displacement
pump driven by a hydrostatic transmission so that a uniform application of bituminous material,
in controlled amounts, may be made ranging from 0.15 to 5.0 kg/m2 and with a range of
pressure from 441 to 1,324 kN/m2. The distributor shall have satisfactory heating equipment
and thermometers in order to provide the full range of application temperatures for the
bituminous material being used.
Prior to the commencement of the work and as required by the Company/EPC Contractor, the
bituminous distributor shall be checked and calibrated such that the rate of transverse spread
or longitudinal spread shall not vary more than ten percent from the required rate of application.

7.2.6 COLD PLANER / PROFILER


The cold planer/profiler proposed for use shall meet the following minimum requirements:

Specialized equipment designed specifically for the purpose of removing, and/or surface
treating or Leveling asphalt or concrete pavement using a rotating cutter mandrel.

Capable of cutting flush to curbs or other vertical objects.

Control system capable of maintaining profiles and cross-slopes such that after planning
the resulting surface will be within plus or minus four millimeters of the required profile
and cross-slope.

Capable of performing single pass cuts of up to 15 centimeter depth.

Approved by Company/EPC Contractor for the specific use intended.

7.2.7 UNACCEPTABLE EQUIPMENT


Company/EPC Contractor will have the right to stop the use of any equipment or plant which he
deems to be inferior to the quality required and to instruct the removal of such equipment and to
have it replaced by suitable equipment or to alter the method of operation at any time.
The Sub-Contractor shall immediately comply with such instructions without being entitled to
any indemnities or extensions as a result of such instructions. The Sub-Contractor shall not be
allowed to use any equipment or plant before obtaining the approval of Company/EPC
Contractor, and the Sub-Contractor shall undertake to follow sound technical methods of
operation and to engage skilled and trained operators, mechanics and labor to carry out the
works. Company/EPC Contractor will have the right to expel any operators, mechanics or labor
and to instruct suitable replacement thereof at any time he deems such action is necessary.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
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7.2.8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
No separate measurement or payment will be made by Company/EPC Contractor for the work
or details as described in Section 7.2, Equipment for Asphalt Works, of this Specifications.
Such work shall be considered a subsidiary obligation to applicable items in the Bills of
Quantities.

7.3. ASPHALTIC CONCRETE


The work shall consist of constructing an asphaltic concrete paving course on a prepared
surface in accordance with this Specifications and in compliance with the lines, grades,
thicknesses and typical cross-sections indicated on the Drawings or directed by Company/EPC
Contractor.

7.3.1 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS


The materials used in asphaltic concrete mixes shall meet the following requirements.

7.3.2 FINE AGGREGATE FOR ASPHALT WORKS


Fine aggregate is that portion of the mineral aggregate passing the No.8 Sieve. Fine aggregate
shall consist of natural sand and/or crushed sand and shall be of such gradation that when
combined with other aggregates in proper proportions, the resultant mixture shall meet the
required gradation. The source of natural fine aggregate is considered to be the pit from which
it is excavated and the source of crushed fine aggregate is considered as the crusher site at
which it is produced. Crushed sand shall be produced by crushing clean coarse aggregate and
shall not be thin, flaky or elongated. Sampling of fine aggregate shall be in accordance with
AASHTO T002. Sieve analysis shall be in accordance with AASHTO T027 and AASHTO T011.
If natural sand is included in the fine aggregate mixture, this material shall be fed to the dryer,
as a separate aggregate and the amount used shall be limited to 25% by weight. No rounded
wind blown sand will be permitted.
Fine aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter, clay, cemented particles and other
extraneous or detrimental materials. Individual stockpiles of natural sand when tested in
accordance with AASHTO T176 shall have a sand equivalent of not less than 45. Individual
stockpiles of crushed sand shall have a sand equivalent of not less than 30. Individual
stockpiles of aggregate containing more than 10 percent by weight of fine aggregate shall be
tested for sand equivalent.
Fine aggregate shall have the following properties.
TEST NAME % MAX

Soundness loss (MgSO4) 10

Plasticity Index Non-plastic

Acid soluble chlorides 0.1


Acid soluble sulphates 0.5

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DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
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7.3.3 COARSE AGGREGATE FOR ASPHALT WORKS
Coarse aggregate is that portion of the mineral aggregate retained on the No.8 Sieve. Coarse
aggregate shall consist of crushed natural stones and gravel. Crushed particles shall be cubic
and angular in shape and shall not be thin, flaky or elongated. The gradation shall be such that
when combined with other aggregate fractions in proper proportions, the resultant mixture shall
meet the required gradation. The source of crushed aggregate is considered to be the crushing
site from which it is produced. Sampling of coarse aggregate shall be in accordance with
AASHTO T002. Sieve analysis shall be in accordance with AASHTO T027 and AASHTO T011.
Coarse aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter, clay, cemented particles and
other extraneous or detrimental material. The degree of crushing shall be such that at least 100
percent by weight of the material retained on the No.8 Sieve has at least one fractured face and
at least 70% shall be totally crushed. The flakiness and elongation of each individual stockpile
shall not exceed 25 percent for wearing course and 30% for binder and asphalt base course
when tested in accordance with BS 812.
Coarse aggregate shall have a maximum Sodium Sulphate Soundness of 10 percent when
tested in accordance with AASHTO T104. The abrasion loss (AASHTO T096) for coarse
aggregate used in asphalt mixtures shall not exceed 25 percent for wearing course and a
maximum abrasion loss of 30 percent will be allowed for binder and asphalt base course.
Coarse aggregate shall have maximum acid soluble chlorides of 0.1%, acid soluble sulphates
of 0.5% and water Absorption of 2%.
Coarse aggregate for asphaltic wearing course for guide purposes shall have a Polished Stone
Value (PSV) of 30 to 50 when tested in accordance with (AASHTO T278 and T279).

7.3.4 COMMERCIAL MINERAL FILLER


Commercial mineral filler shall consist of finely ground particles of limestone, cement, or
hydrated lime in accordance with AASHTO M017. It shall be thoroughly dry and free from
lumps and shall meet the gradation requirements of AASHTO M017.
When hydrated lime is used as mineral filler, the hydrated lime shall comply with Section 7.3.7.
When cement is used as mineral filler, it shall meet the requirements of Type I cement in
accordance with AASHTO M085 (ASTM C150).

7.3.5 ASPHALTIC CEMENT


The asphalt cement specified for use in the asphalt mixes shall be 60-70 Penetration Grade in
accordance with AASHTO M020 and as shown in the Table 7.1 below.

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DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
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Table 7.1 : 60-70 and 40 50 Penetration Grade Asphalt Cement

Test Penetration Grade of Bitumen

60 70 40 - 50

Min. Max. Min. Max.

Penetration @ 25o C 100 g. 5 sec. 60 70 40 50

0
Flash Point, Cleveland Open Cup C 232 - 232 -

Solubility in Trichloroethylene, percent 99 - 99 -

Thin Film Oven Test, 3.2 mm 163oC 5-hour - 0.8 - 0.8

Loss on Heating, percent

Penetration of Residue, % of original 54 - 58 -

Ductility of Residue @ 25oC 50 - - -

5 cm perofminute
Selection cm.
the penetration grade of bitumen will be dependent upon the road category as
defined in Section 7.3.9.
The asphalt cement shall be prepared by the refining of petroleum. It shall be uniform in
character and shall not foam when heated to 175C. Blending of asphalt cement materials from
different refineries will be permitted only with the written approval of the Company/EPC
Contractor.

5 cm LIQUID
7.3.6 per minute
ANDcm.
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
Liquid asphalt for use in asphalt works shall be MC-70 medium curing cutback asphalt in
accordance with AASHTO M082 as modified by Table 7.2 below:
Table 7.2 Medium curing Liquid Asphalt

Description MC-70

Min. Max.

Saybolt Furol Viscosity @ 50 C sec. 60 120

Flash Point (Tag Open Cut) C 38 -

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Description MC-70

Min. Max.

Distillation:
Distillate (% of total distillate to 360 C)
to 225 C 60
to 260 C 20 80
to 315 C 65 100

Residue from distillation to 360 C


-
percent by volume of original sample. 55

Tests on residue from distillation:


Penetration 25 C, 250
100 g., 5 sec. 100 -
Ductility, 25 C cm. 99
Solubility in Trichloroethylene, % Water
Percent 0.2

Rapid curing cutback asphalt for cold mix applications shall be as specified in the Particular
Specifications for cold patching as approved by Company/EPC Contractor.
Emulsified asphalt for use in asphalt works shall be CSS 1h cationic emulsified asphalt in
accordance with AASHTO M208 or SS 1h anionic emulsified asphalt in accordance with
AASHTO M140.

7.3.7 HYDRATED LIME


Hydrated lime shall comply with the definitions given in ASTM C51. Sampling, packaging and
marking of hydrated lime shall be in accordance with ASTM C50. Storage and use of the
hydrated lime shall at all times be such as to protect the material from the weather.
Hydrated lime shall comply with the gradation shown in Table 7.3 when tested in accordance
with AASHTO T219.
Table 7.3 Gradation of Hydrated Lime

U.S. Standard Minimum

Sieve Size % Passing

No. 30 97

No. 200 70

When tested by ASTM C-25 the hydrated lime shall comply with the chemical requirements
shown in Table 7.4.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
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Table 7.4 Chemical Requirements for Hydrated Lime

Test Requirement

Min. Max.

Free Moisture (%) - 3.0

Available Lime Index as CaO (%) 50 -

Carbon Dioxide CO2 (%) - 8

Unhydrated Lime (%) - 9

7.3.8 TYPES OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MIXES


The types of asphaltic concrete mixes shall be as specified on the Drawings and shall comply
with the compositions shown in Table 7.5.
Table 7.5 Composition of Asphaltic Concrete Mixes

U.S. Standard Sieve Size Base Course Binder Course Wearing Course
Percent Passing by Weight

1-1/2" 100 - -

1" 72-100 100 -

3/4" 60-89 80 - 100 100

1/2" 46-76 55 - 85 66-95

3/8" 40-67 45 - 77 54-88

No. 4 30-54 35 - 60 37-70

No. 8 22-43 24 - 45 26-52

No. 16 15-36 16 - 36 18-40

No. 30 10-28 12 - 30 13-30

No. 50 6-22 8 - 22 8-23

No. 100 4-14 5 - 15 6-16

No. 200 2-8 2-8 2-10

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Gradation Shown Include Hydrated Lime For All Mixes

Asphalt Cement (% by Weight Total 30-40 40-50


Aggregate)

When directed by Company/EPC Contractor, a minimum of 1.5 percent hydrated lime (by
weight of total aggregate) shall be added to all types of asphaltic concrete mix aggregates in
accordance with Section 7.2.1, Asphalt Mixing Plant, of this Specifications. The actual amounts
of hydrated lime and water to be added shall be established in the approved job mix design.
A minimum of 40 percent of the fine aggregate used in asphaltic concrete mixes shall be
crushed sand.
The material for asphaltic concrete shall be combined so as to be well graded within the limits
given in Table 7.5. Combined gradations which approach maximum limits on some sieves and
minimum limits on other sieves shall be avoided.

7.3.9 DESIGN CRITERIA


Prior to starting the mix design process, Department approval shall be obtained for the following
raw materials:

All sources of mineral filler

All sources of aggregates

All sources of asphalt cement and polymer modified binders

All sources of any other material intended to be used in asphaltic concrete, including
cement, hydrated lime, crumb rubber, silicone, polymers, fibers, Recycled Aggregate
Pavement (RAP).
The Marshall Method of Mix Design (Asphalt Institute Manual Series MS-2) will be used in
designing the asphaltic concrete mixes. All of the criteria shown in Table 7.6, not stability alone,
shall be considered in designing and evaluating each type of mix. The optimum bitumen
content determined by the Marshall Method shall be used in preparing specimens for the
Immersion Compression (AASHTO T165) test.
All asphaltic concrete designs shall be developed in close coordination with the Department.
Where the use of polymer modified binder is approved, the solubility content shall be agreed
with the Engineer for testing, alternatively the binder content can be determined by the ignition
method, AASHTO T308.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
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Table 7.6 Asphaltic Concrete Performance Characteristics

Properties Base Course Binder Wearing Course


Course

Type / Parking Lots, Sector Main Roads, All Road Parking Sector Main Roads,
Category of Minor Roads, Roads Highways Categories Lots, Minor Roads Highways
Road Driveways Roads,
Driveways

Traffic volume Light Medium Heavy All Light Medium Heavy

Penetration
grade of 40/50 or 40/50 or
60/70 40/50 60/70 40/50 40/50
bitumen 60/70 60/70

No. of
compaction
blows each end
of specimen by 75 75 75 75 75 75 75
freely held
Marshall
hammer

Minimum
Marshall 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600
Stability (kg)

Marshall Flow
(mm) 24 24 24 24 24 24 24

Stiffness
minimum 400 400 400 450 450 450 500
(kg/mm)

Air voids in mix


(%) 3-5 4-7 5-7 5-7 3-5 4-7 5-7

Voids in mineral
aggregate, VMA 11 13 13 13 13 14 15
(% minimum)

Voids filled with


asphalt cement 60 - 75 55 - 70 50 - 65 50 - 70 60 - 75 55 - 70 50 - 65
(%)

Bitumen content
by weight of mix 3.3 - 4.0 3.2 - 3.9 3.1 - 3.8 3.4 - 4.1 3.4 - 4.4 3.4 - 4.2 3.4 - 4.0
(%)

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
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Properties Base Course Binder Wearing Course
Course

Type / Parking Lots, Sector Main Roads, All Road Parking Sector Main Roads,
Category of Minor Roads, Roads Highways Categories Lots, Minor Roads Highways
Road Driveways Roads,
Driveways

Loss of Marshall
Stability by
submerging
specimens in
water @ 60C
for 24 hours, as
compared to 25 25 25 20 20 20 20
stability
measured after
submersion in
water @ 60C
for 30 minutes
(max. % loss)

Residual voids
in total mix after
500 blows each - 2 2 2 - 3 3
end of specimen

7.3.10 JOB MIX FORMULA AND ALLOWABLE TOLERANCES


The Sub-contractor shall prepare his preliminary asphaltic concrete design at least one month
prior to commencement of the Works. The Company/EPC Contractor shall meet with the
Department to discuss the details and obtain approval to proceed with the necessary trials.
The Sub-contractor shall carry out complete laboratory trials under the direct supervision of the
Company/EPC Contractor, as necessary, to determine the properties of the proposed design.
The Department shall be advised of the schedule of the planned laboratory trials so that it may
attend, if it is desired.
After review of the laboratory trials jointly with the Department, plant trials shall be conducted.
All plant trials shall be carried out with direct coordination with the Department.
The properties of asphaltic concrete paving course shall be obtained by tests on samples taken
at the asphalt plant to avoid re-heat of the material. All plants shall have a properly equipped
laboratory to carry out the required plant trial testing and the routine production quality control
testing. As a general rule, the asphalt cement content to be selected shall be the minimum
asphalt cement content that will satisfy all the specified requirements for the particular asphaltic
concrete mixture without decreasing the durability of the asphalt layer. The asphaltic concrete
design criteria and mix properties shall comply with the requirements of Table 7.6.
Prior to final approval, specimens shall be prepared in accordance with Asphalt Institute Manual
Series MS-2, 500 blows each side. The resulting voids within the mix determined within
AASHTO T209 and AASHTO T166 shall not be less than the values stated in Table 7.6.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
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The Company/EPC Contractor will take samples of the materials proposed for use, in order to
check their quality.
The proposed Job Mix Formula (JMF) shall be submitted to the Department and the
Company/EPC Contractor, who will formally approve the JMF with characteristics and
composition that shall be supplied by the Sub-contractor. The approved JMF will give a
combined gradation showing a single definite percentage passing each sieve, the percentage
of each material to be used in the mix, asphalt cement content by weight including modifier and
type, and the percentage addition of hydrated lime or other additives, including RAP. The JMF
will also establish the mixing temperature and a compaction reference density.
Approval by the Department or Company/EPC Contractor of the JMF shall in no way relieve the
Sub-contractor of his responsibilities and obligations stipulated in the Contract and the Sub-
contractor shall be responsible for the soundness of the asphalt paving mixes and the
satisfactory execution and performance of the asphalt paving courses.
After the job mix formula has been established and approved, all mixes furnished shall conform
thereto within the following tolerances:
Passing sieve No. 4 and larger : 5.0% passing
Passing sieves between No. 4 and No. 200 : 4.0% passing
Passing Sieve No. 200 : 1.5% passing
Asphalt Cement content : 0.2%, by total weight of mix
Temperature of mix when emptied from mixer : 10C

Should the source of material constituents or characteristic properties change during the course
of the Contract, then the design and JMF shall be re-established.

7.3.11 SAMPLING AND TESTING OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MIXES


Samples of loose asphaltic concrete mix shall normally be taken behind the paver before
compaction and shall be obtained in accordance with AASHTO T168. Samples of compacted
asphaltic concrete shall be obtained by coring in accordance with Method B of AASHTO T230.
Determination of bitumen content and extraction gradation may be performed on either loose or
compacted samples in accordance with AASHTO T164 and AASHTO T030 except that the ash
correction shall be determined by using a bitumenometer. The presence of a satisfactory
amount of hydrated lime will be determined in accordance with the tests as established by the
Municipality and Town Planning Department or Company/EPC Contractor. The specific gravity
and compaction of asphalt shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T269, T166 and
T209.

7.3.12 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE


a. WEATHER LIMITATIONS

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Production and spreading of asphaltic concrete mix shall not be permitted when the ambient
temperature is less than 8C, nor during rain, fog, and dust storms or other unsuitable
weather.
b. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

The equipment required for construction of the asphaltic concrete courses shall include the
necessary major equipment listed in Section 7.2, Equipment for Asphalt Works, of this
Specifications, together with such miscellaneous equipment and tools as may be required
for the satisfactory preparation and performance of the Work. All equipment shall be
checked and/or calibrated and approved by Company/EPC Contractor prior to use. The
equipment shall be satisfactorily maintained and shall be used in an approved manner to
produce asphaltic concrete pavements in accordance with this Specifications. Adequate
equipment and labor shall be used so that there is continual production and distribution of
the asphalt course being constructed. Intermittent or "STOP & GO" type of operations will
not be permitted by Company/EPC Contractor.
c. SURVEY AND PREPARATION OF AREA TO BE PAVED

The areas to be paved shall be true to lines and grades indicated on the Drawings or
established by Company/EPC Contractor and shall have a properly prepared surface prior
to the start of paving operations. The areas to be paved shall be prepared in compliance
with this Specifications and the Particular Specifications.
Priming or tacking of surfaces to be paved shall be in accordance with Section 7.4, Prime
Coat or Section 7.5, Tack Coat, of this Specifications.
The surface of curbs, vertical faces of existing pavements and all structures in actual
contact with asphalt mixes shall be painted with a thin and complete coating of tack coat as
instructed by Company/EPC Contractor to provide a closely bonded, watertight joint.
All openings or structures in the road for water, drainage and other specified utilities shall be
constructed and their positions and levels determined before the start of paving operations.
All utility trenches, cut in the bituminous road surfaces shall be backfilled, compacted and
prepared.

7.3.13 PREPARATION OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MIXES


a. PREPARATION OF ASPHALT CEMENT

The asphalt cement shall be heated to a temperature to yield viscosities in the range of 150-
300 mm2/s (75-150 seconds Saybolt-Furol) when delivered to the mixer, as determined
from the Temperature Viscosity Chart of the product used. Asphalt cement shall not be
used if foaming occurs nor shall it be heated above 177C at any time.
b. PREPARATION AND HANDLING OF MINERAL AGGREGATE

Coarse and fine aggregate shall be stored at the asphalt plant in such a manner that the
separate stockpiles will not become intermixed. The stockpiles shall be of sufficient size to

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provide a minimum quantity of one week's continuous production of asphalt mix.
Aggregates brought to the asphalt plant to supplement stocks should be tested and
approved prior to placing in the existing approved stockpiles.
The cold bins shall be calibrated with the materials to be used and the settings shall be
such as to produce a combined gradation in accordance with the job mix. The proportioning
shall be such that surpluses and shortages in the hot bins shall not cause breaks in the
continuous operation. All the above shall be as approved by Company/EPC Contractor.
The hydrated lime additive system shall be calibrated and set to add the required amounts
of hydrated lime and water. After the aggregates, water and hydrated lime have been
thoroughly mixed, they shall be fed to the asphalt plant drier.
The materials shall be thoroughly dried and heated so that their temperature is within 8C
of the temperature needed to satisfy the viscosity requirements of the asphalt cement. In no
case shall the materials be introduced into the pug mill with a temperature, including the
8C tolerance permitted, of more than that at which the asphalt cement has a viscosity of 75
seconds Saybolt-Furol. The moisture content of the heated and dried materials shall not
exceed 0.5 percent. The quantity of materials fed through the drier shall in all cases be held
to an amount, which can be thoroughly dried and heated within the limits specified.
The heated materials shall be screened into sizes such that they may be combined into a
gradation meeting the requirements of the job mix formula and the hot aggregate storage
bins shall be such as to minimize segregation and loss of temperature of aggregate. Hot
bins shall be drawn and cleaned of material at the end of each day's operation.
c. PROPORTIONING AND MIXING

The heated ingredients together with the mineral filler and asphalt cement shall be
combined in such a manner so as to produce a mixture which, when emptied from the pug
mill, complies with the requirements of the job mix formula. Plant settings, once established,
shall not be changed without the approval of Company/EPC Contractor.
The temperature of the aggregate immediately prior to mixing shall be within 8C of the
temperature of the asphalt cement and the temperature of the aggregate and asphalt prior
to mixing shall be approximately that of the completed mix as defined in the job mix formula
approved by Company/EPC Contractor. The mix temperature shall be within the limits set
out in the job mix formula when emptied from the mixer but in no case shall exceed 170C
for 40-50 pen and 165C for 60-70 pen.
Mineral filler in a cold dry state shall be proportioned into the mixer either with the aggregate
or after the introduction of the asphalt cement to avoid loss of filler that may occur in dry
mixing as a result of turbulence in the mixer.
When anti-stripping additive is required, the additive device shall be calibrated and set so
that the specified amount of anti-stripping additive is thoroughly mixed with the bitumen just
prior to entering the pug mill.
d. CONTROL OF MIXING TIME

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In a batch type plant, Company/EPC Contractor will designate the length of time of both dry
and set mixing periods to ensure a uniformly and completely coated mix. Mixing period time
shall not be altered unless so ordered by Company/EPC Contractor. A dry mixing period of
not less than four seconds shall precede the addition of the asphalt cement to the mix.
Excess wet mixing shall be avoided. Wet mixing shall continue as long as is necessary to
obtain a thoroughly blended mix but shall not exceed 75 seconds nor be less than 30
seconds.
In continuous type plants, the weights shall be determined for the job from tests made under
the supervision of Company/EPC Contractor and the determination of mixing time shall be
by the weight method in accordance with the following formula unless otherwise required:
Mixing time, sec = Pugmill Dead Capacity (kg)
Pugmill Output (kg/s)
The maximum mixing time in batch or continuous type plants shall be limited as directed by
the Company/EPC Contractor to avoid undue changes in the characteristics of the asphalt
material.

7.3.14 DELIVERY OF THE ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MIXES


The dispatching of the hauling vehicles to the job site shall be so scheduled that all material
delivered may be placed in daylight, unless Company/EPC Contractor approves the use of
artificial light. Delivery of material shall be at a uniform rate and in an amount well within the
capacity of the paving and compacting equipment.
The mix shall be delivered to the paver at a temperature between 135C and 160C. All
precautions shall be taken to protect the mix from the weather.

7.3.15 SPREADING AND FINISHING


The mix shall be laid upon an approved surface in accordance with the specifications and only
when weather conditions are suitable. Upon arrival at the point of use, the asphalt mix shall be
spread and struck off to the grade, elevation and cross-section shape intended, either over the
entire width or over such partial width as may be required. If the mix does not comply with the
requirements, it shall not be used but shall be discarded.
The asphalt course shall be constructed to proposed levels and shall be homogeneous
andproviding, after compaction, an even surface free from undulations, rises or depressions,
and within the tolerances stipulated. In no case shall construction of a new asphaltic concrete
course begin until the previously laid course has been tested and approved in accordance with
this Specifications.
The asphalt course shall be laid in more than one layer, with no layer exceeding 50mm in
thickness unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings or approved in writing by Company/EPC
Contractor.
The second layer shall be placed as soon as practicable after the first layer has been finished,
rolled and cooled, and Company/EPC Contractor may at his discretion request cleaning of the

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first layer and the application of a thin tack coat thereon if he so deems necessary.
Transverse joints in succeeding layers shall be offset at least 2 meters. Longitudinal joints shall
be offset at least 150mm. All joints shall be a minimum of 150mm from all pavement markings.
The use of motor graders or hand spreading of the asphalt mix shall not be permitted except in
places where it is impractical to use pavers and shall be only with the specific permission of
Company/EPC Contractor. This shall be to avoid segregation of the asphalt mix and shall
comply with allconditions regarding trueness of level, thickness and homogeneity of the mix.
Automatic screed controls shall be required on all pavers and shall be used for paving courses
as instructed by Company/EPC Contractor.

7.3.16 COMPACTION
Rolling equipment for use in compacting asphalt mixes shall meet the requirements of Rollers.
At least three rollers shall be required at all times: one self-propelled pneumatic-tired and two
steel-wheeled rollers. As the Sub-contractor as necessary to provide shall use many additional
rollers specified asphalt course density and surface characteristics in an orderly, efficient and
continuous manner.
Immediately after the asphalt mix has been spread and struck off, the surface shall be checked
and any irregularities adjusted and then compacted thoroughly and uniformly by rolling.
To prevent adhesion of the mix to steel-wheeled rollers, the wheels shall be kept properly
moistened but excess water will not be permitted by Company/EPC Contractor.
After the longitudinal joints and edges have been compacted, rolling shall start longitudinally at
the sides of the road and shall gradually progress towards the center. On super-elevated
sections, rolling shall begin on the low side and progress to the high side, overlapping on
successive trips by at least one-half the width of tandem rollers and uniformly lapping each
preceding track. The rollers shall move at a slow but uniform speed with the drive wheels
nearest the paver. The speed shall not exceed 4.8 km/hr. for steel-wheeled rollers or 8.0 km/hr.
for pneumatic-tired rollers. The operating speed shall be approved by Company/EPC
Contractor.
The line of rolling shall not be changed suddenly or the direction of rolling reversed suddenly. If
rolling causes displacement of the material, the affected areas shall be loosened at once with
hand tools and restored to the original grade of the loose material before being re-rolled. Heavy
equipment or rollers shall not be permitted to stand on the finished surface before it has been
compacted and has thoroughly cooled.
When paving in a single width, the first lane placed shall be rolled in the following order:

Transverse joints

Longitudinal joints

Outside edge

Initial or breakdown rolling, beginning on the low side and progressing towards the high
side

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Second rolling

Finish rolling
When paving in echelon, five to ten centimeters of the edge, which the second paver is
following, shall be left unrolled. Edges shall not be exposed more than fifteen minutes without
being rolled. Particular attention shall be given to the construction of the transverse and
longitudinal joints in all courses.
a. TRANSVERSE JOINTS

Transverse joints shall be carefully constructed and thoroughly compacted to provide a


smooth riding surface. Joints shall be checked with a straight edge to assure smoothness
and true alignment. Joints shall be formed with a bulkhead, such as a board, to provide a
straight line and vertical face. If the joint has been distorted by traffic or by other means, it
shall be trimmed to line and the face shall be painted with a thin coating of emulsified
asphalt before the fresh material isplaced against it.
To obtain thorough compaction of these joints, the material placed against the joint shall be
tightly pushed against the vertical face with a steel-wheeled roller. The roller shall be placed
on the previously compacted material transversely so that not more than 150mm of the rear
rolling wheel rides on the edge of the joint. The roller shall be operated to pinch and press
the mix into place at the transverse joint. The roller shall continue to roll along this line,
shifting its position gradually across the joint, in 150 to 200mm increments, until the joint
has been rolled with the entire width of the roller wheel. Rolling shall be continued until a
thoroughly compacted, neat joint is obtained.
b. LONGITUDINAL JOINTS

Longitudinal joints shall be rolled directly behind the paving operations. The first lane placed
shall be true to line and grade and have a vertical face. The material being placed in the
abutting lane shall then be tightly pushed against the face of the previously placed lane.
Before rolling, the coarse aggregate in the material overlapping the joint shall be carefully
removed with a rake and discarded. Rolling shall be performed with a steel-wheeled roller.
The roller shall be shifted over onto the previously placed lane so that not more than
150mm of the roller wheel rides on the edges of the newly laid lane. The rollers shall then
be operated to pinch and press the fine material gradually across the joint. Rolling shall be
continued until a thoroughly compacted, neat joint is obtained. When the abutting lane is not
placed in the same day, or the joint is distorted during the day's work by traffic or by other
means, the edge of the lane shall be carefully trimmed to line, cleaned and painted with a
thin coating of emulsified asphalt before the abutting lane is placed.
c. EDGES

The edges of the asphalt course shall be rolled concurrently with or immediately after rolling
the longitudinal joint. Care shall be exercised in consolidating the course along the entire
length of the edges. Before it is compacted, the material along the unsupported edges shall
be slightly elevated with hand tools. This will permit the full weight of the roller wheel to bear

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on the material to the extreme edges of the mat.
d. BREAKDOWN ROLLING

Breakdown rolling shall immediately follow the rolling of the longitudinal joints and edges.
Rollers shall be operated as close to the paver as possible to obtain adequate density
without causing undue displacement. In no case shall the mix temperature be allowed to
drop below 107C prior to breakdown rolling. If the breakdown roller is steel-wheeled, it
shall be operated with the drive wheel nearest the finishing machine. Pneumatic-tired rollers
may be used as breakdown rollers.
e. INTERMEDIATE ROLLING

Pneumatic-tired rollers or steel-wheeled rollers described in Section 7.2, Rollers, shall be


used for the intermediate rolling. The intermediate rolling shall follow the breakdown rolling
as closely as possible and while the paving mix is still of a temperature that will result in
maximum density from this operation. Rollers shall be used continuously after the initial
rolling until all of the mix placed has been thoroughly compacted. Turning of rollers on the
hot paving mix which causes undue displacement will not be permitted by Company/EPC
Contractor.
f. FINISH ROLLING

The finish rolling shall be performed with three-axle tandem rollers unless otherwise
permitted by Company/EPC Contractor. Finished rolling shall be accomplished while the
material is still warm enough for the removal of roller marks.
All rolling operations shall be conducted in close sequence. In places inaccessible for the
operation of standard rollers as specified, compaction shall be performed by manual or
mechanical tampers of such design as to give the desired density.
After final rolling, the smoothness, levels, cross falls, density and thickness shall be
checked and any irregularity of the surface exceeding the specified limits and any areas
defective in texture, density or composition shall be corrected as directed by Company/EPC
Contractor, including removal and replacement at the Sub-contractor's expense as directed
by Company/EPC Contractor.

7.3.17 PROTECTION OF THE ASPHALT COURSES


Sections of the newly finished work shall be protected from traffic of any kind until the mix has
been properly compacted and cooled. In no case shall traffic be permitted less than 12 hours
after completion of the asphalt course unless a shorter period is authorized by Company/EPC
Contractor.

7.3.18 TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE OF COMPLETED ASPHALTIC CONCRETE COURSES


Each completed asphalt concrete course shall be tested and approved in accordance with the
following requirements prior to placing any subsequent asphalt concrete course.

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The Sub-contractor shall, at his own expense, cut samples from each completed asphalt course
during the progress of the work and before final acceptance of the project, all as directed by
Company/EPC Contractor. Compacted samples shall be taken by coring in accordance with
AASHTO T230, for testing. Where the Sub-contractor fails to provide cores as required by
Company/EPC Contractor, Company/EPC Contractor may arrange for the taking of cores at the
Sub-contractor's expense. Samples shall be taken of the asphalt mix for the full depth of the
course from the location directed by Company/EPC Contractor at a rate of not less than one
sample per 200 linear meters of road or 2,000 square meters of paving whichever is less.
When the measurement of any core is less than specified thickness by more than ten (10)
millimeters, or fifteen percent (whichever is less), the actual thickness of the bituminous paving
course in this area will be determined by taking additional cores at not less than three (3) meter
intervals parallel to the center-line in each direction from the affected location until, in each
direction, a core is found which is not deficient by more than ten (10) millimeters, or fifteen (15)
percent (whichever is less). Asphalt areas, which are deficient by more than ten (10) mm or
15% (whichever is less), shall be removed and replaced at the Sub-contractor's expense.
Exploratory cores for deficient thickness may be used in average for adjusted unit price.
Whenever deficiencies are noted in loose mix samples or core samples, Company/EPC
Contractor may direct the taking of additional cores at the Sub-contractor's expense in order to
define the area of pavement involved.
Hot asphalt mix shall be placed and compacted in holes left by'sampiing.
a. REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPACTION OF ASPHALT CONCRETE COURSES

The degree of compaction is the ratio of the specific gravity of the pavement sample
determined in accordance with AASHTO T209 to the specific gravity of the laboratory
Marshall Specimens prepared in accordance with the Job Mix Formula determined in
accordance with AASHTO T166.
The minimum degree of compaction required for the various types of Hot Mix Asphalt
expressed as a percentage, shall be as given in Table 7.7 below:
Table 7.7 Minimum Degree of Compaction for Asphaltic concrete Courses

Type of Mix Minimum Degree of Compaction Required

Base Course 98%

Binder Course 98%

Wearing Course 98%

In the event the specific gravity of samples cut from any asphalt concrete course fail to
comply with the minimum required, this will be considered a major defect in the work on the
basis of which the portion of the asphalt course represented by these samples shall be
rejected.

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b. REQUIREMENTS FOR ASPHALT CONTENT, GRADATION AND HYDRATED LIME

In the event it transpires from the analysis conducted on samples of loose mix or cores that
the asphalt content or aggregate gradation are beyond the permissible tolerances specified
for the job mix formula established for each respective asphalt course mix, or that a
satisfactory quantity of hydrated lime is not present, and that, as determined by
Company/EPC Contractor, such variation affects the characteristics of the asphalt mix as
far as its compliance with the Contract Conditions and specifications is concerned, this shall
be considered a major defect in the work on the basis of which the portion of the
asphaltcourse represented by these samples shall be rejected.
c. REQUIREMENTS FOR THICKNESS

The total constructed thickness of asphaltic concrete base course or asphaltic concrete
wearing course used for new construction, reconstruction or roadway widening shall not
vary more than 8 mm from the total thickness indicated on the Drawings and included in the
Bills of Quantities.
In the event the constructed thickness of the asphaltic concrete base course or asphaltic
concrete wearing course is 8 mm more than the total thickness indicated on the Drawings,
the area shall be corrected as directed by Company/EPC Contractor by removing the
excess material in an approved manner to provide the required thickness.
In the event the constructed thickness of the asphaltic concrete base course or asphaltic
concrete wearing course is 8 mm less than the total thickness indicated on the Drawings,
the Sub-contractor shall provide additional material in the next course (base course or
wearing course). In no case shall the deficiency of the base course exceed 25 mm and in
no case shall the deficiency of the wearing course exceed 8 mm. In the event the total
thickness of the wearing course is less than the total thickness required by the Drawings by
more than 8 mm, the Sub-contractor shall remove the top layer of 50mm or to a depth as
directed by Company/EPC Contractor and a new layer constructed so the total thickness of
the wearing course is within the limits indicated on the Drawings and as specified herein.
The asphaltic concrete wearing course shall be constructed to the grade levels with
reference to the levels as indicated on the Drawings, as specified and as approved by
Company/EPC Contractor.
In no case shall the total sum thickness of the sub base, base course and wearing course
be less than the total sum thickness of all courses indicated on the Drawings. The
tolerances specified herein shall not invalidate the tolerances set forth for the evenness of
surfaces of the asphaltic concrete courses.
d. REQUIREMENTS FOR EVENNESS OF SURFACE

Company/EPC Contractor shall test the evenness of surface for each course of the various
asphalt concrete courses incorporated in the Contract to ascertain their compliance with the
conditions, this Specifications and the Drawings with regard to levels, longitudinal falls,
cross-sections and evenness of surface.

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The Sub-contractor shall put at the disposal of Company/EPC Contractor a five-meter
straightedge and a crown template of sturdy construction and approved design and enough
labor to assist in the checking operations.
Any layer containing deviations or variations exceeding the following tolerances shall be
corrected or removed and replaced, at the expense of the Sub-contractor, to the satisfaction
of Company/EPC Contractor and according to the specifications:

Variation in the levels of the profile grade line after construction shall not exceed one
centimeter from the levels indicated on the Drawings.

When tested by a five-meter straight-edge placed at right angle and parallel to the
road centerline at intervals not exceeding two meters, or when tested by a crown
template placed at right angle to the road centerline at intervals not exceeding half
the template length, variation of the surface of the road from the testing edge
between any two contacts with the surface shall not exceed the following maximum
tolerances:
Base Course: 6 millimetres
Binder Course: 4 millimetres
Wearing Course: 4 millimetres
The tolerances herein specified for evenness of surface shall not invalidate the
tolerances set forth for thickness of the asphalt concrete courses.

In no case shall the final surface of the roadway be constructed such that surface
water will stand on the roadway in depths exceeding the above maximum
tolerances.

7.3.19 COLD PLANNING


Cold Planning shall be performed when directed by Company/EPC Contractor to areas, which
will receive an overlay.
a. REMOVAL

Before cold planning operations begin prior approval must be given by Company/EPC
Contractor to ensure that existing pavement has not failed. If existing pavement has, in the
judgment of Company/EPC Contractor, failed all pavement shall be removed and paid for in
accordance with Section 5, Earthwork for Roads. If the existing pavement will be overlaid
the Sub-Contractor shall profile the pavement as follows, unless otherwise directed by
Company/EPC Contractor.

The Sub-Contractor shall remove the required thickness of asphalt by means of cold
planning/ profiling. The Sub-Contractor is responsible for controlling dust to the
approval of Company/EPC Contractor..

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The final surface after cold planning the existing asphalt shall be finished so that the
surface elevation shall not vary more than 4mm from the specified pavement surface
elevations in profile and cross-section.

Removed asphalt shall be collected into a collecting vehicle and stockpiled off-site
for future use by Company/EPC Contractor.If so directed by Company/EPC
Contractor., the removed asphalt shall become the property of the Sub-Contractor
and shall be disposed of by him in accordance with normal practice.

7.3.20 PREPARATION OF EXISTING PAVEMENT FOR APPLICATION OF OVERLAY


The Sub-Contractor shall prepare the existing pavement as indicated on the Drawings, such as
service roads and parking areas, for an application of overlay. Preparation shall include, but not
by way of limitation, all cleaning, scraping and performing various types of repairs necessary to
correct structural failures, deterioration, drainage and grade elevations in compliance with lines,
grades, thicknesses and typical sections indicated in the Drawings, or as required by field
conditions, and shall be carried out as required herein or as directed by Company/EPC
Contractor.
a. MATERIALS

Materials required for various repairs shall be in accordance with the requirements of
applicable Sections of this Specifications.
b. CONSTRUCTION

Before the application of an overlay, the existing pavement surface shall be swept clean of
all dirt, loose and foreign matter by the use of hand brooms or mechanical sweepers of
approved type in a manner approved by Company/EPC Contractor. All sand, mud, dust and
other loose material so swept off shall then be disposed of in accordance with Section 5,
Earthwork for Roads, of this Specifications.
Filling and compacting of ruts and depressions with Type II Wearing Course material to the
general level of the surface shall immediately follow the operation of cleaning the surface.
The Sub-Contractor shall check the level of patchwork with a straight edge and make
corrections as required.
When directed by COMPANY/EPC CONTRACTOR , the Sub-Contractor shall make all
necessary repairs to the existing pavement surface (potholes, failed areas, depressed
areas, utility cuts, cracks, or other damaged areas).
Immediately prior to the placement of the overlay, tack coat material shall be applied to the
areas to be resurfaced.
Care shall be exercised to prevent spraying tack coat materials upon adjacent sidewalks,
structures, plants and shrubbery, adjacent property and improvements, and any other
improvements and facilities not specifically mentioned. Any of the above mentioned facilities
so damaged shall be cleaned or replaced to the satisfaction of Company/EPC Contractor at
the expense of the Sub-Contractor.

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Contact surfaces of curbing, gulley, inlets, catch basins, manholes and other structures
shall be painted with a thin uniform coating of tack coat material immediately before
asphaltic material is placed against them. The tack coat shall be carefully applied and in
such a manner that the tack coat shall not show above the surface of the finished
pavement, all in accordance with Section 7.5, Tack Coat, of this Specifications.
In executing the construction of the single lift surface treatment of service roads and parking
areas, the Sub-Contractor shall adhere to the steps described above. However, in left or
right turning areas the following steps shall be followed, unless otherwise directed by
Company/EPC Contractor .

The Sub-Contractor shall remove completely the existing curb, including haunching
and blinding at the road shoulder or median, and the resulting excavation shall be
filled with borrow material compacted to 95 percent maximum dry density as
specified in Section 5, Earthwork for Roads, of this Specifications.

Cut the existing pavement to neat lines at a distance of 25 centimeters from the
removed curb edge of the pavement. The exposed 25 cm of existing sub grade shall
be prepared prior to placing asphaltic concrete overlays.

The sub grade area shall be compacted and prepared in compliance with lines,
grades, thickness and typical sections indicated on the Drawings and as specified in
Section 5, Earthwork for Roads, of this Specifications.

Prior to placement of permanent pavement, the Sub-Contractor shall prime coat the
sub grade area as indicated on the Drawings and as specified in Section 7.4, Prime
Coat, of this Specifications. Where existing pavement has been removed, the top 30
cm of sub grade shall be compacted to 95 percent Modified Proctor density.

The final surface of the sub base course shall be finished so that after final
compaction and just prior to placement of base or pavement courses, the surface
elevation shall not vary more than 1 cm from a five-meter straight-edge at any
location. The surface shall be completed to the above tolerance and approved by
Company/EPC contractor prior to any work at a given location or placing an
overlying course, all in accordance with Section 6, Sub-base and base courses of
this Specifications.

Place tack coat as directed by Company/EPC Contractor on the sand-asphalt sub


base course immediately prior to placing an asphaltic base course, or on the base
course in those cases where the base course has been utilized by traffic prior to the
placement of the wearing course, all in accordance with Section7.5, Tack Coat, of
this Specifications.

Construct new curbs in accordance with, Section 10.1, Paving block kerbstone and
cable tiles, of this Specifications.

Place and compact Type I asphaltic concrete base, thickness of 16 cm or as


indicated on the Drawings, placed in the widened areas, in two lifts of 8 cm each, all

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in accordance with the requirements for Asphaltic Concrete Base Course, Type I, of
this Specifications.

Place tack coat as directed by COMPANY/EPC CONTRACTOR immediately prior


to placing any new asphaltic material over a previously placed asphaltic course,
where the previous course has become dirty as the result of traffic using the
surface, all in accordance with Section7.5, Tack Coat, of this Specifications.

Place and compact Type II asphaltic concrete wearing course, 6 cm minimum


thickness over the turn area in one lift unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings or
directed by COMPANY/EPC CONTRACTOR , all in accordance with the
requirements for Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course, Type II, of this Specifications.

Place and compact Type II asphaltic concrete wearing course, 4 cm minimum


thickness, over the turning lanes and existing pavement in one lift unless otherwise
indicated on the Drawings or directed by Company/EPC Contractor , all in
accordance with the requirements for Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course, Type II,
of this Specifications.

Install pavement markings in accordance with Section 15, Traffic Markings and
Signs, of this Specifications.

7.3.21 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


I. Asphaltic Concrete, Type I, Base Course. Measurement of asphaltic concrete, base
course, will be by the square meter, placed in accordance with the Drawings, this
Specifications and acceptable to Company/EPC Contractor. The areas of tapered
edges will not be included in the measurement and the cost of the areas of tapered
edges shall be deemed to have been included in the rates for the respective
asphaltic concrete base course.
Payment for the Item, Asphaltic Concrete Base Course, of the Type and thickness
required in the Contract Documents, will be at the rate per square meter as included
in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for all
materials, labor, tools, equipment and appurtenances as required, as specified or as
directed by Company/EPC Contractor. No other compensation will be allowed by
Company/EPC Contractor.
II. Asphaltic Concrete, Type II, Wearing Course. Measurement of asphaltic concrete
wearing course will be by the square meter, placed in accordance with the Drawings,
this Specifications and acceptable to Company/EPC Contractor. The areas of
tapered edges will not be included in the measurement and the cost of the areas of
tapered edges shall be deemed to have been included in the rates for the respective
Items for asphaltic concrete wearing course.
Payment for the Item, Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course, of the Type and
thickness required in the Contract Documents, will be at the rate per square meter
as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full
compensation for all materials, labor, tools, equipment and appurtenances as

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required, as specified or as directed by Company/EPC Contractor. No other
compensation will be allowed by Company/EPC Contractor.
III. Cold Planning. Measurement for cold planning or profiling will be by the cubic meter
of existing pavement cold planed in accordance with this Specifications and
approved by Company/EPC Contractor. The measurement will be made by taking
necessary cross sections before and after cold planning existing pavement to the
lines and grades required and as approved by Company/EPC Contractor.
Payment for the Item, Cold Planning, will be at the rate per cubic meter as included
in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for all
labor, tools equipment and appurtenances as required to execute the removal of
existing pavement by cold planning as specified or as directed by Company/EPC
Contractor. No other compensation will be allowed by Company/EPC Contractor.
IV. Asphaltic Concrete, Overlay (Type I or Type II). Measurement for asphaltic concrete
overlay of the type included in the Bills of Quantities will be by the cubic meter,
placed in accordance with the Drawings, this Specifications and acceptable to
Company/EPC Contractor. The measurement will be made by taking necessary
cross sections before and after placing the asphaltic concrete, Type I or Type II
overlay to the lines and grades required and as approved by Company/EPC
Contractor.
Payment for the Items, Asphaltic Concrete Overlay, Type I and Asphaltic Concrete
Overlay, Type II, will be at the rate per cubic meter which rate shall be considered as
full compensation for all materials, labor, tools, equipment and appurtenances as
required, as specified or as directed by Company/EPC Contractor. No other
compensation will be allowed by Company/EPC Contractor.

7.4. PRIME COAT


This work shall consist of furnishing and applying liquid asphalt prime coat and blotter material,
if required, to previously prepared and approved absorbent surfaces (sub grade or granular
base/sub base courses) immediately prior to placing superimposed construction in accordance
with this Specifications and to the full width indicated on the Drawings, or as required by field
conditions. Such work shall be performed as specified herein or as directed by Company/EPC
Contractor.

7.4.1 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIME COAT


a. LIQUID ASPHALT

Liquid asphalt shall be of the medium curing type MC-70 grade and shall comply with the
requirements of the specifications given in Clause 040011, Liquid and Emulsified Asphalts.
The application rate shall be between 0.25 and 0.50 kg/M2 as indicated on the Drawings or
as directed by Company/EPC Contractor.

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Specific gravity of asphaltic material shall be determined by ASTM D3142 standard which
shall establish the kilograms per liter based on the specific gravity at 15.5C for the material
furnished.
b. BLOTTER MATERIAL.

Blotter material, if required, shall be clean natural sand and shall comply with the
requirements of the specifications given in Section 7.3.2, Fine Aggregate for Asphalt Works.

7.4.2 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS


a. WEATHER LIMITATIONS

Prime coat shall not be applied when the ambient temperature is less than 13C nor during
rain, fog, dust storms or other unsuitable weather.
b. APPLICATION TEMPERATURE

The application temperature for the MC-70 liquid asphalt shall be between 60C and 85C,
as directed by Company/EPC Contractor.
c. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

The equipment used by the Sub-contractor shall include an asphalt distributor in


accordance with Section 7.2.5, Asphalt Distributor, as well as a power broom and a power
blower. The power broom shall be self-propelled and equipped with a cylindrical, rotating
nylon bristle brush of not less than 760mm in diameter andnot less than 1.82 m in length.
The brush shall be capable of being angled to the right and left with adjustable ground
pressure. Where necessary for the proper preparation of the surface, motor graders, rollers,
water trucks, and other related equipment should also be provided.
d. SURFACE PREPARATION

Immediately before applying the prime coat, all loose dirt, earth and other objectionable
material shall be removed from the surface with a power broom of approved design and/or a
power blower as required, and any ruts, soft spots or unacceptable irregularities in the
surface shall be repaired in accordance with the instructions of Company/EPC Contractor. If
Company/EPC Contractor so requires, the surface shall be lightly bladed and rolled
immediately prior to the application of the prime coat, in which case brooming or blowing
may not be required. Company/EPC Contractor may direct that a light application of water
be made just prior to the application of liquid asphalt to facilitate penetration.
Priming will not be permitted by Company/EPC Contractor when there is free water present
on the surface.
e. METHOD OF OPERATION

After preparing the road surface as above, the liquid asphalt shall be applied by means of
the distributor at the temperature and rate directed by Company/EPC Contractor. Hand-
spraying of restricted, inaccessible areas is permitted, subject to the approval of
Company/EPC Contractor.

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The prime coat shall usually be applied to one half or one third of the road width at a time.
When applied in two or more lanes, there shall be a slight overlap of asphalt material along
adjoining edges of the lanes. It should be noted that no overlapping is allowed at the
transverse joints and that thick paper shall be used at the joint to protect the previous
application and the joining application shall begin on the paper. After use, the paper shall be
removed and satisfactorily disposed of by the Sub-contractor. Care shall be taken that the
application of bituminous material at the junctions of spreads is not in excess of the
specified amount. Excess bituminous material shall be removed from the surface.
f. MAINTENANCE AND TRAFFIC

Traffic shall not be permitted on the primed surface until the asphaltic material has
penetrated and dried and, in the judgment of Company/EPC Contractor, will not be picked
up under traffic. If it becomes necessary to permit traffic prior to that time, but in no case
sooner than 24 hours after the application of the asphaltic material, blotter material shall be
applied as directed by Company/EPC Contractor and traffic shall bepermitted to use the
lanes so treated. Blotter material shall be spread from trucks operated backward so that the
wheels will not travel in uncovered wet asphaltic material. When applying blotter material to
an asphalt treated lane that adjoins a lane that has not been treated, a strip at least 200mm
wide along the adjoining edge shall be left devoid of blotter material in order to permit an
overlap of asphalt material.
The Sub-contractor shall maintain the primed surface in a good clean condition and prior to
the application of the next course, any surface irregularities shall be corrected and all
excessive blotter material, dirt or other objectionable materials shall be removed.

7.4.3 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


Measurement of prime coat shall be by the net number of kilograms acceptably placed in
accordance with the Drawings and this Specifications or as directed by Company/EPC
Contractor.
Measurement for the prime coat will be for the total number of kilograms actually incorporated,
determined by measuring devices (meters), and by accurately determining and controlling the
amount of bituminous material being applied.
The number of kilograms furnished will be determined by weighing the material on scales
furnished by and at the expense of the Sub-Contractor.
Payment for the Item, Prime Coat, will be at the rate per kilogram as included in the Bills of
Quantities, which rate shall be full compensation for materials, tools, equipment and labor
necessary for the proper completion of the work.

7.5. TACK COAT


This work shall consist of furnishing and applying slow setting emulsified asphalt tack coat to a
previously placed asphaltic base course, an existing road surface, the surface of concrete
bridge decks, approach slabs and other concrete surfaces receiving asphaltic concrete wearing

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
Page 65 of 113
course, to provide bond for a superimposed course, in accordance with this Specifications and
to the full width indicated on the Drawings or as directed by Company/EPC Contractor.

7.5.1 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TACK COAT


a. EMULSIFIED ASPHALT

Emulsified asphalt shall be of the slow-setting Cationic or Anionic type of the CSS-1h or SS-
1h grades respectively and shall comply with the requirements of Section 7.3.6, Liquid and
Emulsified Asphalt. The approved emulsion will be diluted with approximately an equal
quantity of water and thoroughly mixed as directed by Company/EPC Contractor. The
diluted emulsion shall be applied at a maximum rate of 0.50 kg/m2 as indicated on the
Drawings or as directed by Company/EPC Contractor.
Specific gravity of asphaltic material shall be determined by ASTN 03142 standard, which
shall establish the kilograms per liter based on the specific gravity at 15.5C for the material
furnished.
b. POLYMER MODIFIED TACK COAT

Polymer Modified Tack Coat where specified or proposed is to be approved by the


Department and installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

7.5.2 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR TACK COAT


a. WEATHER LIMITATIONS

Tack coat shall not be applied when the ambient temperature is less than 13C nor during
rain, fog, dust storms or other unsuitable weather.
b. APPLICATION TEMPERATURE

The application temperature for the diluted emulsified asphalt shall be between 10C and
60C as directed by Company/EPC Contractor.
c. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

The equipment used by the Sub-contractor shall include an asphalt distributor in


accordance with Section 7.2.5, Asphalt Distributor, as well as a power broom and a power
blower. The power broom shall be self-propelled and equipped with a cylindrical, rotating
nylon bristle brush of not less than 760mm in diameter and not less than 1.82 m in length.
The brush shall be capable of being angled to the right and left with adjustable ground
pressure. In addition, the Sub-contractor shall supply and utilize efficient and approved
equipment for diluting the emulsified asphalt with water.
d. SURFACE PREPARATION

The full width of the surface to be treated shall be cleaned with a power broom or power
blower to remove dust, dirt or other objectionable materials. All fatty or unsuitable patches,
excess cracks or joint filler and all surplus bituminous material shall be corrected in

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
Page 66 of 113
accordance with the instructions of Company/EPC Contractor. The surface shall be dry
when treated.
e. METHOD OF OPERATION

Immediately after cleaning the surface, the diluted emulsified asphalt shall be applied by
means of the distributor at the temperature and rate directed by Company/EPC Contractor.
Hand spraying of restricted, inaccessible areas is permitted, subject to the approval of
Company/EPC Contractor.
The mixing and placing of the asphaltic material shall progress at a rate so that
contamination of previous lifts by dust and dirt and/or loss of bond capability shall not occur.
If, in the opinion of Company/EPC Contractor, loss of bond capability has taken place, an
additional tack coat shall be applied to the surface of the previous lifts as directed by
Company/EPC Contractor.
The surface of structures, curbstones and other appurtenances adjacent to areas being
treated shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred.
After application, the surface shall be allowed to dry until it is in a proper condition of
tackiness to receive the superimposed course. Tack coat shall be applied only so far in
advance of the superimposed course placement as is necessary to obtain this proper
condition of tackiness. Until the superimposed course is placed, the Sub-contractor shall
protect the tack coat from damage.
If the tack coat is unavoidably damaged by rain or dust, or paving operations delayed longer
than 24 hours, it shall be allowed to dry, shall be cleaned again by a power broom or power
blower and, when directed by Company/EPC Contractor, a subsequent light application of
tack coat applied to the surface. No additional payment will be made by Company/EPC
Contractor for this work.
Where, in the opinion of Company/EPC Contractor, a tack coat is not necessary between
layers of freshly placed courses, he may by written direction eliminate the tack coat, in
which case there will be no payment for tack coat for the areas concerned. Any cleaning
required in these areas shall be considered to be included in the overlaying asphaltic
concrete course and no separate payment will be made.

7.5.3 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


Measurement of tack coat will be by the net number of kilograms acceptably placed in
accordance with the Drawings and this Specifications or as directed by Company/EPC
Contractor.
Measurement for the tack coat will be for the total number of kilograms actually
incorporated, determined by measuring devices (meters), and by accurately determining
and controlling the amount of bituminous material being applied.
The number of kilograms furnished will be determined by weighing the material on scales
furnished by and at the expense of the Sub-Contractor.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
Page 67 of 113