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Faculty of Information and
Communication Studies
Los Baños, Laguna




This guide claims neither ownership nor originality of the materials included herein. In
fact, much of this volume comes from the various style guides that have been
published, particularly the APA Style Guide, the CBE Style Guide, the MLA Style Guide,
the Turabian Style Guide (sometimes also known as the University of Chicago Style
Guide). The Team that prepared this Guide simply put together what was thought to be
of practical use to the faculty and students of the FICS, U.P. Open University, for the
internal purposes of the UPOU.

The Style Guide Team

This Style Guide was the output of a team, appointed by Former Dean Melinda dP.
Bandalaria (now UPOU Chancellor) of FICS, and comprised of the following:

Team Leader: Felix R. Librero, PhD
Professor Emeritus

Members: Roberto A. Figueroa, Jr., MS
Assistant. Professor

Joyce Mae A. Manalo, MS
Assistant. Professor

Ms. Emely Amoloza, MS, provided the necessary administrative coordination for all the
activities of as well as logistical support for the Team.



Why This Style Guide?

There are numerous style guides available for your use. So, why the need for a
separate FICS style guide? A style guide is generally defined as a set of standards for
writing documents such as academic papers to ensure that such documents are written
in a manner easy to understand and that reflects the expectations of the institution to
which you’ll submit your paper. In other words, the style guide provides rules and
regulations to treat textual documents to ensure better understanding by stakeholders,
in this case, the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies, U.P. Open

This FICS Style Guide provides the standards for writing thesis, dissertation, book, and
research manuscripts that are for submission to the UPOU, through the Faculty of
Information and Communication Studies, for approval and/or acceptance for publication.
It also provides general guidelines for the preparation of other documents to be
submitted to the FICS, such as course term papers and project reports.

In general, this Style Guide requires that:

1. All texts are double-spaced, in 12-point arial font; and

2. There shall only be two spaces (double space) between paragraphs, but the first
line of each new paragraph must be indented one standard MS Word indention
or approximately five spaces.

Unless otherwise specified, all manuscripts submitted to UPOU, through the FICS, shall
follow these general guidelines:

1. All texts must be in 12-point arial font.
2. All Chapter titles must be in UPPER CASE, BOLDFACE.
3. All margins must be 1.0” from the edge of the paper from all sides.
4. The first line of each paragraph must be indented one standard MS Word
indention (about five spaces), double space between paragraphs.
5. All pages must have running footers (possibly an abridged form of the title) and
continuous pagination on the right bottom.
6. All pages where a Chapter starts shall be provided invisible page number.
7. Use paper size A4.


and not higher than 0. 2. Author’s name about five-six centimeters below the last line of the title. followed by year of submission to the Faculty (separated by a comma). 4. About 1.5 cm from the title shall be the “category” of the report.) MS Thesis Manalo. 3. shall be printed the full title (which should be top-orientated when manuscript is in upright position on a book shelf). 5. must be printed from the bottom end.0-1. Institutional affiliation of author about six-seven centimeters below the author’s name. 6. On the butt (or keel). The categories are: PhD Dissertation. MS/MA/MM/MENRM Thesis.” The family name of the author.Color for Manuscript Cover The color scheme for theses cover shall be as follows: Doctoral dissertation = Black Masters’ thesis = Maroon Bachelor’s thesis = Green Texts on the cover of the manuscript shall be: 1. First line of full title about six-eight centimeters from the top edge. BS Thesis. five centimeters from the top edge. All titles must be brief but not longer than two lines of 10cm. 2000 FICS STYLE GUIDE 4 . no more than five centimeters from the bottom edge.5cm. All texts on the cover of the manuscript must be gold in color. The cover of the manuscript would appear like the example on the next page. while the keel would look like this: FULL TITLE OF THE REPORT (No more than two lines.


PRELIMINARY PAGES OF THE MANUSCRIPT Title Page 1. FICS STYLE GUIDE 6 . the full title must be typed in inverted pyramid format. normally three to five words. but in cases where the title may need to be a bit more lengthy. 3. 2. about 15 cm from the author’s name shall be printed the institutional affiliation of the author. The title must be about 10cm from the top margin. 4. spelled out. For example: Faculty of Information and Communication Studies University of the Philippines OPEN UNIVERSITY College. except on the keel where said title may be typed in block format to save space. in upper and lower case. must be about ten cm below the last line of the title. Laguna Philippines Year 6. and the year that the manuscript was produced or submitted. This is how a title page might look like most of the time (please see following page for example). except scientific names which must be printed according to standard requirements for scientific names. author of the manuscript. At the bottom of the page. upper case. The title of a manuscript must be brief and concise. The author’s name. 5. bold. institutional affiliation. This example is hypothetical. The title page contains the following information: complete title of the manuscript.

(FICS faculty member as author) OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION AS CATALYST FOR NATIONAL UNIFICATION IN THE PHILIPPINES JOYCE MAE A. MANALO Assistant Professor Faculty of Information and Communication Studies University of the Philippines OPEN UNIVERSITY College. Laguna Philippines 2016 FICS STYLE GUIDE 7 .

TANCHANGCO Faculty of Information and Communication Studies University of the Philippines OPEN UNIVERSITY College. Laguna Philippines 2016 FICS STYLE GUIDE 8 .(Student as Author)) BICOL COLLEGE GUIDANCE SERVICES INFORMATION SYSTEM CHERRYROSE ANN C.

that copyright announcement must be printed on the page following the title page. must be printed at the center of the page. copyright owner.Copyright Page If the manuscript has a copyright. Figueroa. and address or institutional affiliation of author. Jr. followed by year. FICS STYLE GUIDE 9 . The symbol of copyright which is ©. © 2016 By Roberto B.

It should be clear that acceptance pages differ according to the preferences of the institution (university). and doctoral dissertations. You may obtain the details of style for your specific course project from your course professor.Acceptance Page This acceptance page refers to the acceptance page required by the UPOU. masters’ theses. The FICS (UP Open University) adopts a simple acceptance page that expresses acceptance emanating from the faculty as personified by the Academic Advisory Committee and the Dean of the Faculty. Acceptance pages for theses and dissertations are shown in the following pages. FICS STYLE GUIDE 10 . It should be made clear here that acceptance pages are required for course projects.

(Acceptance page for Special Project in MIS) This Special Project titled _________________________________________________ is hereby accepted by the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Information Systems. __________________________ Adviser ____________ Date __________________________ Program Chair ____________ Date __________________________ Dean Faculty of Information and Communication Studies ____________ Date FICS STYLE GUIDE 11 .

Advisory Committee _________ (Signature over printed name) (Date) ________________________.(Acceptance page for Master’s Thesis. Members of the Academic Advisory Committee: ________________________. _________ (Signature over printed name) Faculty of Information and (Date) Communication Studies FICS STYLE GUIDE 12 . Advisory Committee _________ (Signature over printed name) (Date) _________________________. Chair. Dean. Advisory Committee _________ (Signature over printed name) (Date) ________________________. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science/Master of Arts/Master of Information Systems/Master of Development Communication.P. Member. Open University.) This thesis titled _____________________________________________ is hereby accepted by the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies. U. Member.

Dissertation Committee (Date) __________________________ __________ Reader/Critic (Date) ________________________________________ Dean Faculty of Information and Communication Studies ______________ (Date) FICS STYLE GUIDE 13 . __________________________ __________ Chair. Dissertation Committee (Date) __________________________ __________ Member.) This dissertation titled _________________________________________ is hereby accepted by the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies.P. Dissertation Committee (Date) __________________________ __________ Member. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Communication (DComm).(Acceptance page for Doctoral Dissertation. Open University. U.

FICS STYLE GUIDE 14 . Each author is entitled to a page of biographical sketch. it is suggested that all biographical information about the author/s must be printed on the “Biographical Sketch” page.Biographical Sketch Instead of including information about the author/researcher in the introductory text (Chapter).

Acknowledgment Page This page may be considered optional. Who to acknowledge would depend on the decision of the author. The acknowledgment page may be as brief as half a page. but most theses and dissertations carry it for very good reasons. or as long as two pages. FICS STYLE GUIDE 15 .

This page is devoted for that purpose. FICS STYLE GUIDE 16 .Dedication Page Authors of theses and research manuscripts routinely would want to dedicate their work to personages to whom they may be indebted. you can write this as follows: Dedicated to: Etc. Often.

iii. the Table of Contents includes the Preliminary Pages. hence. and list of photographs. The Table of Contents is comprised of four major component aspects. as follows: textual contents. list of figures. ix x.Table of Contents In many instances. the pages would be marked with Roman Numbers. . list of tables. FICS STYLE GUIDE 17 . vii. Usually. etc. and photographs in the Table of Contents. iv. i. what would be considered lower case for Roman numbers are used. figures. vi. Include titles of textual content. ii. tables. viii. v. In this instance.

Side Heading 1. 6. 2. All the first letters of the major words in the side heading are in UPPER case. As in the case of manuscript titles. Only the first letter of the major words used are in UPPER CASE. but all in lower case. All side headings must be flushed left. A new Chapter starts on a clean. 5. 3. 2. One space underneath the Chapter Number shall be the Chapter Title in UPPER CASE. MAIN MANUSCRIPT BODY Chapter Title 1. The Side Head must be printed three spaces below the last line of the previous paragraph. and centered between left and right margins. Here are specific requirements: 1. type them in inverted pyramid format. new page. Succeeding paragraphs are FICS STYLE GUIDE 18 . 3. Paragraph Heading The main paragraphs of the side heading may have a title called the paragraph heading. 3. Chapter Titles must be brief. Chapter Heading (Center Heading) The Chapter Heading. refers to a major part of the Chapter. sometimes called the Center Heading. The side headings are also called side titles. 4. The Chapter number must be printed in bold face (upper case for first letter and lower case for the other letters of the word chapter. the chapter number itself must also be in upper case). except for the first letter of the first word which should by in upper case. Chapter Headings must be typed in bold letters. BOLD. 2. There would be as many side headings as there are major or important topics in support of the Center Head. All Side Headings are in bold letters. which is usually in bold and italics. Chapter Headings must be three spaces below the last line of the preceding paragraph. but in the event that such titles need to exceed one line.

The paragraph heading is structurally part of the paragraph itself. Just follow the pattern above. here’s how the organization of the chapter would look like. Chapter Number CHAPTER TITLE Chapter (Center) Heading ________________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Side Heading _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Paragraph heading.considered supporting paragraphs and may not have paragraph headings. FICS STYLE GUIDE 19 . Over-all. _______________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ There’s a chance that you would have additional side headings or paragraph headings. _______________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Side Heading _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Paragraph heading.

1. the need for foot-notes have become less necessary. “Enclose the word-for-word quote in quotation marks (“ “) to show that the source author’s exact words appear in your paper. and paraphrases. 1968).In-Text Citation The in-text citation is used to provide information that can immediately tell the reader the source of the material just presented. is “an exact reproduction of an author’s exact words in your own text. If you use too many quotes. except when the author wishes to provide additional explanation or context to the statement just provided in the text. If you have more than three lengthy quotations in one page. according to the Jackson State Community College.” There is a caveat in using quotes. With the use of in-text citation. Example 2: Williams (1968) defined nominal scale as the “assignment of numbers or symbols for the purpose of designating sub-class which represents unique characteristics. it would appear that you’re unable to contribute something original in our paper. you might be using quotes too much. Our sources tell us to consider the following rules when we use quotes: 1. Let us cite liberally from Writing Your Thesis (Librero. The following examples of the use of the author-publication date combination (in-text citation) come from the book titled Writing Your Thesis: Example 1: Nominal scale is defined as the “assignment of numbers or symbols for the purpose of designating sub-class which represents unique characteristics” (Williams. summaries. FICS STYLE GUIDE 20 .” How to cite sources within the text. 2012) 1. The three common techniques of citing other works are quotations. We’re reminded by experts to use quotes sparingly. On the use of quotations: A quote. and this is done by providing the name of the author and year of publication in parenthesis.

use brackets ([ ]) to indicate that material has been added or changed. “If the material you are quoting is longer than four lines. 1.4. figures. On the use of paraphrases: Your paraphrase is how you state the author’s ideas in your own words. “Use ellipses (…) to show that material is left out.3. 3. events.2. or provide further explanation to ideas that could not be appropriately included as part of the text. is your own restatement of the author’s ideas but focusing on the major points in the material. Endnotes are like footnotes but are usually provided at the end of the article or chapter where they were introduced. Whether or not you are employing quotation. On the use of summaries: A summary. and other factual information from the original author’s material. FICS STYLE GUIDE 21 . 1. As much as possible. use block quote format. 1. “If you change anything about the original material to make it fit more neatly or clearly into your essay. you may have the best paraphrase but you’ll still have to cite your source within your text just the same. or summary in presenting the ideas of your source. Nevertheless. which is much shorter than the original material. paraphrase. A paraphrase is usually similar in length compared to the original material. you must always cite your sources. Use of footnotes and endnotes. The footnote appears at the bottom of the same page for which the note is provided. which must convey the same meaning as the original author’s. Footnotes are used to cite sources (instead of in-text citations). which means that you should not use quotation marks but instead indent the whole quoted bit one inch from the left margin so that it is clear what your original work is and what is quoted.” 2. avoid using quotes within a summary. You use your own words even as you include in your paraphrase the original names.

as well as pictorial materials. However. place the footnote at the bottom of the page where the note is mentioned. (b) to make cross references. On the use of statistical tables: 1.Here’s what Turabian (1973) says about footnotes (p. 1973. We consider them a bit cumbersome. (This example is from Turabian. The statistical table has the following parts: FICS STYLE GUIDE 22 . The first line should be indented five spaces and the next lines flushed left. 1. 38.1. (c) to make incidental comments upon. Celeste H. Laguna. There are different techniques and purposes for using non- textual material such as statistical information. 2 The member banks and their contributions are listed in Appendix 3. 1991). It just is placed at the end of the manuscript.) Note that an endnote is formatted similarly. use in-text citation instead. UPLBCA Publications. For our purposes in this style guide. 1 Example: Ma. 78): Footnotes have four main uses: (a) to cite the authority for statements in text – specific facts or opinions as well as exact quotations. to provide a place for material which the writer thinks it worthwhile to include but which he feels would disrupt the flow of thought if introduced into the text. The footnote may be in smaller font size. use footnotes to cite sources of tables and figures/diagrams. If there is a need for footnote in the text. Other presentation tools. (College. Educational Communication for Development. drawings and diagrams. p. we discourage the use of footnotes and endnotes. to amplify or to qualify textual discussion – in short. Cadiz. (d) to make acknowledgments. The use of footnotes and endnotes is discouraged but should there be a need for source citation in the text.

3. Amount of time devoted to functions in ecosystems (%) (horizontal line) (field) (box heading for the (box heading) stub) FUNCTION ECOSYSTEM (stub or side heading) A B C D E Irrigated Rainfed Lowland Upland Deepwater Tidal Wetland Cross Ecosystem MEAN A = policy making ) B = program planning/administration ) C = research ) (footnotes) D = teaching/training ) E = others ) SOURCE: Librero. An important reminder in the use of statistical tables: 1. There is no longer need for double horizontal lines for the top and bottom lines of statistical tables. Prefer multiple variable tables.2. 14. The information provided in such tables are better made part of the formal text. 1. Table 1. 1992. All horizontal lines are single lines. p. such as cross-tabulations. although they may be retained for the stub headings.2.2. Do not construct single-variable tables. FICS STYLE GUIDE 23 .2.2. 1. 1.1. to deal with variable interactions. instead. The vertical lines are no longer required.

especially when textual explanation becomes cumbersome and confusing. % _____________________________________________________________ 20% & less 28 75. and operation.7 26 70.2. Here’s another example: Table 34. Use technical drawings or diagrams when showing detailed parts.8 61 – 80% 0 0.8 81 – 100% 1 2. FICS STYLE GUIDE 24 . Use technical drawings and diagrams in showing and explaining scientific operation that require showing of highly purposive and important details. p. 2.1.0 37 99.5 4 10.7 Total 37 100.1 0 0.0 2 5. % No.4 41 – 60% 3 8. 2.5 11 29. 1992. _____________________________________________________________ Mode of Acquisition Proportion of Purchase Subscription Donation/ Library Holdings Free No. 51.0 37 100. 2.9 _____________________________________________________________ SOURCE: Librero.8 2 5.2 21 – 40% 5 13.7 5 13. their functions. % No.0 4 10.4 4 10. On the use of drawings and schematic diagrams: Drawings and schematic diagrams have the distinct advantage of being able to show highly technical components and provide the necessary explanation for related parts.3 16 43. Mode of acquisition of rice publications.

Gadget connections through fiber optics. SOURCE: Figure 2. FICS STYLE GUIDE 25 .Figure 1. Enlarged cut-out section of a fiber-optic cable.

3. Using words could be the source of confusion in these cases.2. Basco. Use photographs to freeze these events in time and make them available for further analyses for better understanding. particularly where color becomes a significant component of the event. Plate # 1.3. Batanes beach at dusk. On the use of photographs: 3. FICS STYLE GUIDE 26 . 3. This is much more true in modern times. Use photographs to compare conditions before and after introduction of interventions.3. It is said that a single photograph is worth a thousand words. Events in life happen in fleeting seconds and usually do not repeat themselves.1.

Vayang Rolling Hills.Plate 2. Batanes. with Mt. Iraya at background. 2012 FICS STYLE GUIDE 27 . SOURCE: Librero.

The APA also has adopted rules for areas it has not traditionally had rules for. APA for Engineering. Such sources may or may not have been cited in the text. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRIES Difference Between “Bibliography” and “References” This appears as a minor issue. you need not include personal communication sources as part of the bibliography. It must be emphasized here that this FICS Style Guide does not deal with the minute details. etc. the APA Style has been considered one that is applied to the social sciences. The presumption is that. they are also known as publication style guides. 2015). Turabian-Chicago) In general. It is appropriate to provide in-text citation for personal communication sources (i. Suggested UPOU Bibliographic Format The basic intention the FICS Style Guide is really to provide general rules and regulations for the production of documents to be submitted to UPOU through the FICS. By the way. it is highly recommended that you look at the details in the APA Publications Manual. and due to the influence of electronic publications.. each of these Style Guides has its own formats and purposes. it is frequent that writers of theses and dissertations would claim that a source is through personal communication with an expert. These rules and regulations may or may not be similar to any Style Guide available FICS STYLE GUIDE 28 . References. Over the years. While the general guidelines are spelled out on this guide. and the Turabian-University of Chicago Style for general application (usually in universities). Bibliography refers to the listing of sources that were used in the preparation of the manuscript.e. the MLA Style Guide for the arts and humanities. You may italicize this. on the other hand. A word about existing formats (APA. but all of them were designed for publication purposes. The details are all available in the main APA Manual and online. Personal communication. Hence. Over the years. MLA. CBE. but many have been discarded and many new ones added. all the guides have changed. etc. For example. but use of each of the two terms has distinct and significant purpose. APA for the Sciences. is a list of those materials that were used in the preparation of the manuscript and were cited in the text. the CBE Style Guide for the sciences and Mathematics. However. in general. email message on June 15. the FICS adopts the APA-oriented style. There are old rules that remain applicable.

However. Jon and Tian Belawati (eds. FICS STYLE GUIDE 29 . Srinivas R. (2003). not clearly referred to in the FICS Style will have to abide by the detailed rules as provided in the various style guides. Cariño. year of publication enclosed in parenthesis. Richard E. Examples: Harman.). the following order in bibliographic entries shall be followed: For stand-alone books: Author’s name (last name first).today. (ed. Canada. Open University. For Manuscripts to be submitted to UPOU through FICS. The Philippine Social Sciences in the Life of the Nation. year of publication. Ledivina V. The Geography of Thought. place of publication. Singapore: AMIC. title of book in italics (Clc). Distance Education in the Philippines: Issues and Concerns.P. For edited books. double space. (2001). (2010). Philippines: UP Open University. publisher. Librero. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt. Revised Expanded Edition. Inc. A Reappraisal of Theory and Practice. New York: Free Press. with editor treated as author: Name of editor. (ed. all other rules and regulations. Quezon City: Philippine Social Science Center. Ltd and International Development Research Center. Ottawa. Distance Education Technologies in Asia. Felix R. Los Banos. Global Mind Change. place of publication. single space. Baggaley. Felix R. colon. Writing Your Thesis. Nisbett. College. publisher. double space. title of edited book. (2012). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Development Communication in Directed Social Change. single space.). (2008). Laguna. The first line is flushed left and all succeeding lines indented 10 spaces to the right. Willis. Librero. Laguna. Examples: Melkote. Philippines: U. (1998). (2012).).

Shirley P. Sheena Mae C. Ma. MediaAsia. Development communication education in Los Baños: contributions from graduate research. Unpublished MA Thesis. (2006). Garcia. Vol. Devcom mindset: are we ready for it? The Journal of Development Communication. Vol 24. 231-243. Effects of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on the Metacognitive and Reading Comprehension Performance of BEED Students. Canada. University of the Philippines Los Banos. pp.). Problems and Prospects. Quezon City. (2012). No.). University of the Philippines Diliman. AMIC.35-38. No. Felix R. Melkote (ed. Perception of Cash Flow Statements as Financial Information Source and Analytical Tool. For Unpublished Master’s Theses: Bagayas. 2. FICS STYLE GUIDE 30 . Felix R. Felix R. (2004). The Philippine Social Science Council. Cariño (ed. 119-132. University of the Philippines Open University. (2001). Status and trends in development communication research in the Philippines. Distance Education Technologies in Asia. Training Asian instructional designers. For journal articles: Librero. (1991). Librero. (2008). The Philippine Social Sciences in the Life of the Nation. Felix. pp. Singapore. Librero. Chapter 12. (2012). 214-226. Video Technology in the Philippines: Its Status. (2010). Unpublished MDC Thesis. 32. Unpublished MS Thesis. Pasana. agriculture and environment. (2003). Insights into the interrelationship of communication. University of the Philippines Open University. In Ledivina V. Jeanette E. pp. Communication Analysis of the Habitat Model of Community and Social Development Processes. 1. pp. Ottawa. Vallejo-Santiago. New Delhi and International Development Research Center. Librero. In Srinivas R. In Jon Baggaley and Tian Belawati (eds. 50-58. Arminda M. Development Communication in Directed Social Change.).For chapter of a book: Librero. Unpublished MAEd Thesis. Felix R. pp. Sage Publications India.

Pura J. the clear page following the last page for the bibliography should be used as title page for the Annexes. through the FICS. Use of Annexes If the manuscript includes Annexes (these are also called Appendices). (1995). Los Baños. this guide does not give enough details. Librero. Unpublished PhD in Education dissertation.For Unpublished Doctoral Dissertations: Cangara. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Open University. centered in UPPER Case. typed in upper case. (1994). Christia A. (2002). and BOLD. The Use of Satellite Communication for National Integration in Indonesia. Style Guide for Research Writers and Editors. Guevara. Laguna: U. Each Annex must start with a clear page. The Annexes should be assigned pages as well. Admittedly. Interorganizational Communication Variables in Rice Technology Dissemination in West Java. Multimodal-Representation Approach: Effects on Student Conceptual Understanding. University of the Philippines Los Baños. like they are part of the main body text. Annexes may be identified by Roman Numbers or Alphabet. Writing Your Thesis. (1987). Flor. Laguna: PCARRD. Llemit. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Mulyani. Alexander G. (2012). The Information Rich and the Information Poor: Two Faces of the Information Age in a Developing Country. University of the Philippines Los Baños. The word Annexes must be typed. and Attitude in Genetics. Los Banos. Science Process Skills. (2010). The following references could provide such additional guidelines and details: Lastimosa.P. Felix R. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Hafied. and Morma V. bold. For More Details This Style Guide provides you with the general rules and guidelines for the preparation of manuscripts for submission to the UP Open University. University of the Philippines Los Baños. FICS STYLE GUIDE 31 . Eko Sri. University of the Philippines Open University. Indonesia.

. Tokyo. Turabian. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Manual of Publication of the American Psychological Association. End - FICS STYLE GUIDE 32 . Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Munich. Madrid. Manual of Publication of the Modern Language Association. . New York. Singapore. A Manual for Writers (of Term Papers.Lipson. Theses. Web Research. Latest Edition. Montreal. 2nd Edition. Reprinted in the Philippines by National Book Store. Barnes. Paris. Susan B. Cite Right. Barr. Charles. Marie L. Sydney: Pearson. (2006). San Francisco. Toronto. Radford. Mexico City. Kate L. Latest Edition. Hongkong. and Linda R. Boston. Cape Town. 8th Edition. (2006). Latest Edition. (1980). Manual of Publication of the Council of Biology Editors. and Dissertations).