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International Conference on Case Histories in (2008) - Sixth International Conference on Case

Geotechnical Engineering Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Aug 11th - Aug 16th

**The Modeling of Deformation Process in Soils
**

With Use of Ansys and Ls-Dyna Programs

G. G. Boldyrev

Penza State University of Architecture and Construction, Penza, Russia

A. J. Muyzemnek

CAD-FEM GmbH, Moscow, Russia

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Boldyrev, G. G. and Muyzemnek, A. J., "The Modeling of Deformation Process in Soils With Use of Ansys and Ls-Dyna Programs"

(2008). International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering. 37.

http://scholarsmine.mst.edu/icchge/6icchge/session_01/37

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The movement equations solution is executed with use of Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method that has allowed to solve a problem at large deformations. to the point of stability loss. and Nikitin E. The numerical solution of a problem is executed with use of programs ANSYS. and movings and speeds of material particles and their pressure by complexity of the internal variables transfer registration and deformations. bad conditionality of a system rigidity matrix. Muyzemnek Penza State University of Architecture and Construction CAD-FEM GmbH. Boldyrev А. 1. the continuous environment movement description for 3D space discretization. [2005])). Theoretical Manual). are connected with points of space. often leads to impossibility of the adequate solution description of the deformable continuous environment. For the solution of dynamic problems the The Lagrangian-Eulerian approach or Arbitrary Lagrangian- finite elements method is used with the obvious or implicit Eulerian formulation (ALE) (as it is called in foreign scheme of integration of the first or second order (program literature) combines both of the approaches (ANSYS LS-DYNA (Boldyrev G. Ranges of these approaches use are well-known. Moscow Penza-Russia Moscow-Russia ABSTRACT In this paper the results of experimental and numerical researches of sand deformation in the basis of a rigid stamp loaded with central and eccentric loads in conditions of a plane and 3D space problem are shown. The Paper No. we shall accentuate only some of them. problems much more often than Euler’s one. even for the sandy basis stability loss. owing to excessive distortion of a Nowadays there are some approaches to the movement mesh. Use of loading.J.08 1 . are often called Ted et al [2000])) is mostly used in Lagrangian approach to historical variables. In the Lagrangian approach the observer watches movement of Lagrangian approach is used for solution of geotechnical material particles of the moving continuous environment. In Euler’s approach to the continuous environment movement Therefore. Unknown quantities are continuous environment movings. our purpose is not to list all of their strengths and description the observer watches points of space. the approach of Euler and stability load and behind of the failure load. formed at large soil deformations is one of the main features Therefore.G. G. the environment feature of stability loss process is its dynamism in the form of material behavior will become rigid. if these excessively deformable or destroyed of stability loss process of the bases foundations. That is why sometimes continuous change of deformation character of the basis at its they say that environment becomes isolated at shear. Unknown weaknesses. Another elements are not excluded from the solution. LS-DYNA and models of soil Drucker-Prager and Сар. During stability loss there are shear deformations in the basis A number of deformable body problems solutions methods are that exceed hundreds percent. However. pressure and deformations. V. The complex behaviour of the bases during their adaptive mesh and finite elements with one integration point stability loss causes certain difficulties in numerical modeling allows to carry out numerical modeling of deformation process of this process. It is caused by Unknown quantities that are searched during the solution are necessity to use additional procedures for definition of the connected with the material particles. THE MODELING OF DEFORMATION PROCESS IN SOILS WITH USE OF ANSYS AND LS-DYNA PROGRAMS G. Soil elements undergo very developed on the basis of Lagrangian-Eulerian approach. including its boundary. Localization of deformations in the form of shear strips large deformations that exceed the size of finite elements. that describe inwardness of the The finite elements method (program ANSYS (Belytschko continuous environment material particles. quantities such as speeds of environment movement. that characterize a condition of ground material particles. In a number of references values. It is both at approach of deformation process to the limiting the approach of Lagrange. combined Lagrangian-Eulerian approach (ANSYS Theoretical Manual).

Each element can laboratory researches of samples of the same sandy soil which contain a mix of several materials. The purpose of the tests is the primary LS-DYNA program. The similar approach is used in works (Di Y.0 for the first part movement.ru) can be used for realization of the given importance of registering numerous factors. and LS-DYNA programs opportunities for the decision of Boldyrev G. Thus.a). The contents and volume of each stage is method the finite element mesh nodes can move within the determined by the purposes of mathematical modeling or area. It includes the automated triaxial device (Fig.08 2 . At the third stage calculations of the intense-deformed condition of the sandy The solutions based on Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. [2004]. Each element can rigid stamp. the interaction. the special attention was given to [2003]) are shown. basis have been executed by method Lagrange (program have advantages of methods Lagrange and Euler concerning ANSYS) and by Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (program LS- continuous environment movement description. stability loss process of the bases. are realized in a number of systems of the automated engineering analysis. G. Soil tests are carried out when method based on Galerkin method (Element Free Galerkin the material model for the description of stress-strain soil method). The test of a soil. the algorithm of linkage Lagrangian-Eulerian realized. Li S. Both methods are mesh-free. was used at modeling the sandy basis. the Schwer-Murray geological model W. In foreign literature it is called Fluid-Structure Kreig ground with destruction (#14). simple shear and hydrostatic compression tests suffices for Malyshev М. and Sato T. which is occupied by material to reduce distortion of a calculation. another – as a solid body. [2003]. for example. Method The realization of triaxial compression and expansion. At the same DYNA). At the problems solution there are often situations when various parts of considered system show various types of In ANSYS program there are two material models for the mechanical behaviour. one part of system description of soil behaviour – the model of Druker-Prager behaves as a liquid. geoengineering tasks. cause necessity to use multistage procedure of shear device (Fig. the (www. which influence tests. [1953]). 1. the geological model Interection (FSI).b) and so on. parameter identification of the majority of material models for soils mentioned above.V. which is fixed in space. [2005].main methods are Arbitrary Lagrangian-Euleran method. opportunities of using material models intended for this purpose. 1. direct Galerkin is applied in works (LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. relations (the material model). In LS-DYNA program the following models are intended for DYNA can be used for modeling of considered parts the description of soil behaviour – the Kreig ground (#5). In a number of references examples of their successful use for the solution of The purpose of present work was the estimation of ANSYS geomechanics problems (Belytschko Ted et al [2000]. Di Y. time they do not have lacks described above. direct soils behaviour. the ground FHWA (#147). (#145). The problem was solved in some stages. in program LS. Therefore they are so efficient for the solution of considered problem. and Nikitin E. 1. For example. [2000]) for the description of saturated soils behaviour. the parameter identification of constitutive Lagrangian-Euleran method. The procedure can be iterative. which is taking into account two invariant of stress tensor - and Sato T. sensitive to large distortions of a mesh. The given solution procedure has been applied in research of If we use a Multi-material Euler method the material flows the deformation mechanism of the sandy basis loaded by a through the mesh. In such situation (DP) and Extended model of Druker-Prager (EDP). used in particles (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) and a mesh-free further soil models calculations. The equipment of firm "Geotek" The features of soil deformation and destructions. Each finite element contains one material. The latter Lagrangian method can be used for the description of a solid model has appeared in ANSYS of version 10. the test tasks solution. At the second stage the soil In a Multi-material Lagrangian-Euleran method the material model has been chosen and its parameters has been defined by flows through a moving grid in space. the real deforming At the problem solution with Arbitrary Lagrangian-Euleran processes modeling. the model of clay (#192) and the Druker-Prager model (#193). The technique description of the various tasks solution in the field of geoengineering. V. and Sato T. that of late years two methods based on approach of Lagrange to the continuous environment Let's consider the contents of the basic stages of a typical movement description. liquid movement. It is necessary to note. the semi- natural tests realization and modeling.geoteck. for example in 1. first stage the experiences with model of a rigid stamp on the sandy basis have been executed. Di Y. and Eulerian method for the description of a time. mesh.K. which allow effective modeling of sequence of deformation process modeling in soils. At the contain a mix of several materials. Such Paper No. they are based on local behaviour is chosen and its parameter identification procedure approximation of movings nodes or particles so they are not is defined. In this case. and Liu CAP-model (#25). It is a mesh-free method of the smoothed information sufficient for parameter identification. procedure assumes presence of the following stages – the test Multi-material Eulerian method and Multi-material Arbitrary of a material.

At the first stage the hydrostatic compression by pressure accordingly 100 and 200 kPa was carried out. and the vertical pressure increased before sample failure. Then. 2. Further lateral pressure was supported at the given level. T1 ) and (σ m 2 . The accuracy of material model parameters definition can be increased by enlargement of tests number and by LS-DYNA program approximation with the least squares method. Advanced Druker-Prager model using a parabolic or b) hyperbolic surface of fluidity and plastic potential demands a greater number of tests to define the same parameters. σ y are the parameters of the model. σ y parameters are connected with Mohr-Coulomb parameters by the following dependences [6] 2 sin(φ ) 6c cos (φ ) β= . σy = . From the first relation (3) by a known value of parameter β it is possible to define numerically or graphically an angle of internal friction. Two samples tests are enough. The equation of a yield surface in Druker-Prager model (DP) is [6] F = T + 3βσ m − σ y = 0 . we have: (σ 1 − σ 3 ) max 1 T2 − T1 J 2D = .08 3 . The yield surfaces Druker-Prager and Cap are shown in Fig. T2 ) . (2) 3 3 σ m 2 − σ m1 Fig.ru and GOST 12248-96 [4]. The results of tests submitted in a Fig. for example. The loading of each sand sample was carried out in two stages. The yield surfaces: Druker-Prager (a) and Cap (b) a) The β y . (3) 3(3 − sin(φ )) 3 (3 − sin (φ )) where с is the cohesion and φ is the angle of internal friction. 2 allow to determine two points laying on a yield surface: (σ m1 . (1) where T is the intensity of shear stress. σ y = T1 + 3βσ m1 . J 1 = σ 1 + 2σ 3 β =− . Substituting the given values in the equation (1) and solving the received system concerning unknown parameters. for definition of all parameters of Druker-Prager model (DP) and advanced Druker-Prager model (EDP) which is realized in the ANSYS program.tests realization is given in works on site www. β y . Paper No.The parameter identification of constitutive relations.1. Additional odometer tests are required for parameters definition of CAP-model (*25) realized in LS-DYNA program.geoteck. σ m is the average stress. 1. 1. the cohesion can be determined from the second equation (3).

Let pressure on the cube side change as: ⎧ P1t ⎪ k where 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. 3. (5) experimental data. the following parameter can be defined: ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎜ ε xp + ε yp + ε zp ⎟⎟ β = tg ⎜ a sin ⎜ ′ (( ) ( ) ( )) ⎟⎟ . (4) definition can be increased by enlargement of tests number 6 cos (φ ) and by LS-DYNA program approximation with the least squares method. With the help of this angle we can define the 3. The accuracy of material model parameters c= . The diagram of deforming process dilatancy numerically or graphically by use of Eq. as shown on Fig. The Druker-Prager surface (curve 1) and the trajectory the hydrostatic pressure. ε zp determined as a result of tests of cylindrical samples on triaxial compression. 3. 3σ y (3 − sin(φ )) addition. and for definition of of internal friction = 19 degrees and an angle of dilatancy φ’ = parameters of CAP-model (#25) realized in LS-DYNA 19 degrees. on which the required parameters of 3(3 − sin(φ′)) models were received.p) are shown on Fig. an angle realization of the greater number of tests. t is a time. k = 1 .1 definition of the appropriate parameters requires the MPa. which enters into relation of plastic potential As an example we shall consider the stress-strain state of cube.p) According the plastic deformation values on the appropriate coordinate axes ε xp . to β′ = . 1. Here T is the intensity of shear stress and p is Fig. (7) 3 ⎜ ⎜ 3 ε xp 2 + ε yp 2 + ε zp 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠ On the certain value of β′ . Third parameter of Druker-Prager model (DP) is the angle of dilatancy φ ′ . It is required to realize the odometer tests in Paper No. p1 = p2 = ⎨ P ⎪ 1 where 1 < t ≤ 2. (8) ⎩k ⎧ P t where 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 p3 = ⎨ 1 ⎩ P1 + (P2 − P1 )(t − 1) where 1 < t ≤ 2. Let P1 = 20 kPa. p3 as function of time are Q = T + 3β' σ m − σ y = 0 . The surface failure (curve 1) and the stress path (curve 2) in space (T . cohesion с = 11 kPa. program. to which sides the pressure p1 p2. 2. P2 = 100 kPa. (5). it is possible to define a angle of Fig. carried 2 sin(φ′) out for definition of materials model parameters.08 4 . The solution of test tasks. where k is parameter P1 и P2 are the parameters of loading process. The purpose of the test tasks following parameter: solution is to check the correspondence of deformation process modeling results realized at laboratory samples tests. (6) enclosed. ε yp . of loading process of the cube (curve 2) in space (T . The Extended Druker-Prager model (EDP) using a parabolic During solution we shall use Druker-Prager model with the or hyperbolic yield surface and the plastic potential for following parameters: the module of deformation Е = 5.25. Puasson factor µ = 0. 2.

σzz. ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ The results of modeling are submitted on Fig. J1 . 4. we shall receive: 1 p 1⎛ 2p ⎞ p3 − 1 − 3β ⎜ 1 + p3 ⎟ = σ y . The analysis of modeling results allows to make the following conclusions: . s_22 . So the received values of plastic deformation at t = 2 c are: The definition of pressure value p 3 . (10) we shall determine the pressure. loading process reaches yield surface. During calculation we use CAP-model of stress-strain state of . 7) and corresponds to the analytical decision.σxx. J 2 are the first and second invariants .εpxx. to the calculated values of plastic deformations. 8.σi p1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ σy + ⎜⎜ + 2β ⎟⎟ k ⎝ 3 ⎠. At modeling we shall use the associated law of plasticity as φ = φ ′ = 19 degrees. (6). that will be yield surfaces. s_33 . Further we shall assume. 4 and Fig 5.015 . The results of deformation process modeling are submitted in a Fig.εpv equals 70 kPa (see Fig. (9) 3 k 3 ⎝ k ⎠ Having substituted T and σ m in Eq. ⎜ ⎜ p p p ⎟⎟ 1 ⎜ ⎜ ε x + ε y + ε z ⎟ ⎟ = 0 . s_i . is carried out numerically. that the yield surface corresponded to the original data. surface (curve 1) and stress path (curve 2) in space of stress invariant are shown.εp zz. The relationship between stress (Pa) and time: s_11 .The process is ideal elastic-plastic.The plastic deforming is accompanied by change of cube cube at pressure P1 = 20 kPa. ε yp = −0. Fig.The Eq.0075 . at which stress in cubed achieved the yield surfaces: Fig. On Fig.Let's define pressure p3 . . EP_22 . P2 = 40 kPa. EP_V . will be achieved at 1 < t ≤ 2. the value of pressure p3 .εpyy. 7 and Fig.σyy. σ m = − ⎜ 1 + p3 ⎟ .4 degrees. (7) allows to inspect conformity of a dilatancy angle of stress tensor. at which stress in cube achieved the The angle of dilatancy is 19. Let's carry out modeling the loading process of a cube in ANSYS. 5. For definition p3 we shall write down equations for definition of the intensity of shear stress T and average stress σ m : 1 p 1 ⎛ 2p ⎞ T= p3 − 1 . at which the trajectory of ε xp = ε zp = 0. 6 CAP- volume (see Fig. 1. 3).08 5 . p3 = (11) 1 −β 3 At the given parameters of material model and loading conditions we shall receive p3 = 70 kPa .236 (12) β′ = tan a sin 3 ⎜ p ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ p 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) p 2 ⎜ 3⎜⎝ ε x + ε y + ε z ⎟⎠ ⎟ ⎟ 2 The analysis of modeling results allows to make the following conclusions: ⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠ Paper No. (10) 3 k 3⎝ k ⎠ From Eq. The relationship between plastic strains and time: at which the cube material passes into elastic-plastic state EP_11 . EP_33 .

EP_33 . Measurement of the settlement was carried out to four LVDT with accuracy of 0. the pressure value p3 . The CAP-surfaces in space ( J 2 . that is the certificate of deforming process approximation to loss of stability (Fig.σi long axis of symmetry.. Loading on a stamp was put by steps of 10 % from settlement limiting with endurance at each step until stabilization of deformations.08 6 . 8. EP_22 . 6. The character of deforming of sandy basis surface in conditions of space deformation is shown on Fig.4×0.4 %.The process is elastic-plastic with weak hardening.εpyy.1 m in and the trajectory of cube loading process (curve 2) the layer of a sandy by size of 3×3×2. s_33 . Paper No. During the loading process we registered the loading on a plate and the vertical displacement of a plate. which made more than 0. The feature of given process is the significant depth of plate settlement to the sand. In the second series of experiences vertical loading was put with eccentric in 0.0 kN/m3.06 m.3×0. Moisture of sand = 1.20 m with compaction soil up to noted density. Fig.vertical displacement" curve was observed.5 m. In the first series of experiences the behaviour of the sandy basis was investigated at the central action of loading. 9 a.The plastic deforming is accompanied by the change of cube volume (Fig. In experiences measurement of deformation of the basis surface in a direction of both axes of a stamp symmetry by ten LVDT. EP_V . The considered tests Fig. s_i . Thus essential reduction of inclination of "loading .σzz. and in the third series with eccentric in 0.J 1 ) (curve 1) consisted in indenter of a steel plate by size 0. Vertical moving of a stamp was Fig. .05 m. and also the vertical displacement of sandy ground surface in longitudinal and cross sections. Loading was created by a hydraulic jack. The modeling of semi-natural tests. Sand kept within a tray layers on 0. placed in a box. The relationship between plastic strain and time EP_11 . The basis has been executed from fine-grained sand with density 16.10 m in a direction of the long party of a stamp on its axis of symmetry.01 mm.σyy. 9 b). 7.εpv 4.εpxx.σxx . 1. s_22 . The purpose of semi- natural test realization was the research of deformation and destruction laws of a real sandy soil with geometrical similarity of model and real base. The relationship between stress (Pa) and time: measured in two points on the opposite parties of a stamp on a s_11 . 8).εp zz. at which the cube material passes into elastic-plastic state corresponds to the numerical decision.

modeling sand tests by a stamp at central and eccentric load. Fissures extend in a radial and ring direction in relation to a rectangular stamp. Loss of stability of the sandy basis in classical sense in the form of sharp settlement of a stamp and sand failure is observed only at of the central loading. 9 b. If we implement eccentric it will be impossible to reach a strongly pronounced limiting condition at loading. The ground surface adjacent to the stamp bulges is unilateral. At the first stage calculations were carried out with use of ANSYS program. 1. Deformation of sandy basis surface (a) and dependence settlemet of a stamp from loading (b): 1 – central load. The solution of the movement equations is executed by Lagrange method.05 m. 10 c) took place in sand and developed progressively in process of growth loading. 9 d) practically linearly depends on loading up to skilled values of the loadings corresponding of the basis stability loss. The similar mechanism of deformation of the basis with formation of fissures has been revealed for conditions of plane deformation in (Murakami A. The purpose of this research stage is numerical realization of a problem of a stamp implantation in a sandy ground to the point of a maximum load on stability of the sandy basis. Actually it was not possible to realize a limiting condition in calculations. At loading close to limiting on a surface of the sandy basis visible fissures are formed. et al [2005]). 2 – eccentric 0. in spite of the fact that the basis b) plastic deformations of shear (Fig. a) 5. The size of a bulges sand decreases for surfaces of the basis with growth eccentric loading. The diagram of deformation has no sharp excess. The site of linear deformation decreases with growth eccentric load. Settlement of a stamp it is accompanied by its turn in a direction of loading eccentric actions. Numerical modelling of tests of the sandy basis by a rigid stamp. In all cases settlement of a stamp (Fig. Here we can see influence eccentric of loading on character settlement of a stamp and size of a maximum load. 3 – eccentric 0. 9.08 7 . a) Fig. Paper No.1 m b) Average values from five results of tests for each kind loading are shown on Fig. Druker-Prager soil model and the associated law of flow. Calculations have been executed for three cases loading.

620 Fig. Fig.c). equal to a. 31 and 41 mm speed of movement of a stamp. c . d) a b c Fig. 12). 11 b. A stamp loading was carried out continuously with the set speed of 0. and a zone of expansion in the form of strips. c is the vertical displacement of a plate 21. decreasing with its increase. d . column. Some results of calculation of the sandy basis at g/sm3. b . In a zone of compaction it reaches the value of 1. The size given. In process of stamp settlement growth the density of sand decreases up to 1. in the area 1 which does not move with growth deposits of a stamp is shown. 31 and 41 mm accordingly On Fig.2 m/s. Step- vertical displacement. 11. 11. Change of distribution character at increase in vertical loading testify to occurrence.05 m with use of model of soil Druker. Under a stamp there is an area of sand. 1. The distribution of density sand (g/sm3): which moves with a speed of 0. 11.model of the basis. and in a zone of the maximal dilatancy . Distributions of the module of speed in vertical section of settlement area during the various moments of time are shown on Fig. but calculations have been executed for the conditions of plane deformation. has been used in a combination to CAP-model. The zone of compaction has an outline in the form of a Prager and programs ANSYS: a . 10.plastic strain of shear. c) in process of growth of external loading and coincides under the form with the compacted soil body observable in experiences. 14 (for a stamp with eccentric loading). eccentric loading of 0. Some results of mathematical modeling are presented on Fig. 13. At the second stage LS-DYNA program has been used. 12 (for model of central loaded stamp). Initial density of sand is 1. ALE method realized in program LS-DYNA. expansion and interaction of area of plastic deformations with lateral walls of a b c a box (Fig. c is the vertical displacement of a plate 21. strip which is displaced from edge to the right from under a stamp in a direction to a free surface of the sandy basis. 10. b. Distributions of sand density of the basis in vertical section of settlement area during the various moments of time are shown on Fig.1. 12. as though "зависшей" areas of sand changes with growth deposits of a stamp. This area changes the volume accordingly Paper No.relation by-step loading leads to progressing development of a shear settlement of a stamp from loading. The distribution of speed module (m/s) in settlement area: a.08 8 .600 g/sm3. 12.600g/sm3 or increases up to 1.2 m/s (Fig.614 g/sm3. b. and on Fig. 11.620 g/sm3 in sand under a stamp.

The lines of equal deformations of shear at a settlement of the stamp. «an elastic soil kernel ») which has been revealed deformations on the bottom boundary. and its volume with (located under a stamp) is the so-called compaction soil body. represents the second family of sliding lines on Sokolovskij if to accept a shear strip starting from a corner of a stamp and leaving on a surface of the ground for the first family of lines of sliding. 15). Experiments have earlier experimentally (Malyshev 1953). develop from corners of a stamp. leads to progressing development of a shear strip which edge is displaced to the right from under a stamp in a direction to a Further with growth of loading (Fig. b. It adjoins a free surface of the basis. 12 с) shear deformations free surface of the sandy basis. and their maximal values are localized the depth of 1. 1. It is necessary to shown.near to a maximum load. On same figure the area 1 is of the first and second kind are united in two strips dividing a shown. 14. 12 [1965]) are shown on Fig. 15.V. that at load equal to bearing capacity the compaction of under a stamp volumetric deformations of expansion of sand sand takes place in a column ground under a stamp in spite of prevail and only in a small zone under a stamp volumetric the fact that it is divided into parts by shear strips. causing expansion of sand. 14.620 g/sm3. in the basis note. equal: a . that the fan of the second strips starting radially from the corner of a stamp. Fig. 1960). You can see the zones of sand compaction and expansion of on Fig. that b) there are deformations of shear of the second kind (from top deformations of shear arise in corners of a stamp and extend of «an elastic soil kernel») on a vertical axis of symmetry on downwards and aside. 1. mainly within the limits of a column of the stamp Fig.08 9 .behind a maximum load Similar character of the sandy basis deformation is received as a result of numerical calculation. as well as in experiments. 12 a. 13. The most intensive expansion of sand is observed in a direction of development of It is interesting to note the fact. Here there are no deformations of shear at all loading zone of compaction symmetrically in four pieces. deformations of compression are observed. loadings equal 0.1 m Paper No.The results of deformation field measurement in the sandy width of a stamp. Step-by-step loading of 1. Similar character of deformation of the sandy basis is observed and at eccentric floading (Fig. 11. The area 1 which does not move and its volume decreases with growth of loading is shown on Fig. growth of loading decreases owing to development of shear (sometimes. that at loading close to limit on stability. 7 we can see.600 g/sm3) reaches a surface of the ground.05 m Fig. 12 c you can see. The average sand density in this area is basis in conditions of a plane problem (Sokolovskij V. where b . The distribution of density sand (g/sm3) at eccentric loadings equal 0. At initial loading steps (Fig. On Fig. of the sandy basis numerically is very similar to a mesh of sliding lines of the analytical decision of the theory of limit equilibrium state (Sokolovskij. In sand the deformations of compaction dominate. On Fig. and on depth equal (3-4) b. The first steps.13. 12) deformations of shear of the first kind. The narrow zone of sand expansion (density within the limits of rather narrow strip.5b. The distribution of density sand (g/sm3) at eccentric limited in the width. At loading more than 30 % from limiting (Fig.c.b. that character of deformation the maximal deformations of shear.

B . LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual. [1953]. Inst. 664-672. Initial density of sand of the basis on Fig. Modelling.Owen. Brian Moran [2000]. as well as the value of a maximum load (Fig. [1965]. [2003]. 1285-1309. Fig. 36-40.Onate. No. 1 m References ANSYS Theoretical Manual. In: Geomechanics. Wing Kam Liu. [2000].. Annuals of Disas. pp. “Computational Modelling of Large Deformation of Saturated Soils Using an ALE Finite Element Method”. and Liu W. COMPLAS VIII.608g/sm3. “Statics of Granular Media”. Prev. University of Washington. 16 th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference. Journal Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. 1. Fig. Barcelona. “Arbitrary Lagrangian- Euleran Method for Consolidstion Problems in Geomechanics”. 14. and Simulation. www.: E. www. 48. Dependence settlement from vertical loading at various eccentric: A.. [2005]. The diagram of dependence of the vertical force acting on a plate. Seattle. from vertical moving a plate is shown on Murakami A. “Numerical simulation of strain localization in inelastic solids using mesh-free methods”. pp. [2005].central loading. “Theoretical and experimental loading.V.05 m. Res. 16. Setsuyasu T. researches of bearing capacity of the sandy basis”. Boldyrev G.08 10 . 16. Wiley.ru. Moscou. Kyoto Univ. [2005]. D. [2004]. SpringerLink. 47 C. G. Di Y. Arimoto S. The schedule has obviously expressed nonlinear “Mesh-Free Method for Predicting the Behavior of Saturated character... Eds.J. Di Y. and Nikitin E. VIII International Conference on Computational Plasticity. No. and Sato T.K. pp. Oxford. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering.ru. Sokolovskij V.V. and Sheng D.R. Paper No. Pergamon.eccentric 0. Nazem M. 1. Soil”. 16). Testing. “Deformation of sand in the bed of a strip footing”. and Sato T. Belytschko Ted.cadfem. 15 is Inst. “Remapping Scheme in ALE Method for Liquefaction Simulation”. „Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures”. VODGEO (in Russian). V. C – eccentric 0..The bulges prism size decreases with growth of eccentric Malyshev М. Li S.cadfem. Nishiyama T.

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