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MSTL 911

Unit -I
Basic Concepts:
Static and kinematic indeterminacy, stiffness and flexibility, stiffness and flexibility matrices for
prismatic members and stepped member / non- prismatic members.

Unit -II
Flexibility Method:
Analysis of 2D pin connected and rigid concrete structure.

Unit -III
Stiffness Method-
2 D Pin connected structures Development of stiffness matrices for truss elements.

Unit -IV
Stiffness Method-2 D Rigid connected structures.
Development of stiffness matrices for beam element, transformations of coordinates, assembly of
global matrices stiffness matrix, load matrix, boundary conditions, solution techniques.

## Unit V Direct stiffness method: 3D Elements

Stiffness Matrices for truss element , beam element & grid element, transformation matrix for 3
D truss element & 3 D beam element, computer programming, applications to practical
problems.

## Introduction to Non Linear Structural analysis:

Material Non- Linearity, non linear stiffness matrix analysis Iterative method, incremental
method, Assumptions, Member stiffness matrix, modification of the structural stiffness matrix,
Incremental displacement and load vector, step by step incremental analysis method, Geometric
Non- linearity Geometric stiffness matrix 2d Truss element.

Reference Books:

Przemienieck, J.S., Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, Tata Mc Graw Hill Book Co.
Martin, H.C., Introduction to Matrix Method of Structural Analysis Mc Graw Hill Book Co.
Jain, A.K., Advanced Structural Anlaysis with Computer Applications Nem Chand & Bros,
Roorkee
Wang, C.K., Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis International Text Book Pasadena.
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
MSTL 912

Unit I
Analysis of stress & strain , stress and strain tensor, spherical and deviatorial stress
tensors, Inditial notation, Two dimensional stress at a point, Cauchys stress
principle, stress & strain transformation, deformation in a linear element, plane
stress & plane strain, Principal stress & strain in 2-D and 3 D, shearing stresses &
strains stress & strain invariants.

Unit II
Differential equation of equillibrium, compatibility equations, General theory of
elasticity, Assumptions of Linear elasticity, stress- strain constitutive relations,
generalized Hooks law, Idealized material behavior , linear elastic material,
Anisotropic materials, Hyperelastic materials, orthotropic materials, Isotropic
materials, relations b/w elastic constants, boundary conditions.

Unit III
Two dimensional problems in Cartesian coordinate system, the stress function,
solution by polynomials, Saint- venants principle, determination of displacements,
Bending of beams, pure bending, pure bending of prismatic bars elasticity
solution.

Unit IV
Torsion of Non-circular bar, displacement & Force formulation, torsion of elliptical
prismatic bar, torsion of rectangular section, torsion of bar with thin rectangular c/s ,
torsion of rolled sections, torsion of thin walled bars, torsional flexural buckling.

Unit V
Buckling of columns, analysis of columns with various end conditions by differential
equations, initially curved members, Eccentrically loaded columns secant
formulae, P-A effect, energy methods applied to buckling, stability of columns, beam

Reference Books:

## Timoshenko, S.P., Theory of Elasticity

Timoshenko, S.P., Theory of Elastic Stability
Lyenger N.G.R., Structural stability of columns & Plates
MSTL 913

Unit -I
Flat Slabs : Direct Design Methods, Limitations of Direct Design Methods,
Shear in flat slabs, equivalent frame method, openings in flat slabs.

Unit II
Redistribution of Moments in Beams : Conditions for moment redistribution,
single span beams, multi- span beams and design of sections.
Deep Beams : General features, Parameters influencing design , Flexural
bending stresses, Shear stresses in deep beams. Minimum thickness, design by IS-
456, design as per British and American Practice, beam with holes.
Design of spandrel beams.

Unit -III
Approximate Analysis of Grid Floors: Analysis by (i) Timoshenkos plate theory
(ii) stiffness method and (iii) equating joint deflections.
Design of Ribbed (voided) slabs: Specifications regarding the slabs, analysis &
design of the slabs for moment and shears
Yield Line Theory : Assumptions, location of yield lines, methods of analysis,
analysis of one way and two way slabs.
Unit -IV
Columns: Effective length, unbraced and braced columns, stability index, columns
subjected to combined axial load and bending.
Unit -V
Structural walls: Braced and unbraced walls, slenderness of walls, design of walls
for vertical and in plane horizontal forces.
Shear Walls: Classification of shear walls, classification according to behavior and
design of rectangular and flanged shear walls.

Reference Books:

Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design by Varghese, P.C., Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.
Reinforced Concrete Limit State Design, Jain, A.K. Nem, Chand & Bros. Roorkee
Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design, Krishna Raju (1986), C.B.S. Publication, New Delhi.
Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals, Ferguson P.M.; Breen J.E. & Jirsa J.O. (1988) John Wiley & Sons,
New York.
Reinforced Concrete Design by S.N. Sinha , Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd. New Delhi.
MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS
MSTL 914

1. Concrete I:
Ingredients, their properties and effect on concrete, Admixtures and additives, steps in
production of concrete, e.g. Batching, mixing, Transporting, placing, compaction,
finishing and curing.

2. Concrete II :
Statistical quality control of concrete, Principles of proportioning, introduction to various
Mix Designing methods, I.S. method of Mix designing, Mix Designing for flexural
strength, Mix designing for pumpable concrete, Mix designing for higher strength,
Testing of concrete

## 3. New Constructional Materials:

Ferro cement, Light weight concrete, High Density concrete, Self levelling concrete.
High performance concrete, shortcrete or gunitting, Polymer concrete. Fiber reinforced
concrete. Jet cement concrete, Waste material based concrete, No fine concrete, Rollar
compacted concrete, Ready mix concrete, Hollow / solid concrete blocks, aerated
concrete / foam concrete, ACP, Types of glasses (sheet, float, frosted, wired, Tempered,
sandwiched insulating, bullet resistance, glare reducing, reflecting, intelligent) Plastics
(poly carbonate, PVC, PVC Foam sheet, window / door pannel & frame).

## 4. Construction Techniques / materials :

Water proofing, Damp proofing, Basic components & requirement of water proofing,
water proofing types and their applications, Smart building materials and structures,
Applications of smart materials, Alternate roofing materials, Geosynthetics.

5. Construction Equipments:
Mechanization in construction: Mechanized vis a vis Labor intensive construction
techniques, Equipment selection & operation, Power shovels, drag line, Scrapper,
Bulldozer, Rippers, Motor grader, their cycle time & capacity rating. Sizing and
matching.

Reference Books:

A.M. Neville Properties of Concrete, ELBS, London, *A.M. Neville, Concrete Technology, ELBS,
London.
M.L. Gambhir, Concrete Technology, Tata Mc Graw Hill, * National Building Code, 1983.
Peurifoy R.L. Construction Planning, Equipment & Methods, Mc Graw Hill book Co. Inc.
Verma Mahesh, Construction Equipments and its Planning & Application, Metropolition Book Company,
N. Delhi.
M.L. Gambhir & Neha Jamwal Building materials Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi.
M.S. Shetti, Concrete Technology S. Chand Publications
DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
CST 615

## Prestressing Systems and Losses of Prestress :

Introduction, various systems of prestressing, Types of losses an their alaysis.

## Working Stress Design of Simple Beams :

Critical load conditions, allowable stresses: Flexural design criteria; axially prestressed member;
design of prestressing cable for a given corss section; design procedure based on flexure,
design by load balancing method and multiple stage prestressing.

Continuous Beams :
Analysis of two span beam, analysis of two span beam with eccentricities at other supports,
continuous beams with variable section, design of continuous beam.

## Miscellaneous Structural Members:

Compression members columns subjected to combined bending and axial force, piles , poles,
piers abutments, Tension members tie members.

## Limit state Design of Beams:

Limit state of strength in flexure, shear and torsion, permissible stresses, Limit state of
serviceability against deflection, cracking and durability; design of simply supported and
continous beams.

## Bond and Anchorage of Prestressing Cables:

Bond in pretensioned and post tensioned construction prestressing cable at centrodal axis,
symmetric multiple cable causing axial thrust, cable with eccentricity, inclined prestressing
cable, spalling stresses, end zone reinforcement,

## Prestressing Concrete Stabs :

One-way slab: two ;way slabs, prestressed concrete beam slab construction, prestressed flat slab.

## Defleciton and Crack Width :

Factors influencing deflection, short term deflections of un cracked members, long term
deflection, deflections of cracked members, estimation of crack width using British code and FIP
recommendations.

Reference Books:
N.Krishna Raju, Prestressed Concrete, Tata Mc Graw Hill, Delhi
P. Dayaratram, Pressed Concrete structure, Oxford & IBH Co., Delhi
Jain & Jai Krishna, Plan & Reinforced concrete, Vol-II Nem Chand & Co., Roorkee
IS 1343-1980 code of practice for Prestressed Concrete, Bureau of Indian standards, New
Delhi.
DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRRETE STRUCTURE
MSTL 915

Unit -I
Introduction , Basic Concept, Definitions Advantages of Prestressing Limitations of
Prestressing Types of Prestressing Pre-tensioning Systems and Devices . Stages of
tensioning Devices Post-tensioning Systems and Devices Stages of Post-
Manufacturing of Post-tensioned Bridge Girder Concrete for prestressing
Constituents of Concrete Properties of Hardened Concrete Properties of Grout.
Codal Provisions Prestressing Steel , Forms of Prestressing Steel, Types of
Prestressing Steel Properties of Prestressing Steel Codal Provisions Losses in
Prestress Introduction Elastic Shortening Friction Anchorage Slip Force Variation
Diagram Creep of Concrete Shrinkage of Concrete Relaxation of Steel Total Time-
dependent Loss

Unit -II
Analysis of Members under Axial Load. Analysis at Transfer Analysis at Service
Analysis for Ultimate Strength Analysis of Behaviour Analysis of Member under
Flexure. Analyses at Transfer and at Service Cracking Moment
Kern Point Pressure Line Analysis for Ultimate Strength Variation of Stress in Steel
Condition at Ultimate Limit State Analysis of a Rectangular Section Analysis of a
Flanged Section Analysis of Partially Prestressed Section Analysis of Unbonded
Post-tensioned Beam Analysis of Behaviour.

Unit III
Design of Members Calculation of Demand Design of Sections for Axial Tension
Design of Sections for Flexure Preliminary Design Final Design for Type 1 Members
Final design of Type 2 members Choice of Sections Determination of Limiting Zone
Post-tensioning in Stages Magnels Graphical Method Detailing Requirements for
Flexure Tendon Profile Minimum Amount of Reinforcement Miscellaneous
Requirements

Unit IV
Analysis for Shear Stress in an Uncracked Beam Types of Cracks Components of
Shear Resistance Modes of Failure Effect of Prestressing Force Design for Shear .
Limit State of Collapse for Shear Design of Transverse Reinforcement Detailing
Requirements Design Steps Analysis for Torsion Stresses in an Uncracked Beam
Crack Pattern Under Pure Torsion Components of Resistance for Pure Torsion Modes
of Failure Effect of Prestressing Force Design for torsion. Limit State of Collapse for
Torsion Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement Design of Transverse Reinforcement
Detailing Requirements Design StepsCalculation of Deflection; Deflection due to
Gravity Loads, Deflection due to Prestressing Force, Total Deflection Limits of
Deflection Determination Moment of Inertia Limits of Span-to-effective Depth Ratio
Calculation of Crack Width
Method of Calculation Limits of Crack Width Pre-tensioned Members Post-tensioned
Members

Unit V
Continuous Beams Analysis Incorporation of Moment due to Reactions Pressure Line
due to Prestressing Force Principle of Linear Transformation Concordant Tendon
Profile
Tendon Profiles Partially Continuous Beams Analysis for Ultimate Strength Moment
Redistribution One-way Slabs Introduction Analysis and Design Two-way Slabs
Introduction
Analysis and Design Features in Modeling and Analysis Distribution of Moments to
Strips Checking for Shear Capacity Spandrel Beams Anchorage Devices Additional
Aspects Compression Members Introduction Analysis Development of Interaction
Diagram, Effect of Prestressing Force, Circular Prestressing Introduction General
Analysis and Design Prestressed Concrete Pipes Liquid Storage Tanks Ring Beams.

Reference Books:

## N.Krishna Raju, Prestressed Concrete, Tata Mc Graw Hill, Delhi

P. Dayaratram, Pressed Concrete structure, Oxford & IBH Co., Delhi
Jain & Jai Krishna, Plan & Reinforced concrete, Vol-II Nem Chand & Co., Roorkee
IS 1343-1980 code of practice for Prestressed Concrete, Bureau of Indian standards, New
Delhi.
N. Rajagopalan, Prestressed concrete (Second edition) Narosa Publishing house.
CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
MSTL 921

Unit-I
Foundations: Techniques of construction of piles, Cassions, Wells, Cofferdams
and diaphragms, Drilling blasting, Underpinning, Shoring and shuttering of
foundation.

Unit-II
Formwork: Design and construction of different types of formworks and
temporary structures, Stationary and slip formwork techniques, Formwork of special
structures eg. Shells, Bridges, Towers etc.
Steel Construction: Fabrication and erection, Shop and insitu construction
techniques, Different connections, Clearances and tolerances, Erection of steel
structures like bridges, Chimneys and trusses.

Unit-III
Prefabrication: Application in construction Modular coordination and
standardization, joints and tolerances; Special equipments and plants for
industrial production of prefabricated components, Pre-engineered Building.

Unit-IV
Prestressing: Concept, Materials and Prestressing methods; Special equipments
and plants for industrial production of prestressed components, Prestressing of
bridge girders, Water tanks and special structures.

Unit-V
Advanced pavement construction Techniques: Pavement construction
using bitumen hot mix plant, Concrete road construction, Fibre reinforced pavement
construction, Low cost road construction techniques, Pavement quality control.

Reference Books:

## 1. Soil Mechanics by Gopal Ranjan , New Age Publishers.

2. Mahesh Verma, Construction Equipment, its planning & Application,
Metropolitan Book Co.(P) Ltd.,
3. Foundation Design Manual by Narayan V. Nayak
4. Prestressed concrete by Rajagopalan
5. Prestressed concrete by T.Y. Lin
6. Highway Engg by Justo and Khanna

****
STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

MSTL 922

Introduction:
characteristics of a dynamic problem principles of dynamics, formulation of
equation of motion.

## Single Degree of Freedom system:

Analysis of free and forced vibration, Duhamels integral damping- types and
evaluation Response of SDOF systems to harmonic excitation Periodic excitation,
methods, generalized SDOF system.

## Equations of motion evaluation of structural property matrices, problem statement

and solution methods, free vibration forced harmonic vibration damped motion for
MDOF, generalized co-ordinates, principles of orthogonality of mode, Eigenvalue
problem, modal response, approximate methods, Stodalla Vinaello, Modified
Reyleights method, HOlzers method, HOlzer, Myklested method, Matrix method,
Energy method, Languages equation, modal anlaysis stochastic response of linear
SDOF and MDOF system to Gaussian inputs.

## Continua with Infinite Degree of Freedom:

Longitudinal vibrations of prismatic barsl torsional vibrations of circular shafts,
transverse vibrations stretched wires, transvers vibrations of prismatic beams,
effect of rotary inertia and shearing deformations beams subjected to support
motions beams traversed by moving loads , coupled flexural and torsional vibrations
of beams transverse vibrations of plates.

Reference Books:

## 1. Clough and Penzien, Dynamics of Structures, Mc Graw Hill Book Company

2. Chopra A.K. Dynamic of Structures- Theory and Application to Earthquake
Engg., Pentice Hall, Delhi
3. Weaver, Timoshenko & Young, Vibration Problems in Engg. John Wiley &
Sons. 1990
4. Glen V. Berg, Elements of structural Dynamic, Prentice Hall, Engewood
Cliffs, NJ.
5. Grover L. Rogers, Dynamics of Framed Structure, John Wiley and Sons.
Inc., New York
HIGHER NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
MSTL 923

Unit-I
Polynomial & Transcendental Equations:
Solution of algebraic and transcendetnal equations by Bisection method,
Regula-falsi mehod andNewton- Raphson method, Iterative method, and its
convergence, Simultaneous linear algebraic equations by Gauss elimination
method, Gauss- Jordan method, Jacobis method of iteration and Gauss
Seidal iteration method, ill and Well condition and refinement.

Unit- II
Numerical Interpolation.
Basic concept of finite differences and difference operations, Relation
between operators Interpolation, Newtons Backward & Forward, Hermite,
Picewise and splire interpolation.

Unit-III
Numerical Differentiation and Integration:
Numerical differentiation (upto second order), Numerical Integration by
Trapezodal rule, Simpson 1/3 rule, Simpson 3/8 rule, Weddles rule, Gauss-
Legendre, Gauss- Chebyshev, Gauss- Hermite.

Unit-IV
Numerical solution of Ordinary Differential Equations:
Numerical solution of differential equations by Eulers method, Modified
Eulers method, Taylors series method, Runge- Kutta (Fourth) order method,
Higher order differentional equations, Pieards method, Picards method for
simultaneous first order differential equation. Picards method for second
order differential equation.

Unit-V
Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations:
Basic concept of partial differential equation, Classification of partial
differential equation , Solution of partial differential equation (Laplace &
Poisson method), Jacobis iteration method, Gauss- Seidal, Heat equation
(Parabolic equation), Wave equations (Hyperbolic equation).

Reference Books:

## 1. Numerical Analysis for Scientists and Engineers: M.K. Jain

2. Numerical method in Science and Engineering . S. Raja Sekaran
3. Introductory method of numerical anlaysis S.S. Sastry
4. Numerical Methods for Science and Engg. R.G. Stantou THEORY OF PLATES
AND SHELLS
MSTL 924

Unit-I
Pure Bending of Plates:
Slopes and Curvatures of Slightly bent plates, relations between moments and
curvatures, Particular cases of pure bending of plates, strain energy in pure
bending, Limitations of pure bending theory.
Symmetrical bending of circular plates:
Differential equation for symmetrical laterally loaded circular plates, uniformly
loaded circular plates, Circular plates with a circular hole at the center, Circular
Differential equation of the deflected surface , boundary conditions, exact theory of
plates.

Unit-II
Simply Supported Rectangular Plates:
Plates under sinusoidal loads, Naviers solution for U.D. patch load and concentrated
load, Levys solution for U.D.L ., Plates under hydrostatic load, Plates of infinite
length.
General Introduction to Shells Theory:
Definition of shell, thick and thin shells, classification of shell surfaces, basis
assumptions, structural action, stress resultants, selection of shell type.

Unit-III
General Introduction to Shells Theory:
Definition of shell, thick and thin shells, classification of shell surfaces, basis
assumptions, structural action, stress resultants, selection of shell type.
Membrane analysis of shells of Revolution:Equilibrium equations, strain-
displacement relations, boundary conditions, membrane analysis of spherical and

Unit-IV
Membrane Analysis of Translational shells:
Membrane forces and displacements of circular, parabolic and elliptic, cylindrical
shells, membrane theory of shells of double curvature, membrane theory for
synclastic and anticlastic shells, governing differential equations for elliptic,
parabolic, and hyper parabolic, shells, conical, shells, membrane behavior of soap
bubble sheets.

Unit-V
Bending Analysis of shells of Revolution:
General theory of a symmetrically loaded shell of revolution equations, strain
displacement relationship, stress- strain relation, stress resultants and displacement
due to edge disturbances in spherical domes and conical shells, design
considerations.
Reference Books:
1. Timoshenko, S.P. & Krieger S.W., Theory of Plates and shells Mc Graw Hill Book Co., New Delhi
2. Chatterjee , B .K, Theory and design of concrete shells, Oxford QI BH Pub. Co., New Delhi.
3. Ramaswany, G.S., Design and Construction of shell roofs, MC-Graw Hill Book Co., New Delhi.
4. IS Code- 2210 1962 Criteria for the design of reinforced concrete shell structures of folded
plates, B.I.S. , New Delhi.
BRIDGE ENGINEERING
MSTL 925
Types of Bridge Super Structures:
Introduction and types, temporary bridge superstructures, military bridges, other
temporary bridges, permanent bridges, R.C.C. bridges, Pre- stressed concrete
bridges, steel bridges, movable steel bridges.

and IRS specifications, traffic lanes, foot way kerbs, railing and parapet loading,
Impact, wind load, longitudinal forces, Temperature effects, secondary stresses,
Erection stresses, Earth pressure, Effect of live load on back fill and on the
abutment.

## Design of R.C. Bridges.

Slab culvert box culvert, Pipe culver, T- beam bridge super- structure, Design
examples, Brief introduction to rigit frame, Arch and bowstring girder bridges.

## Design of Pre stressed concrete Bridges:

Pre- tensioned and post tensioned concrete bridges, Analysis and design of multi
lane prestressed concrete T-beam bridge super structure.

Steel Bridges:
Introduction type of steel bridges, Economical span, loads, permissible stresses,
Fluctuation of stresses, Secondary stresses.

## Plate Girder Bridges:

General arrangement, bridge floors, plate girder railway bridges, deck type plate
girder bridges, design example
Truss bridges:General arrangement, type of bridges trusses, Wind forces on lattice
girder bridge, Bracings, truss bridge for railway- through type truss bridge.

## Pier, Abutment and wing Walls:

Introduction, type of piers, Design of piers forces on piers stability abutments Bridge
code provisions for abutment wing walls, Design examples.
Bearing:
Introduction function of bearing for steel bridges and concrete bridges, Bearings for
continuous span bridges, I.R.C. provisions for bearing. Fixed bearing. Expansion
bearing, Material and specifications, permissible stresses in bearings, Design
considerations for rocker and roller- cum rocker bearing, sliding bearings.
Foundations:Types of foundations and general design criteria, Design of well nad
pile foundations for piers and abutments.

Books:
1. Victor, D.J., Essential of Bridge Engineering Oxford & IBH Pub. Co.
2. Rowe, R.E., Concrete Bridge Design, C.R. Books Ltd., Londan
3. Krishna Raju N., Design of Bridges Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi
4. Krishna Raju N. Prestressed Concrete Tata Mc Graw Hill., New Delhi.
5. New Subject codes for M.E./M.Tech. (w.e.f. July, 2013)

## COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (MSTL- 931)

MSTL 931

Unit-I
Introduction to C++ Programming Basics:
Digital Computer Systems, problem solving techniques, introduction to programming
languages, computer language and C++, source program , Compilation and debugging. C++
Programming Basics: Using Turbo C++, Basic program construction, preprocessor
directive, #include, #define, Header and Library functions, Keywords, INPUT-OUTPUT
Statements, comments, Constants, Variables, and operators, Formatting statements, ENDL
and SETW manipulators.

Unit-II
Loops, Decision and Arrays:
WHILE, DO-WHILE and FOR loops, general structure and control. IF, IF-ELSE statements,
SWITCH, BREAK, CONTINUE statements, GOTO and labels, ARRAY fundamentals,
types, use and manipulation of 2-D arrays as Matrices.

Unit-III
Functions:
Concept of modularization of structured programming: Basics of functions, their type
declaration, definition and structure.

Unit-IV
Object Oriented Programming Concept:
General concepts of Object Oriented Programming, Objects and Classes, Member
Functions, user defined data, Pointers, etc.
File Processing: Streams, String I/O, Character I/O, Object I/O, input-output with multiple
objects, File Pointers, Disk I/O with Member Functions, Error Handing, Printer Output.

Unit-V
Practical Applications:
Programming for mathematical models of structural analysis and design problems; use of
general purpose programs.
Books recommended:
1 Object Oriented Programming with C++ by Robert Lafore
2. Object Oriented Programming with C++ by S.K. Panday

## Finite Element Method

MSTL 931

UNIT-I:
Introduction:
Brief history of the development, general description of the method, advantages and disadvantages of finite element
method, displacement approach.
Basic Principles of Structural Mechanics:
Equilibrium conditions, strain displacement relations, linear constitutive relations. Principle of virtual work energy
principle, application to finite element method.

UNIT-II:
Element Properties:
Displacement models, relation between the modal degrees of freedom and generalized coordinates, convergence
requirements, natural coordinate systems, shape functions (interpolation functions), element strains and stresses,
element stiffness matrix, equivalent nodal loads and static condensation.
Isoperimetric Elements:
Two and three dimensional isoparametric elements, evaluation of stiffness matrix using numerical integration
techniques, convergence criteria.

UNIT-III:
Analysis of Framed structures:
Two and three dimensional truss elements, two and three dimensional beam elements, shear deformation in beams
and beams on elastic foundation
Plane Stress plane strain and Axisymmetric Stress Analysis:
Traingular elements, rectangular elements, isoparametric elements Axisymmetric solid element and patch test.

UNIT-IV:
Three Dimensional Stress Analyses:
Three dimensional solid elements, eight and twenty noded isoperimetric solid element load vector and evaluation of
stresses.
Analysis of Plate Bending:
Co , C1 and C2 displacement functions, plate-bending elements, shear deformation in plates, four and eight noded
isoparametric plate elements, selective / reduced integration and behavior of elements.
Analysis of Folded Plates & Shells:
Review of shell elements, flat shell element, bilinear degarated shell element and eifht noded shell element.

UNIT-V:
Solution of Finite Element Equilibrium Equations:
Direct solution using algorithms based on Gausss elimination, direct solution using orthogonal matrices Gauss-
Siedel Iterative solution, frontal solution method and solution of errors.
Techniques for Non Linear Analysis:
Non linear problems non linear solution techniques, problems involving geometric non linearity and problem
involving both material and geometric non linearity, convergence criteria.

Books:
O.C. Zienkiewiez. The Finite Element Method, Tata-Mc Graw Hill Co. Delhi.
C.S. Krishnamoorthy, Finite Element Analysis Theory and Programming, Tata Mc Graw Hill, Delhi.

Foundation Engineering
MSTL 931

UNIT-I:
Shallow Foundations:
Introduction, General Requirements, Depth of Foundation, Bearing capacity, Eccentric Inclined loads, Bearing
capacity of stratified soils, Settlement of footings, Settlement of footings from constitutive laws, Settlement and; tilt
of eccentrically loaded footings, allowable settlement, Plate bearing test, Standard penetration test, Effect of water
table, Shallow foundation classifications, Modulus of subgrade reaction, Beams on elastic foundation, Raft
foundation.

UNIT-II:
Pile Foundation:
Introduction, Uses of piles, Types of piles, pile drivers, Bearing capacity of piles, Static analysis, Pile load test,
Dynamic methods, Other methods, Negative Skin friction, Pile groups, Ultimate bearing capacity of pile groups,
Settlement of pile group, Influence of pile cap, Laterally loaded piles, Ultimate resistance, Elastic method, Pile
groups under lateral load, batter pile under lateral load, Batter pile groups under inclined loads, Pile under dynamic

UNIT-III:
Well Foundation:
Introduction, elements of a well foundation, Shapes of wells, Depth of well foundation, Depth of scour, Bearing
capacity analysis, Loading, Sinking stresses, Conditions for stability of well, Lateral stability of well, Design of
individual members, Well sinking, Tilts and shifts.

UNIT-IV:
Machine Foundations:
Introduction, Criteria for satisfactory action of a machine foundation, Definitions, Degrees of freedom of a block
foundation, Anlaysis of block foundation, Theory of linear weightless spring, Equivalent soil springs, vertical
vibrations, Rocking vibrations, Vibrations in shear, Simultaneous rocking sliding and vertical vibrations for a
foundation, Indian standard on design and construction of foundations for reciprocating machine, Foundations for
impact type machines, Indian standard on design and construction of foundations for impact type machines,
Analysis of block foundation based on elastic half space theory.

UNIT-V:
Coffer Dams:
Introduction, Types of Coffer Dams, Design data for cellular cofferdam, stability anlaysis of cofferdam, Interlock
stresses.
Deep Open Cuts:
Introduction sheeting and bracing for deep cuts, Movements associated with sheeting and bracing , Modes of failure
of braced cuts, Pressure distribution behind a sheeting, Field measurements.
Soil Exploration:
Introduction, Methods of exploration, Direct Methods and techniques of exploration, Methods of boring, types of
samples, Disturbance of soil sample, Soil samples and sampling techniques, Ground water observations, Boring
records, Spacing and depth of bore holes,Indirect methods of soil exploration, Penetration tests, Geophysical
methods, Dynamic methods, Sequence of exploration programme.
Books:
Bowles, Foundation, Anlaysis and Design, Mc Graw Hill Book Company
Peck, R.B., W.E. Hanson and T.H. Thornburn, Foundation Engineering, Wiley, New York.

## COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (MSTL- 931)

MSTL 931 C

Unit-I
Introduction to C++ Programming Basics:
Digital Computer Systems, problem solving techniques, introduction to programming
languages, computer language and C++, source program , Compilation and debugging. C++
Programming Basics: Using Turbo C++, Basic program construction, preprocessor
directive, #include, #define, Header and Library functions, Keywords, INPUT-OUTPUT
Statements, comments, Constants, Variables, and operators, Formatting statements, ENDL
and SETW manipulators.

Unit-II
Loops, Decision and Arrays:
WHILE, DO-WHILE and FOR loops, general structure and control. IF, IF-ELSE statements,
SWITCH, BREAK, CONTINUE statements, GOTO and labels, ARRAY fundamentals,
types, use and manipulation of 2-D arrays as Matrices.

Unit-III
Functions:
Concept of modularization of structured programming: Basics of functions, their type
declaration, definition and structure. Object Oriented Programming Concept:
General concepts of Object Oriented Programming, Objects and Classes, Member Functions,
user defined data, Pointers, etc.
File Processing: Streams, String I/O, Character I/O, Object I/O, input-output with multiple
objects, File Pointers, Disk I/O with Member Functions, Error Handing, Printer Output.

Unit-IV
Elements of Software Development:
Computer codes for design and analysis of different RC elements e.g. Beams, slabs, columns
and footings.

Unit-V
Practical Applications:
Programming for mathematical models of structural analysis and design problems; use of
general purpose programs.

Books recommended:
1 Object Oriented Programming with C++ b y Robert Lafore
2. Object Oriented Programming with C++ b y S.K. Panday
3. Matrix analysis of framed structures by Gere & Weaber
Reliability Anlaysis & Design of Structures
MSTL 932

UNIT-I:
Probability Theory:
Mutually exclusive events, set theory, sample points and sample space, laws of probability, total probability
theorem, Bayes rule, random variables- discrete and continuous, jointly distributed discrete variables, marginal
distribution, conditional distribution, jointly distributed continuous variables, functions of random variables,
moments and expectations, common probability distribution normal, longnormal, Gamma and Beta distributions,
external distributions.

UNIT-II:
Resistance Distribution and Parameters:
Statistics of properties of concrete and steel, statistics of strength of bricks and mortar, Characterization of variables,
allowable stresses based on specified reliability.

UNIT-III:
Structural Reliability:
General expression for reliability, expression for probability of failure; reliability when strength (S) and load (L)
follow normal distribution, lognormal distribution, exponential distribution, extreme value distributions, factor of
safety corresponding to a given reliability.

UNIT-IV:
Monte carlo study of Reliability:
Monte Carlo Method Inverse transformation technique, Application to columns, beams and frames.
Level 2 Reliability Method:
Basic variables and failure surface, first-order second moment methods-Hasofer and Linds method, Non-normal
distributions: determination of reliability index B of structural elements.

UNIT-V:
Reliability Based Design:
Determination of partial safety checking formats, development of reliability based criteria, optimal safety factors,
calibration of IS 456 and IS 800.
Reliability of Structural Systems:
System reliability, modeling of structural systems, bounds on system reliability, automatic generation of a
mechanism, generation of dominant mechanisms, reliability anlaysis of R.C.C. and steel frames.

Books:
Ranganathan, R, Reliability Analysis and Design of Structures Tata Mc Graw Hill Pb, New Delhi
Rao. S.S. Reliability Based Design Mc Graw Hill Co., New York
Ghosh D.I. A Primer of Reliability Theory John Wiley, New York
Lewis, E.E. ,Introduction to Reliability Engineering John Wiley, New York

## Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures

MSTL 932
UNIT- I
Elements of seismology -
Basic terms, seismic waves , earthquake magnitude and intensity, measurement of earthquake, seismic zoning &
micro zonation.
Earthquake response of structures Consequences of earthquake, Response spectrum, Construction of response
spectrum for Elastic and Inelastic systems.

UNIT-II
Torsion & Rigidity
Rigid diaphragms, Centre of mass, Centre of rigidity, torsional effects;
Design Concept- Earthquake resistant design philosophy, ductility, hysteretic response and energy dissipation.

UNIT-III
Earthquake Analysis of Building Systems
Estimation of dynamic characteristics using Rayleighs, Holzors, Stodolas methods; Loads resulting from
earthquakes, Seismic Load estimation based on relevant IS Codes.

UNIT-IV
Earthquake Design of Buildings
Masonary Buildings: Behavior of unreinforced & reinforced buildings, Box action, Seismic design, Codal
Provisions.
R.C. Buildings: Principles, Ductile detailing, Shear walls, Design of shear walls.

UNIT-V
Seismic design of Special Structures
Design of Liquid storage tanks, stack-like structures, Bridges and Dams.
Seismic strengthening of existing buildings Learning from past earthquakes, retrofitting of masonry buildings,
retrofitting of RC buildings, Seismic Base Isolation.

Books:

Elements of Earthquake Engineering by Jai Krishna, A.R. Chandrasekaran & Brijesh Chandra, South Asian Publishers,
New Delhi.
Earthquake Engineering Handbook by Wai-Fah Chen and Charles Scawthorn, CRC Press Washington,U.S.A.
Earthquake Resistant Design of Masonry Buildings by Miha Tomazevic, Imperial College Press, London UK
Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures by Pankaj Agrawal & Manish Shrikhand, PHI Learning Private Limited,
Delhi
Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures by S.K. Duggal, Oxford University Press, India.
Dynamics of Structures, Theory & Application to Earthquake Engineering; byA.K. Chopra, Prentice Hall, India.
Structural Dynamics, by M. Paz. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
IS-1893 - Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, B.I.S., New Delhi.
IS 4326-1993 : Indian Standard Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings,
B.I.S. New Delhi
IS 13920-1993: Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of R.C. C. Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces, B.I.S., New
Delhi.
Fundamental Concepts of Earthquake Engineering by Roberto Villaverda CRC Press
Fundamentals of Seismic loading on structures by Topas K. Sen, Wiley Publisher
MSTL 932

UNIT-I:
Introduction to Limit States :
Introduction, standardization, allowable stress design, limit state design, partial safety factors, concept of section, classification;
Plastic, compact, semi- compact & slender.
Columns:
Basic concepts, strength curve for an ideal strut, strength of column members in practice effect of eccentricity of applied loading,
effect of residual stresses, concept of effective lengths, no sway columns, torsional and torsional flexural buckling of columns,
robertsons design curve, modification to Robertson approach, design of columns using Robertson approach.

UNIT-II:
Laterally Restrained Beams:
Flexural & shear behavrious, web buckling & web buckling & web crippling, effect o local buckling in laterally restrained plastic
or compact beams, combined bending & shear, unsymmetrical bending.
Unrestrained Beams:
Similarity of column buckling & lateral buckling of beams, lateral torsional buckling of symmetric section factors affecting
laterial stability, buckling of real beams, design of cantilever beams.

UNIT-III:
Continuous beams and Beams columns:
Short & long beam columns, effects of slenderness ratio and axial force on modes of failure, beam column under biaxial
bending, strength of beam columns, local section failure & overall member failure.

UNIT-IV:
Beams subjects to Torsion and Bending:
Introduction pure torsion and warping, combined bending and torsion, capacity check, buckling check, design methods for lateral
torsional buckling.
Beams with web opening:
Guidelines for web opening & stiffners, force distribution, analysis of beams with perforted thick webs, anlaysis of plate girder
with web opening.

UNIT-V:
Composite Construction:
Composite beams elastic behavior, shear connector, characteristics of shear connectors, load bearing mechanism of shear
connectors, ultimate load behavior of composite beams, design of composite beams, composite floors: profile sheet decking,
bending and shear resistance of composite slab: composite columns: design for axial loads, combined compression and uniaxial
bending, combined compression and biaxial bending.

Books:
Teaching Resource for Structural Steel Design Vol-1 to 3, Institute for Steel Development & Growth (INSDAG)
Calcutta
Morsis L.J. Plum. D.R. Structural Steel Work Design. *Sinha D.A. Design of Steel Structure.
Yu W.W. Cold Formed Steel Structures Design *Arya A.S. & Ajmani, J.L. Design of Steel Structures.