International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 7, July-2014 1050

ISSN 2229-5518

High Strength Concrete using Ground Granulated
Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)
Thavasumony D, Thanappan Subash, Sheeba D.

Abstract — Concrete is a brittle material when it undergoes heavy loads, cracks will form and to reduce this and improve high strength in
concrete certain admixtures are used. To produce high strength concrete these Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag is used. It is
obtained by quenching molten iron Slag (a by-product of iron and steel making) from blast Fornance in water or steam. GGBS is used to
make durable concrete structure in combination with ordinary Portland cement and (or) other pozzolona materials. Concrete containg
GGBS cement has a higher ultimate strength than concrete made with Portland cement. It has a higher portion of the strength enhancing
calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) than concrete made with Portland cement only and a reduce content of free lime which does not contribute
to concrete strength, concrete made with GGBFS continues to gain strength overtime, and has been shown to double its 28-day-strength
over periods of 10 to 12 years. Our project is a testing project compared with the compressive strength of PCC and GGBFS, used
concrete. Here the amount of cement is reduced and that amount is replaced with GGBS.

Index Terms— Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Calcium silicate hydrates, Portland Blast Furnace Cement, Sulfate
Resisting Portland cement, Seive Analysis, Pyconometer, Pozzolona materials.

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1 INTRODUCTION

A
ny construction activity requires several materials such without segregation, early age strength, permeability etc.The
as concrete, steel, brick, stone, glass, clay, mud, wood researchers have done considerable work on replacing the

IJSER
and so on. However, the cement concrete remains the cement with fly ash and blast furnace slag without affecting
main construction material used in construction industries. the strength.
For its sutability and adaptability with respect to the changing GGBS is obtained by quenching molten iron slagfrom a
environment, economize and lead to proper utilization of en- blast furnace in water or stream, to produce a glassy, granular
ergy. To achieve this major emphasis must be laid on the use product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder.
of wastes and byproducts in cement and concrete used for GGBS is used to make durable concrete structures in combina-
new constructions. The utilization of recycled aggregate is tion with ordinary Portland cement and/or other pozzolanic
particularly very promising as 75 percent of concrete is made materials. GGBS has been widely used in Europe, and increas-
of aggregates. In that case, the aggregates considered are slag, ingly in the United Statesand in Asia for its superiority in con-
power plant wastes, recycled concrete, mining and quarrying crete durability, extending the life span of buildings from fifty
wastes, waste glass, incinerator residue, red mud, burnt clay, to a hundred years. GGBS reacts like Portland cement when in
sawdust, combustor ash and foundary sand. The enormous contact with water.
quantities of demolished concrete are available at various con- Bulk GGBS is stored and handled in conditions identical
struction sites, which are now posing a serious problem of to that of Portland cement.Bulk storage is in watertight silos.
disposal in urban areas. This can be easily recycled as aggre- Transportation is by bulk tankers, as for Portland cement.
gate and used in concrete. Research and Development activi- GGBS can also be moved by airslides, cement screws and
tieshave been taken up all over the world for proving its feasi- bucket elevators. Dust control is the same as that required for
bility, economic viability and cost effectiveness. Concrete is Portland cement. GGBS dust does not present any fire or ex-
basically a mixure of cement, fine and coarse aggregates. plosion hazard.
High-Performance Concrete (HPC) conforms to a set of stand-
ards above those of the most common applications, but not 1.1 Applications of GGBS
limited to strength. GGBS used in the production of quality-improved slag ce-
ment, namely Portland Blast Furnace Cement (PBFC) and
———————————————— High Slag Blast Furnace Cement (HSBFC) with GGBS content
• Mr.D.Thavasumony is currently working as Lecturer in the ranging typically from 30 to 70% and in the production of
department of Civil Engineering in Ambo University, Ethiopia, ready-mixed or site-batched durable concrete. GGBS reduces
PH - 9965269698, 00251927206664. E-mail: the risk of damages caused by alkali-silica reaction (ASR),
thavasumonyben@gmail.com provides higher resistance to chloride ingress-reducing the
• Mr.Thanappan Subash is currently working as Lecturer in the risk of reinforcement corrosion and provides higher resistance
department of Civil Engineering in Ambo University, Ethiopia, to attacks by sulfate and other chemicals. GGBS cement is
PH – 7667017757, 00251939722372. E-mail: added to concrete in the concrete manufacturer’s batching
thanappansubash@gmail.com plant, along with Portland cement, aggregates and water. The
• Mrs.D.sheeba is currently working as Lecturer in the Department normal ratios of aggregates and water to cementitious material
of Civil Engineering in Udhaya School of Engineering, India, and in the mix remain unchanged. GGBS is used to direct replace-
PH - 9444467229. E-mail: dsheebaebenezer@gmail.com ment for Portland cement, on a one-to-one basis by weight.
Some of the standards are ease of placement, compaction
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fineness of cement and the fine aggregate. 1. 300µ and pan) is Formwork striking of GGBS concrete: Irrespactive of binder taken and weight is noted. mix the ingredients of concrete. time of concrets with high levels of GGBS. • Fine aggregate • Coarse aggregate 1.) are typical. 8mm dia HYSD bars were used as main rein- determine their compressive strength. given the In laboratory. was allowed to mix for 10 minutes. granular product that is then • Sustainability dried and ground into a fine powder. 2002).0. Square shaped modules were Maturity methods and temperature models: A strength de. Age for Portland cements while others (Wimpenny &Ellis. and cured for 28 days. The 1300 MJ. 2003). Now concrete proposed methodology: During the fired earth brick manufac. 1. and 2. the following procedure was followed in casting first. mix ratio that we adopted is 1:1. damage 10 N/mm or twise the stress a member is subjected to Initially mass of empty pyconometer is taken then followed by IJSER for a member in flexure to withstand a load.Clear (1994) found mass of sand with pyconometer. cific gravity is found out by using pyconometer. Initially the compres- forcement.International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research.6mm. Then by using the strength development of the concrete. uniformity coefficient and coefficient of reached before striking concrete members as: 5 N/mm for curvature were found out. Volume 5. There tries including the UK.org . Issue 7. are becoming a major environmental concern for many coun. Con. aggre- 1991) verified the principle of Equivalent Age for a range of gates and cement were mixed for 5 minutes.By using the standard formulas type. 4. including site-batched 4. made to find out the compressive strength and for further comparisons. with a corresponding Co 2 emission of just 0.07 tonnes mix propotion kept costant throughout the the project. Then fibres were uniformly dispersed by Experimental verification of principles of underlying the hand throughout the mass with slow increment. sand+water+pyconometer. ordinary methods (hand mixing) were used to mean air temperature and cement type.1 Tests Conducted: and precast. ed within 2 minutes. ty.5. it is not available for smaller scale Before casting of cubes it is required to test the specific gravi- concrete production because it can only be economically sup. water being add- combinations of GGBS and Portland cement. IJSER © 2014 http://www. GGBS is also used in other forms of concrete. There are total 20 cubes including the conventional one. it was thoroughly compact- of PC is about 5000 MJ with atleast 1 tonne of Co 2 emitted to ed using equipments.2 Advantages of GGBS • Water • Durability GGBS is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by product • Appearance of iron and steel making) from a blast furnace in water or • Strength stream. Coarse aggregate of crushed rock with a maxi. 2007) while the equivalent energy usage of 1 tonne placing the concrete in the mould. M25 grade concrete crete strength can therefore be expressed as a function of time were used throughout the experiment. BS 8110 (1985) set out the minimum in-situ strength to be fineness modules. to produce a glassy. 6mm dia MS bars were used as stirrups.0 with respect to the weight of cement added. Seive analysis is plied in bulk. 2003) these emissions The fibre is added in the increase in percentage of 0. July-2014 1051 ISSN 2229-5518 Replacement levels for GGBS vary from 30 to 85%. used for casting and they having a dimension of 15x15x15cm. members in compression to protect against possible frost To determine the specific gravity pyconometer is used.5. well compacted using a table vibrator. several gases (Co 2 etc. Weaver into the mould. The materials used in this investigation were: Ordinary Port- land cement. The mixing was done in the mixing tray using showels. 2mm.ijser. This was concluded standard formulas the specific gravity and the moisture con- form an experiment designed to assess the formworkstriking tent were found out. A set of conventional concrete cube also the 213 atmosphere (Wild. Harrison (1995) presented tables of the recommended time to elapse before 4. inside of it is painted with oil to reduce the and Sadgrove (1971) put forward the principle of Equivalent adhesion of concrete on the mould. All the specimens were turing process for example. • Better workability The disadvantage of the higher replacement level is that 4 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP early–age strength development is somewhat slower. While (Higgins. that the higher propotion of GGBS slower the early age pyconometre+water is taken in gram. 1mm. ly released from the brick kilns (US EPA. Typically • Cement 40 to 50% is used in most instances. In sieve anal- ysis 1kg of fine aggregate and 100gms of cement is taken and tested separately. The cubes are immersed fully on water after 24 3 MATERIALS AND MIX hours from casting for proper curing.25. To avoid balling of fibres. Spe- applications include the in-situ stabilization of soil. The amount of materials retained in each 2 LITERATURE SURVEY sieve analysis (4.2 Casting and Curing: striking formwork for a specified grade of concrete.3 Tests conducted for Cubes: mum size of 20 mm. Unfortunately. velopment of concrete is dependent on the rate of hydration. fine aggregate of clean river sand and After proper curing for seven and 28 days they are tested to portable water. GGBS is not only used in concrete and other done to find the fitness of cement and the fine aggregate.75mm.26:2. The energy usage of 1 tonne of GGBS is was no replacement of cement for the addition of fibre. 0.Before placing concrete and temperature-the maturity function (Neville. The which itself is dependent on the reaction temperature.

Initially the dead 3 1mm 1 1 1 99 weight of the pyconometer is taken. In that four cubes two of them are tested 5. The 2 2mm 0 0 0 0 specified weight of fine aggregate is taken. % of ture of cement are 4.86 and 0. It is a glass jar having standard dimension. 5.3 Determination of specific gravity using tained pyconometer Pyconometer is used to determine the specific gravity of speci- 1 4.77 respectively.75mm 0 0 0 0 fied material. Y-Values 5.0015mm 17 17 92 8 Mass of pyconometer + sand + water (m3) = 1750gm Mass of pyconometer + water (m4) = 1345gm 8 Pan 18 18 100 0 Thus the gravity of sand and the moisture content can be de- Y-Values termined.66 and 0. uniformity coefficient and the coefficient of curva- ture of cement are 3. fine aggregate and GGBS.International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2.6mm 5 5 6 94 en. 1.1 Seive Analysis for Cement Seive analysis is done to determine the particle size of cement. From the observation we can found the Y-Values weight of the fineness of modules. Wt. Cumula. Then the Seive analysis is done to determine the particle size for the fine compressive strength is compared with the compressive aggregate.org 80 . Then water is poured into the jar and the weight is taken 5 .61. Issue 7.003mm 39 39 45 55 and at the end. 5. In this test about 1000gof GGBS is taken and pass through the machine. In this test about 1000g of the fine aggregate is tak- strength of the conventional cubes. Coefficient curvature analysis details for cfine aggregare. July-2014 1052 ISSN 2229-5518 sive strength of the conventional cubes are taken and then the the coefficient is determined. The fine. 1. No tribution residue in retained tive % of passing gm. Mass of pyconometer (m1) = 650gm 6 .4 Mix Design for Concrete 50 Y-Values A) Target means strength for mix design The target meancompressive strength at 28 days 0 fck = fck + ts 0 2 4 6 Where. trials conducted in the laboratory or field. en and pass through the sieving machine.2 Seive Analysis for Fine Aggregate in seventh and the other two blocks in the 28th day. fck = characteristics of compressive strength at 28 days s = standard deviation Fig. Sieve dis. Also the semilog graph is drawn for 100 finding the coefficient coefficient of curvature. Coefficient curvature analysis details for cement. 2. Sieve analysis of GGBS is done to determine the 150 particle size.18. other blocks are tested. uniformity coefficient and 120 IJSER © 2014 100 http://www. For each percentage of fibre added four cubes are made. wt. To find the coefficient of curvature the semilog graph is drawn and the values are taken. uniformity coefficient and the coefficient of curva- IJSER Si. The amount that retained in each sieve and the pan also the weight is taken. 5 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Seive analysis is to determine the fineness modules of cement. Then the analysis details can be found out.00212mm 29 29 74 26 Mass of pyconometer + sand (m2) = 1400gm 7 . The fineness modules. Volume 5. The value of standard deviation has to be worked out from the ness modules. 100 50 Y-V TABLE 1 0 OBSERVATION DETAILS 2 0 2 6 Fig.95 respectively. After that fine aggregate is placed in the pyconometer and the combined weight is tak- 4 . of the % of wt. re. 150 In this test about 100g of cement is taken and pass through the sieving machine.ijser.

IJSER © 2014 http://www. It has to be satisfactory in its hardened state and also in its fresh state while being transported from B) Selection of water–cement ratio the mixer and placed in the formwork. Then coarse and fine aggregate content is determined. There. here an attempt has been made to investigate the possibility of reusing these locally available rural waste fi- brous materials as concrete composites. blast furnace slag. Pyconometer is used to determine the specific gravity of For 20mm max size aggregate. The majority of natural tively. ness of the fineness modules lies in detecting slight variation posed by the researchers such as steel.3 ment of fibre reinforced concrete using discrete fibres within to 3. Sieve Analysis: The process of dividing the sample of aggre- fore the actual quantity of different constituents required for gate into fractions of same particle size is known analysis and one bag mix was found out.0. silt and clay in sbout equal propotions. Specific Gravity: Since aggregate generally contains Pires. admixtures. a regulate set additives sulphur. sugarcane bagaese and rice huskare available as waste. The earthquake damages inrural areas get multi. less. particle size distribution is called grading. which could affect the carbon. water content per cubic meter of concrete = 186kg ometer is a one little jar with a water tight metal conical screw sand content as percentage of total aggregate by absolute vol. are not econom. fine aggregate and coarse aggregate that is icaland because of that the use of natural fibre is getting im. Various parameters like types of cement. Typical value ranges from 2. Loam is a soft deposit The air content is estimatedfor normal max size of aggregate consisting of sand. its purpose to determine the grade or size or size distribution of the aggregate. The aim of this review is to spread aware- ness of coconut fibres as a construction material in civil engi- neering. is any product or mass made by the use of a cementing medium. Sand is generally crete strength and free water cement ratio with materials and considered to have a lower size limit of about 0. amount of cement. usually lies between 10mm and 50mm.02mm is classified as silt C) Estimation of entrapped air and smaller particle are termed clay. max size Fine and Coarse Aggregate: Concrete is made with aggregate of aggregate. glass. plastic. Generally this medium is the product of reaction between hydraulic cement and water. On the otherhand. fly ash.65. used for 20mm size of aggregate. polymers. specific gravity is defind as the ratio of mass (or weight in by absolute volume are determined for medium (below grade air) of a unit volume of a material to the mass of same volume m25) and high strength (above grade m25) concrete respec. Over half of the workability of the fresh concrete. even such a definition would cover a wide range of product: concrete is made withseveral type of cement and also containing pazzolan. The mixing is made as per population around the world is living in slums and villages. top having a small hole at the apex. polypropylene.. of water at the stated temperature. acrylic. In this project the specific ume = 35%.6 E) Selection of water and sand content to 2. The pycon- zone II. Concrete..07 mm or little IJSER condition to be used actually at site.International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. sand conforming to gradually fine aggregate. Issue 7. A wide variety of fibres have been pro.. and aramind etc. The sieve analysis is done for the fine aggre- gate and cement and the fineness modules. D) Selection of water content and fine total aggregate ratio both permeable and impermeable according to ASTMC 127- The water content and percentage of sand in total aggregate 93. It is based on the mix design that the Since the use of steel fibre. Then specific gavity is determined. materials such as nylon. in the aggregate from the same source. to be added is determined and it was also from the mix design portance. The useful- the concrete mass. gravity of aggregate is obtained as 2. Coconut fibres rein- forced composites have been used as cheap and durable non- structural elements. the amount of water plied mainly due to the widely adopted non-engineered con- structions.ijser. But these days. There are mainly two criteria to make good concrete by which it can be so defined. fibres and so on. uniformity coeffi- 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION cient and the coefficient of curvature is determined. This stant hence it is describe to establish a relation between con. Investigations to overcome the brittle response and limiting Usually fineness modules are calculated for the fine aggregate post-yireld energy absorption of concrete led to the develop. a higher value indicating a coarse grading. are influency particles covering a range of sizes upto a maximum which the strength of concrete when water cement ratio remain con.org . Volume 5. rather than for coarse aggregate. 20mm is typical. July-2014 1053 ISSN 2229-5518 tyre. in abroad sense. aggregates are having apparent specific gravity in between 2. So.06mm and 0. surface texture of aggregate etc. glass fibre etc. Material between 0.7. coir. polyester. aggregate. in many smaller towns and vil- lagesin southern part of india. the Indian standard.

V.M. 1031– Material Fineness Uniformity Coefficent of 1036. Crammond. in IEEE Proc.. cement concrete and research”. “Resistance of concrete containing GGBS to the thaumasite form of sulfate attack. Jeyaraj. Issue 7. k. J. D. D. 921–929. vol. uniformity coefficient. Here the amount of cement is reduced and thet the amount is replaced with GGBS.18 2. Panesar. GGBS (KN/M3) (KN/M3) (KN/M3) (KN/M3) no. 1996.. Beijing: Standards press of China.ijser. vol.122.23.3.. Indian standard specification for 53 grade ordinary preheated air is blown into the bottom.61 1. V.12. Kinuthia. [10] ASTMC 1202-97. 2001. 1998. cement and concrete composites”. 1993. “Evolution of Mechanical properties of IJSER © 2014 http://www. Fine aggregate 4. S.25. in IEEE Proc.I..76 0. no. 63-71. vol. “Study on durability of high performance How GGBS is made in blast furnace: concrete with industrial wastes. Ground granulated blast furnace slag used for 10% 310 520 370 400 cemeny and concrete. 1993. [2] Basheer.D. IJSER CURING [11] Hyang. R. 25. Volume 5.67 composites”. ASCE. in IEEE cement 3. fractory brick. Portland cement. “Increased sulfate resistance of GGBS concrete in the presence of carbonate. K. REFERENCES [1] Andrade. steel stack lined with re- stabilised sulphate-bearing clay soil s”. ASTM interna- RESULTS OF COMPRESSION STRENGTH TEST ON SEVENTH DAY tional. Newdelhi. Fine aggregate and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag. “Effects of partial vert iron oxides into liquid iron called ‘hot metal’. [4] Ganesh Babu.66 0. 2008. 913–919. Thus our project is compared with the compressive strength of PCC and GGBS used con- crete can be tested. T.30. pp. and coefficient curvature re- sults. Eng- lewood Cliffs. • Iron ore. N. sieve analysis is done for cement.“Efficiency of GGBS in con- crete.2003.. modules Coefficient curvature [5] Higgins. New Jersey.S Ramachandra and JJ Beaudoin eds.2. pp. vol. [3] Chidiac.E. Noyes publication/ William Andrew publish- ing USA. 2003.org .K.. coke and limestone are put into the top. Jones.51. engineers geology vol. • The purpose of a blast furnace is to reduce and con- [8] Wild. 37–53. Also For each material we can found out the result of fineness modules. 2000. C. vol.J. Selig. pp. and [9] IS: 1269-1987. D. July-2014 1054 ISSN 2229-5518 concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and effects TABLE 2 on the scaling resistance test at 28 days.”Calculation of Chloride Diffusion Coefficients in Con- crete from Ionic Migration Measurements. 2008.D. [7] Pazhani. PA.International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. G. pp.95 Proc.D.39 1. vol. Sree Ramakumar.86 0.. % of Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 [12] Li. P. [13] GB/T18046-2008. substitution of lime with GGBS on the strength properties of lime- • The blast furnace is a huge. Standard test method for electrical indication of TABLE 3 concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration. 19–28. Cement and Concrete Re- search”. Higgins. “Permeation Analysis Handbook of analytical Techniques in concrete Science and Technology”.A.. in IEEE Proc. pp. cement and concrete GGBS 5. D. West Conshohocken. pp. Applied Technologies and innova- tions”.”Cumulative Plastic Deformation for fine-grained subgrade soils”. 2010. in IEEE Proc. Journal of Geotechnical engineering.724-742. United States. Cement and concretecompo- ANALYSIS RESULTS sites”. “Pavement analysis and design”. In this project. 1997. Then the results of compression strength test on seventh day curing also determined. pp. pp. 30. S.1006-1013. 20% 450 630 420 500 40% 440 420 790 550 60% 650 770 680 700 Conclusion GGBS is used to make durable concrete structure in combina- tion with ordinary Portland cement and/or other pozzolona materials. Y. D..M. 658–737.H. Bureau of Indian standards. vol.. pp. in IEEE Proc. prentice hall.77 [6] Higgins.