Specializarea: Trunchi comun (toate specializările


curs practic
ANUL I Semestrul 1 şi 2

Cluj-Napoca 2014

Cod disciplină: ELE 1006 (semestrul 1); ELE 2006 (semestrul 2)
Numar credite: 3

Lect. univ. dr. Fekete Adriana- Lect. univ.dr. Fekete Adriana-Corina
Toate specializarile Corina



The course addresses intermediate (Common European Framework of Reference B1) students. To help
you decide what level you are, we suggest you use the following descriptors of language ability as given
by the Common European Framework of Reference.

level description
Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of
needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about
personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. Can interact in a
simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g.
very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in
A2 simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters.
Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of
immediate need.
Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in
work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where
B1 the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal
interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons
and explanations for opinions and plans.
Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical
discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes
B2 regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed
text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and
disadvantages of various options.
Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express
him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language
C1 flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured,
detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive
Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken
and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. Can express
him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more
complex situations.

(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_European_Framework_of_Reference_for_Languages)

It is absolutely necessary that students whose level is lower than intermediate should work individually to
reach that level. To this purpose, students can use practical grammars which contain essential theoretical
information and practical tasks (see Suggested bibliography) or take English language courses offered by
specialised institutions.

 Objectives
The purpose of English for1 Year Business Students is to develop the written and oral communication
skills of business students. The course focuses on two vital areas of the learning process: improving
reading and writing skills as well as developing learning skills. The subject matter, drawn from various
business fields, is not excessively specialised.

It has two sub-sections: one that deals with the theoretical input of a certain grammar problem (rules. to offer standardised exercises. Reading c. The language focus section starts from examples found in the text. The structure of most units is the following: a. opportunities for discussion/ exchanges of opinion). to focus on language use (knowledge of language. aiming at developing students’ awareness of the need for communicating correctly in a foreign language. The tasks students will have to carry out will help them develop their language skills in an integrated way. It presents both general and specialised vocabulary and the activities initiated here require sustained individual work with the dictionary. The vocabulary development section offers explanation of some of the lexical items from the text and expands the learning context to the lexical areas of the words/ expressions studied.e. responsive to the variety of communicative circumstances in business. It consists of questions or exercises that forecast the subject matter to be dealt with in the reading section. concise and explicit. students should decide whether they need more practice and if so. extracting the main ideas from a text// taking notes etc. as a whole. attitudes to reading: unknown words. awareness of the nature of learning. they should use additional self-study materials (practical grammars). language skills. Furthermore. The reading section contains texts that offer both information connected with the business environment and the opportunity to improve and enrich students’ vocabulary with new words and expressions. The section also contains suggested writing activities in order to focus attention on individual activities that offer the possibility of making use of the knowledge acquired within each unit.  Learn and review basic business vocabulary The structure of the units is systematic. and writing. the book intends to encourage students to take individual study more seriously. strategies.) and the second – Practice – that contains different types of exercises. This section aims at familiarising students with the structure of the Language in Use section of the language ability examination that they will have to take on graduation. Language focus e. i. In some units there is a section entitled English in Use. These units are designed to help students:  Become familiar with the various vocabulary items related to business English  Become familiar with the various expressions related to specific language functions  Improving reading skills by focusing on both content and the use of theses expressions in task- based writing exercises  Build up writing skills by practising the contextual use of the vocabulary items and focusing on grammar in controlled practice exercises. to provide concrete examples. Lead-in b. Vocabulary development d. Functions The lead-in section is devised to introduce students to the topic of the unit. grammar structures and functional language in appropriate contexts. developing vocabulary. The units of the book deal with texts that offer the possibility of learning specific vocabulary. awareness of the reading process. The content is formative. The texts provide opportunities for review and expansion of the skills throughout the year. student specialties.  Course calendar 4 . and language levels. the units’ organisation allows the student to take advantage of individual study. This may help students become familiar with the context in which these expressions are used. Mainly designed to be used as self-study material. The abundance of material in the texts makes them easily adaptable to varying learner interests. ‘meaning’. examples etc. However. The functions section contains a number of expressions that represent certain language functions. Structure Eight units are devoted to training students in the skills of reading.

Management and Recruitment Second meeting – units 7 and 8. Every semester students will have to take a written test. four hours each time. Business Travel and Culture and Civilisation The classes are mainly aimed at checking students’ individual work and answering possible questions. clarifying whatever aspects students may have found difficult to understand. the first four units in the first semester and the remaining four in the second semester. Introduction to Business Communication and Presentations Second meeting – units 3 and 4. Reading newspaper articles in English (the Internet is an inexhaustible resource) and looking up unknown vocabulary can be of great help. but their ability to use the acquired knowledge in communication situations. However.  Assessment Students will have to complete three homework assignments during each semester. Self-study is extremely important in acquiring a foreign language especially for long-distance students who are not exposed to the weekly classroom context. they will not necessarily be identical since the aim of the test is not to assess students’ memory. These assignments carry 30% of the final mark. Theoretical knowledge will not be tested. The type and structure of the tasks that will appear in the test will be the same as those of the tasks that appear in the course book. 5 . The Structure of the Firm and Business Ethics Second semester First meeting – units 5 and 6. The test will mainly consist of:  grammar and vocabulary tasks – 50%  questions referring to the topics covered during the semester (the questions that appear as reflection topics in the STOP AND THINK! sections) – 50% The final mark will be calculated as follows: homework assignments – 30% final test – 70% It is very important that students understand that this practical course book does not contain the entire vocabulary of the English language! That would be impossible. Every semester students will have classes with the teacher twice. It is not compulsory to attend the classes. Consequently.e. i. contributing to the class can bring you 1 additional point to the final mark. Before coming to class. students should understand that in the test they may have to deal with tasks containing vocabulary that does not appear in the course book but which they are supposed to know at the intermediate level. students should study the units planned as follows: First semester First meeting – units 1 and 2. However. We would like to insist on the fact that attending the classes alone cannot give students the necessary knowledge of English. Students should be able to speak the language not about it.The eight units will be approached in the order they appear.

Grammar Scan. 216-219 UNIT 6 Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice.com/home. 231-233. http://www.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/?cc=global. 203-205. David (2012). Destination B2. Martinet – A Practical English Grammar The present tenses (pp..J. Steve (2008). MacMillan Swan. Diagnostic Tests for Practical English Usage. M.. pp. 25-29) Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice Units 2 – 9 (pp. 199-202.com/elt/catalogue/isbn/0-19-431243-7?cc=global.org/elt/dictionaries/cald. Further Vocabulary Study UNIT 1 Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice.oup. Steve (2008). 2003) Budai. Harper Collins Publishers. 1-24) Progress Test (pp. http://www. MacMillan Mann. 2001) A. http://www. pp.org/. Destination C1&C2. Thomson. A. Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice. 212-216. pp.aspx. 152-162) The past and perfect tenses (pp. pp. Gramatica engleză – teorie şi exerciţii (Bucureşti: Teora. 1996) Vince. Baker.V. pp. 107-113) 6 . Michael (2009).. Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice.macmillandictionaries.ldoceonline. 219-220 UNIT 2 Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice. Intermediate Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT. A. 37) A.htm. 161-179) The future (pp.cambridge. 236-238. Malcolm &Taylore-Knowles. 199-202 Further Language Study THE TENSE SYSTEM Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice Tense consolidation – Units 1 – 4 (pp. A Practical English Grammar (London: Oxford University Press. 209-213. 220-223 UNIT 4 Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice. Free-access online dictionaries: http://dictionary. Martinet. http://www. Malcolm &Taylore-Knowles. 3-36) Problems. 242-244 Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice. 192-196 UNIT 5 Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice. L.htm. Michael. http://www. 203-206.cambridge. 180-194) GERUND/INFINITIVE Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice Unit 19 (pp. 224-227 UNIT 3 Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice. 1994) Vince. M. pp. OUP Websites http://www.ch/LanguageTeaching/Dictionaries/Dictionaries-British/1449/9780582306066/New- Edition-Longman-Business-English. 1998) Mann.oup. Advanced Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT.Suggested Bibliography *** Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (London: Collins ELT. Errors and Consolidation (p. p. OUP Swan. pp. Practical English Usage.pearson.com/.J. p. Thomson.V. 209-213.

Martinet – A Practical English Grammar The infinitive (p. have. 128-133) Can and be able for ability (pp.J.V. 263-268) MODALS Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice Units 11-12 (pp.J.V. must. 137-146) Must.Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice Units 38 – 39 (pp. A. will and should for deduction and assumption (pp. should. Martinet – A Practical English Grammar The passive voice (pp. 147-149) 7 . 212-227) The gerund (pp. A. A. Thomson. 58-63) A. 234-238) ACTIVE/PASSIVE Michael Vince – Advanced Language Practice Units 6-7 (pp. Martinet – A Practical English Grammar May and can for permission and possibility (pp. 134-136) Ought. 30-40) Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice Units 15 – 16 (pp. Thomson.V. Thomson. 59-70) Michael Vince – Intermediate Language Practice Units 17 – 18 (pp. need for obligation (pp. 64-71) A. 152-165) A. have to.J. 228-233) Infinitive and gerund constructions (pp.


UNIT TWO – PRESENTATIONS ................................................................. 23
UNIT THREE – THE STRUCTURE OF THE FIRM ...................................... 35
UNIT FOUR – BUSINESS ETHICS.............................................................. 45
UNIT FIVE – MANAGEMENT ...................................................................... 54
UNIT SIX – RECRUITMENT ........................................................................ 70
UNIT SEVEN – BUSINESS TRAVEL .......................................................... 84
UNIT EIGHT – CULTURE AND CIVILISATION ........................................... 90
APPENDIX 2 – GRAMMAR FILES ............................................................ 107
FUNCTIONS FILES ................................................................................... 130



Students should be able to use the vocabulary under INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS
COMMUNICATION to communicate about:

 Communication in business settings
 Importance of communicating effectively
 Factors that influence effective communication
 Qualities of a good communicator
 Forms of communication
 Forms of written communication
 Forms of spoken communication
 Formal versus informal language
 Prevention of communication breakdowns
 Verbal and non-verbal communication

be in communication with somebody political correctness noun [U]
noun [U] FORMAL respect noun [U]
biodata noun [U] share verb
business card noun [C] shoptalk noun [U]
by word of mouth shorthand for sth
communication noun small talk noun [U]
conversation noun [C or U] speech noun
corporate communication [U] stationery noun [U]
correspondence noun [U] talk noun [C, U]
discourse noun FORMAL telegram noun [C]
engage sb in conversation FORMAL telex noun [C or U]
etiquette noun [U] template noun [C]
exchange noun tete-a-tete noun [C]
face-to-face adjective text verb [T]
facsimile noun [C] the Internet noun
fax noun [C, U] virtual adjective
formal adjective well-mannered adjective
illegible adjective window noun [C]
in short word processing noun [U]
in writing
indecipherable adjective
informal adjective
information noun [U]
interface noun [C]
IT noun [U]
legible adjective
manners plural noun
means of communication noun [C]
message verb [T]
networking noun [U]
nonverbal communication noun [U]
pleasantry noun [C] FORMAL
polite adjective



1. Communication

1.1. Lead-in


definition: the process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and
(Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)

Forms and Components of Human Communication

Humans communicate in order to share knowledge and experiences. Common forms of human
communication include sign language, speaking, writing, gestures, and broadcasting.
Communication can be interactive, transactive, intentional, or unintentional; it can also be verbal
or nonverbal. Communication varies considerably in form and style when considering scale.
Internal communication, within oneself, is intrapersonal while communication between two
individuals is interpersonal. At larger scales of communication both the system of
communication and media of communication change. Small group communication takes place
in settings of between three and 12 individuals creating a different set of interactions than large
groups such as organisational communication in settings like companies or communities. At the
largest scales mass communication describes communication to huge numbers of individuals
through mass media. Communication also has a time component, being either synchronous or
asynchronous. There are a number of theories of communication that attempt to explain human
communication. However, various theories relating to human communication have the same
core philosophy. Communication follows a five-step process, which begins with the creation of a
message and then sending it to another individual, organisation or a group of people. This
message is received and then interpreted. Finally this message is responded to, which
completes the process of communication.


What possible barriers to interpersonal communication can you identify?
What language is mainly used in international communication? Why?

1.2. Reading

Read the following short texts referring to communication and answer the questions that follow.
Text 1.
"Have you ever said to yourself, "I wish I had spoken up"? Or, "If only I had introduced myself"?
Or, "Did I say the wrong thing"?
Conversational Confidence is the answer. Just by listening, you'll master the proven
interpersonal skills you need to deal with every individual, every group, every occasion.
The result? New doors will open to you. You won't hesitate to accept an invitation, to

4. According to the author. to a great extent 9. but the listener has his rights. 121 1.. private and public. give rise to sth E. to have finished 2. p. Why are people sometimes reluctant to speak up their minds? 2. is located outside the soul of the speaker and does not belong only to him. how can the nature of communication be defined? 2. Match the phrases in column 1 with their meaning in column 2. It is a sink into which most of our hopes and fears seem to be poured. hold sway G.3. What does the author mean by “inner thought” and “outer word”? 3. Austin: University of Texas Press. there are no words that belong to no one). Bakhtin Speech Genres and Other Late Essays (Trans. 1986." John Durham Peters. "'Communication' is a registry of modern longings. make sth definite or complete 10. Speaking into the Air A History of the Idea of Communication (1999. "A word (or in general any sign) is interindividual. March 12. the notion illustrates our strange lives at this point in history. at the beginning of sth 5. at the hands of sb A. 'Communication' is a rich tangle of intellectual and cultural strands that encodes our time's confrontations with itself. 6. 1. Desire being most intense when the object is absent. beyond the call of duty D. expressed. going to their funeral. kindness. etc. An apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other. lay down you life (for sb/sth) I. The same word may mean different things to different persons. p. and expression is uninhibited. How can misunderstanding appear? Text 3. in large part H. Vern McGee). Success will naturally flow your way--and with less effort than you ever imagined possible." ~verbalAdvantage (advertisement in The New Republic. to seize an opportunity. Everything that is said.approach someone important. and those whose voices are heard in the word before the author comes upon it also have their rights (after all. 3. What do words refer to? 2. How can people develop their communication skills? Text 2. Vocabulary development 1. lay waste to sth J. . What is the role of listening in a conversation? 3. Try to explain how this happens." M. hearts are open. etc. 2001) 1. and inner thought and outer word. (not) give careful attention to sb/sth 3. be at an end B. die in order to protect or save sb/sth 7.3. You'll never again feel like an outsider.. The word cannot be assigned to a single speaker. The author (speaker) has his own inalienable right to the word. feel grateful to sb for their help. say or do sth to show your respect and admiration for sb 8.1. The term evokes a utopia where nothing is misunderstood. have the honour of doing sth F. longings for communication also index a deep sense of dereliction in social relationships. To understand communication is to understand much more. used to indicate the result or consequence of a 11 . How do new words appear in a language? 1. 2) 1. be in sb’s debt C. attending a memorial service. show your respect for sb by visiting them.

(2) ___.3. tribute to somebody 6.3. It was an act of considerable bravery. Any hopes that this awful situation might (10) ___ look premature. with (all due) respect to R. Look at the phrases given in 1. pay your respects (to sb) N. be given the opportunity of doing sth that makes sth) you feel proud 17. because of sb’s actions 15. went to the help of our daughter and saved her from certain death.1. set F. way (17) ___. your life for something 1. have power or influence over a group of people or a region 1. suffered (3) ___ his government. lay H. completely destroy a place or area 14. on the threshold of sth K. polite formula when disagreeing with sb 18. E. the seal on something 3. D. take C.4 Functions Information exchange Asking for information – useful expressions 12 . pay tribute to sb M. Terrorists still (7) ___ in many of the rural areas and (8) ___ the problem. pay (no) heed to sb/sth L. and we could be facing yet another drought. (16) ___ his own safety. Then match 1-8 with a-h. pay B. and I am sure they will want to (4) ___ his last remark. it is the people of this country who have. sway 8. C. hold E. issue with somebody 7. it also put us (13) ___ a major breakthrough in the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. Fill in the gaps in the following texts by using the phrases 1-18 given in the vocabulary task 1. B. A. I would like to (15) ___ the young police officer who. start disagreeing or arguing with sb about sth 16. cause something to happen or exist 13. waste to something 4. situation or action 11.1. James Mauplin’s groundbreaking research not only (11) ___ his highly esteemed books and (12) ___ a glistering academic career. I now (14) ___ introducing Professor Mauplin.3. Thousands of people gathered to (5) ___ the many local servicemen who (6) ___ their country. give D. 1. They have already (9) ___ much valuable farmland.3. therein lies sth Q. rise to something 2. and we will forever (18) ___.2. lay down G.3. the honour to do something 5. set the seal on sth O. 1. take issue with sth/sb (over/about P. have A. performed with greater courage or effort than is usual or expected 12. (1) ___ the Prime Minister.

 I'd like to know.... Use a dictionary. 13 . Communication and the media NOTE the media noun [uncountable] The noun should always be accompanied by the definite article and should be followed by a verb in the plural..?  Do you know..?  I'm interested in .. 2.  Do you happen to know..?  Could you find out... Vocabulary development Group the following words into the three categories given in the table below.?  I'm looking for.. 2....1.2.. Lead in Answer the following questions: What role do the media play in the society? Are you interested in the news? Do you read newspapers or watch news bulletins? 2. journalism newspapers and magazines radio and television investigative circulation broadcast circulation colour scoop news bulletin gonzo supplement broadcast investigative correspondent satellite transmit airtime columnist article frequency cable editor edition editorial commercial tabloid feature station broadsheet pay-per-view column show network channel chequebook reporter compact review episode.  Could you tell me.

TIPS TO HELP YOU! What should you do? Every time you have to solve such tasks: . The news then jostles 11 ___ space with other stories that are carrying the heat then. To what extent do you agree with it? Give your pros and cons. as it is. today news channels and even some newspapers are mouthpiece of some political parties. They help us to know what is going on 3 ___ the world. Their duty is to inform. verb. the media have become a commercialised sector eying only for news that is hot and sells. It is true that the media are playing an outstanding role in strengthening the society. media has become so much a part of us that to recognise its impact. they will be a great force in building the nation but. preposition. fill in the gaps with ONE word. we need to step 13 ___ and consciously think about how they shape our lives and what they are saying. In this way. but 15 ___ through radio and newspapers. It is partly due to them that awareness is spreading in the society. Our lives would be incomplete 6 ___ the media. They can even be turned 17 ___ our benefit by whetting our understanding and articulation of what we believe.). If they 8 ___ their role honestly. etc. Reading Read the following text. They 4 ___ their lives in danger during attacks or natural disasters. if necessary.first. all that one gets on television is sensational depiction of all news stories. concentrate on the form that the identified word should have (number for a noun. their only goal being gaining television rating points (TRPs). etc. depending on the natural word order. read the whole paragraph. sometimes the clue is in the sentence that comes after the gap to be filled. educate and entertain the people. adverb. Even 12 ___ we cannot think of a world without television sets. 9 ___ of giving important information and educative programmes. Their work then limits only to spread the ideology of the party 18 ___ than give correct news. Paragraph 4 The media affects people’s perspective not 14 ___ through television. Paragraph 2 The media 7 ___ the watchdog of the political democracy. they all will be flashing the same story but then when the heat is over there is no following of the case. Paragraph 3 Every issue is hyped for a day or two. the media have become almost as necessary 1 ___ food and clothing.remember that you have to use ONE word! . It is the media 5 ___ shape our lives. People have to judge 19 ___ 14 .2. While reading. Remember the tips! They are useful! The growing role of the media in our society Paragraph 1 In the world of today. they are a mirror of 2 ___ society. so much so 10 ___ you switch to any channel.decide what part of speech is missing (noun.).3. nowadays. just to inform us of the situation. adjective. even many messages 16 ___ which we cannot agree inevitably come to us from diverse constellations of media. with gaps. . tense for a verb. then.

com/article/the-growing-role-of-media-in-our-society/136579. that expresses the opinions of a government or a political organisation 3. watchdog (par. 5) f. 1. Put your ideas down ___ paper and we’ll discuss them at the next meeting. especially in someone’s social and economic position Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the words above. Sometimes.3. 4) d.3. 1) a. Show them to your neighbour and ask them whether they understand the meaning illustrated. biased (par. insignificant news is given so 20 ___ priority that the real news is not even brought 21 ___ notice. 5. awareness (par. which we have to use by our judgment to provide maximum satisfaction side by side without harming ourselves. (adapted from http://www. you know how pedantic and opinionated she is! 6.3. 3) c. very excited or nervous and unable to keep still 7. So 21 ___ last. to amuse or interest people in a way that gives them pleasure 6.merinews. Paragraph 6 In spite of being sensational and biased. knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or situation 8. Match the following words or phrases from the text with their appropriate definition. Reading ___ lines. I’m afraid that book is ___ of print. The other disadvantage is that sometimes they also publish or broadcast some vulgar news. betterment (par. However. hyped (par. 8. Vocabulary development 2. 4. If they don’t. mouthpiece (par. 15 . Obviously it goes ___ saying that I don’t want you to tell anyone else about this. 2. 2. 2) b. a person or group of people whose job is to protect the rights of people who buy things and to make sure companies do not do anything illegal or harmful 5. I followed your instructions ___ the letter but I still couldn’t get the printer to work properly. Even if you’ve got a great idea for a novel. but I’ll see if we can find a second-hand copy for you somewhere. 7. the significance of the media cannot be ignored. a person. I have never had any business dealings with Mr Partridge. it seems that the government’s considering tightening media regulations. In this globalised world. This does not broaden the reach of the media. 6) h. newspaper etc.shtml) 2. unfairly preferring a person or a group over another 4. ___ answer to your question. the task and duties of the media are increasing day by day. (formal) improvement. it’s incredibly hard putting pen ___ paper for the first time. increase someone’s desire for something 2.2. 6) g. There is still a lot to be done by the media for the betterment of the society. 4) e.their own by looking and listening to different channels for the same news and then form a conclusion. 3. like science they are a tool. just for making money. whet(ting) (par. 1. Write one word in each gap. and sometimes unessential activities are served 22 ___ very important news and broadcast again and again. entertain (par. make the necessary corrections. especially in an age. no. a matter of concern is their excessive intervention in everything. it does also entertain but again it’s a debatable issue because by ’entertainment’ we mean healthy entertainment and not those nonsense TV serials. Yes. Getting Elaine to edit your article is just asking ___ trouble.1. in which globalisation and liberalisation have become the order of the day. Paragraph 5 The media are an integral part of our society.

and they’re frequently even more (10) ___ (INFORM) about key issues than I am. Allen is an (2) ___ (SPEAK) critic of much of what is taught to native and non-native speakers of English. Often. employer.pay attention to spelling! spelling is extremely important in such tasks. haven’t you? It’s written all ___ your face. employable. But I don’t. that Winston Churchill. for adverbs –ly. use a dictionary.. received a manuscript back from an ignorant (6) ___ (EDIT) who had told him rather rudely that he had to (7) ___ (PHRASE) a sentence which ended with a preposition. for nouns: -ment. -ance. All too often. unemployment. (3) ___ (JOURNAL) ask them the most (4) ___ (RIDICULE) questions. employment. The (1) ___ (SAY) “never judge a book by its cover” could not be more true for Ridiculous Rules by Marjorie Allen. -ful. The lovely – if famous – story goes. when they do get an interesting question. . etc. Churchill responded by making the simple yet forceful (8) ___ (STATE) in the margin: “This is an impertinence up with which I will not put. if you are not sure. etc. they’re very poor (9) ___ (COMMUNICATE).).” – the (9) ___ (IMPLY) being that not to end a sentence with a preposition often sounds ridiculous in English.do not try to learn words by heart! you cannot remember them all! read as much as possible and use a dictionary! study word families (e. unemployable). employee. It’s as if they don’t care whether their reply is (8) (BELIEVE) or not. well known for his numerous (5)___ (WRITE) as well as for being British Prime Minister during the Second World War . number for nouns). I love watching (1) ___ (DISCUSS) programmes. and that Churchill may have actually only written “rubbish!” in the margin. . so you’d think I’d enjoy watching (2) ___ (POLITICS) being interviewed on TV. You’ve had some good news. whereas the book is crammed full of wonderful examples and anecdotes.read the sentence carefully. -tion.3. .9. TIPS TO HELP YOU! What should you do? Every time you have to solve such tasks: . sit there watching in (5) ___ (BELIEVE) as some of the most (6) ___ (POWER) people in the country give totally (7) ___ (CONVINCE) responses. The cover is completely blank. for adjectives –ous.3.pay attention to agreement (e.g.g. and I love politics. Remember the tips! They are useful! A. sometimes there is a negative connotation that requires the use of prefixes/suffixes with a negative meaning. Allen informs us that the story is probably mere (10) ___ (HEAR).g. employ. Take the ridiculous and (4) ___ (MEAN) rule of never ending a sentence with a preposition. B.decide what part of speech would meaningfully complete the sentence and then use suffixes and/or prefixes typical of that part if speech (e. 16 . It makes me want to stand for election myself. I don’t expect them to be particularly (11) ___ (HUMOUR)– they are serious people. -ness. 2. Use the words given in brackets to form a word that fits in the space. . and has issued a (3) ___ (DECLARE) of war against textbooks and style books which tell lies. Sadly. and. after all – but at least they could say something interesting occasionally.

Mr. I’m… from… 17 . Jones as well as all his colleagues is expected to come.4. A number of shareholders were expected to sell their shares. which now put them (8) ___ with the government. the Opposition were trying to (5) ___ the latest bad unemployment figures.  nouns/pronouns can be coordinated with the following simple or correlative conjunctions: and.  add up – (informal) seem reasonable or logical (used mainly in a negative sense)  boil down to sth – if a situation or problem boils down to one thing. are here. number. both … and. and that they were (4) ___ numbers ___. Study the vocabulary given below and then fill in the gaps in the following text by using the appropriate phrases. or the main cause of the problem  capitalise on sth – gain a further advantage for yourself from a situation  come/be under fire – be criticised severely for sth you have done  in the final analysis – used to state a basic truth after everything has been discussed and considered  neck and neck – (of two people or groups) level with each other in a race or competition  pluck sth out of the air – say a name. c) neither … nor may follow the rule of proximity (as above). Identifying yourself Hello.5. All the members of the board. Language Focus: The Noun – Number Agreement Number Agreement  the number of is followed generally by singular. that thins is the main point in the situation. a) and. 2. but he was (2) ___ this morning. b) or. (9) ___ it will just (10) ___ who the voters choose to believe. either … or follow the rule of proximity ( the closest subject dictates the number of the verb) His supporters or he has to take this issue very seriously. In a speech in Dover. which clearly illustrated. that the only thing which could (6) ___ was a change of government.3. 2. Both the president and the secretary general are on a business trip. Meanwhile. or. Functions a. neither … nor.2. with only the first noun dictates the agreement with the predicate. but David. With as well as. either … or.4. etc. without giving it any thought  quick/slow off the mark – fast/slow in reacting to a situation  stop the rot – stop a bad situation from getting worse  talk sth up – describe or discuss sth in a way that makes it sound better than it is The prime minister has (1) ____ during the election campaign for being slow to respond to events. he claimed that the Opposition’s tax policies didn’t (3) ___. except. not only … but also. in their view. but in everyday use the plural is preferred Neither the guests nor the host is to be blamed. A man with a young child was asking for help. while a number of by plural The number of investors was huge. but. Either he or his supporters have to take a decision. both … and require the plural form of the verb The president and the secretary general are not present. or Neither the guest nor the host are to be blamed. They also (7) ___ the latest opinion poll-figures.

Remember the tips! They are useful! New video examines impact of computers on human interaction 18 . so that you can get the gist. They are given in the box below the text. but in a way or another inadequate. my name is…I work for… Hello. let me introduce myself.1. Pleased to meet you too. do not stop at the first one that you consider to be the correct answer. the extra sentence is either too general or similar to the correct variant. Informal How do you do? Nice/ good to meet Nice/ good to meet you too. read the text. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! Can the full effect of the current information revolution be predicted? Is meeting face-to-face more valuable than corresponding electronically? 3. read carefully the sentence before and the one after the empty space. I’m…I’m in charge of// I’m responsible for… Hello. . It’s (very) nice to meet you. Nice to have you with us. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 10 with the corresponding missing parts A to J.first. consider all the given sentences. .read the text again to see if it makes sense. first name+ surname…I’ve got an appointment with… b. Hello. you. 3. Greetings when you meet someone for the first time First greeting Reply to the greeting Neutral How do you do? I’m (very) pleased/ How do you do? It’s (very) nice delighted to meet you.the second time you read the text you can adopt the following strategy: every time you come to an empty space. I’m pleased to meet you too. Reading Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. TIPS TO HELP YOU! What should you do? Every time you have to solve such tasks: .sometimes you are given more sentences than gaps. and look for a meaningful connection between the sentence/part of sentence you have chosen and the text. Pleased to meet you. IT and Human Interaction 3.2. They are lettered A to J. ignoring the empty spaces. Hi.Hello. . to meet you too. if so.

Ellen Ullman. affirming the importance of real- life interaction at such places as the Farmer's Market. distance learning." To explore this. "Is the physical space of the bank becoming obsolete?" Lord asks. Lord combines montages of life in San Francisco with interviews. the URL www. To flesh out this perspective. Wanderlust: A History of Walking (Viking Press).000 bicyclists each month who hit the streets during a Friday rush hour. aired recently on public television and is the winner of the Dallas Video Festival's Latham Award for 1999. To him. The juxtaposition continues 6 ___ the bank's dramatic picture of racing horses pulling a stagecoach and. Because we still need fashion. The video. commentator. web sites. because his business is virtual. community. make friends online. film. acquiring everything he needs (including a Valentine's Day date) through the web. We still need to wear the city because the city is. But I was wrong. a social commentator and author of the just-published book. He says. and the phone. One montage opens with a view of the old-fashioned marble-floored interior of a Wells Fargo Bank branch bank in San Francisco and fades to a nearby Safeway. called Critical Mass. has even gone so far as to confine himself to his home for a full year.wellsfargo. John Sanborn. You choose it the same way you would choose clothes. and beepers all 10 ___– for celebration and the ritual rubbing of shoulders in streets. For Gannon. "I started working on this during a sabbatical in early 1998. Rather than aim to prove a point. "I wanted to look at how the computer is changing the ways in which we conduct daily life. e- commerce – have had an effect 4 ___. One man in Dallas. spokesperson for a San Francisco underground.' " But social commentator Rebecca Solnit feels very differently.. cellphones. Lord gets very different opinions from his subjects. plazas. Through his interviews Lord also explores the impending fate of such things as the automobile. and squares.by Barbara McKenna Through the advent of the web. in which a Wells Fargo "mini-bank" is built into the wall. multimedia band named The Residents. and pagers. He doesn't need the city.com. wireless networks. Awakening from the Twentieth Century. As Lord trails along with the rollerbladers. The bicycling event. Observing the increasing "realness" of virtual reality. but once he starts working on a project he does everything virtually. "Gannon recognizes that 8 ___. But the question that most concerns Lord is whether the physical space of the city itself 7 ___. he could be anywhere. we can get whatever we want online – 1 ___. drawing some 3. even attend virtual concerts and art shows online. UCSC (University of California. Gannon Hall. Web designer and computing specialist Gannon Hall conducts most of his business virtually – through e-mail. over that image. netcasting. Lord is out to 5 ___. and Rebecca Solnit." Lord says. I thought that broadcasting. Santa Cruz) film professor Chip Lord has produced a video that explores the question of how 3 ___. a software engineer. in stark white. hundreds of whom come out each Friday for the "Friday Night Skate. via the Internet." Lord 19 . Lord also shows footage of two groups of San Franciscans – bicyclists and rollerbladers. director of the online rock and roll murder mystery "Paul Is Dead". and author of Close to the Machine. One of my central goals was to find out whether the Internet and virtual networking – telecommuting. Among those he interviews are Homer Flynn.." he comes to this conclusion: "Maybe because of the utopian images we hear about the new technologies. 2 ___. a web site designer. 'you wear the city. is anything but virtual. the city is like fashion. where 9 ___. We can bank online.

sabbatical (n) j. the computer is affecting the ways we interact with each other and our environment C.1. If it is incorrect. Since we got resource. rollerblader (n) a. Vocabulary development 3. even pets D. impending (adj) f. to confine (v) k. 6. especially things that are not normally together. vendors and customers interact directly and chance encounters with friends can take place E. all connected together.2. because something newer and better has been invented 2. which means you test something to see if it works properly before it becomes official. groceries. to gradually disappear 3. we’ve been watching music videos online. Match the following words or phrases from the text with their appropriate definition. 2. 8. stark (adj) e. the time when something first begins to be widely used 9. telecommuting (n) i. is becoming obsolete H. 4. The computer has finished analysing all the broadband. working at home using a computer connected to a company's main office 5.3. 20 . with little or no colour or decoration 10. the act of putting things together. obsolete (adj) d. finish his sentence: "The stuff that dreams are made of.trails off. footage (n) b. letting Humphrey Bogart. If the word in bold is correct. 1. This latest breakthrough will mean cheaper. explore the implications of our emerging computer-generated culture F. replace it with one of the words in bold from the other sentences. to fade (v) h. Early computer games seem quite nuclear compared with today’s games. The next generation of games technique will have better graphics.edu/currents/99-00/06-19/lord. an initial face-to-face meeting with clients is necessary B.3. in order to compare them or to make something new 4. who calls himself DotComGuy I. 7. more interesting etc 11. stops doing their usual work in order to study or travel 6. no longer useful. These ancient tools have been crafted with an enormous amount of skill. put a tick. 3. 9. juxtaposition (n) g." (http://www. especially someone in a university job.ucsc. faster internet access for all. cinema film showing a particular event 7. advent (n) l. person who uses special boots with a single row of wheels fixed under it to skate on hard surfaces 12. especially an unpleasant one. which is going to happen very soon 3. to add more details to something in order to make it clear. It seems to me that primitive power is far cleaner than oil. prescriptions. 1. a period when someone. were conspiring to end the need for public gathering G.html) A. with a shot of a billboard advertising 3. 5. in the character of San Francisco detective Sam Spade. to keep someone or something within the limits of a particular activity or subject 8. There’s a network in computing called ‘beta testing’. on how we use our physical space J.3. to flesh sth out (v) c. very plain in appearance. referring to an event or situation. The Internet is a really vast console of computers.

4.ro). Functions Presenting and supporting opinions Asking for opinions What are your feelings on this? To one person To a group of people What are your views on…. Do not send material downloaded from the Internet.fekete@lingua. habits and abilities of people. (Write between 200-250 words. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space. the telephone (1876) and other 7 ___ (INFLUENCE) developments gave people the 8 ___ (CAPABLE) to live and work in ways their grandparents could not have imagined.) You should submit your homework electronically (adriana.? What’s the general view on/ feeling about that? What’s your opinion about that? Has anybody any comments to make? HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 1 One of the most negative aspects of the impact of the Internet in our daily life is the fact that it alters social behaviour. People had needed to show 4 ___ (FLEXIBLE) throughout the nineteenth century. the end of the nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth was also a time that saw many 3 ___ (REVOLT) changes. 21 . Do not use bulleted lists! Present concrete details and refer to your own experience.ubbcluj. the phonograph. The conclusion of an argumentative essay should summarise the arguments and give your opinion. Write an argumentative essay in response to the following statement: The Internet makes people lonelier. The sea is a great natural data but we need the right technology to use it. Refer to each argument in a distinct paragraph. Towards the end of the century. the plane and radio all had an 10 ___ (ELECTRIC) effect on people and society. 3. We often think of ourselves as living in a time of 1___ (CONTINUE) technological change and development. 3.3. Deadline – 20 November ATTENTION! In argumentative essays there should be a balance between the pros and the cons. as the effects of the Industrial Revolution meant constantly making 5 ___ (ADJUST) to deal with changing working conditions.? Any reaction to that? What are your feelings about…? Has anybody any strong feeling about / views on that? What do you think of …. 10. We tend to believe that we are unique in history in dealing with a constantly 2 ___ (EVOLVE) world of gadgets. the cinema. Over the next 30 years. though. The typewriter (1873). little remained 9 ___ (ALTER) as the camera. devices and innovations. (type of document: Word). people had to become more 6 ___ (ADAPT) than ever before. However.3.

U ] printer noun [C] rephrase verb [T] ring binder noun [C] seminar noun [ C ] spectator noun [C] take the floor talk noun [C] visual aid noun [C] whiteboard noun [C] workshop noun [C] 22 . UNIT 2 – PRESENTATIONS GLOSSARY – BUSINESS ENGLISH VOCABULARY Students should be able to use the vocabulary under PRESENTATIONS to communicate about:  Types of presentations made in business  Preparing and planning a presentation  Audience analysis  Presentation materials  Delivery techniques  Body language and voice  Signalling words and phrases  Question-and-answer session  Golden rules for presentations address verb [T] FORMAL audience noun [C] board noun [C] body language noun [U] chart noun [ C ] file noun [C] flip chart noun [C] flow chart noun [C] folder noun [C] harangue noun [C] have the floor information overload noun [U] in-tray noun [C] keynote address/speech/speaker noun [C] language barrier noun [C] misunderstanding noun [C.U] monologue noun [C] non-verbal adjective observer noun [C] onlooker noun [C] oration noun [C] FORMAL outline noun [C] out-tray noun [C] overhead transparency noun [C] overhead projector noun [C] pie chart noun presentation noun [ C.

Let your gestures and voice emphasis come naturally. Smile. Jerry Seinfeld said. The audience usually can't see the butterflies. The butterflies in my stomach were uncontrollable. Reading comprehension Read the following article about business presentations. and 2) much of the nervousness that you feel will go away. Your audience will never be more excited about your talk than you are. Some sentences have been removed from the text. people form a perception about how competent you are by how you present yourself when you stand and speak. I asked myself. A person who is confident in front of a group gives off an air of competence. people are five times more likely to want to be in the casket than giving the eulogy. public speaking is an easy way to set yourself apart from your competition. After the presentation. and they will give it back to you. Business presentations Lead-in STOP AND THINK! How can one prepare before a presentation? Why do you think some people are afraid of public speaking? How can they overcome this fear? 1. 4____ Below are some of the great public speaking tips that I have found that really work. The Book of Lists places the fear of death in fifth place while public speaking ranks first. 1____ In fact. so give them some energy. and I only had one permanent position to offer. The problem occurs when we start thinking about these symptoms rather than focusing on the audience and our topic. Add some enthusiasm to your talk. whereas a person who fumbles might leave a negative impression. I trained with some of the most successful public speaking coaches in the country. and I could see my hands shaking. 2____ Many of the other interns were graduate students who were much more comfortable in front of a group. you are doing what 95% of the people in the audience wish they could do. or sweaty palms. the way that you want to say it. or shaky hands. Choose from sentences A." 1. I had to present a summary of my internship to a group of department managers and vice-presidents. Walk about a half step faster. because when you stand up and say what you want to say.K the one which fits each gap (1-10).1. I had an internship with a major oil company. would I choose me?" 3____ Over the next few years. 6____ 23 . and at the end of the summer. Realize 90% of nervousness doesn't even show. When I spoke.UNIT TWO – PRESENTATIONS Speaking in public is often cited as the number one fear of adults. There is one sentence which you do not need to use. "That would mean at a funeral. I could feel the sweat beads on my forehead. (Remember the tips?) Effective Public Speaking in Business Presentations By Doug Staneart Right or wrong. When I was in college. "If I were the decision-maker in that room. 5____ Focus on them and two things will happen: 1) they will like you more.

F. the man has not spoken a word -. years ago. you probably see a picture in your mind. Don't tell little white lies. but Les found out that this man's house had caught on fire. but do tell anecdotes and personal experiences. The man attempted to go in and save them many times.2. J.html) A. he verbally assaulted the man calling him a chicken for not going in to save his girls. (adapted and abridged from http://www. I was the youngest person in the room. and other leaders on how to present more effectively to groups. They also form perceptions about the company you represent based on your performance. G. but give more energy than what you normally would. a famous motivational speaker. and I frequently think about how I should get all the facts before passing judgment on people.1. B. and his two baby girls died in the blaze. then create your PowerPoint slides. but the important question is…where did the statue go? Your mind can only truly focus on one thing at a time. Since then. Let your audience see the real you. Read the article below and fill in the gaps with ONE word. Again. what would be most important thing for them to remember?" 7____ For instance. and your stories will have that type of impact as well. 9____ Kids in town made fun of him. and you will have a great speaking performance. K. Tell stories. executives." 1. each previous point will become diluted. I thought they would. I had to answer "no. I heard Les Brown. D. When in doubt. and they give you more credibility. Don't over do it. 10____ I heard this story years ago. That will keep you from having hundreds of PowerPoint slides. E. or three key points for a longer talk (a talk longer than 30-minutes." though. When his brother-in-law showed up. but the heat was too great. and coached hundreds of managers. I have spoken before thousands of people. Your audience will remember your stories a lot longer than they will remember your talking points. By human nature. 8____ The more points your presentation has. The reason this is so important is that the human mind likes to think of only one thing at a time. the less focus the audience will have on each individual point.2. just 20. Now think of a pink elephant. I. (Remember the tips?) 24 .) Ask yourself. Narrow down your topic to either one key point for a short talk. think of the Statue of Liberty. "If my audience only remembered one thing from my talk. speak from the heart. Stories build rapport with your audience. most people are focused on themselves not on you. English in use 1.com/articles/effective_ public_ speaking_in_ business_presentations. What do you see? You probably see a picture in your mind of the statue. and he told a story about how a man in his hometown went around the town square holding two baby dolls and squawking like a chicken.instead he just clucks like a chicken. C. Once you have your key points. and I can't remember the specific point Les Brown was making on stage. As you add additional points. H. Ever since then. Les Brown's stories have longevity.Limit your talk to a few key points.leadersinstitute. I do remember the "chicken-man.

there often is a broad variety of courses that incorporate presentations or reports–and sometimes full-length seminars–into the regular class activities. for you psychology hounds. 7. visual 23 ___– such as PowerPoints. in truth. the thing people fear most is speaking 2 ___ public. 5. there’s 6 ___ need to lose your breakfast (or lunch or dinner) 7 ___ your upcoming presentation. Nobody 8 ___ give a good presentation 9 ___ putting in some serious time preparing remarks. Jacobs. too. Look presentable. saying 10 ___ comes to mind. Organizing your points 12 ___ a few main parts and telling your audience 13 ___ these parts are – both before and as you go through your presentation – can be the difference 14 ___ a winning presentation and a loser. Talk. 25 . 4. Some people find it useful to have a friend pretend to be the audience: He or she can build up your confidence and maybe even ask a question or two. The single biggest mistake inexperienced speakers make is going too fast. handouts. Do a dry run. Nobody enjoys seeing a speaker burying his or her face in a script. You should.15 Strategies for Giving Oral Presentations Lynn F. Take it slow. For certain sorts of presentations. in college. Jeremy S. No need to wear a suit. Still. Remember that your audience hears the material for the first time and isn’t nearly as familiar 21 ___ the topic as you are. even has a 4 ___: glossophobia. Good presentations are structured in sections. This can help 16 ___ both your timing and your manner of presentation. but it’s hard for people to take a presentation seriously when you look like someone 18 ___ just rolled out of bed. or. Unfortunately. Hyman More 1 ___ death and taxes. Office hours work well for this. 4-Star Tip. Many gifted speakers look as if they’re just talking off the cuff. If your presentation includes a discussion period. Be sure to make mental notes if you went on 17 ___ long or got nervous or stuck. Extra Pointer. Our 15 tips for improving your public speaking will make even a garden-variety speaker into a real Cicero: 1. Do your homework. reading stiffly 19 ___ a piece of paper. college students are not immune 3 ___ this terror. Use aids. it’s not always so easy to avoid public speaking. 3. 2. But. either drop or briefly summarize any leftover material. Many presentations need only two or three main points. Try to talk from notes. even things written on the board – can help your audience locate and grasp the main points. don’t read. It’s less important that you capture the text word for word than that you present the main ideas in a natural and relaxed way. gesture at the points you haven’t fully covered and suggest them as things that could be discussed later. It’s always a good idea to try out your presentation on your professor 11 ___ giving it in class. It’s always good to do a run-through (or even a couple of run-throughs) the night 15 ___ the presentation. If you find yourself running 22 ___ of time. 6. try to look down 20 ___ it only occasionally. Needless to say. Some schools have required courses in speech. Play the parts. which. And even in colleges 5 ___ speech isn’t a subject. they’ve spent considerable time figuring out what they’re going to say. if you use a written-out text.

and be sure to answer exactly the question asked. Don’t bury the crowd. take short 32 ___ from time to time. Be yourself. And it wouldn’t hurt to go out from in back of the podium or desk and walk around the room a little. because it shows that someone in the audience has engaged 38 ___ what you’re saying. 14. And in a discussion period. Always be sure to have a satisfying conclusion 34 ___ your presentation in 35 ___ you make clear to the listeners what they now know. Sharing space with the audience can also communicate your interest in sharing your results 31 ___ them. No one enjoys speakers 33 ___ are trembling and sweating bullets. That shows people that you’re interested 29 ___ communicating with them – not just getting 30 ___ this experience as quickly as possible. In many classes. Play it straight. and think pleasant thoughts.usnews. and. 13. 15. There’s 27 ___ harm in including a little humor in your presentations. Know when to stop lecturing. (adapted from http://www. never lecture (only discuss). if you have the time to offer a brief response. As important 26 ___ the content you present is your authenticity in presenting it. clowns will get C’s. But in most college presentations. 8. 10. You’ll never succeed. Some speakers are terrified that someone will interrupt them 36 ___ a question or comment. how you discuss is as important as how you present. And two-way conversation (assuming you’re minimally good at it) is always a tension-reducer. 11. something you surely want to do. Bring along some water or a drink. Appear relaxed. Finish strong. then lead a discussion. A very important part of public speaking is to make 28 ___ contact with people seated in all parts of the room – even those nodding off in the back. especially if you can carry it off well. it can actually lead to genuine progress on the point you were making. Welcome interruptions. You don’t have to actually be relaxed–few speakers are – but at least try to appear as relaxed as possible. It creates a warm feeling in the minds of your listeners and shows them that they’ve really learned something from your talk — which they probably have. this is one of the 37 ___ things that can happen. Circle the crowd. 12. Actually.com/education/blogs/professors-guide/2010/02/24/15-strategies-for- giving-oral-presentations) 26 . Including massive numbers of quotations or unfathomable amounts of data can overwhelm even the 25 ___ attentive audience. Certain presentations – especially in advanced or upper- division classes or seminars – can require you to present some material.Just be sure to explain these materials fully in your presentation: No one is happy to see an outline that can’t be made heads or 24 ___ of. Be sure to attentively listen 39 ___ any comments or questions your classmates might raise 40 ___ starting on your answer. so don’t try to be someone you’re not. 9.

27 . He thought a good powerpoint would compensate for poor presentation skills. First meetings STOP AND THINK! What factors can influence the success of a first meeting? 2. especially by making a lot of small reductions  sit through sth – to attend a meeting. especially something unpleasant.3. even if it is long and boring  set in – if something sets in. We were overloaded with information. They are lettered A to L. and stay until the end. Then Dr Jones asked him a tricky question and you could see the panic 6 ___.1. 2. When Elaine asked about projected sales he 7 ___ before she’d finished. Reading comprehension Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. They are given in the box below the text. Most of the time he spoke too slowly (one or two people were 5 ___). performance etc. he should 3 ___ it ___. but nothing could have been 4 ___. it begins and seems likely to continue for a long time  (talk) at cross purposes – if two people are at cross purposes they do not understand each other because they are talking about different things but fail to realize this  the presentation (achievement) of one’s life – the most remarkable/the best achievement  of one’s life – one’s best possible achievement Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text: We had to 1 ___ Rob’s disastrous presentation to the group today. Vocabulary development Study the following phrases. and he completely 2 ___ the main points.1. He was hoping it would be the presentation 9 ___. There are two letters that you do not need.  a nervous wreck (informal) – very upset and worried  jump in – interrupt somebody while they are talking  lose sight of sth – forget an important fact about a situation  nod off (informal) – to fall asleep  nothing could be further from the truth – used to emphasize that something is definitely not true  pare sth down – to reduce something. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 10 with the corresponding missing parts A to L. and they ended up 8 ___. but instead he ended up a 10 ___.

8 ___. You should say your name (probably just your first name unless it is a business situation). Keep it light Keep your comments light and positive and you should get a response that is also in the same manner. Use the situation You have met together for a purpose. the vast majority of people will be fine with your apology and not hold a grudge against you. If you are at a company meeting you 4 ___. 1 ____ and begin a relationship on good terms. Beyond that. a party. However. Relax You have reason to be confident when meeting someone for the first time because in this situation they have never met you either. A smile will relax you as well as making you appear friendly and open. Simply apologize and let it be known that 7 ___. this is simple. The greeting The first thing to do when meeting someone is to smile and greet them. It doesn't matter that they may well forget your name later. You are equals. Be sure to thank them for their time in speaking with you and 9 ___ and the door is open for you to go back to talk with them again. whether that is a meeting. Don't voice 5 ___ until you know the person better as it is possible you could offend them. you can rescue the situation so there is no need to panic about it. you could use your physical surroundings to find something to talk about. Again. So you may ask about the other person's journey or remark upon the decor etc. It is the real you 6 ___ if you are to have a lasting and positive relationship so that is what you should present to them. If people can see that your apology is sincere and that you meant no offence. Ask their opinion about something and show that you are interested in what they think. this relaxes you and the other person because it makes you appear open and 3 ___. 28 . You can find some connection between you to talk about in that. telling them your name. don't feel you need to put on an act. or at least work out some kind of exit strategy if the meeting is not going well. Keep controversial conversation topics for a later meeting. a new work colleague.What to Say When Meeting Someone for the First Time It can be quite a nervous time when you are meeting someone new and often people can wonder what they should say. so the other person also relaxes and 2 ___. all you have to do is say that you need to go talk to a friend you have just spotted across the room. Use your manners Even if you have offended someone on a first meeting. It doesn't matter if it is a date. Even though you have to be a little careful not to offend people. Don't outstay your welcome If you are meeting someone for the first time. a business meeting or someone you meet in a social situation. Or at a party you might ask how they know the host. Often. or whatever. both in the same position in that respect. you made yourself appear open to them. you can find yourself stuck for what to say when meeting someone for the first time.

2. open and friendly. I just had to 4 ___.  a meeting of minds – a situation in which people have similar ideas and opinions  be on the same wavelength (informal) – think in a similar way about sth  be struck by sb/sth (informal) – be impressed by or interested in sth  (feel) at home – (feel) comfortable and relaxed  make sth of sb/sth – understand or regard sb or sth in a particular way  my heart was in my mouth – used to say you felt very nervous or frightened about sth  play it by ear – deal with a situation by reacting as things happen rather than having a plan  (right) from the word go – (right) from the beginning  to start/begin with – at the beginning  with open arms – welcome sb in a very affectionate and enthusiastic way Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text: When I met my new boss. 2. what to say when meeting someone for the first time should be light. 9 ___. It is enough to smile and be open and interested in the other person and make light conversation about the situation that brings you together. it wasn’t exactly 1 ___.2 Vocabulary development 2. Study the following phrases.2. How’s life? 29 . It should 10 ___. But we’re OK now. They welcomed me 6 ___. though. My first host family are fantastic! We got on really well 5 ___ .2. 1. and I 7 ___ almost immediately. (adapted from http://ezinearticles. I met my boyfriend on the Internet and I reckoned we’d 8 ___.com/?What-to-Say-When-Meeting-Someone-For-the-First- Time&id=4343369) A that you need the other person to connect with and to like B feels more happily disposed toward you C could ask how long the other person has worked for the company D it is out of your reach E you may well want to keep the meeting quite short F not probe too deeply into personal issues nor disclose too much of yourself G any particularly strong opinions H all of these situations offer you opportunities to strike up a conversation I leave on good terms so they are left with a good impression of you J nothing bad can happen K it connects the two of you L it was not your intention to cause offence 2. But as I was driving to meet him in person. and 3 ___. He was lovely. Replace the underlined word/phrases with another word/phrase that has the same meaning. and I 10 ___ his quirky sense of fun immediately. I didn’t know what 2 ___ him really.1.So.

For an important business presentation. In the beginning it was a difficult relationship. Your competitive advantage We have 10. 10. the meaning of words. 4. These are 11. word order. to consider if you need to be speaking or if you can start to change the topic of the presentation. 6. that the 30 . Identify the mistakes and correct them. some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake. . 3. Block out some time in your diary. Because of the special connection parents have with their children. 3. Why are you presenting? Is 2. 7. This is how much time it will take to do a good job . She recognizes and is grateful for everything you’ve done. 5. a missing word. Some of the underlined parts are correct.read the sentences carefully and concentrate on spelling. 9. If you haven't got that much space in the diary then you will simply have to move something out. or you 9.2. and inappropriateness in the context). TIPS TO HELP YOU! How can you know what is wrong? What should you do? Every time you have to solve such tasks: . it an important message to give or are you simply making up numbers? Are you looking 3. you will need asking yourself. I like the situation as it is. to rise your personal profile or are you standing in for someone who has dropped out? Are you comfortable 4. that you block out around 20 hours of your time. 8. Remember the tips! They are useful! Why are you presenting? This is the first thing that 1. a spelling mistake. tenses. They were very unwilling to leave. 8.1. If there is only one piece of advice that you could follow from this site . etc. agreement between subject and predicate. an unnecessary word.in research. sat in thousands of business presentations . We’ve had good times and bad times in our relationship.do not ignore logical meaning. He is prepared to take responsibility for what happened. a vocabulary mistake. This is what most of us end up doing. There is widespread admiration for what he has achieved. Business meetings 3. will must work in evenings or weekends. a very uneffective way of communicating. we suggest 7. the most commonly mistakes that we see a lot of. Business research shows 12. The one common factor that we see a lot is bullet points. planning and most importantly in rehearsing. This is one of 6. with your subject matter or have you been given the topic of the presentation? If you have serious doubts now is the time to start 5.it would be to use pictures rather than bullet points. Read the following text about meetings. I had a tough time last year but things are improving now.and many can be quite boring affairs. they often give up many important things for them.

3. (Remember the tips?) Most of us have been to seminars or conferences where we've left feeling inspired and 1. ___ (JUVENILE). then meetings are the heart and mind. ___. Fill in the gaps in the text below with the most appropriate words or phrases in the following box. "Gee. your speech word with for word and you will be able to ad lib better! Remember the comedian Frankie Howard with his bumbling delivery . 3. Sadly. There are the everyday office meetings. ___. ___ meetings to go around these days. no doubt. seminars – 2. hash them out. board meetings. ___. or online via the Internet. 31 .in short -. Rehearsing This is an absolute must. and 4. Modern workplaces are built on teams. The place where we communicate our ideas. ___ spend 40%-50% of their working hours in business meetings. quick-witted and like to ad lib.3. teleconference.2. Rarely. videoconference. develop new understandings and new directions. share our passion for better or worse. are scheduled without adequate time to prepare and end without 10. If communication is the 5. The reason is that good seminars and conferences are organized precisely to engage us. Fill in the gaps in the following text with a word derived from the word given in brackets.chances of achieving your objectives increase from around 33% up to around 66%. and for a good reason. ___ of the pervasiveness of meetings comes from a recent issue of Fast Company magazine. Learn 14. And when is the last time you heard someone say. people meeting with people. That's what it's all about. ___. they complain that meetings are too long. Further 8. where strategies are articulated and debated -. irrelevant issues fall apart lifeblood more than enough all the way up to shapes and sizes on average any clear result evidence effective project coordination Business Meetings that Matter .where we engage with others. It's where deals can happen or 6. was carefully scripted and practised for hours in front of a mirror."ooh now where was I?" Every one of those remarks 15. sharing of ideas. ___ major conferences. But how many of us have ever left everyday meetings feeling the same way. but I'll tell you one thing. Survey results published by the Annenberg School of Communications at UCLA and the University of Minnesota's Training & Development Research Center show that executives 7. And that is a major competitive advantage."? There are 3. where organizational psychologist Jon Ryburg says he advises corporate clients to provide twice as much meeting space as they did 20 years ago.it's Possible! Meetings come in all 1. And meetings can now be face-to-face. most office meetings are not. Meetings are more important than ever. ___. How to Plan a Meeting Studies also point out a discouraging trend: Surveyed professionals agree that as much as 50% of that meeting time is unproductive and that up to 25% of meeting time is spent discussing 9. we need to have more meetings. You may be 13. ___ of any organization. Typically.

These can be 4. 10 ___ the meeting and the other participants. principles.4. . ____ (MIND). etc. that people must obey or follow  leave sth hanging – fail to make a definite decision or statement about sth  ramble on (informal) – speak about sth for a long time in a boring or confusing way  run over – continue for longer than planned  rush into sth – do something without thinking carefully about it first  throw sth together – make or produce sth in a hurry  to the detriment of sth/sb – resulting in harm or damage to sth/sb Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text. All the attention to detail and process can push the opportunity for 9. Here’s why: . or visual aids to grab attention. . Participants must feel that something has been accomplished.Believe it or not.One person at the meeting (often the chairperson) 9 ___ their own agenda. a plan for the meeting is reflected in the agenda and the facilitator (or chair) keeps things on time and on track.Participants are allowed to arrive 1 ___. . and as a result. And if you've ever been to a great conference or seminar. stated purpose. and they must see all of their meetings as part of the bigger strategy to involve them in the future of the organization. ___ (PROFESSION) way and given sufficient prior information. ___ (LOOK) aspect of everyday meetings.Poor time management may mean people 7 ___ decisions. . the meeting 6 ___ with nothing achieved. ___ (SUMMARY) as: 1) preparation 2) facilitation 3) inspiration 4) results Preparation means making sure your meeting has a clear. a/v equipment. and an agenda. 7. catering. ___ (PRODUCE) part of your day. Results means that every meeting should be directed toward one or more 10. ___ (COME). 3. Inspiration is probably the most 8. Facilitation means that someone or a team is responsible for guiding the meeting.  forge ahead (with sth) – make strong and steady progress with sth  hold the floor – speak during a discussion. one or two people may 4 ___ and 5 ___ for ages. Vocabulary development Study the following phrases. Preparation also means attention to details including: room 6. use strategies to generate discussion. especially for a long time so that nobody else can speak  in dribs and drabs – gradually and in small amounts or numbers  lay sth down – officially state rules. or that decisions are 8 ___. Build in activites that engage participants. and so on. you already have seen some of the basic principles at work. meetings can and should be the most 2.They don’t know what’s happening because the chairperson has 2 ___ the agenda at the last minute and hasn’t 3 ___ clear rules for the conduct of the meeting. ___ (INTEREST) and 3. ___ (BOOK).Without firm guidance from the chair. The chairperson may be responsible when a meeting goes badly. 32 . ___ (SPONTANEOUS) and enthusiasm aside. invited in 5. Achievements at one meeting should be recapped in the next. Participants are chosen carefully.

3 (page 28). Short and clear sentences are always more convincing than the long but incoherent ones. a body and a conclusion. Organise your paragraphs in a logical sequence. (type of document: Word). and 3.ro).1 (page 30). Once you have decided on the register. If you write significantly more than 300 words.ubbcluj. be consistent! Pay attention to the length of your paper.4 (page 33).2.fekete@lingua. Deadline: 10 December 33 . Consider who you are addressing and adopt the required register: formal or informal. Each new idea should be approached in a distinct paragraph and illustrated by details and relevant examples.ATTENTION! Do not forget that any text should have an introductory part. HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 2 Write sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the phrases given in tasks 1. You should submit your homework electronically (adriana. Do not send material downloaded from the Internet. you might have referred to irrelevant aspects. If you write less. 2. your paper might be incomplete.

U] SWOT noun [U] enterprise noun syndicate noun [C] Est. PLC noun [C] bureau noun [C] position noun [C] buy sb out phrasal verb [M] private adjective chamber of commerce noun [C] proprietor noun [C] clearing house noun [C] public company/corporation/enterprise client noun [C] noun [C] clientele group noun [S] public utility noun [C] Co. adjective tender noun [C] establishment noun [C] tertiary adjective expand verb [I. T] family business noun [C] transact verb [T] FORMAL fellow noun [C] trust company noun [C] firm noun [C] unlimited company noun [C] franchise noun [C] venture noun [C] head office group noun [C] human resources plural noun Incorporated adjective joint venture noun [C] make a takeover bid for sth manufacturers plural noun 34 . UNIT 3 – COMPANY STRUCTURE GLOSSARY – BUSINESS ENGLISH VOCABULARY Students should be able to use the vocabulary under COMPANY STRUCTURE to communicate about:  Business aims of companies  Business activities of companies (according to the type of work they are involved with)  Types of companies – general characteristics  Types of organisations by size  Internal structure of companies  Corporate culture acquisition noun [C. noun [C] spokesman noun [C] corporate adjective stakeholder society noun [C] counterpart noun [C] status noun [U] daughter company noun [C] strategic alliance noun [C] department noun [C] subordinate adjective division noun [C] subsidiary noun [C] e-business noun [C. noun [U] run a business verb [I] commercial adjective sister company noun [C] consultancy noun small business noun [C] Corp. U] associate adjective offshore adjective authority noun [C] parent company noun [C] blue chip company noun [C] partnership noun branch noun [C] personnel group noun [U] brokerage noun [C] plc.T] trade verb [I.U] merger noun [C] affiliate noun [C] monopoly noun [C or S] agency noun [C] multinational noun [C] alliance noun [C] NGO noun [C] annual general meeting noun [C] office noun [C.

importantly. This is referred to as 'limited liability' and is the 7 ___ popular form of company. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps with ONE word. which refer to their liability for the company’s debts if or when it enters liquidation: Shareholders' liability for companies limited by shares is limited to any amount still owing to the company for their shares. After the certificate of incorporation is issued. (Remember the tips?) Types of Companies under the Companies Act UK Legislation governing Companies The internal governance procedures and management. Registering a Company To register a company.2. as the directors and shareholders do not become personally liable for the debts and conduct of the company. 35 . except in special circumstances. Classification of Companies The Companies Act broadly categorises companies as either public 6 ___ private companies. the required documents must be filed and certain conditions imposed by the Registrar of Companies satisfied. whereas a public limited company requires a minimum of two. the memorandum of association and the articles of association. The memorandum lists the company name. A public limited company must 5 ___ specific capital requirements before it can commence business. the liability of its shareholders and the share capital. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What makes a successful businessman/woman in your country? 1. rights of shareholders and duties and responsibilities of company officers are governed 1 ___ the Companies Act 2 ___ 1985. A company’s first shareholders are ‘subscribers’ and can be natural persons or other companies. Incorporation Documents The documents which must be filed include. A certificate of incorporation will then be issued and the company brought 3 ___ existence. its objects.1. The articles list the company regulations and rules 4 ___ the internal administration. There are three categories of liability of the company shareholders. the company is considered as registered and can commence trading.UNIT THREE – THE STRUCTURE OF THE FIRM 1. Types of Businesses 1. A private limited company requires only one member. the country of its registered office.

Shareholders may not 15 ___ sued by creditors. the vehicle tends to be used for smaller businesses. or the Alternative Investment Market. Any share capital must be stated in the articles of association. shareholders will be liable to contribute to the assets of the company the amount required for payment of the company’s debts and costs of winding up. A private company is not permitted to offer its shares to the public. The name must end with “public limited company” or the abbreviation "PLC". the Companies Act permits incorporation of private companies limited by shares. The share capital must not be less 13 ___ £50. The memorandum of association has to be generally in the ‘form’ prescribed by the Secretary of State. as the company does not satisfy the requirements of the Act. the memorandum must explicitly state that 12 ___ is a public company. determines the amount 10 ___ is payable. shareholders are liable to contribute to the assets any unpaid amount on shares issued to that shareholder. The nominal value of the shares. Due 9 ___ the capitalisation requirements. Moving on from these basic models for shareholders' liability. Where a private company is limited 11 ___ guarantee. 36 .For companies limited by guarantee. The Stock Exchange may deal with the shares of a public company. including premiums payable on subscription. Public Companies A public company must be limited by shares. Such companies are described as ‘publicly quoted’. Unlimited Companies A member of such a company has no limit on their liability for a company’s debts and obligations if it becomes insolvent. At least one-quarter of each share’s nominal value and the whole of any premium on it must be paid before it can be allotted. who must petition for the winding up of the company. the single member will be jointly and severally liable with the company for its debts. This is usually £1. Where a private company is limited by its shares. All companies that are not public companies are private companies. Overseas Companies This is where the company has been incorporated 16 ___ than in Great Britain. ‘publicly traded’ or ‘listed companies’. and unlimited companies offer no protection to shareholders for company debts. the preparation and delivery of accounts. public companies limited by shares. up to the maximum set out in the memorandum. and the registration of charges over property. If there are less than two shareholders of the company for more than six months. Private Companies Private companies are defined by reference to public limited companies. though has an established business in Great Britain. The provision contained in the Act includes those concerning their constitution and officers and an address for service within the jurisdiction. thus limited liability protection 14 ___ be lost. members’ liability is limited to their undertaking to pay certain sums on its winding 8 ___.000. private companies limited by guarantee and private unlimited companies.

responsible ~ + ty Savings. be obliged. jurisdiction a. differently and separately 10. LONG 5. be the owner of. Notice how the following words are formed: Proprietorship.3. and seven cups of tea a day. MAJOR 6. How dare they ___ blame without knowing all the facts first? PORTION 2. (legal) responsibility 2. to ask the government or an organization to do something by sending them a petition.The formation of a company for most trading enterprises means forming a company limited by shares. not having enough money to pay what you owe 5.3. a short legal document that contains the important details of an agreement 11. capital c.3. be in debt. severally j. belongings: verb + ing(s) Unlimited: un + adj 1. puts her ___ down to having a loving family. Vocabulary development 1. to make a formal request to someone in authority. (Remember the tips?) 1. liability d.4. please. to petition f. in some proportion. Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals. PAY 37 . system.3. We took out a loan from the bank. money or property. or to God 8. hold Owe: be indebted. I’d like to make a ___ from my bank account. or the area where this right exists 3. have a loan from 1. HIGH 3. so we’re going to have to make monthly ___ for the next five years. who is 107 today. http://www. Notice the difference: Own/ owe Own: possess. partnership. ownership: ~ + ship Liability. What ___ strength do those binoculars have? MAGNIFY 7. insolvent e. have possession of. be in possession of. to incorporate h.3. or give a particular share of money. shareholder i. the right to use an official power to make legal decisions.gillhams. responsibility < liable. DRAW 4. two or more owners who have agreed to divide. to allot k. to a court of law. especially when it is used to start a business or to produce more wealth: 9. Match the following words from the text with the correct definitions: 1. plan etc 6. At the ___ of summer. person that owns shares/ stocks 1. space etc to someone or something 4. Doris Carter. A ___ of residents now support the proposal to build a new roundabout in the town centre. partnership b. to include something as part of a group.com/articles/135.1. the temperature can reach 500C.3.2. the risks taken and the profits earned by the firm 7. memorandum g.cfm 1. to use a particular amount of time for something.

First of all. ___ makes everyone’s lives easier. They are lettered A to I. BENEFIT 10. let’s look at………. In conclusion……….. There are days when I work on personal projects for well over 8 hours. (Remember the tips?) The Natural Productivity Cycle In your personal life.2. So.4. Everyone goes through alternating periods of high and low mental acuity. when attending to business or working on side projects. Reading Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. a few hours writing. Liskeard and Callington are basically ___ from here. and responding to email. After that……. I work this way because 2 ___. The place of work 2. Please keep e-mails short. moderating comments. to conclude……. 2. LONG 1. turning to……. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What jobs will disappear in the future? Why? What are the factors that contribute to job satisfaction? 2. how often do you spend 8 consecutive hours in front of a computer? It doesn’t make sense because 1 ___. but the time is always divided into multiple sessions. BRIEF 11. I don’t want to ___ the agony for you. I might spend a few hours coding a design. Now. They are given in the box below the text. Finally . let’s look at………. so it’ll take about the same time to get to either of them. Instead of forcing myself to 38 . Any more than 3 hours in front of a computer and my eyes start hurting and I become restless. DISTANT 9. I lose the ability to do my best work. if we turn to………. As you can see from the bar graph………… Now. LONG 12. Their help was hugely ___. and a few hours reading feeds. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 8 with the corresponding missing parts A to I. The school’s football pitch has been ___ over the summer to conform to new national standards. Functions Presenting information I’m going to talk about…. but I’m afraid you’ll have to wait another two days to know how much money you’ve won. There is one letter that you do not need.1..8.

It’s counter productive to force work when the mental energy isn’t there. 6 ___ like responding to email and tinkering with existing creations. For different people the peaks and valleys will vary. the mind is so cluttered and drained that workers resort to “work related activities” that appear productive but don’t contribute to the bottom line. but the work just won’t have that creative edge. Workers can try their hardest. You can’t be highly productive because you’re mentally fatigued. Towards the end of the cycle. The Problem with an 8 Hour Work Day A continuous 8 hour work day is a relic of the past. The traditional office setting doesn’t accommodate this because there are few available recharge activities. they can’t recharge with a non-work activity.continue. Language in use Fill in the gaps in the following text with ONE word. but you can’t recharge because the 8 hour work day requires the appearance of constant productivity. In the case of the modern information worker. The ability of a factory worker to think analytically is irrelevant. 39 .3. The only option is office purgatory. The way someone answers an email or interprets a piece of information can differ drastically depending on his or her energy level. (Remember the tips?) Alternative Work Arrangements The obvious solution 1 ___ this problem is planning around the mental energy cycle 2 ___ breaking the work day into multiple segments. D overall I’d estimate only 3-4 hours a day could be classified as highly productive. The result is millions of unproductive workers trapped at their desks when they’d rather be doing something else. The afternoon cycle is similar but the productivity peak isn’t as high. People can’t 3 ___ household chores. H it aligns with my mental energy cycle I they’ve been sucking down coffee all day to stay awake. You can’t force an information worker to be highly productive when the energy isn’t there. he’s either cranking widgets or he isn’t. run errands. It makes sense for physical labour and manufacturing work. but I’ve observed that productivity levels generally peak twice a day — first thing in the morning and shortly after lunch. but with information workers it 4 ___. A energy levels drop and workers downgrade to less demanding tasks B we lose the ability to concentrate effectively within a few hours. These breaks maximize productivity by eliminating down periods. nearly all tasks involve creative or strategic thinking. E I switch to an activity that allows my mind to recharge. F of the continuous 8 hour work day. G the environment has become more accommodating. Nobody does their best work 5:30 in the afternoon after 5 ___ I can’t speak for all workers. The low ratio of highly productive hours to total hours worked is the result 8 ____. 2. When workers reach the low energy part of the cycle. People are capable of creative tasks like writing and solving complex technical problems. 3 ___. The most productive period is the beginning of the day. C doesn’t account for the mental energy cycle. but 7 ___ This number isn’t caused by slacking. or engage in recreational activities without leaving the workplace. After a couple hours of intense work.

There is also the presence of office politics. 4. I think we’re all in agreement … F in your work. 9. Employers don’t pay for unproductive time and employees get to work in a more natural pattern that adjusts to their personal lives. fitness centres. I don’t know why you didn’t apply… E business along.4. I’m inclined to believe that most adults value their employment enough that this isn’t a problem. 6. but I can tell when something just makes sense. effectively cutting 10 ___ the low productivity period of the cycle. The shop hasn’t been in … H accept a pay cut. Although these amenities are certainly an improvement. jealous employees will complain. and 11 ___ commutes get worse and communications improve. I perceive an increasing number of people are noticing the same phenomena.com/blog/why-the-9-to-5-office-worker-will-become-a-thing-of-the-past/) 2. When energy returns. If one person is given a remote arrangement. they’re expensive for employers and only partially satisfy employees. When a worker becomes mentally fatigued. I’m glad you’re finally taking an interest … I work. the number will continue to increase. Forty years from now we’ll be telling our grandchildren about the olden days when everyone’s mommy and daddy went to work in an office.4. Dean’s been out … G for that position. Doesn’t it make sense to give everyone what they want and save a boat load of cash on office space? I may only be a kid in his 20′s. but for most companies it really isn’t necessary. but for the vast majority of lower and mid level employees meetings are the exception and could be conducted via phone/video conference or condensed into one or two days 15 ___ week.1. This is steadily becoming less essential. They’ve made their decision … B about who’s going to get promoted. (http://www. doesn’t he? 10. Match to make sentences. 5. The solution that 6 ___ the most sense is a remote work arrangement because it reduces employer costs and allows employees to adjust their work schedule 7 ___ their mental energy cycle. In cases where supervision is required. I put a lot of effort … A on hold for ages. 8. web cams and other technology can 16 ___ used to monitor a worker. It’s not in your interest to … C of work for over two months now.Some companies have tried to make the work environment 4___ accommodating by offering meals. Most office communications are already done through email 14 ___ instant messenger. Jason lives fairly near his place of… J on this. Another common objection is that employees will abuse remote work arrangements by slacking off.pickthebrain. 1. I suspect the real reason remote work arrangements are still the exception is inertia. they can go off the clock and engage 8 ___ recharge activities that are personally productive like exercise or relaxation. and special areas 5 ___ relaxation. 7. 2. Of course there will always be a need 12 ___ office workers in businesses (like doctor’s offices and law firms) that require daily customer interaction. Vocabulary development 2. The secretary’s kept me … D into writing this report. 3. Face to face meetings are certainly necessary. There is also the argument that people need to collaborate 13 ___ person. Companies are used to doing business in the office and are reluctant to change. Why isn’t everyone doing this already? Many workers already are. aren’t we? 40 . the worker can start working again 9 ___ a high level.

Don’t wear jeans and a T-shirt.2. which are specialised markets for buying and selling stocks. If you go to a job fair. the majority will have found 2 ___ (EMPLOY) by then. Although a certain percentage of graduates will still be 1 ___ (EMPLOY) six months after leaving university. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps with ONE word.2. that stock is typically traded on one of the national 2 ___ exchanges. An existing corporation that wants to secure funds to expand its operations has three options: 41 . It certainly + vb. most stock sales do not involve new issues of stock. which are usually in 3 ___ (MANAGE).5. To be bound to… X is likely to…. as a result of visiting a job fair. Job fairs are held at many universities each year. Corporations – How Corporations Raise Funds For Investment 1. Companies come along to advertise jobs. 3. It’s possible we… I doubt if…. dress 5 ___ (PROFESSION). X may + vb…. when someone 1 ___ owns stock decides to sell some or all of their shares. X should + vb. The likelihood is There might be… that… There’s just a chance that…. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Is it necessary for a company to have its own fund-raising policy? Does a well-defined policy contribute to the success of the company in the business world? 3. shareholders provide the funds for a company to begin new or expanded operations. 2. Functions Forecasting Certainty Probability Possibility Improbability Will definitely+ vb. However. so don’t forget to take photocopies of all your certificates with you. Will probably… X could + vb. Wear a suit! You don’t want to look 6 ___ (RESPONSIBLE) when you have your first 7 ___ (MEET) with your potential 8 ___ (EMPLOY).2. X is unlikely to… I am sure that…. Job fairs are an 4 ___ (EFFECT) way for undergraduates to find out what kind of job they might be interested in. you may have to fill out an 9 ___ (APPLY) form.1. By investing in new issues of a company’s stock. If you’re interested in a job on offer. the person who sells the stock – not the corporation whose stock is traded – receives the funds from the sale. Many of these will even have been offered a job while at university. You’ll also need proof of all your 11 ___ (QUALIFY). so it’s 10 ___ (HELP) to take along relevant information with you. and the career structures and benefit packages that go with them. In those transactions. Fund Raising 3. Instead.4. 2. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space.

1. so reinvesting some of those profits increases the value of what the stockholders own and have risked in the business.com/admin/rechterframes/2704. using the process described earlier. corporate profits that some companies periodically pay out to shareholders 2. 2) d. Dividends are corporate profits that some companies periodically pay out to shareholders. That means that stocks are riskier investments than bonds. so stockholders’ equity decreases. On the other hand. 5 ___ a designated time. profits (par. the action or process of buying and selling something 5. to get money from a bank or from a person by promising to give them goods or property if you cannot return the money 8. expansion (par. to incur (par. New issues are often approved because if the expansion proves to be profitable. equity (par. legal obligations to repay the amount of money borrowed. Match the words with the correct definition: 1. ( http://www. money that you make by selling something or from your business. 2) f. Stockholders can enjoy much larger returns. 1) c. if the corporation is profitable. dividends (par. 2) e. Those retained earnings come 8 ___ the profits that belong to the stockholders. To do this the corporation often issues bonds. which are legal obligations to repay the amount of money borrowed. from other financial institutions. That option will reduce the share of the business that current stockholders 3 ___. After paying taxes. 3) g. issues (par. 4) b. 4) j. 3. it is legally required to pay 6 ___ any bonds it has issued before any money is returned to stockholders. if the corporation incurs losses. that are made available to people at a particular time 6.htm) 3. so a majority of the current stockholders have to approve the issue of new shares of stock. transaction (par. 10. to secure (par. plus interest. a set of things. 1) a. Vocabulary development 3. the value of a property after you have taken away the amount left to pay on the mortgage // the value of a company’s shares 4. moving into new areas.the-unitedstatesofamerica. organisation. 4. a profit on money that you have invested 9. or activity grow by including more people. the current stockholders are likely to benefit 4 ___ higher stock prices and increased dividends.3.3. 4) i. 3) h. On the other hand.It can issue new shares of stock. or have to pay money as a result of doing something 42 . the value of what the stockholders own in the business goes down. especially the money that remains after you have paid all your business costs 7. If a corporation goes out of business. all a bondholder will ever receive is the amount of money specified in the bond. bonds (par. owe money. profits are 7 ___ paid out to stockholders as dividends or held as retained earnings to use in running and expanding the business. to lose money. or from individuals. The second way for a corporation to secure funds is by borrowing money from banks. for example shares in a company. returns (par. plus interest. at a designated time 3. selling more products etc. the process of making a business. which is known as stockholders’ equity. The final way for a corporation to pay for new investments is by reinvesting some of the profits it has earned.

frankly. 43 . nevertheless in contrast (to)……. We urge (3) ___ (MANAGE) to reconsider their proposals. although.. Managing Director of Shepparton Carpets. ………against………. Union leader Elaine Watkins issued a statement saying: “Although we do not envisage an all- out strike at this stage. which began three weeks ago.. we have to make changes to improve efficiency. I just wish the unions would work with me on this. “If Shepparton Carpets wants to survive. refused to bow to union demands. in spite of the fact that.and……. “It is my responsibility as an 6 ___ (EMPLOY) of over 500 7 ___ (EMPLOY) to ensure this company continues to make a profit. has affected 4 ___ (PRODUCE) at the factory. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space..to……. On the contrary …… ………compared to………. On the other hand…. has. despite. Neither ……nor……. Functions Trends upward movement: a rise to rise an increase to increase. Vocabulary development 3. 1 ___ (WORK) at Shepparton Carpets Ltd voted today to continue with their industrial action. whereas. but it is essential. In comparison (to)…… similarity both…. Similarly………….4. 8 ___ (PERIOD). to go up a climb to climb a jump to jump downward movement: a fall to fall a drop to drop a decline to decline a decrease to decrease use of prepositions: The percentage rose from…. however. If we don’t.. rather than fighting me every step of the way.” he said.” The industrial action. There was a rise of……. we’ll be all out of a job. it has to become more 5 ___ (COMPETE). Some of the working practices at the factory are.. The amount stood / stayed at…… The figure rose by ……. …….3. the same………….while………. everyone at the plant will continue to refuse to work 2 ___ (TIME) until this dispute is settled.” 3. It may not be pleasant. contrast contrast words or phrases: but. however.. 9 ___ (ANTIQUE) and totally 10 ___ (APPLY) to the modern world.1. X is similar to………. Joe Turner..4.5. like………X……….

UNIT 4 – BUSINESS ETHICS GLOSSARY – BUSINESS ENGLISH VOCABULARY Students should be able to use the vocabulary under BUSINESS ETHICS to communicate about:  Definition of business ethics  Importance of business ethics in today’s business climate  Basic ethical considerations that a company needs to address  Codes of ethics  Unethical behaviour in the workplace  Training in business ethics account verb natural resources noun acid rain noun [U] noise pollution noun [U] age discrimination norm noun [C usually plural] biodegradable adjective nuclear waste noun [U] bioethics noun [U] oil slick noun [C] biological control noun [U] overpopulated adjective carbon tax noun [C] ozone noun [U] conservation noun [U] poison verb [T] corporate social responsibility noun [C] pollute verb [T] decontaminate verb [T] positive discrimination noun deforest verb [T] precept noun [C] FORMAL depopulate verb [T] preservation noun [U] dumping noun [U] principle noun [C or U] emission noun protected adjective environment noun [C or U] race discrimination noun ethic noun [C] recycle verb [T] global warming noun [U] refuse dump noun [C] globalisation noun [U] reusable adjective green adjective scrap yard noun [C] integrity noun [U] smog noun [S or U] just adjective social conscience noun [U] life-support system noun [C] the polluter pays principle litter verb [T] throwaway adjective moral adjective unethical adjective 44 .

in fact. and then doing the right thing -." Twin Cities consultants Doug Wallace and John Pekel explain that ethics includes the fundamental ground 6 ___ by which we live our lives. You are going to read a text about business ethics. quality. between companies and their employees.UNIT FOUR – BUSINESS ETHICS 1. Categorise the following commercial practices using a scale from 1 to 5: 1 = acceptable in some circumstances 4 = usually unacceptable 2 = usually acceptable 5 = always unacceptable 3 = depends on situation Do not forget to give reasons for your choices. 2. 0 – what Let's Start With "What is ethics?" Simply put.ultimately it's 4 ___ to the individual. product types. English in use 2. pricing and many other aspects of business. For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context.g. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What is business ethics? Reflection topic Business ethics is concerned with issues of morality in commercial decision making. e. Philosophers have been discussing ethics for at 7 ___ 2500 years.) Many philosophers 5 ___ ethics to be the "science of conduct.but "the right thing" is not nearly 1 ___ straightforward as conveyed in a great deal of business ethics literature. and others believe the right thing to do depends on the situation -. since the time 45 . * manufacturing and selling cosmetics tested on animals * making employees redundant without any warning * making false claims of selling environmentally-friendly products when.1. ethics involves learning 0 ___ is right or wrong. Ethical questions include the relationship between business and the environment. they are harmful for the environment * employing illegal immigrants as cheap labour and depriving them of their legal rights * doing business with companies which exploit children * exaggerating your company’s achievements in negotiations * dropping your prices to force competitors out of the market. Most ethical dilemmas in the workplace are not simply a 2 ___ of "Should Bob steal from Jack?" or "Should Jack lie to his boss?" (Many ethicists assert there's always a right thing to 3 ___ based on moral principle.

wrongful use of resources. 14 ___ retain a strong moral compass. (Pay attention to the part of speech which is missing in the sentence so that you can choose the right word. these principles of the obvious can go right out the door during times of stress. misunderstanding. values such as respect. e. attention to business ethics provides numerous other benefits. what becomes an ethical guideline today is often translated to a law." There has been a great deal written about managerial mischief.2.com/Business_Ethics/) 2.3. (adapted and abridged from http://www. mismanagement. For many of us.times much 10 ___ those faced now by businesses.). responsibility. Perhaps most important. 5 ___ of contracts and agreements. Consequently. Read the second part of the article about business ethics and fill in the gaps with the words in the box. i. honesty. etc.. fairness.com/Business_Ethics/) 2. Attention to ethics in the workplace sensitizes leaders and staff to how they 13 ___ act. Read the last part of the text and use the following words to form a word that fits in the same numbered space in the text. However. (adapted and abridged from http://www.e. The other broad area of business ethics is "moral mazes of management" and includes the numerous ethical problems that managers must deal with on a 4 ___ basis. So What is "Business Ethics"? The concept has come to mean various things to various people. business ethics is a matter of dealing with dilemmas that have no clear indication of what is right or wrong. business ethics can be strong preventative medicine. as well. and so these people don't take business ethics 15 ___. 2. Madsen and Shafritz.this is in regard 9 ___ effects of products/services and in relationships with stakeholders. Wallace and Pekel explain that attention to business ethics is critical during times of fundamental change -." etc. There is one word that you do not need: daily.g. leading many to believe that business ethics is merely a matter of 3 ___ the basics of what is right and wrong. In times of fundamental change. such as potential conflicts of interest. there is no clear moral compass to guide leaders through complex dilemmas about what is right or wrong. Consequently. attention to ethics in the workplaces helps ensure that when leaders and managers are struggling in times of crises and confusion. preaching Two Broad Areas of Business Ethics 1. Many ethicists consider emerging ethical beliefs to be "state of the art" legal matters. 1990) further explain that "managerial mischief" includes "illegal. regulation or rule 8 ___ Values which guide how we ought to behave are considered moral values. 11 ___ nonprofit and for-profit. etc. as well as the causes of such behaviours and 2 ___ to eradicate them." only asserts the obvious ("be good. unethical. Moral mazes. values that were previously 12 ___ for granted are now strongly questioned. Managerial mischief." "don't lie.of Socrates and Plato.articles911.articles911. More often. remedies. Many of these values are no longer followed.) 46 . but generally it's coming to know what is right or wrong in the workplace and doing what's right -. though.. Note that many people react that business ethics. practices. in their book "Essentials of Business Ethics" (Penguin Books. Statements around how these values are applied are sometimes called moral or ethical principles. or questionable 1 ___ of individual managers or organizations. with its continuing attention to "doing the right thing.

" meaning to include employees. If the part is correct. some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake. Note that 90% of business schools now provide some form of training in business ethics. customers. public health and improving education. a spelling mistake. organizations realized that they needed to manage a more positive image to the public and so the recent discipline of public relations was born. these businesses owed it to our country to work to improve society. and in their planning and operations have replaced the word "stockholder" with "stakeholder. guide Business ethics is now a management discipline. 5 ___ and the wider community The 6 ___ of business ethics is similar to other management disciplines. As commerce became more complicated and dynamic.com/Business_Ethics/) 3. if the part is incorrect. poor 7. organise 4. social awareness movements raised 2 ___ of businesses to use their massive financial and social influence to address social problems such as 3 ___. business schools and managers have recognized this broader constituency. Business ethics has come to be considered a management discipline. For example. research 8. (adapted and abridged from http://www. supply 2. emerge 3.articles911. a missing word. Many 4 ___. and inappropriateness in the context). write the correct version in its corresponding numbered space: 9 Myths About Business Ethics (1) Business ethics in the workplace is about prioritising moral values for the workplace and ensuring behaviours are aligned with those values -.and so business ethics was born. write CORRECT in its corresponding numbered space. 1. an unnecessary word. a vocabulary mistake. Reflection topic STOP AND THINK! Do you think that as societies become richer. ethics in the workplace can be managed through use of codes of ethics. 1 ___ since the birth of the social responsibility movement in the 1960s. English in use In the following article some of the underlined parts are correct. An increasing number of people asserted that because businesses were making a profit from using our country's resources. environmental protection. policies and procedures. consumers become more critical and more likely to adopt ethical standpoints? 4. codes of conduct. Today. procedures to resolve ethical dilemmas. ethics training. crime. In that decade. Yet. myths 47 . roles of ethicists and ethics committees. expect 6. 7 ___ realized they needed to better manage their human resources and so the recent discipline of human resources was born. organizations realized they needed more 8 ___ to ensure their dealings supported the common good and did not harm others -. equal rights.its values management. special 5. etc.

b) real alternatives that are equality justifiable and c) significant consequences on "stakeholders" in the situation. However." 2. Actually. Diane Kirrane. having little to do with the day-to-day realities of running an organization. indirectly. Some of these myths arise from general confusion about the notion of ethics.they are reasons. (10) the behaviour of the organisations’ founder or current leader is a strong moral influence. Lack of involvement of leaders and managers in business ethics literature and discussions has led many to believe that business ethics is a fad or movement.. 6. people are quick to speak of the Golden Rule. business ethics is a management discipline with a programmatic approach that includes several practical tools. Myth: Business ethics is a discipline best led by philosophers. Ethics management programs have practical applications in other areas of management areas. expanding market share. November 1990). or lists of ethical values to which the organization aspires. For example. the value of a code of ethics to an organization is its priority and focus regarding certain ethical values in that workplace. 1. 5. ethics is always "managed" -. Kirrane mentions that when the topic of business ethics comes up. a priority on honesty is very timely -. as well. it’s obvious that all people should be honest. Myth: Business ethics is a matter of the good guys preaching to the bad guys. (5) But when presented with complex ethical dilemmas. are rather superfluous because they represent values to which everyone should naturally aspire.managing values and conflict among them is . those people well versed in managing organizations realize that good people can take bad actions. too often.) Managing ethics in the workplace includes all of us working together to help each other remain ethical and to work through confusing and stressful ethical dilemmas. Myth: Business ethics is more a matter of religion than management. or directive if you will. in "Managing Values: A Systematic Approach to Business Ethics. most people realize there's a wide "gray area" when trying to apply ethical principles. (Stress or confusion are not excuses for unethical actions -. Other myths (2) arise from narrow or simplistic views of ethical dilemmas. 4.it only asserts the obvious: "do good!" (7) Many people react that codes of ethics. They believe (6) business ethics is primary a complex philosophical debate or a religion. Myth: Ethics can't be managed. However. particularly when stressed or confused. For example. etc. Wallace explains that one knows when they have a significant ethical conflict when there is presence of a) significant value conflicts among differing (4) interests. 3.. Some writers do seem to claim a moral high ground (9) while lamenting about the poor condition of business and its leaders.) can be very 48 . Note that a code of ethics is an organic instrument that changes with the needs of society and the organization." (Training and Development Journal. honesty and courtesy. cutting costs.and honesty should be listed in that organization’s code of ethics. Myth: Business ethics is superfluous -. Myth: Our employees are ethical so we don't need attention to business ethics. if an organization (8) is struggling around continuing occasions of deceit in the workplace.but. (3) asserts that "altering peoples’ values or souls isn't the aim of an organizational ethics program -. on behaviour or employees in the workplace. academics and theologians. However. Most of the ethical dilemmas faced by managers in the workplace are highly complex. However.abound about business ethics. Strategic priorities (profit maximization.

there needs to be more written about items 1 and 2. Some are still sceptical about business ethics. e." In the latter of 1980s. A code of ethics specifies the 3…ethical rules of operation. In some of the lines there is an extra word which is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit with the meaning of the text.g. Managing ethics in the workplace involves identifying and prioritizing values to guide behaviours in the organization. (15) and establishing associated policies and procedures to ensure those behaviours are conducted. found that 76% of its corporations surveyed had codes of ethics." Values management is also highly important in other management practices. English in use Read the following article about codes of ethics. you can eventually boil the frog. 2) a way to determine responsibility in business dealings. breaking the law often starts with unethical behaviour that has gone unnoticed. write the extra word in capital letters against the corresponding number (Tip: focus on the meaning of the sentence and on the natural word order. Constitution. fudge on budgets. Laws. is a value system. (13) Items 3 and 4 are often matters of social responsability. Total Quality Management and strategic planning. updating polices and procedures. 8. after everything. constantly complain about others. One might call this "values management.S.g.): Ethics Tools: Codes of Ethics 1…According to Wallace. It's the `thou shalt not's. Myth: Managing ethics in the workplace has little practical relevance. about how business ethics can be managed. However. It contains the `thou shalt's.) Writings about social responsibility often do not address practical matters of managing ethics in the workplace.. yet operate within the limits of the law. (There has been a great deal of public discussion and writing about items 3 and 4. it immediately jumps out. e.. (14) One can often be unethical. 3) the identification of important business and social issues. 7. They explain that too 49 . believing you can't manage values in an organization. developing codes. (adapted and abridged from http://www. withhold information from superiors. etc. regulations and rules directly influence behaviours to be more ethical. approaches to resolving ethical dilemmas.g.strong influences on morality. and 4) a critique of business. a leading business membership organization. etc. N6) (11) note that management. Sceptics might consider the tremendous influence of several "codes of ethics. The "boil the frog" phenomena is a useful parable here: If you put a frog in hot water. Madsen and Shafritz (12) refine the definition of business ethics to be: 1) an application of ethics to the corporate community.com/Business_Ethics/) 5. The social responsibility movement is one aspect of the overall discipline of business ethics. "A credo generally describes the highest values to which the same 2…company aspires to operate." such as the "10 Commandments" in Christian religions or the U. so we're ethical. 9. write CORRECT against the corresponding number. V28. The frog doesn't seem to notice the adverse change in its environment. e. Codes can be very powerful in smaller "organizations" as well. However. If you put a frog in cool water and slowly heat up the water. Myth: Business ethics and social responsibility are the same thing. Myth: Our organization is not in trouble with the law. If a line is correct. 5…Some business ethicists also disagree that codes have any value. The Conference 4…Board.. usually in a manner that improves the general good and/or minimizes harm to the community. Donaldson and Davis (Management Decision.articles911. managing diversity. if there is an extra word in the line.

making ethical decisions in the work place is a delicate balancing act between competing forces. believing in the values are 10…"motherhood and apple pie" and codes are for the window dressing. The meetings infused the values in the minds of all of us managers. Ethical Decision-making Quick Test by Bruce A. However we asked ourselves. especially in a crisis. but basically we didn't 16…change the values. it's 12…having developed a code. In the mid-70s. 9…Occasionally. having a code is critical. "We pored over each phrase and word. 1 ___. he 14…explains.com/Business_Ethics/) 6. Hamm Often. Then many ethicists note that it's the 8…developing and continuing dialogue around the code's values that is most important. so be prepared to accept responsibility for them. More important. If at any point. employees react to codes with suspicion. you might consider asking someone else for help. `Do we 15…still believe this?' Our meetings have resulted in some fine tuning. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Having a quick test allows you to make the easy decisions and recognize when the decision may be a bit more difficult. Remember. But. but also the general public.articles911. Bob Kniffin. when managing 11…a complex issue.J the one which fits each gap (1-9). Are there any particular conditions that we should take into consideration when choosing which of them are acceptable or unacceptable?  Selling unhealthy food despite warnings  Marketing sweets and junk food snacks to small children  Marketing cigarettes  Using overtly sexual images to sell products  Focusing too much on anorexic looking body shape when marketing products for teenagers  Selling environmentally unfriendly products AND at the same time claiming they do little harm to our environment. Easy decisions like "should I embezzle hundreds of thousands of dollars" are obvious and generally do not require much help or analysis to determine whether they are ethical or not. Johnson and Johnson updated their credo in a 13…series of challenge meetings. Try to decide on a reasonable ethical position on the issues below. There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Reading comprehension Read the following article." (adapted and abridged from http://www. 2 ___. generally the decisions are yours and you have to live with the results. Choose from sentences A. Vice President of External Affairs.6…much focus is put on the codes themselves. 7. you cannot legitimately answer the question. the wider needs of the society and the environment. Reflection topics STOP AND THINK! ETHICAL MARKETING is providing a product or service in a way which considers not only the consumers and the users of the product. and that codes themselves are not 7…influential in managing ethics in the workplace. 50 .

you've determined that your action is legal. 8 ___. is the result of the action fair? Does the person affected get only the appropriate degree of reward or discipline? Would others agree with your perception of the outcome? If no. If the decision does not need to be made immediately. let's first assume your company values are legitimate ones. It may not be against the law but it may also not be the right thing to do. If the answer is no or raises objections. 5 ___ Would you be embarrassed to have these events known? How would your company perceive publicity surrounding your actions? If the answer is unacceptable. Under the same circumstances. even if it is only verbal? Do you give that same level of reward to your staff or co-workers? For decisions concerning others. reject the action and take another course 4 ___. How will I feel after the decision is known? Can I face myself the next morning? This is the man in the mirror story (updated to include the woman in the mirror). stop. If yes. the nation and ever more frequently. do you have a legitimate process for applying discipline and/or discharge? Do managers fire people in the heat of an emotional upheaval or is there an appropriate escalation of discipline before the company allows such a step? 6 ___. If your action conforms to your corporate values. the world? It's one thing for you or even your close associates to know about your decisions and actions but entirely another when people outside your inner circle know about them. stop. 3 ___. Do your actions conform to them? For example: if your values say something about treating employees fairly. Often with subsequent information we regret our actions but we also realize that we make decisions with the information available at the time. How would it look in the news? Okay. If yes. how would it look to the rest of your community. If you've done something well. you must stop. A business law professor in an MBA course once stated that the law is generally about 12 years behind society's concept of ethical practices. do you expect an appropriate reward. take the action with good confidence you've resolved your dilemma. Does it comply with our company values? What are your company values? Okay. stop. have you given your proposed action enough reflection to feel confident about its outcome? 51 . Now. have you acted out of the overall best interest of everyone concerned? If the answer is no. How do you feel about the decision? Even if it is a tough decision and the outcome would affect someone negatively. reject the action and take another course. Don't simply stop your ethical decision making process at whether an action is legal. go on to the next criteria. reject the action and find another course. move on to the next criteria.Is it legal? This is the first filter through which your ethical decision will pass. would I want the result of this decision to happen to everyone? Am I treating others as I want to be treated? How do you want to be treated? If you've made a mistake do you take responsibility for it? Have you accepted appropriate discipline with an attitude conducive to correcting the behaviour? 7 ___. reject the action and take another course. If the answer is acceptable. move on to the next criteria.

work911. Deadline: 20 December. The word discipline has its origins in the Greek word meaning to teach not to punish.This process may seem long and involved. In general. Do not send material downloaded from the Internet.com/cgi-bin/links/jump. F. H. go on to the next criteria. Talk to your supervisor or. Every time you discard a particular option run the next alternative through this same practice. the more you use it.ro). 52 . 9 ___. When a company's people focus on their ethical behaviour.cgi?ID=3935) A. the more quickly you can work through the decision review process on subsequent occasions. reject the action and take another course. If it is legal. I. However. talk to whoever can help you make the final decision. Do you agree with him? Why? Do not write more than 250 words. (adapted and abridged from http://www. C. can you look yourself in the mirror and know you are satisfied you've done the right thing? D.html). E. When you shave or apply your makeup and you think of the action you will take. Taking the time to review decisions with an ethical perspective is critical to making the right choices.com/talks/barry_schwartz_on_our_loss_of_wisdom. It's a bit tougher when the decision is between two competing right things to do. they may even share part of the responsibility.ted. HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 3 Watch Barry Schwartz’s lecture On our loss of wisdom (follow the link http://www. Legal and ethical are not equivalent concepts. B. How will the people you don't know perceive your actions? J. stop. everyone involved is better off. (type of document: Word).fekete@lingua. G. if you are lucky enough to have an ethics officer or ethics helpline. You should submit your homework electronically (adriana. If your ethical dilemma is obviously at odds with your company values.ubbcluj.

pl. T] assess verb [T] mentor noun [C] authority noun middle management noun [U] autocrat noun [C] motivation noun [U] boss (MANAGER) noun [C] office noun [C] bureaucracy noun [C or U] operator noun [C] campaign verb [I] outcome noun [C] CEO noun [C] oversee verb [T] chairman. chair.] collaborative working noun [U] plan noun [C] consensus noun [U] president noun [C] coordinate verb [T] prioritise verb [I. chairperson noun [C] paperwork noun [U] challenge noun [C] partner noun [C] chief noun [C] people skills noun [C usu. T] decentralisation noun [U] problem-solving noun [U] decision-maker noun [C] rationalise verb [I or T] delegate verb [T] restructure verb [T] democratic adjective silent partner noun [C] deputy noun [C] sleeping partner noun [C] direct verb strategist noun [C] employer noun [C] supervisor noun [C] empower verb [T] team noun [C] executive adjective vice president noun [C] facilitate verb [T] vision noun [C] feedback noun [U] vote of confidence noun [C] goal noun [C] governor noun [C] guide noun [C] head noun [C] hierarchy noun [C] implement a policy/plan/decision verb [T] implementation noun [U] laissez-faire approach noun [C] leader noun [C] line manager noun manage verb [T] 53 . UNIT 5 – MANAGEMENT GLOSSARY – BUSINESS ENGLISH VOCABULARY Students should be able to use the vocabulary under MANAGEMENT to communicate about:  Definition of management  Managerial tasks  Basic managerial skills  Managerial responsibilities  Leading versus managing  Management styles  Women in senior managerial positions action plan noun [C] MD noun [C] administer verb [T often passive] mediate verb [I.

Management – Art or Science? 1. attempted to discover "the one best way" to perform jobs. expecting that certain principles will work in most situations. the manager 7 ___ believes in the scientific foundation of his or her craft will expect that there is a rational and objective way to determine the correct course of action. managers use a specific body of information and facts to guide their behaviours. and that some people cannot 6 ___ taught to be effective managers. He or she may rely 9 ___ concepts learned in business school or through a company training programme when determining a course of action. They used scientific processes to evaluate and organise work 12 ___ that it became more efficient and effective. Thus. That is. when faced with a managerial dilemma. even with an understanding of management research and an education in management.UNIT FIVE – MANAGEMENT 1. Webster's College Dictionary defines an art as “skill in conducting any human activity" and science as "any skill or technique that reflects a precise application of facts or a principle. and others. That is. Taylor. While reading. some people will not be capable of being effective practising managers. the manager will look to specific means of performance improvement. Conversely. management as a science would indicate that 2 ___ practice.1. Scientific 54 . Many early management researchers subscribed to the vision of managers as scientists. 8 ___ instance. perhaps paying 10 ___ attention to political and social factors involved in the situation. pioneered by Frederick W. Those who believe in management as an art are likely to believe that certain people are 5 ___ predisposed to be effective managers than are others. only skill. Foundations of the Management as a Science Perspective Practising managers who believe in management as a science are likely to believe that there are ideal managerial practices for certain situations. Reading Read the following article. but that management as an art requires no specific body of knowledge. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! How would you define management? What is the role of a manager? 1. those who believe that management is an art are likely to believe that there is 3 ___ specific way to teach or understand management. prescribed way in which a manager should act.2. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Which of the two approaches do you favour? The Art and Science of Management One of the enduring questions in the field of management is whether it is an art or a science. and that 4 ___ is a skill borne of personality and ability. This manager is likely to follow general principles and theories and also create and test hypotheses. The scientific management movement was the primary driver of 11 ___ perspective. fill in the gaps with ONE word. if a manager has a problem with an employee's poor work performance." Reflected in the differences in these definitions is the use of precision in science. Scientific management. in that 1 ___ is a particular.

instead. and deciding all day long. Lilienthal argues that management requires 20 ___ than a mastery of techniques and skills. He argues that the discipline (i. He is critical 23 ___ the assumptions that make up the management paradigm. as a contrast 16 ___ the example given previously. determined that managers did not sit at their desks. and is likely to take different actions depending 17 ___ the context of the problem.e.1. Rather. by not only getting work done but understanding the meaning behind the work. Instead. uninterrupted time periods. Mintzberg. through his observation of actual managers in their daily work. Mintzberg determined that mangers engaged in very fragmented work. Lilienthal believed that effective managerial behaviour meant combining management and leadership into practice. Another scholar that promoted the notion of management as an art was David E. challenging the prior notion that managers behaved rationally and methodically. famed management scholar who is best known for developing ideas related to total quality management. who in 1967 had his series of lectures titled Management: A Humanist Art published. (http://www. Vocabulary development 1. working for long. Mintzberg is an academic researcher whose work capturing the actual daily tasks of real managers was ground breaking research for its time. using their own knowledge of a situation. thinking. the science) of management attempts to create a paradigm for managers. rather 15 ___ generic rules. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 55 . in which facts are established. because these assumptions change 24 ___ time as society and the business environment change. to determine a course of action. management is more of an art.3. but instead used their own social and political skills to solve problems that arose throughout the course of work. evaluating. and exceptions 22 ___ these facts are ignored as anomalies.enotes.management's emphasis 13 ___ both reducing inefficiencies and on understanding the psychology of workers changed manager and employee attitudes 14 ___ the practice of management. a manager who has a problem with an employee's poor work performance is likely to rely on his or her own experiences and judgement when addressing this issue.. Another proponent of the management as art school of thought is Peter Drucker. Henry Mintzberg is probably the most well-known and prominent advocate of the school of thought that management is an art. For example. rather than use a prescribed set of responses dictated 21 ___ set of known guidelines. Drucker terms management “a liberal art". Rather than having a standard response to such a problem. Foundations of the Management as an Art Perspective Practising managers who believe in management as an art are unlikely to believe that scientific principles and theories will be able to be implemented in actual managerial situations. he promoted the idea of the manager as a motivator and facilitator of others. Thus. Lilienthal. This manager as an artist was likely to respond differently to each employee and situation. it also requires that managers understand individuals and their motivations and help them achieve their goals. these managers are likely to rely on the social and political environment surrounding the managerial issue. this manager is likely to consider a broad range of social and political factors. 25 ___ scientific "facts" do not remain stable over time.3. In this set of published lectures.com/management-encyclopedia/art-science-management) 1. Thus. because it indicated that managers did not necessarily have routine behaviours throughout their days. Mintzberg revolutionized thinking 18 ___ managers at the time that his work was published. Thus. This was 19 ___ line with the perspective of management as an art. with constant interruptions and rare opportunities to quietly consider managerial issues.

3.. 6. ABLE 3. for this initiative to become fruitful are that all of you should REQUIRE work overtime. Kuhn. CREDIBLE 6.. our company received an award for . Thanks to our .... I wouldn’t like the problem of travel costs to ___ you ___ in your intention to take part in this year’s trade fair.. 4. this is a hardly . TIME 1. All executives involved in the project did their job to the best of their . . businesswoman. in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. call back call upon call for call up call out set out set back set forth set off set aside bring forth bring back bring about bring out bring up 1. 7. 4. . I cannot attach too much . The new management restructuring has ___ significant changes in the company’s policy. you have to be acquainted with the SUCCESS main issues of inter-gender communication. Please. Following the news of the market crash. Fill in the blanks with ten of the following fifteen phrasal verbs from the list. Given the very few clues we have.. 9. They finally ___ to invite their business partners to the annual conference on regional development. is that of being a flawless leader.. 13. Acting in . His greatest .2.. I’m sorry to ___ the subject of solvency but I’m afraid we have to deal with this issue as well.. 8. You may want to consult a dictionary for the meaning of certain verbs.. EXCEL 14. drew distinctions 56 .3.. don’t hesitate to ___ me ___ as soon as you’ve got word from our main investor. 10... to your statistics.. CHARACTER 2. intervention.... the company didn’t go bankrupt. LEAD 7. I am sorry that Mr. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word derived from the one given in brackets... he decided to ___ the previous one. in his previous editions of this text... The effort which you put into our project will turn out to be an invaluable . 5.3. Art and Science in Management Research Noted 1 ___ (RESEARCH) Thomas Kuhn. talent is supposed to be in-born rather than acquired. The .. Use the remaining five in sentences of your own. We had to ___ the help of a consulting firm in order to solve our queries regarding auditing. This should be a viable . 1. 1.. INVEST 11. A. PARTICULAR 10. In order to be a . desperate firm owners began to ___ for help through all media. Given that the new procedure failed.. 12. At the trade fair last year. like to specify that we are behind schedule.. One shouldn’t elude . I would .. ACCOMPLISH 9. I suppose we will have to ___ our differences and concentrate our efforts on solving the problem in hand. MANAGE 15. Unfortunately. Good . when dealing with serious occupational tasks. but please don’t hesitate to ___ in an hour..3. Brown is not in his office now. addresses issues associated with the state of current 2 ___ (SCIENCE) research and the opportunities for scientific discovery. of good management... flaw in our IDENTITY business plan. RESPONSIBLE 8. with present legislation will prevent any problems with the ACCORD authorities.. 2. . 5. is essential for the success of any kind of business.

The firm didn’t manage to protect ___ from cut-throat competition. In many ways. the nature of the areas of study renders it immature. in the physical sciences).. there is still a great deal of debate on major questions in the field. We should show more consideration to ___ when we have to deal with unscrupulous business partners like them. Fill in the blanks with the right reflexive pronouns. While its 6 ___ (FOUND) in psychology. Find the extra word. due to the difficulties of studying human behavior in a number of disparate 7 ___ (SET). and strong consensus exists among researchers regarding the fundamental 4 ___ (ASSUME) of that field.. 4. and other related areas give it a long and rich history. sociology.4. I doubt whether they have given ___ a second chance to set things straight in the department affairs.between mature and 3 ___ (MATURE) fields of study. management research) suffer from envy of the physical sciences. In these circumstances. Reflexive Pronouns Look at the following example of a reflexive pronoun: They are thus called upon to commit themselves to maximum performance and investment of their full potential in teams and project. many scholars have argued that the social sciences (e. 2. In some of the sentences there is an extra word which does not fit with the meaning of the text. However. Conversely. some consistent answers have been developed in the field of management. and gains in 5 ___ (KNOW) come sporadically. social sciences researchers may strive to create a more "scientific" approach to their fields in order to grant them more 8 ___ (LEGITIMATE). As such. in which "truths" are able to be determined through research. 6. there are still a number of research of gaps in management. individual managers' experiences and skills must to guide them. 1. Because of there are no hard and fast rules in certain circumstances. He keeps deluding ___ about how efficient a manager he is. She couldn’t find ___ a better position. That is.4. Language focus: Reflexive Pronouns 1. 5. the study of management is still very young when compared with other fields of research (e. Today. the practice of management is likely to will be dictated by the perspective of management as an art.1. In fact.g. much of the management research conducted in academic institutions blends with the notion of management as an art and as a science. 7. 1.g.4. Despite of its relative immaturity. in immature fields of study. despite our increased knowledge in some areas. I should have more confidence in ___ when it comes to work involvement. 57 .2. there is still a very great deal of disagreement and confusion in other areas. In mature fields of study. In many ways this is due to the many increased sophistication of management research. You should commit ___ more to our line of action. B. Fill in with the suitable reflexive pronoun forms: I we you you he they themselves she it 1. 3. many of the central questions of that field have been answered. management is an immature science.

These include salary. then it is no longer a motivator. Four key thinkers contributed to this field in the 1950s and 60s. The bottom two are usually not an issue in business (unless you are hungry or in danger). And as soon as any need is met. McGregor observed that managers generally fall into two categories: Theory X and Theory Y.1.2. 2. working conditions and good relations with co-workers 3. job security. earned recognition and interest in the job itself. Herzberg expressed similar ideas. Maslow developed his ‘hierarchy of needs’ a. as well as a sense of status or importance. physiological needs We move to the next stage up only when the lower need is met. After that. self-actualisation needs b. our next need is to feel accepted and part of a group (social need). but can cause dissatisfaction if they are missing. Motivation and Communication The ability to motivate others and improve morale is a “soft skill” – difficult to acquire and almost impossible to measure. to develop to our fullest potential. Motivation and Work Relationships 2. Theory Y managers believe that most people like work and actively seek responsibility. 58 . They believe in empowerment (= giving employees the authority to make decisions without traditional managerial approval) and enabling (= giving them the tools). He agreed that the most important motivators at work were the sense of achievement. Reading A. If that happens. But then there was another set of job factors (‘hygiene’ or ‘maintenance’ factors) that do not motivate employees. Finally. if that need is met. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What is motivation? It is the role of the manager to motivate employees. we want self-fulfilment (‘self-actualisation’ in Maslow’s terms): to achieve. Theory X managers believe that most people dislike work and must be controlled and directed to achieve the organisation’s goals. security needs e. Read the following text and choose the motivation theory that you like best. social needs d. and their work is still the basis for contemporary approaches: 1. then next we have ego needs: recognition and acknowledgement from others.2. ego (self-esteem) needs c. Would you prefer a male boss or a female boss? Why? 2.

it usually goes through the five stages identified by Bruce Tucker: 1. Read the following text and choose the personality type that you think you belong to.4. everyone enjoys discussing ‘office politics’ at the water cooler and picking up information ‘on the grapevine’ (= passed from one person to another in conversation). or on the other being aggressive and rude. 4. Inside an organisation. it adds greatly to our ‘self-es_ _ _ m’ (= the feeling that we are valued and important). Adjourning – the job is finished. The level of confidence and positive feelings that people have.1. Progress can be seen as they pass various milestones (= events that mark an important stage in a process). presentations. Vocabulary development 2. 3. Teamwork A team (or ‘taskforce’ or ‘working party’) needs a variety of personality types to perform well:  ‘Head’ people who are good at thinking and problem-solving  ‘Hands’ people who are good at doing and acting  ‘Heart’ people who are good at networking and resolving conflicts Once a team has been set up. it is good to have the ‘ackn_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ nt’ (= public recognition and thanks) of others. 1. and also to conflicts that arise as team members clarify their roles and expectations. and workers who achieve their objectives can be rewarded with pay rises. 2. is their level of ‘mo_ _ _ e’ (slightly different from ‘motivation’ which is linked to doing things). Norming – members sort out a way of working together and begin to ‘own’ and share the team objectives. Drucker believed in ‘management by objectives’ (MBO). ambitious but achievable goals.  ‘Assertiveness’. informal communication happens all the time. 3. This means listening with full attention.3. Forming – people get to know each other 2. But two other key communication skills are required:  ‘Active listening’. B. Performing – members focus on solving problems and doing tasks. and giving consideration to the other person’s point of view. When we have been successful. Storming – this refers both to ‘brainstorming’ as ideas get suggested for the first time. especially people who work together. MBO calls on managers to work with employees to formulate clear. not interrupting except to ask for clarification. reports. There has to be monitoring and measurement to ensure objectives are being met. It can also be external: the PR function handles this. 59 .3. and there is often a public recognition and celebration of achievements. without on the one hand being indirect or ‘suffering in silence’. etc. 5. Fill in the missing letters. etc. Communication Communication is two-way: top-down and bottom-up. bonuses. Formal communication is through the medium of meetings. 2. When we have the recognition and respect of the others. This means stating your needs and opinions confidently and clearly.

make. put off. 1. useful and important 5. fall short of. piece of work that you must do as part of your job or course of study 2. put forward. decision unanimous 60 . The fourth gives a feeling of responsibility. overturn. Giving people more control over their work is called ‘em_ _ _ _ _ _ _nt’. overrule. job rotation – moving employees from one job to another Find a word in the text which means: 1. reject. determination and a strong belief in what they are doing). tackle accept. difficult. achieve. crucial. quality of being serious. take collective. reach. take up. joint. make. tough. come to. offer. major. meet. 5. 9. making something bigger 6. Task significance – the degree to which a job has an impact on the work of others. deal with. hard. result 3. set an objective address. important. defer. A more common term is ‘self-ful_ _ _ ment’. Task identity – the degree to which a job has visible outcome. 5.2. postpone. The fifth contributes to a feeling of achievement and recognition.4. Study the collocations referring to decision making. fail in. Autonomy – the degree of freedom and choice that people have in scheduling work and determining procedures. give rise to. reach. clear up. Read the text and then answer the questions below.3. 4. handle. 2. Instead. cause. key. turn down arrive at. 3. power to make independent decisions 4. 7. job enlargement – combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment b. a problem resolve. It also includes two specific strategies: a. critical. Feedback – the amount of direct and clear information that is received about performance. fulfil. 6. agree to/with. 8.3. create. come up with. The work of Maslow and Herzberg has been developed into the theory of ‘job enrichment’. making something better and more enjoyable 2. This theory states that there are five characteristics affecting an individual’s motivation and performance. rule a suggestion out. they are ‘ass_ _ _ _ve’. Successful managers are neither passive nor aggressive. Skill variety – the extent to which the job demands different skills. identify. define. Being successful after a lot of effort gives us a ‘sense of ach_ _ _ _ _ _nt’. Giving someone the tools and skills to do something is called ‘en_ _ _ing’ them. a decision reverse. 2. Job enrichment tries to maximize the above five factors within the constraints of the organisation. The first three factors above contribute to the meaningfulness of the job. Business leaders need to have vision and ‘comm_ _ _ _ nt’ (= enthusiasm. Developing to our fullest potential was called ‘self-actualisation’ by Maslow. establish.3. Check any unknown words in the dictionary. solve. overcome.

This task is based on the ideas of Belbin and Margerison-McCann. 3.5. successful Now divide the words in each box into three groups. a good listener. ___________ .3. ___________ . and works hard to resolve problems. listens patiently. ___________ . and to specification. fail in. establish. We should contribute more ___ the development of this business. There have been no changes ___ salary agreements. ‘Hands people’ 4. 6. on budget. 4.thinks carefully and accurately about things.caring. may lack energy to inspire others. can worry too much. The board of directors finally decided ___ a plan for future restructuring. fall short of an objective fulfil set a problem a suggestion a decision decision outcome 2. Match the team roles in the box to the descriptions below. ___________ . 2. Coordinator Innovator Evaluator Finisher Implementer Promoter Shaper Specialist Team worker ‘Head people’ 1.anticipated. eventual. can be too optimistic and lose initial energy.central person who makes sure everyone works well together. ___________ . 8. based on their meaning. Fill in the blanks with the required dependent preposition: 1. 6.enthusiastic. helps everyone focus. She should pay more attention ___ the way in which she treats her subordinates. 7.solves difficult problems with creative ideas. meet. The influence ___ human resources policy is due ___ the increased pressure ___ the part of international competition. final. may ignore details. ___________ .takes basic ideas and makes them work in practice.3. 2. favourable. 3. may be impatient. methodical and organised. not afraid to challenge norms.4. outcome satisfactory. can be seen as too controlling. ___________ . I feel deeply committed ___ my employees. more interested in the final result than the process. ___________ . reach. 5. may have difficulty making decisions. likely. desirable.has expert knowledge in key areas. ___________ . expected. may be uninterested in all other areas. achieve. 5. identify.gets involved quickly with lots of energy. define. 2. 9. ___ what means do you think we could reduce costs? 61 . sees the big picture and good at explaining it to people outside the group. can be slow.likes completing things on time. ‘Heart people’ 7.

sg: + s. permanent situations: The sun shines. he doesn’t. 9. believe. possess. a temporary situation: I am writing the paper today. signify. he does/ No.). appear (= to seem). He can see. Language focus: The tense system: Present Simple vs. notice. know. own. exception: to have = to eat: I am having lunch. 2. I’m afraid that the manager is opposed ___ our strategy of concentrating ___ cost reduction only. never Present Continuous Form: to be (in the present) + verb + -ing It indicates:  an action happening now: I am reading now. hate.8. feel. Present Continuous 2. concern. (temporary situation) Present Simple Form: short infinitive.2. 2. hear. prefer  verbs of mental activities: think. remember. recognize  verbs of emotion: want. We work in your office till they finish painting ours. 1. refuse. keep (= to continue).don’t/ doesn’t He writes. 2. 62 . 3. Our cooperation could be conducive ___ further success. Specific adverbs: every day/ month/ year…. usually. suppose. (permanent situation) Jane is working for Mr. Does he write? Yes. 10.? do/ does(3rd pers. wish. forget. always. repeated actions: He goes to work at 7 every morning. realize  verbs of possession: have.! 3rd pers. The tense system: Present Simple vs.  general truths.  an arrangement in the near future: We are visiting them next week.4. It indicates:  habitual actions/ regular. understand.4. consist. often. performed according to a schedule: The train leaves at 8 o’clock. Their progressive meaning is suggested by using CAN in front of some of them: I can hear. I would like to ensure ___ particular that no change ___ the company has taken place ___ the absence of careful deliberation. smell. Their company does not do very well these days. contain. dislike. forgive. like.4. Present Continuous Compare: Human resources management works in close collaboration with senior executives. Jones this week because his secretary is on holiday. sg. matter  the auxiliaries.  complaints about bad habits: Why are you always interrupting? ! STATE VERBS ARE NOT normally used in the continuous form:  verbs of perception: see. Our firm is usually getting in touch with customers by mail. mean. .  an action happening in a limited period of time.1. Find the mistakes in the following sentences and correct them. belong  verbs of appearance/ seeming: seam.  planned future actions.

8. 7. Since we all work in the same office. At present our CEOs try to establish the priorities for the further development of the firm. Indeed. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What determined the need for multinational corporations? What factors influence communication in a multinational corporation? 3. Most managers are not able to attend the meeting because they are having flu. 3. Policy-makers want multinationals to invest in their country. 14. 6. You shouldn’t pay any attention to the new manager. Reading Read the following text and fill in the blanks with ONE word. I know that the competition is tough this year. Writing Choose a leader that you admire. 2. Then answer the question in the title. They want to know if the price is including VAT. 12. To be honest. Human resources policy is giving consideration to various internal and external factors. Multinationals 3. 11. we are spending most of our time together. Are you realising that if we don’t apply the new procedure in due course we will suffer great profit losses? 10. This Jekyll and Hyde perception of multinationals stems more 4 ___ ambiguous feelings about large market players with no national identity than from rigorous economic analysis. Explain why you admire them. 4. I am doubting whether you will be able to succeed in this move. the debate 5 ___ multinationals is rarely grounded on economic arguments and 63 . Yet policy-makers and the public 1 ___ the world have mixed feelings about multinationals: they see them 2 ___ as welcome bearers of foreign wealth and knowledge or as unwelcome threats to national wealth and identity.1. Multinationals: heroes or villains of the global economy? Foreign-owned multinationals employ one worker in every five in European manufacturing and one in seven in US manufacturing. Write approximately 300 words. We sell our shares in the company. but are unhappy when national firms close 3 ___ domestic activities and open up foreign ones or when foreign brands compete successfully with national ones. Tracy handles her work as a secretary. They sell one euro in every four of manufactured goods in Europe and one dollar in five in the United States. He is just sarcastic again.5. 15. While Sarah is on holiday. but we survive on the market. Do you want to buy them? 13.2. What do you think this job is involving? 9. 5.

. Intel and Nike.3.ac. DEVELOP 64 .. industrial sectors and for many receiving and sending countries. The activities of multinationals are best measured by firm-level data like sales or number of employees. Investing abroad and thus becoming a multinational is a strategy open to many types of firms. Thus. They include modern corporations 12 ___ IBM.. firms with limited market power in domestic and foreign markets. (http://cep. FDI is an investment in a foreign company where the foreign investor owns at least 10% of the ordinary shares. Instead. Many small and medium-sized enterprises. state. a shoemaker employing 250 workers divided 13 ___ Padua (Italy) and Vranje (Serbia). as concerns the terms of this contract. General Motors. acquire or expand a foreign subsidiary. They are footloose. a long-term relationship and significant influence on the management of the firm. multinationals undertake FDI.lse. particularly in smaller developing countries.uk/pubs/download/CP167. They often bring scarce technologies.. undertaken 15 ___ the objective of establishing a ‘lasting interest’ in the country. researchers rely on data on flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) recorded from balance of payment statistics and which are available across time.3. 2. Unfortunately. skills and financial resources. to create. They are bound by international standards and market competition and they often offer better employment conditions and product qualities 10 ___ national firms. We have decided to form a(n) . jeopardising product variety. Yet other features of multinationals also explain why countries compete fiercely to attract them. removing benefits as rapidly as they deliver them. or of what costs and benefits they bring to local economies.. able to move activities between their plants 8 ___ relatively low cost. UNDERSTAND 4. NATION 3. which can be divested easily and do not have significant influence on the management of the firm. They are relatively large and they do have competitive power in the market place and bargaining power in the policy-making arena.. Companies like Coca-Cola are world famous . They are global players that can circumvent local regulations and policies 7 ___ easily than national firms. Moreover. What are multinationals? Multinationals are firms that own a significant equity share – typically 50% or more – of another company operating in a foreign country. Vocabulary development 3.pdf) 3. FDI flows are different from portfolio investments. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. They are fast in 9 ___ advantage of new opportunities and contributing to national wealth creation. with partners we have so far ALLY considered rivals. And they do mass-produce standardised products. multinationals are 11 ___ just giant corporations like Microsoft or Coca Cola.there is little understanding of what multinationals are. All countries in the third world need relief supplies given their .. these data 14 ___ not widely available. Multinationals are often different 6 ___ purely national firms and some concerns are legitimate. but also small firms like Calzaturificio Carmens.1. I wouldn’t like to create any . .. have one or more foreign subsidiaries.

9. It just takes hard work and commitment. and I’ve managed it. We are sure that the present crisis stems ___ our MD’s inability to deal ___ cultural diversity in our company.. 8. . His approach ___ cultural diversity lacks ___ careful preparation. 7. 3.. Our company closed 5 ___. Differences ___ cultural attitudes have to be taken ___ account. although. .. and I want to continue doing that.3. It was in the depths of the recession. though.3. to be honest. What is your attitude ___ the Italian way? 9. luck has nothing to do with it. as the company’s grown.. By allowing ___ slight variations ___ the original design.. 8. Write ONE word in each gap: I was working as an IT Manager for a small publishing company (in fact. but you should understand my concern. though. Things got worse. Fill in the blanks with the required dependent preposition: 1. woman who has shown great competence in dealing BUSY with all our clients so far. one day. I don’t want to sound .. and initially our new owners promised to see our small company 3 ___ the hard times. No discrimination based on .2. We’re bringing 12 ___ new products all the time. Our success is dependent ___ your manner ___ coping ___ this merger. . I feel very lucky. whatever happened. –issued ordinance enables small companies to retain a larger part of GOVERNMENT their profits. Turning on the answer phone I discovered to my dismay that all COMPREHEND messages were rather . Over the last five years. I woke up and thought: “I’m going to set 7 ___ my own business!” At first it was tough. I had to 8 ___ to everything myself – I was the only employee! – but I set 9 ___ it with dedication and refused to give up. Then. you will be able to manage this problem ___ your own.. I also want to speed 13 ___ our production process to make it more efficient. I’m not planning to slow 14 ___ any time soon! 65 . Dickson’s now employs over five hundred people. 10.. 6. She is a brisk. and they finally backed 4 ___ of their agreement. 2. I am sorry that because of your incompetence the problem we are MANAGE dealing with has become . 6. of your achievement but I think you need to APPRECIATE practise PR a bit more. I am afraid I cannot find any solution ___ our major problem.. . I’ve taken 10 ___ more and more staff. In order to make it a perfect match you will have to gear the components of this device ___ the abilities of the other.5. 4. will be exercised by this multinational ETHNIC company.. 7. I don’t feel satisfied yet.. I set 11 ___ to be successful. I was standing 1 ___ for the actual manager while she was away on maternity leave) when the company was taken 2 ___ by a large multinational media organisation. 5. We were all made redundant – it was horrible! I wasn’t sure what I wanted to do next. 3. I 6 ___ down several offers of work as I didn’t want to rush into anything. 10.. I wouldn’t like to impose my way ___ you.3. 3. You have to possess ample preparation ___ management to ensure a successful outcome of this meeting.

It took three years’ hard work. or earns a lot of foreign currency. Study the following list of expressions. Then. In this case. 7. the negotiations end in a 9 ___. get back on one’s feet (again) get a foot in the door fall on one’s feet have/get cold feet put one’s foot down put one’s foot in have a foothold in Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words in italics with the correct forms of the expressions above. 66 . When governments try to increase their nationals’ equity shareholding. with neither side giving way.3. In general. 1. 4. at the last moment. are trying to get more control over their economies. now it has recovered. If the foreign company employs many local people. The management has acted firmly concerning smoking in the factory. they try to 4 ___ with the government to keep the percentage as low as possible. but at last we’ve got a secure position in the Japanese market. However. If necessary. the government may be willing to 7 ___. the foreign firm will make every effort to reach 11 ___ or make some sort of 12 ___ with the host government. The group of department stores made losses for three years running.5. Generally. 3. Some governments are very 8 ___ and will make no concessions. This usually leads to feelings of great bitterness on both sides. make proposals and 5 ___. I made a bad mistake when I told our Marketing Director that the new product would fail. foreign companies are not pleased. 6. we were planning to enter the US market. The size of the 3 ___ varies. 2. The foreign company ends up by 10 ___ from the country. They welcome foreign 1 ___ but insist that their own nationals own a percentage of the company’s 2 ___. For some time.3. such as Nigeria and India. Complete the following passage. No company wants to leave a country.4. I was laid off in January but I was really lucky because I found an even better job a month later. ranging from 20% to 60%. We don’t have a contract with them but we’ve taken the first steps towards getting one. They argue and haggle. 3. to persuade the government to give way and make some kind of 6 ___. we lost our nerve and decided not to. though it can be higher or lower. 5. using suitable words from the box below: agreement equity stalemate/deadlock deal compromise (v) inflexible counter-proposals concession investment negotiate shareholding withdraw/pull out Many countries.3. use a dictionary.

one of which is in development: We listened to the radio while we were having lunch. 6.  gradual development: It was getting cold. Specific adverbs: yesterday. when. this time last month… !!! Simple and Progressive Past while. last week/ month/ year…. They listened carefully whenever he was delivering a speech. especially after the time it was expected to finish: At ten I was still reading. 7. at that time. When I was talking to him.ago. two days/ months/ years…. momentary action: I was writing when he entered.  An action continuing. finished action.  Parallel actions in the past. played. I was. It indicates:  past actions in progress: I was writing when he entered the room. What did you do/were you doing yesterday as I tried/was trying to get through to you? 5. Past Continuous Simple Past Form: Regular verbs: . this time yesterday. 3. Was I running? Yes.4.  A gradual action. buy. tried Irregular verbs: 2nd form: see. she came in. No. saw. when Past Continuous/Progressive Form: to be (in the past tense) + verb + -ing I was running.4. Language focus: The tense system: Past Simple vs.ed: worked.2.3. He typed/was typing the contract when his boss came/was coming in. whenever introduce the Past Progressive: While/ as I was crossing the street.  a past habit: He played football twice a week. I realised/was realising that somebody was ringing me up/rang me up as I was going/went into the conference room. My secretary did not understand/was not understanding how the new computer programme was working/worked. = He used to play… = He would play…. I wasn’t.. dropped. When the manager arrived he noticed/was noticing that the secretary had left. I saw him. The tense system: Past Simple vs.1. write. When I was 20 I lived in London. Choose the correct tense in the following sentences: 1. Specific adverbs: at…. Past Continuous 3. 2. bought Interrogative: Did he buy? Negative: did not/ didn’t It indicates:  a past. having no connection with the present: He told me to be punctual.  An action performed in the past: We met two weeks ago. wrote.o’ clock. 4. 3. 67 . as.4. I was trying/tried to get in touch with your secretary all day yesterday but I couldn’t. interrupted by a past. At that time he worked/was working in a pharmaceutical company.

10. It was only later that I found out/was finding out there was somebody who knew/was knowing that she spent/was spending time in prison at the time for tax evasion.8.fekete@lingua. Do not send material downloaded from the Internet. Deadline: 15 March 68 . He was going/went on his business trip to France when her plane crashed/was crashing.ubbcluj. it was easy for me to conduct the transaction my way. HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 4 Using the list you have drawn in the previous activity. (Remember the suggestions?) You should submit your homework electronically (adriana. 9. comment (in approximately 300 words) on the statement ‘Multinational corporations are robbing poor countries of their national assets’. (type of document: Word). As nobody watched/was watching.ro).

U] division of labour noun [U] résumé noun [C] do a good/bad job retire verb [I] employ verb [T] sack verb [T] entry-level adjective self-employed adjective fire verb [T] shift group noun [C] flexitime noun [U] shortlist noun [C] freelance adjective. adverb Situations Vacant noun [S or U] fringe benefit noun [C] skilled adjective go on strike temp noun [C] INFORMAL golden handshake noun [C] tenure noun [U] FORMAL hard-working adjective testimonial noun [C] headhunt verb [T] under pressure hectic adjective understaffed adjective hire verb [T] unemployed adjective in the line of duty unprofessional adjective incentive noun [C] unqualified adjective in-service adjective unskilled adjective intake noun [U] welfare noun [U] job noun [C] white-collar adjective layoff noun livelihood noun [C. U] performance appraisal noun [C] be at work placement noun [C. UNIT 6 – RECRUITMENT GLOSSARY – BUSINESS ENGLISH VOCABULARY Students should be able to use the vocabulary under RECRUITMENT to communicate about:  The recruitment process  Recruitment strategies  Role of the Human Resources Department  Candidate selection  Interviewer/interviewee training  Equal opportunity in hiring apply verb [I] motivation noun [U] applicant noun [C] night shift noun [C] apply yourself verb [R] occupation noun [C] appoint verb [T] off-duty adjective appraisal noun [C. adjective assignment noun [C. U] be in work/out of work position noun [C] biodata noun [U] post noun [C] blue-collar adjective probation noun [U] bonus noun [C] profession group noun [C] candidate noun [C] qualification noun career noun [C] recruit verb [T] clerk noun [C] redundancy noun [C. T] remuneration noun [C. U] load noun [C] 69 . U] office hours plural noun assign verb [T] opportunity noun assign sb to sth phrasal verb part-time adverb. U] deadline noun [C] referee noun [C] delegate verb [I.

The next step is collecting CVs and preselecting them. This is another key step in the recruitment process. Generally. Reading Read the text below and fill in the gaps with ONE word. Job Offer The job design is the most important part of the recruitment process. The HR Recruiters should not forget about this main goal during the design phase of the recruitment process development. The job design is a phase about design of the job profile 3 ___ a clear agreement between the line manager and the HRM Function. Today.2. The Opening of the Job Position is generally the job of the HR Recruiter. The information gathered can be used during other steps of the recruitment process to 5 ___ it up. this should be the last step done purely by the HRM Function. Skilled and experienced HR Recruiters should decide 6 ___ the right mix of the recruitment sources to find the best candidates for the job position. The Recruitment Process 1. which should be clearly designed and agreed 8 ___ HRM and the line management. The job interview should discover 70 . Opening Job Position 3. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! Should people accept any employment conditions simply because they are unemployed? Why? 1. The HRM Function. Job Interviews 6.UNIT SIX – RECRUITMENT 1. Collecting CVs 4. but it contains a lot of interaction 2 ___ different participants in the recruitment process. the line manager and candidates need to receive and share a lot of information and their interaction is usually the main issue during the recruitment process. Job Design 2. the organisation cannot wait with the preselection of the CVs. The main steps of the recruitment process are: 1. The Job Design is 4 ___ the agreement about the profile of the ideal job candidate and the agreement about the skills and competencies. which are essential. Preselection of CVs 5. Main Recruitment Process Steps The aim of the HRM Function is 1 ___ the recruitment process design as simple as possible. The recruitment process is simple on the high level. The job interviews are the main step in the recruitment process. This step in the recruitment process is very important today 7 ___ many organisations waste a lot of time in this step.1.

CULTURE 8. former REFER employers.the job candidate who 9 ___ the requirements and fits best the corporate culture and the department. teachers. COMPETE 9. Try not to be envious ___ John’s success! You know he deserves a promotion. Read the following tips to help you get on at work. 10. who are invited to attend an interview. Jones retired... If you want this job you should be ready to work ___ pressure. 5. Mr.3. apply ___ our PR assistant... 1.g.. you need to get your foot in the door. If necessary. (e. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. in a newspaper.1. You will be responsible ___ all aspects of production if you want this position. your suitability for the job you are EMPHATIC applying for.. It is useful to have recommendations from two or three . (http://hrmadvice. 3. Henkel needs young candidates for position in .. Our company finally decided to advertise ___ their newly launched products.  First.  Keep in with your colleagues – you may need their support...). QUALIFY 10. etc. it finalises all the other steps and the winner of the job interviews gets the offer from the organisation to join. Jackson is not really interested ___ the position of customer services assistant.. page of APPOINT newspapers.3. the company will APPLY draw a shortlist of candidates. 1. Vocabulary development 1. REQUIRE specified in the job description. 2. 6. 4. 71 . You should send your CV and a letter of application at the address .html) 1. teams. in SPECIFIC the advertisement.com/hrmadvice/hr-processes/recruitment-and-selection/recruitment-process-design- and-development/main-recruitment-process-steps.3. 6...3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. salary and generous benefits. 5. . Then match the phrases in the first column with their appropriate explanation in the second column in the table.  Don’t pin your hopes on others. Peter decided to apply ___ the position of senior production manager. 7. which is done by the HRM Function.. The job offer is the 10 ___ step of the recruitment process. My letter comes ___ reply to your advertisement for the position of operations officer. 2. After reading the CVs and the letters sent by the . 8.. The company offers a .  Learn to take things in your stride whatever happens... 4.. If you decide to apply for a job you must be sure that you meet the .3. As Mr. count as much as work experience. 1..  Keep your ear to the ground – you hear important things on the grapevine... 7. 9. If you are looking for a job you should carefully read the .. This position involves looking ___ very young children. Your letter of application should . Generally companies decide to advertise their job . have the courage to go it alone.  Don’t put all your eggs in one basket – try to keep your options open. Our employees are very committed ___ our company’s goals. VACANT 3. Should you need further information.2.

and once she started at Berwick’s. by talking in an informal way to other people 1. difficult without letting it worry you 9. will happen because all your plans depend on this 8. make sure you find out about recent developments in a particular situation 3. take sth/things in your stride b. seldom. will help you or that sth. on the grapevine h. go it alone I d. She was offered jobs in other cities but wanted to keep her 4 ___ open by staying in London where she could keep her ear to the 5 ___ and wait for something really exciting to come up. keep your feet on the ground j. 1. get your first opportunity to work for an organisation or business. but I know she has continued to 9 ___ in with her colleagues at Berwick’s. which could later bring you success 6. 1. make a name for yourself i. she’ll have enough experience to go it 8 ___ if she wants to. keep in with sb. pin (all) your hopes on others c. so who knows where she’ll end up. she applied for it and got it. often. do sth without help from anyone 10. become well known and respected by many people 5. The tense system: Present Perfect Simple The verbs in bold in the following sentence are in the Present Perfect tense.5. things will get easier. I have.3. (ever) since.4.4.3. hope that sb. Complete the text. 72 . get your foot in the door a. put all your eggs in one basket e.4. accept and deal with sth. f. Form: to have (in the present) + the Past Participle I have seen her. all day.1.past action with results in the present: He has broken his leg. If you can make a name for yourself. stay friends with sb. and when she heard on the 7 ___ that they wanted someone to run the Singapore office. she took everything in her 2 ___ and quickly made a 3 ___ for herself. never always. It indicates: . She was 6 ___ her hopes on getting a top job with C&M. yet . because you think you will benefit from it 7.action begun in the past that continues in the present: I have known him for two years. Specific adverbs: for. No. I haven’t. ever. In a couple more years. Sandra got her 1 ___ in the door when she was very young. You have just graduated (preferably in business administration) at university level or you have already worked for several years at a consumer goods producer (cosmetics experience is beneficial). /Have I seen her?/ Yes.  Always keep your feet on the ground. keep your ear to the ground g. rely on only one thing for success 4. 1. Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the phrases in the table above. Language focus: The tense system: Present Perfect Simple 1. have a sensible and realistic attitude 2.

5. 2.contentmonster. 73 . already . 10. Until recently nobody (know) how to operate the new security system in the office. recently. 4.an action that has been completed: They have repaired the fax. (http://www. lately. Jane (attend) a seminar on recruitment techniques yesterday. Choose the correct tense (Past Simple.co. yet.4.uk/Job_hunting) a) Look at the structure of a CV.2. and whether YOU feel comfortable with its content and style. till now. so far. up to the present. . When (come) the new manager to this factory? 9. Present Perfect Simple) of the verbs given in brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences: 1. 2. They (not hear) from their business partner since last summer. up to now. 6. 1. How many times you (apply) for a job? 8. When the executive (arrive) we (feel) very confident of the company’s success. that is between 1960 and 1990. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What personal qualities recommend you as a potential reliable employee? 2. 7.just finished action: He has just entered. CVs and letters of application 2. He already (send) three letters of application to three different companies. 3.1. It is the first time that we (find) the right person for the job. Reading The most common contents of a CV include: Personal Details Skills and Career Summary Key Achievements Qualifications Career History Don't forget: The ultimate test of YOUR CV is whether it meets the needs of the person making the buying decision. Our company (to buy) ten new computers last month.2.Specific adverbs: already. She (work) as a marketing assistant for twenty years. Have you seen him yet? Specific adverbs: just.

Examples of the first paragraph in a letter of application are: "I am writing to express my interest in applying for the role of Sales Manager. 2000. organisations or associations that you may belong to especially if they are in a field relevant to the position you are applying for) REFERENCES (give two or three names of persons who have known you for some time and can recommend you for the job) b) Consider the following advice on writing a letter of application (also called covering letter). Internet or other source." 74 . the job number and reference number. you may want to mention outstanding achievements during each period) ADDITIONAL SKILLS (mention any training courses or periods of part-time employment that you consider relevant) INTERESTS (mention your favourite pastime activities.CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DETAILS Name: Date of birth: Nationality: Marital status: Address: Telephone: EDUCATION/QUALIFICATIONS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE/WORK HISTORY/WORK EXPERIENCE (you can mention your employment periods either in ascending or in descending order. 2000. if provided. Such a letter should contain three distinct parts: Introduction and statement of source Statement of relevance to role advertised Conclusion Introduction and Statement of Source The first section should clearly state the source of the advertisement." Or "Following our recent conversation. I am writing to express my interest in the position of Architect that was advertised on your Internet site on 13 February. The letter of application introduces you and your CV to a recruitment consultant or potential employer. Reference number MX/67845. ie the newspaper name. the date that it was advertised. advertised in The Times on 13 May.

You should also be guided by conversations that you have had with recruitment consultants or company recruiters. so that you clearly understand what they think is important in the role. For example. managed accounts in excess of Ł10. The first paragraph should give you a fighting chance for the job by at least getting your application into the right pile. you might be more comfortable with the succinct: "I believe I am ideally suited to this role because I have over 15 years experience in sales. express your interest in the job and provide any particular contact details that may be unique. hair ___ and care.3.co. you should read the advertisement clearly and identify the selection criteria articulated in the advertisement. Vocabulary development 2. Fill in the blanks in the following text with the words and phrases given below: ago among hygiene suppliers brand styling sales market field worldwide kind leading since consistent continuously ___ its foundation over 126 years ___ our company has put ___ focus on customer oriented product development. With our cosmetic products we achieved ___ of 2085 million Euro in 150 countries ___. oral ___ and fragrances.The purpose of this first paragraph is to clearly put you in the running for the job you have applied for. skin care. Statement of Relevance to Advertised Role The second section of your letter of application should clarify why you are an appropriate candidate for this particular job. for example: "I look forward to discussing this application with you in the near future. How you express this section is up to you. The Schwarzkopf & Henkel division is one of the largest of its ___ in the world and its ___ - name products business is ___ expanding. XXX during work hours." Another example might be: "I look forward to discussing this application with you in greater detail in the near future and will be available for interview at a mutually convenient time. Our company stands for brand-name products in the ___ of hair colorants. They often give you extra clues that are not in the advertised media. We hold ___ market positions in all of the international ___ segments of our strategic business units.1. and advertise these on similar dates. Busy recruiters recruit a number of positions with similar titles at the same time. tertiary qualifications. I can be contacted on XXX or alternatively." (www. toiletries.uk/Job_hunting) 2.3.000 etc.contentmonster. In preparing to write the second section. etc" or you may prefer bullet-point form.000" Concluding Section In concluding your letter. for example: "I believe I am ideally suited to this role because: I have 15 years experience in sales I have tertiary qualifications in sales and marketing I have managed accounts well in excess of Ł10. The 75 .

2.4.com/int_henkel/cosmetics) 2. 3. Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the phrases in 2. 2. (http://www. 2. 6. He’s very bossy and likes to throw his size about. etc.) be difficult to do. If you don’t ___ you may end up in bankruptcy. Our company ___ an experienced production manager. 5. It was lucky for me that Mary took me under her arm and helped me. Study the phrases given in the table below. Fill in the blanks in the sentences below with the required tense form of the suitable phrasal verb. especially after receiving it yourself take some doing (inf.3. age.3. 2. We are very disappointed to find out that our MD is always ___ his own interests only. 7.) tell people what to do in a bossy way around/about Correct the mistake in each sentence. 4. 2. or involve a lot of effort or time throw your weight (inf. 7. 2. The boss tells me what to do. In conclusion.) almost. very nearly part of the furniture sth/sb so familiar that you no longer notice it/them take sb under your wing look after sb who has less experience than you the tricks of the trade the clever ways of doing things in a particular job pass sth on (to sb) give sth to sb else. 3. Look up the following phrasal verbs. They ___ negotiations weeks ago because of the financial crisis. 5. We are deeply sorry.9. 6. The meeting was interrupted when the secretary ___ to say that the building was on fire.3. I’ve been there all my life.4. distance.3. Simone has worked here close by ten years.henkel. 4. so I’m some of the furniture. The value of our shares fell dramatically when the scandal about the merger ___.3. but we had to ___ our allies after more than one flaw were identified in the contract. We will have to ___ the possibility of hiring more PR assistants. and I pass it through to the others. You need someone to show you the tricks of the business. It’s a hard job and it’ll make some doing. close on (used with time.Schwarzkopf Professional hairdressing unit is ___ the world’s four leading ___ of hair salon products. break in break off break out break through break with look after look for look forward look into look out 1.3. Writing Write a CV and a letter of application in response to the following job advertisement: 76 . 1. The new management had almost no difficulty in ___ the lines of competition. we ___ to your reply.

No. To find out more about our work. taste. realize. It indicates:  an action or situation in progress (and not the completion of that action): I have been reading the book. 77 . smell.  To fill these roles you will need the following skills & experience:  An understanding of issues facing the public sector and their relevance to SRI's work  An ability to work on a wide range of research projects under the supervision of a project manager  First class report writing skills  An understanding of the demands of working in commercial environment  An ability to work on a number of different projects simultaneously and to prioritise a demanding workload A Research Executive is generally expected to have at least 1-2 years' relevant research experience. visit the Social Research Institute.5. Has he been writing?/ Yes. Research Executive / Executive Assistant We are currently looking for researchers to join MORI's Social Research Institute. while those with less experience generally join at the Executive Assistant level. remember: I’ve been wanting to meet you for ages. You have been walking in the rain.com) 2. look. he has. (http://www.5.mori. Language focus: The tense system: Present Perfect Continuous 2.1. The tense system: Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous/ Progressive Form: to be (in the present perfect) + verb + ing: He has been writing for two hours.  Temporary actions or situations: I’ve been living in London (for two years). hear.  Actions indicating ‘how long’ something has been going on: How long have you been playing chess? !!!!!! If you want to emphasize a situation in progress and not its completion present perfect progressive can be used with verbs like: see.  Actions in the recent past we know about because of a present evidence: You are wet. But If you want to emphasize the completion of the action. present perfect is used: I’ve always wanted a good computer. want. he hasn’t.

Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences: 1. Re-read your application. To do well at the interview you will need to convince the interviewer you are technically qualified to do the job. sit. work (they can be used both with the present perfect simple and the present perfect progressive. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What is the role of the job interview? 3. The candidate hasn’t said/hasn’t been saying a word about his qualifications yet. That’s why he is so tired. We haven’t seen/haven’t been seeing our partner since the end of July. rain. 78 . 3. 3. study.  there are verbs that suggest an action in progress by their meaning: live. They have been trying/have tried to attract them into a profitable partnership for a very long time.5. Why haven’t we thought/haven’t we been thinking of this solution earlier? It could have saved us. 7. but with little success. 8. Job interview Advice Before your interview.2.2. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps. wait. 4. find 1 ___ everything you can about the company (read their annual report which can be obtained 2 ___ telephoning them). You will 3 ___ need to show that you are sufficiently motivated to get the job 4 ___ well and that you will fit in with the company’s organisational structure and the team in which you will work. 5. 9. The interview 3. Our production manager has made/has been making the same mistake again. He has answered/has been answering the phone since 10 o’clock. You should try to anticipate the general questions which they will ask and also prepare some questions to ask them. This morning our secretary has written/has been writing more than twenty letters to our suppliers. 10. Sales figures have improved/have been improving lately. I have been applying/have applied for various jobs since September. 2. thinking through your own career and the questions they might ask you. 2. with little difference in meaning): He has worked/ has been working in this office for two years.1. How many times have you brought up/have you been bringing up the issue of working overtime in a production meeting? 6.

. giveaway g. notice. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1..3.. . smartly e.. Match the words and phrases with their corresponding definitions: 1.1. pleasantly neat and clean in appearance 4. your 7 ___ language and tone of voice or the words you use will probably give you 8 ___– classic body language giveaways include scratching your nose and not looking directly at the other person when you are speaking to them. Your CV is sadly . respectful and considerate 5.. yearly 2. (http://www..contentmonster. her shyness in front of the recruitment board. Thanks to her . Being .. waffle b. 7.. COME 6. The auditor will .You should dress smartly for the interview and should leave home earlier 5 ___ you need to on the day of the interview – you may de delayed by traffic or 6 ___ other reasons. have done the right thing while going through our HOPE papers. 8.3.. polite. This handbook will offer you ample . If you have a moustache you may want to consider shaving it off – people with moustaches can be perceived as being aggressive. 4. see or hear it especially when it is not obvious to other people 8. Vocabulary development 3. realise.. Be courteous to all employees of the company. revealing. At the interview itself you must be positive about yourself and your abilities – but do not waffle.. You should always look attentive – so do not slouch in your chair. with your shoulders and head dropping down 9.. delay f. annual c. VIEW 2. perceive j. You must be well-prepared . on how to best use the computer GUIDE system. rub 7. She couldn’t . sit/stand/walk in a lazy or tired way. 3. Never lie to anyone in an interview. cause somebody to be late 10. if you want to succeed in being recruited for HAND a promising job... We are sorry to inform you that you have not been CONVINCE offered this position. disclosing (usually something secret) 3. should be dressed smartly when attending a job interview. When you are being interviewed it is very important that you give out the right signals. foresee 3.. expect. You can always grow it again once you have got the job.. scratch i. you risk missing out on one of the biggest career SUFFICE opportunities you’ve ever had.2. courteous h. skills the candidate selection process left us with one of ORGANISE 79 .co. slouch d. anticipate a.uk/Job_hunting) 3. talking a lot without saying very much that is clear or important 6. prepared. .3. 5.

Finally. company reports. 10. 1.3.3. recruitment literature etc. 3. If you have 1 ___ the interview stage. Without wanting to sound . 11. Language focus A. The Subjunctive Synthetic: present subjunctive: identical with the short infinitive: be. and finally. 10. A ask B suggest C give D predict 3..imagine you are the interviewer! 1. but the sentences are in the wrong order! Re-arrange the sentences in each section so that the whole text makes sense. It is important that the president inform the investors…  expressions: Suffice it to say…. A researched B inquired C examined D discovered 4. A show B present C offer D demonstrate 6. 7. try to 6 ___ the questions you will be expected to answer .use the Internet. The failure of certain candidates to submit a complete application QUALIFY package resulted in their immediate . A effective B important C impressive D significant 3.. Read the text below and select the best option. and one of them is selected. and suitable candidates are invited for interview.4. a vacancy is advertised 2. A job offer is made to the successful candidate. 6. and applicants are interviewed. 5. It indicates:  a possible action: It is necessary that you be here..4. and interests you can 5 ___ the organisation.3. and applications are received. the best professionals we could have ever found. So be it! Synthetic: past subjunctive: identical with the past tense simple 80 . Firstly. These are sorted 4.. The first sentence has been done for you. The following text describes a typical selection process. work…. 9. a final short list is drawn up. experience.. But there is still more work to do if you want to get that job! Make sure you have 3 ___ the company as thoroughly as possible . an employment contract is signed. 4 ___ yourself of why you applied to this company. A remember B remind C imagine D summarise 5. 3. your CV and letter of application must have been 2 ___! The company now wants to know more about you. Next. After that. 9. appointments are arranged 8. I think that this firm is not really one of the COURT best. Make a list of the skills. have. A gained B reached C arrived D achieved 2. 3. from the job contest. The candidates on the list are interviewed again.

She is given flowers. order. hint. conditions. an unreal fact) The synthetic subjunctive is rarely used. after lest. It is used with:  impersonal expressions: it is advisable/ important/ essential/ desirable/ possible/ likely/ probable/ strange/ unusual/ impossible/ (un)fortunate/. insist. surprising: It is important that the chairman should call the meeting.  In formal notices: Passengers are requested not to…  Newspapers: President sacked because…  Processes in science or engineering: The wheel is tested… 81 . remarkable.  In negative purpose sentences. purposes): They took the airplane so that they might arrive in time. demand. doubts.  When the object is more important than the logical subject: The manager was informed on the situation. She behaved as if she were the headmaster. thought. offer. if only. request. pleased.  it is/ was a pity/ shame/ surprise/ wonder: It was a pity (that) they should be fired. in case: They paid for fear they shouldn’t get the merchandise. suggest. anxious. Flowers are given to her. arrange. Analytical: Form: Should/ would/ may/ might/ could + short infinitive Should/ would/ may/ might/ could + perfect infinitive It indicates:  hypothetical facts/actions (suppositions. sorry: I was glad that he should graduate this summer. I took the money so that they could buy the firm. Active/Passive Voice Rule: to be (any tense required) + the Past Participle of the verb to be conjugated They give her flowers. supposition: The idea that they should be present annoyed her.  adjectives: to be + glad. concessions. whatever.  After: although. reason.  the nouns: idea.It indicates:  an action contrary to reality: I wish I were a doctor.  A less probable condition: If he should succeed. I will be happy. agree. It is used after:  if. B.  the verbs: command. // so that: They phoned so that I wouldn’t be taken by surprise. (but I’m not) It’s time you went home. propose. however. though. as though  wish (to indicate regret. for fear. no matter: He will win whatever he should do. as if. The use of the passive  When the logical subject is obvious or is not important: Goods should be delivered as soon as possible. settle: They requested the goods should be delivered fast.  When the speaker avoids mentioning the logical subject: The order has already been placed.

 Passive + infinitive + object: with the verbs: advise. expect. discover. Do not send material downloaded from the Internet. say. HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 5 Write a short text of your own using the phrases given in 2.3 (page 79). mean.3. forbid. understand: They were advised to negotiate the price. feel. believe. suggest: It was suggested that they would work hard. expect. order. announce. You should submit your homework electronically (adriana. request.Passive Structures:  modals + passive: The meeting can be postponed. teach.  It + the passive of: agree.ubbcluj. (type of document: Word). require.fekete@lingua. hope. Deadline: 20 APRIL 82 .ro). report.

adverb national holiday noun [C] caravan site noun [C] overseas adverb charter verb [ transitive ] package tour noun [C] check in/check into sth phrasal verb passage noun check out phrasal verb passport noun [C] clerk noun [C] public holiday noun [C] cruise verb public transport noun [U] destination noun [C] reception noun [U] disembark verb [I] FORMAL reservation noun doorman noun [C] resort noun [C] double room noun [C] return ticket/fare etc noun double-book verb [I. UNIT 7 – BUSINESS TRAVEL GLOSSARY – BUSINESS ENGLISH VOCABULARY Students should be able to use the vocabulary under BUSINESS TRAVEL to communicate about:  Definition of business ethics  Importance of business ethics in today’s business climate  Basic ethical considerations that a company needs to address  Codes of ethics  Unethical behaviour in the workplace  Training in business ethics accommodations plural noun journey verb [I usually + adverb or B and B noun [C] preposition] bank holiday noun [C] land verb bed and breakfast noun [C or U] lobby noun [C] bellboy noun [C] motel noun [C] book verb [I or T] motor inn noun [C] business class noun [U]. T] schedule noun [C] economy class noun [U]. noun [U] ecotourism noun [U] shuttle verb [I or T] embark verb [ intransitive ] sightseeing noun [U] fare noun [C] suite noun [C] first class adjective. adverb the sights noun flight noun [C] tour verb full board noun [U] tourist noun [C] gate noun travel verb guide noun [C] twin-bedded adjective half board noun [U] vacancy noun [C] holiday noun valet noun [C] hotel noun [C] visa noun [C] inn noun [C] youth hostel noun [C] itinerant adjective jet lag noun [U] 83 . adverb self-catering adjective.


1. Lead-in


Think about three problems that a businessperson may encounter on his/her business trip.

2. Vocabulary

a. Match the following words meaning ‘trip’ with their definitions. Use a dictionary:

1) journey 7) crossing
2) voyage 8) ride
3) travels 9) expedition
4) flight 10) outing
5) drive 11) excursion
6) tour

a. a long trip, either by sea or in space
b. a trip that involves travelling by plane
c. a trip to a place to see specific things of interest
d. a short trip in a car or bus, or on a bicycle or motorbike
e. a short trip made by a group of people, usually lasting less than a day
f. an organized trip for a group of people
g. a trip to a very distant place for a long period of time, often with a specific aim such as
scientific research
h. a trip from one piece of land to another, across water
i. a trip that involves travelling by car
j. a series of trips made over a period of time, especially to a place that is far away
k. a trip from one place to another, often one that is long or difficult

b. Fill in the blanks with the words from II.a.:
1. How long is the ___ to New York?
2. Did you have a tiring ___
3. Their ___ across the Atlantic was full of problems.
4. His essays are based on his ___ in South Africa.
5. They went on a two-week ___ to Italy last month.
6. My ___ to work usually only takes 15 minutes.
7. Come on, I’ll give you a ___ to the museum.
8. An overnight ferry ___ is quite dangerous in this area.
9. The school ___ to the science museum was boring for the kids.
10. Their ___ to the South Pole was very adventurous.
11. The travel agency organised a(n) ___ to local places of interest.

3. English in use
a. Read the first part of a text about travel tips and fill in each gap with one suitable word:
e.g. 0 - a

1. Business travel can become 0___ rut. Challenge yourself and your corporate travel agent to
come up 1___ alternatives to save money or time. It is surprisingly easy to get into a familiar
pattern when 2___ travel to the same destination repeatedly.

2. Assess where you stay. Are you staying in the 3___ effective place when you visit your
customers? Are you being lulled into complacency 4___ frequent traveller programs? Check out
the business alternatives. There are several newer chains of budget hotels for the business
traveller. Use 5___ Internet to see which other hotels have last minute deals in your area.

3. Organize your office - at work and 6___ the road. This is the time to evaluate your electronic
gadgets and consolidate your important information. Clean out your address book 7___
organize your computer files. If you have an assistant or colleagues, 8___ together to
brainstorm ways to improve communication and coordination while you are out 9___ the office.
What new technologies 10___ help you? Fax boxes? Picture messaging? Fast mobile data
connections? Don't forget the batteries!

b. Read the second part of the text. Some of the underlined parts are correct; some have
a mistake in them (a grammar mistake, a vocabulary mistake, a missing word, an
unnecessary word, and inappropriateness in the context). If the part is correct, write
CORRECT in its corresponding numbered space; if the part is incorrect, write the correct
version in its corresponding numbered space:
4. Review your car rental company choice. As car rental fleets shrink and prices rise, (1) you
may find it is more cheaper to use a taxi. These sites can help you budget for the taxi fares. Can
you get a better corporate deal from a car hire company (2) if everyone uses them for their
business travel?

5. Review your travel safety skills. Do you know (3) how to avoid from getting robbed? Escape a
hotel fire? (4) Choose one safe taxi? Business travellers are prime targets. (5) Take old labels
off your luggage - they shout business traveller to the crooked. Have a map of (6) where are
you going.

6. Improve your stress management skills. Accept it, (7) business travel is stressing. Current
issues with airport security make it inevitable that your next business trip will include (8) a
significant amounts of stress. There are many coping techniques (9) to effectively reduce stress.
Practice deep breathing or muscle stretches. They will come in handy the next time you're stuck
in the system.

7. Review your business travel programme and frequent fliers schemes. Have you access to
lounges, now and next year? (10) Use these to ease those business travel journeys.
(adapted and abridged from http://www.nrgpax.com/businesstravel/article001.htm)

4. Reading comprehension
a. Read the following article about how airlines have changed their offers since
September 11, 2001. Some sentences have been removed from the extract. Choose from
sentences A- I the one which fits each gap (1- 9).
A. It could be anything from a sole trader running a news agency to a firm employing several
hundred people with an annual travel budget of about £100,000.
B. The scheme runs until June, but SAS plans to continue to operate some kind of SME
C. But the points are awarded on any airline as part of an itinerary that includes a segment
flown on Swiss.


D. Under the scheme, cash credits are offered against any KLM flight of any class or fare type
and redeemed as free flights.
E. We decided on a web-based corporate loyalty programme to make it cost effective.”
F. Unable to qualify for corporate deals because they do not generate enough travel, SMEs
have been ignored by travel providers.
G. However, the market exists and we have been working hard to find ways to develop a
relationship with this sector
H. “We are looking at extending On Business to include semi-restricted tickets,” says Stuart
Beamish, BA’s senior manager, loyalty marketing.
I. “It would be a huge benefit for our customers to get our partner airlines on board,” says
Thomas Brandt, Delta’s general manager, distribution planning.

Will small businesses fill the airlines’ large gaps?
Airlines discover, post-9/11, that small can be profitable

Airlines striving to hold on to their share of a tough corporate market are increasingly looking to
nurture business travellers they have previously ignored.
Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are companies which have a fraction of the travel budgets
of the £1m-plus spend of large firms.

Not any more. Pressures to fill aircraft and the competitive threat of low-cost airlines have seen
airlines launch rafts of incentives, including cash rewards, free flights and upgrades, to show
SMEs that they really are wanted.
Airlines use different criteria, such as number of trips, value of travel spend or size of company,
to define an SME. 2___

Typically, a PA (Personal Assisstant), financial director or company boss will be responsible for
administering the schemes in-house. Over the past 12 months, airlines including KLM, Swiss,
and SAS have all introduced initiatives to try and win such managers on board.
KLM estimates that the 3.8 million or so UK-based SMEs can save up to 10 per cent of their
travel costs through its cashback loyalty programme, BlueBiz. 3___

As with most airline schemes, not only does the company benefit, but the individual can also
collect frequent flier mileage points on flights taken.
KLM’s e-commerce manager Glyn Duggan explains: “Due to their volume levels, SMEs had
fallen off our radar.
“But after the US terror attacks of 9/11, we began looking at various options to get this market
back on track. 4___

SAS’s new PayBack Programme offers cash rewards of up to 15 per cent of the annual travel
spend or a maximum of 20 return tickets between the UK and Scandinavia depending on the
level of expenditure. Bmi’s Company Returns scheme has similarly gone down the cash reward
and points route.
SAS spokesman Jeff Rebello says the incentive is a two-pronged attack — to increase the
loyalty of existing customers and to switch passengers from other airlines. 5___

British Airways is planning to relax some of the restrictions of the On Business scheme that it
introduced for SMEs four years ago. More discounted fares will be included in the programme

Swiss has gone a step further by offering credit points. B. Yesterday. Government figures for the nine months to September 2003 show a further slump of 170. (adapted and abridged from http://www. Eligible BA fares earn companies points that can be exchanged for travel rewards. terrorism and Sars have 5___ British business travel badly. only eight were taken.000.html) b.timesonline. courting companies with an annual travel spend of between £8.7 per cent this year.000. C or D) which you think fits best according to the text. Security and cost- cutting are the main issues and the corporates are calling the tune.000 business passengers over the same period in 2002. including Air France and Korean Air. it has not been as fast as predicted. including free flights. each worth 1 euro. Read an article about the impact of terrorism on business travel. 7___ The development of airline alliances has prompted Delta Air Lines to try to extend its SkyBonus scheme to cover partner SkyTeam carriers. a move partially driven by the impact of low-cost carriers. terrorism and Sars have changed the nature of business travel. he says. United Airlines is offering a return business-class fare to New York for £999.000 and £80. ‘Emperor’s new clothes. which arrived at Heathrow from Washington DC at 7am on Monday. 87 .5466. A London-based economic think tank. passengers travelling Upper Class could have no 1___ about service. Of 50 business-class seats in the new Airbus A340-600. towards free flights. the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR).uk/section/0. The cut and thrust of survival War. BA announced a fresh round of job cuts. quite a complex group of companies. cost-cutting is also top of the 6___ for its passengers. The standard BA return costs just over £4. I say. hotel accommodation and limo transfers. with half “actively redeeming” points for travel rewards. 9___ adds Brandt. choose the answer (A. Unfortunately for BA.000 companies have enrolled with On Business. On Virgin Atlantic flight VS022. says in a new report that it expects business 7___ in Europe to grow by 2. For questions 1-10. If it is bad for BA.. There were more 2___ members in the front cabin than passengers. War.00.co. 8___ The US-based airline ventured into the SME market three years ago. numbers fell by 10 per cent to eight million in 2002. One senior business travel agency executive commented: “They say things are getting better. it is even worse for its transatlantic 4___ Until next Friday. “The SME is notoriously hard to pinpoint. From a peak of 8.87 million travellers in 2000. knowing that the only way to compete with the no-frills airlines and its traditional rivals is on cost. 6___ About 10.’” Transatlantic business 3___ are a crucial barometer to airline health and although British Airways said last week that there has been “some improvement” in premium traffic.across all cabins to appeal to cost-conscious SMEs.

increase 8. while helping corporates track and control expenditure. agenda 7. crew C. Fast 6___ technology on board aircraft is also now delivering live TV news and e-mail. busy 1. global 13. tax C.business The decline in passenger numbers is now levelling off. A. 0. A. tree B. A. only 29 per cent of UK business travellers now prefer to book with a travel agent. place 12. hit D. is also now “extremely buoyant” according to Christian Rooney. large 9. no longer issue paper tickets on the 75 per cent of its routes where electronic tickets can be used. There is a new 1___ on briefing travellers and staying in touch. power 10. improve 11. marketing and sales director of Bookajet. According to Delta Airlines. in April. trip B. 4___ because of concerns over security. coauthor of the report. Executive jet travel. British Airways will. Information 2___ such as Control Risks and Country Briefings provide assessments. stable 2. address 15. profit 5. complaints B. kicked B. A. Use the words below to form a word that fits in the same numbered space in the text. while technology 3___ allows employees to stay in touch while on the road. foes 5. expense B. travels D. supply 14. pilot D. world D. A. A.But Douglas McWilliams. voyage C. Technology. The company has just opened a new base at Southampton airport and now uses five jets. partners D. trips B. emphasize 6. one specialist operator. warn e.” The report says surveys of American corporate travel purchasers indicate that they believe that. provide 7. team B. fare 5. crossings C. excursion D. travel 8. punched C. rivals B. they have managed to negotiate down their prices for business travel by 20 per cent. complainings C. while wireless-free use of laptops in hotels and airports is rolling out at a frenetic pace. head C. but the nature of 0___ travel has changed irrevocably: events since September 11 have made that inevitable. flying 3. misgivings 2. 0 . 1. added: “The business travel sector is increasingly exposed in a world where a blowtorch is being applied to every conceivable kind of corporate expense. English in use Read the second part of the article. since 2000. enemies C. damaged 6. routes 4. 88 . stringent 3. with two-thirds choosing to book using the internet. A. Business travel is typically 2-3 per cent of corporate cost and is generally regarded as the largest single controllable 8___. A.g. agent 4. has also 5___ employees to book flights and hotels themselves while still following company travel policy. demands D. fine D.

” It is a point being echoed by all sectors of the industry. having 10___ the issue of cost cutting. both in-house and with customers and 9___.html) 6.timesonline. the figures indicate that business travellers are on the move more. summed up the mood: “Companies have adjusted and are becoming more 14___. not least those hotel. airline and credit card suppliers desperate to see a return to regular corporate flying. the underlying need for face-to-face contact is growing due to the “ratcheting up” of 8___. Writing Write a short text in which you should use as many of the words and phrases given below as possible.” This positive view relies. John Melchior. on the continued stability of world events. however. but the increasing 12___ of US immigration is one striking example of how fragile confidence remains in travel.uk/section/0. but we still have to travel. according to the CEBR report. A report out this week from Company Barclaycard concludes: “Overall.5466. While it does have a role. an indication of greater 11___.The idea that videoconferencing will one day 7___ travel has largely been disproved. air hostess arrival airport check-in connecting point economy class landing airline office business class security check departure lounge excess baggage take off air turbulence baggage reclaim unclaimed luggage airport hotel ground transportation weight limit direct flight boarding pass airport terminal booking procedures 89 . Those who have survived know that there won’t be such a big dip in world events again. Corporates may be starting to travel again.” (adapted and abridged from http://www. But they also argue that companies. executive vice-president of global corporate travel 13___ Radius. “There are certain dangers out there.co. thanks to confirmed new business rather than trying to secure it. We all have to accommodate that. will be leaner and more positive about travelling. McWilliams said: “Maintaining and enhancing business relations. naturally.00. needs a regular dose of direct contact. and to give them 15___ of potential problems. Now we have to know where travellers are.

There is an understandable urge to return to old conventions. The end of super-power rivalry.UNIT EIGHT – CULTURE AND CIVILISATION 1. displaced persons and the erosion of environmental stability. The world has also witnessed one of the most severe global economic recessions since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The resulting confluence of peoples and cultures is an increasingly global. fundamental values. expression. The Challenge of Human Rights and Cultural Diversity by Diana Ayton-Shenker The end of the cold war has created a series of tentative attempts to define "a new world order". How can human rights be reconciled with the clash of cultures that has come to characterize our time? Cultural background is one of the primary sources of identity. has created more social problems than solutions. and the growing North/South disparity in wealth and access to resources. This climate of change and acute vulnerability raises new challenges to our ongoing pursuit of universal human rights. It is the source for a great deal of self-definition. at least for the time being. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What is cultural diversity? 1. confusion and conflict in the process of its adjustment to pluralism. seemingly secure. traditional cultures. and the familiar. Human rights and cultural diversity 1. At the same time. people may resort to isolationism. the only certainty is that the international community has entered a period of tremendous global transition that. and remarkable advances in telecommunications. homelessness. and sense of group belonging. As 90 . coincide with an alarming increase in violence. Without a secure sense of identity amidst the turmoil of transition. Reading Read the following text and express your opinion on the “new world order”. So far. sense of one's identity. ethnocentricism and intolerance.1. previously isolated peoples are being brought together voluntarily and involuntarily by the increasing integration of markets.2. multicultural world brimming with tension. biotechnology and transportation that have prompted unprecedented demographic shifts. the emergence of new regional political alliances. poverty and unemployment.

but disorienting. Good knowledge of cultural differences is .1.3.2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1... is often a mystery to my MORAL friends.. cultural identities change. locals while travelling in foreign countries.. Sometimes it’s difficult to choose when you are faced with a huge . fast. 2. brim (v) f. Vocabulary development 1. This process can be enriching. when something begins to be known or noticed 6. a state in which someone can be easily harmed or hurt 3. achieve.. 3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. to have a good relationship again with someone after you have quarrelled with them 5. DIVERSE of tourist attractions. ORIENTATION 1. or find something in a determined way 9.3. but you should get more involved in the REASON mores of your host country. Nationalists would like their country’s traditions to be . powerful 1. excitement. the action of trying to get. prompt (v) d. A visitor to your country should be offered plenty of . A(n) . or anxiety 2. I am sorry to say that you are a candidate___ a suitable background for his job involving talking ___ foreigners.. at Heathrow airport made her miss her connecting flight. a state of confusion. vulnerability (n) h. . disparity (n) b.org/rights/dpi1627e. EXPERIENCE 4.. traveller will fail to do justice to cultural difference. Her . 2.un.. I am neither moral.htm) 1....... APPROACH 6. RECOGNISE 3. confluence (n) e.. quality. (http://www. turmoil (n) g.. My . My job is related ___ handling a wide range ___ tourist services. in exploring COURAGE local culture. 8.) a. What is prejudice based ___ and how could you steer clear ___ it? 5. Sometimes cultural traits may suffer changes beyond . emergence (n) c. to make people say or do something as a reaction 7. 91 . to have a lot of a particular thing. 1. My approach ___ dealing ___ cultural difference is a most successful one. 4.3. a difference between two or more things. to any definition of VALUE cultural interaction. pursuit (n) i. or emotion: 4. My experience draws ___ my travels ___ the world. especially an unfair one 8..cultures interact and intermix. Match the following words and phrases from the text with their right definitions: 1. tremendous (adj. a situation in which two or more things combine or happen at the same time 10.3.3. CHANGE 7. You might find a lot of . 9. 5.. . 10. very big. reconcile (v) j... nor immoral.. I wouldn’t like to sound . The current insecurity of cultural identity reflects fundamental changes in how we define and express who we are today.

Universal human rights and cultural relativism 2. No.4. He is ___ a background not entirely suited ___ his job description. 10. 5. When we wanted to complain about the PR officer being rude. His prejudice ___ other nationals boils down ___ xenophobia. Language focus: The tense system: Past Perfect 1. When she decided to accept the offer it was too late. 9. 7. 4. 9. Her capacity ___ hard work in PR is overwhelming.2. They changed their policy after a group of unsatisfied clients (sue) the company. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What human right do you consider to be the most important? Why? How can you account for the fact that discrimination still persists in our world? 92 . I hadn’t. The two parties (reach) an agreement when the member of our group made the suggestion. completed action that takes place before another past action: He gave me the book when he had finished reading it. 1. 8. When they arrived the conference (begin) and they did not want to disturb the participants. He finally succeeded ___ setting things straight. the manager (fire) him. 8. Had I finished…? Yes. 1. 2. The Parliament (pass) this law a very long time ago. By the time I called the office the secretary (leave). Use the Past Perfect where necessary. Discrimination (be) a current practice in the company long before she brought up the issue. 2. so they left. Someone else (hire) as an assistant manager. 10.  An action finished before a certain moment in the past: I had written the paper by ten o’ clock. 1. 3. 6. 6. The tense system: Past Perfect Form: had + Past Participle: I went to work after I had finished my lunch. I had. 7. It indicates:  a past. We wanted to help them but by the time we got there they (finish) writing the recommendations.4. The Past Perfect is not compulsory when after and before establish the sequence of the actions.4. The chairman opened the session after everybody (consult) the agenda.1. so he had to accept it. My affiliation ___ this political party will be ___ an extremely short duration.1.

3 ___ The Charter further commits the United Nations and all Member States to action promoting "universal respect for. then widespread disregard.2. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms consensus on a universal standard of human rights. How can universal human rights exist in a culturally diverse world? As the international community becomes increasingly integrated.2. this relativism would pose a dangerous threat to the effectiveness of international law and the international system of human rights that has been painstakingly constructed over the decades. There is one sentence which you do not need to use. ethnic and religious traditions. protection. Some would apply this relativism to the promotion. minorities and religious tolerance. As the cornerstone of the International Bill of Rights. is the world ready for it? How could a global culture emerge based on and guided by human dignity and tolerance? 1 ___ Cultural relativism is the assertion that human values. abuse and violation of human rights would be given legitimacy. which states that human rights are "for all without distinction". according to this view. torture. Universal human rights are further established by the two international covenants on human rights (International Covenant on Economic. Human rights are emphasized among the purposes of the United Nations as proclaimed in its Charter. In other words. In the recent issue of A Global Agenda. As an assembly of nearly every State in the international community. and the other international standard-setting instruments which address numerous concerns. Accordingly. human rights are culturally relative rather than universal. the General Assembly is a 93 . Taken to its extreme. the promotion and protection of human rights perceived as culturally relative would only be subject to State discretion. and observance of. discrimination against women. vary a great deal according to different cultural perspectives. rights of the child. human rights and fundamental freedoms". Reading Read the following article. the universality of human rights has been clearly established and recognized in international law. far from being universal. Choose from sentences A-J the one which fits each gap (1-9). Social and Cultural Rights. slavery. These achievements in human rights standard-setting span nearly five decades of work by the United Nations General Assembly and other parts of the United Nations system. If cultural tradition alone governs State compliance with international standards. interpretation and application of human rights which could be interpreted differently within different cultural. and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights). Charles Norchi points out that the Universal Declaration "represents a broader consensus on human dignity than does any single culture or tradition". including genocide. 2 ___ Universal Human Rights and International Law Largely through the ongoing work of the United Nations. racial discrimination. rather than international legal imperative. Some sentences have been removed from the text. how can cultural diversity and integrity be respected? Is a global culture inevitable? If so.

If a State dismisses universal human rights on the basis of cultural relativism. the Vienna Declaration continues to reinforce the universality of human rights. all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all". The denial or abuse of human rights is wrong. not the cultural imperialism of any particular region or set of traditions. The legal obligation is reaffirmed for all States to promote "universal respect for. This means that political. political or other opinion. 6 ___ Furthermore. Adopted in June 1993 by the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights in Austria. the Vienna Declaration states in its first paragraph that "the universal nature" of all human rights and fundamental freedoms is "beyond question". 5 ___ As if to settle the matter once and for all. property. All Member States of the United Nations have a legal obligation to promote and protect human rights. cultural. Non- discrimination protects individuals and groups against the denial and violation of their human rights. universal human rights represent the hard-won consensus of the international community. and observance and protection of. in every culture. national or social origin. Its Preamble proclaims the Declaration as a "common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations". birth or other status". and observance of. which repeats the same language to reaffirm the status of the Universal Declaration as a "common standard" for everyone. 94 .uniquely representative body authorized to address and advance the protection and promotion of human rights. indivisible and interdependent and interrelated". 4 ___ This consensus is embodied in the language of the Universal Declaration itself. sex. stating. religion. No State is exempt from this obligation. Human rights are the birthright of every person. This means that human rights are for all human beings. civil. 7 ___ The non-discrimination principle is a fundamental rule of international law. language. regardless of particular cultural perspectives. regardless of the violator's culture. It is clearly stated that the obligation of States is to promote universal respect for. The unquestionable universality of human rights is presented in the context of the reaffirmation of the obligation of States to promote and protect human rights. the obligation is established for all States. "All human rights are universal. human rights. in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and other instruments of human rights and international law. Human rights are intended for everyone. This statement is echoed in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. economic and social human rights are to be seen in their entirety. The universal nature of human rights is literally written into the title of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Universal human rights protection and promotion are asserted in the Vienna Declaration as the "first responsibility" of all Governments. colour. To deny human rights on the grounds of cultural distinction is discriminatory. regardless of "race. then rights would be denied to the persons living under that State's authority. 8 ___ As a legal standard adopted through the United Nations.

Vocabulary development 2. nor oriented towards. F As such. C These are some of the issues. from a ___ of commitment by the organisation and its key players". coordinated efforts of the international community to achieve and advance a common standard and international system of law to protect human dignity. concerns and questions underlying the debate over universal human rights and cultural relativism. States advocating cultural relativism could raise their own cultural norms and particularities above international law and standards. I Universal human rights reflect the dynamic. 95 . universal human rights are a modern achievement. 9 ___ A Human rights are the natural-born rights for every human being. not relative. E Human rights must be approached in a way that is meaningful and relevant in diverse cultural contexts. 2. observance and protection.3. but universal respect. new to all cultures. and a wider concern that people should be treated equally. J By rejecting or disregarding their legal obligation to promote and protect universal human rights. Human rights are neither representative of. one culture to the exclusion of others. based on ethical and human rights or moral ___ Managing ___ on the other hand is internally driven. universally. B Not selective. They are all of equal value and apply to everyone. it serves as an excellent indicator of international consensus on human rights.Like most areas of international law. They are not privileges. rather one legal standard of minimum protection necessary for human dignity. H One cannot pick and choose which rights to promote and protect. D Universal human rights do not impose one cultural standard.1.3. Fill in the blanks in the following text with the words given in bold: requirements diversity pressures sense arguments Many companies and organisations adopt equal opportunities policies because of external ___ Wilson and Iles suggest that this response "varies between a narrow minimalist response to legislative ___. G Everyone is entitled to human rights without discrimination of any kind.

with different people in very high INFLUENCE circles. 10.. and if diverse. After months of strenuous research. . if ___ are drawn from a wide sector of the community. Let’s focus ___ this issue now and we will look ___ the other one ___ a later date.3. HISTORY 4.com/digest/2000) 2. it will rest . 8.3. . 96 ..the voluntary sector supports and works with a diverse ___ of service users. ___ the present framework of rules.. 9. Her influence ___ the whole project is undeniable... Volunteers are the ___ face of many organisations.. 3. This question . opportunities force staff The driving ___ behind introducing diversity management policies is seen as the ‘business case’ . After accumulating lots of practice in organising package tours. 2. Also. There’s no visible difference ___ the way they are treating immigrants ___ their country.. their findings in a report published in a local journal. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. Women usually contend that they have . at the working place is a topical issue in both the western and eastern EQUAL world. 9. mori.. Bill Clinton’s visit to Romania was a . Equality ___ job opportunities is essential. 6. 2. The history of this project dates back ___ 1985. PRIMARY 8. raising the ___ of your service..2. . 5. 3. we have to abide ___ each one of them. tourists flock to the big cities of the world every day in search of yet NUMBER unimagined sensations.... sites of London could be a quite rewarding experience. My methods differ a lot ___ the more conventional ones. the main causes of their failure to IDENTIFY meet international standards remained . Exploring the . supporters and partners. 7.. (adapted from http://www. 7. greater creativity and decision making and happier ___ who stay longer and benefit from organisational ___ public range profile volunteers organisation Looking at the marketing example . 6. then they each tell their friends and family. HISTORY 5. The reasons ___ establishing a new basis ___ cooperation are ___my depth. Because your application is incomplete. thinking "this is an organisation for me"..that a diverse workforce will result in more focused marketing. There has been no shift ___ our regulations since they came ___ force... PROCESS 10.. He is a government official extremely . 1. If the ‘public face’ of an ___ reflects that diverse public. moment. work opportunities as EQUAL compared with men.. What did you have ___ mind when you called that company? 4.. until a further date.. will be more welcoming to users and members. the THEORY travel agency decided to . addresses those prone to xenophobia. then individuals will more easily identify with it. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. 2.

2.4. The newspapers had been publishing/had published a lot of articles on the accident for weeks when they found out about it. 3.2. We had been discussing/had discussed all day with our partners and by 10 o’clock the agreement wasn’t signed. 10. 4. by the time e. It indicates: a past action in development before another past action and also continuing that moment: When he came she had been reading for two hours. 8. 3. before. after. he decided to speak. When the PR assistant arrived.1. 7. After they had been quarrelling for minutes. 6. National stereotypes 3. I asked them to stop.1. We had been waiting for weeks before we got the money. They had been negotiating for hours by the time I got there. He asked us why we had written/had been writing such a long preamble to our report. 9.4. Our competition had done/had been doing everything they could to attack us and we had to take steps towards fighting back. No. The whole staff had worked/had been working until the last minute and they had no time left to decorate the room for the meeting. Language focus: The tense system: Past Perfect Continuous 2.4.g. The tense system: Past Perfect Continuous Form: to be (in the past perfect) + verb + ing: I had been writing. as soon as. I had. I hadn’t. Lead-in STOP AND THINK! What do you understand by ‘stereotype’? To what extent are national stereotypes fair? How can you fight prejudices related to national stereotypes? 97 . Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences: 1. 5. The staff complained that they had asked/had been asking for better working conditions for two months. !!!!!!!!!!!! often used in past perfect and past perfect progressive sentences: when. Had I been writing? Yes. the customers had waited/had been waiting for her for hours. We had hoped/had been hoping to solve our problem easily and were very disappointed when we couldn’t. Our partners had looked forward/had been looking forward to the contract to be signed and became quite angry when it had been cancelled/had been being cancelled.2. After the President had looked/had been looking through our papers for a while. 2.

" . The United Kingdom is both loved and loathed for its traditions.Russia "There is a high educational standard which the English are associated with." . This has implications for public diplomacy.very reserved and grey" . British higher education is particularly well respected with 88% of people rating it as "good". Fifty-eight percent of 98 . There is a clear lack of knowledge about British contemporary arts. well brought up people.3. They like soccer. though still behind the USA and Japan. the country comes behind the United States.Poland Seventy-six percent of people questioned regard the British as well educated.Malaysia "Avant-garde. The area of British culture where people had the most knowledge was pop music and film. A worrying 60% were unable to name a single artist." .Germany. eccentric. What can be done to close the gap between perceptions overseas and the reality of contemporary Britain without ignoring the strengths of our traditions for which we are respected? Arts "British arts represent their culture . Education "They are well educated. However the United States still emerged as the market leader in higher education. mad" . What is "Britishness"? The survey conducted by MORI on behalf of the British Council among the successor generation in thirteen countries reveals what foreigners think about all aspects of British society and culture. The images most often quoted of the Great Britain in the survey are the Queen and the Royal Family. Japan and Germany when it comes to having world-beating companies. British business is seen as too risk averse." .Mexico Whilst 81% of people rated British goods and services as "good" overall and 74% think British managers are good.Saudi Arabia Sixty-six percent of those polled believe that Britain’s reputation in the arts is based more in the past than in the present." .France "They don't have any famous artists. You buy a British garment and you know it will last forever. Reading How would you characterise the British? Read the following text and then state what you agree with and what you disagree with.Egypt "They manufacture things carefully. "This permanent up-and-down risk which the Americans take is much too exhausting for the Britons. and if I wanted to go abroad to study.2. castles and rugby. this would be the only place. However Britain is recognised as a b financial centre. kilts. Business and finance "The British are managers by nature. When asked to identify one or two contemporary artists Elton John and Hugh Grant topped the list with 5% each. able to keep up conversation." .

" . opposed. However the British media were regarded as being more truthful than their counterparts in most of the countries surveyed." - Russia "The UK are one of the first democracies in Europe" .3. poll. relating to the tastes of common people 6. exit.cloning sheep and genetics and scary stuff. break. ill-disposed towards 3. distance 4." . British institutions may be respected but a significant 41% believe that British people are not very welcoming towards foreigners. A grudging 58% agree that the British legal system ensures that everyone gets a fair trial. Society "They are well brought up people. analogue 10.com/digest/2000) 3. pause.2. research of public opinion 3. pop i. Media "Even the more cultured people read the tabloids to be informed. objecting to. popular. averse d. Most of the scandals coming from the Royal Family are found there. unfavourable to 7.Mexico A significant minority (28%) believe that the British media cannot be relied on to tell the truth. tabloid a. hate.3. newspaper publishing scandalous material 9. aesthetically new and experimental 5. grudging b.respondents believe that qualifications from the United States have the most credibility with potential employers. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 99 . appear as 8.3. the UK was ranked well behind the United States. Vocabulary development 3. mori. equivalent. Sixty-five percent also believe that the country has a good health care service. emerge c. counterpart e. loathe h..1. survey j.France Sixty-five percent of people questioned agree that the UK is a good model of democratic government. Even if they don't like you too much.. gap g. Japan and Germany.South Africa Whilst 62% of respondents agree that Britain has a b reputation for scientific and technological innovation. (http://www. avant-garde f. they try to be nice. hesitant. detest 2. Science and Technology "The British are exploring more. In Germany only 5% of people trust the truthfulness of the British media. Match the words and phrases with their corresponding definitions: 1.

LOATHE 2. 10. 2. Your behaviour will have consequential implications ___ public diplomacy.. 3. ECCENTRIC 7. 1. underscoring our excellent policies STRONG regarding cooperation among states.. of prices for oil. skills are impeccable at all social gatherings. 8. 100 .4.. EXHAUST 9.. has often been reviled in tabloids..3. 5) The job seeker…should be prepared… (par. 4) You must enter as an immigrant… (par. Please give me a . Our country is the market leader ___ button manufacturing. Modal Verbs Read the following examples from the text: Later on… you may be able… (par.. 6. My . 5. 5. CONVERSATION 10. I respect this small country ___ its great traditions.NOT the past of may BUT a stronger possibility/ probability/ uncertainty: You might be right (but I strongly doubt). QUOTE 3. His fame ___ successfully handling conflict situations is one ___ his advantages.1. SIGNIFY 3. in this case... The tabloids made much ado about the fact that she was . (to be possible) Probability: We may get that contract. in the IMPLICATE royal scandal... language. 4) A college in foreign commerce would definitely help… (par. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition.4. 6. I’m sorry to say that the degree of your intelligence is . 7. 1) Modals May Form: may// May he?// may not It indicates: Possibility: He may come today. 4. KNOW 8. Her . efforts led to fruition. IN the survey appear the figures ___ this year’s rate ___ diplomatic blunders ___ the part ___ Romania. Language focus: Modal Verbs 3... I am speaking ___ behalf ___ all those who feel wronged by the Romanian Constitution. Teenagers are prone ___ identifying themselves ___ pop stars. I hereby wish to ... (to be allowed/ to be permitted) Might Form: might/ might he// might not It indicates: ... He sometimes uses . Their . 1.3. These are just a few of the .. The English are associated ___ a proverbial reserve ___ definition. How do rate ___ a diplomat? 9.. The gap ___ my abilities as a diplomat and yours is enormous... Your . 4. (to be probable) Permission: You may leave. 3. your contribution to our success. behaviour could irremediably harm the relationship between DIPLOMATIC the two countries.

Instructions/ advice: He should welcome them at the airport. 3. 8. Sometimes you are forced to accept a monotonous job. Supposition.Must Form: must// Must he……. 2.2. Later on. of course. Ought to Form: ought to/ ought not to It indicates: Moral obligation: You ought to visit him at the hospital Duty: You ought to write that report. Would Form: would/ would you?/ would not = wouldn’t It indicates: Polite request: Would you listen more carefully? Opposition/ resistance/ unwillingness: They would not meet us.4. not performed action: You ought to have helped them. drink my tea and read a book. To work overseas you need to obtain a work permit. invitation. Should Form: should// Should you?// should not = shouldn’t It indicates: obligation: You should be present at the meeting. 7. The job seeker heading overseas has to take on jobs that have been turned down flat by natives. Not a very strong obligation in the past. Expectation: The business should be profitable. 4. 3. Probability. Past habit = used to: I would stay in that chair. you emigrate to a foreign job-rich place. Advisability: You ought to organise that meeting as soon as possible. An unexpected/ contrary action: They must annoy us with their problems! It is replaced by: to have to. Necessity: He ought to be present at the conference. Rephrase the following sentences so that they contain one of the modals above: 1. to be obliged/ forced/ compelled to…. present or future: He ought to play chess that day/ now/ to morrow. 6. emphatic affirmation: You must see the exhibition. There are jobs you didn’t accept in your native country. unfulfilled expectation: They should have discussed the matter in detail. If you cannot find a job in your country.. They ought not to have gone there alone.?// must not = mustn’t It indicates: necessity/ obligation imposed by the speaker: I must be punctual. probability: You ought to communicate them the decision by now. 5. Invitation: Would you have some more cake? Refusal (in the negative): I wouldn’t accept that. Criticism of somebody’s behaviour: She would keep talking without listening to her friends. you will have the opportunity to apply for creative work. 101 . Don’t go unless you are prepared to accept any job. Don’t consider heading overseas to seek work without money in your pocket. logical necessity: He must be at home. Desirable. Past.

This means that….9. and for opinions and beliefs is repeated I/we/you/they enjoy (do not enjoy) I am enjoying (am not enjoying) he/she/it enjoys (does not enjoy) we/you/they are enjoying (are not enjoying) he/she/it is enjoying (is not enjoying) Past Simple Past Continuous/Progressive used for completed actions and events in used for actions or events in the past that were not yet the past finished or that were interrupted I was enjoying (was not enjoying) I/we/you/they enjoyed (did not enjoy) we/you/they were enjoying (were not enjoying) he/she/it enjoyed (did not enjoy) he/she/it was enjoying (was not enjoying) Future Simple Future Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events in the future that will continue used for actions and events in the future into the future I/we/you/they will be enjoying I/we/you/they will enjoy (will not enjoy) (will not be enjoying) 102 . Women will be able to work au pair. Under this arrangement. for future plans. 3. any girl is supposed to get bed and board. Their daily activity is to give general household help. or to show that an event regularly. Functions Cause. So that Lead to… As a result of…. In order to Since As Due to… Owing to the fact that… Because of… The tense system: Revision Simple tenses – Continuous tenses Present Simple Present Continuous/Progressive used for actions in the present. It is advisable you find a job for which no work permit is needed. 11. 10. Their duty is to act as baby sitters. effect and purpose Cause Effect Purpose Result in…. for things used for actions or events that are happening or that are always true or that happen developing now. 12.5. Their employers are also obliged to pay them a sum of money.

Use adjectives from the table below. or for past actions which only recently finished and whose effects are seen now I/we/you/they have enjoyed (have not enjoyed) I/we/you/they have been enjoying he/she/it has enjoyed (have not been enjoying) (has not enjoyed) he/she/it has been enjoying (has not been enjoying) Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive usually used to show that an event happened or an used for actions or events that happened for a action was completed before a particular time in period of time but were completed before a the past particular time in the past I/we/you/they had enjoyed I/we/you/they had been enjoying (had not enjoyed) (had not been enjoying) he/she/it had enjoyed he/she/it had been enjoying (had not enjoyed) (had not been enjoying) Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive used to show that something will be used for actions or events that will already be completed before a particular time in the happening at a particular time in the future future I/we/you/they will have been enjoying I/we/you/they will have enjoyed (will not have been enjoying) (will not have enjoyed) he/she/it will have been enjoying he/she/it will have enjoyed (will not have been enjoying) (will not have enjoyed) Writing Define the stereotype for your nationality.he/she/it will enjoy (will not enjoy) he/she/it will be enjoying (will not be enjoying) Perfect tenses – Continuous tenses Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous/ Progressive used to show that an event happened or an action used for actions or events that started in the past was completed at some time before the present but are still happening now.  able  dignified  kind  accepting  energetic  knowledgeable  adaptable  extroverted  logical  bold  friendly  loving  brave  giving  mature  calm  happy  modest  caring  helpful  nervous  cheerful  idealistic  observant  clever  independent  organised  complex  ingenious  patient  confident  intelligent  powerful  dependable  introverted  proud 103 .

ubbcluj.ro).html) and express your opinions. Do not send material downloaded from the Internet. You should submit your homework electronically (adriana. Deadline: 18 May 104 . (type of document: Word).  quiet  self-conscious  sympathetic  reflective  sensible  tense  relaxed  sentimental  trustworthy  religious  shy  warm  responsive  silly  wise  searching  smart  witty  self-assertive  spontaneous HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 6 Watch Gordon Brown’s (former British Prime Minister) lecture on Global Ethic vs national interest (follow the link http://www.ted. Do not write more than 250 words.fekete@lingua.com/talks/gordon_brown_on_global_ethic_vs_national_interest.

APPENDIX 1 – ADJECTIVES + OBLIGATORY PREPOSITION ADJECTIVE PREPOSITION different from A disappointed with accustomed to E accused of eager for acquainted with eligible for addicted to enthusiastic about annoyed about/with/at excellent in/at allergic to excited about amazed at/by experienced in anxious about exposed to appreciated for envious of ashamed of F associated with faithful to astonished at/by familiar with aware of famous for angry with fed up with afraid of free of/from attached to frightened of B friendly with bad at fond of based on furious about beneficial to furnished with boastful for full of bored with G brilliant at generous with/about busy with guilty of/about C gentle with capable of good at careful with/about/of grateful to certain about H characteristic of happy about clever at hopeful of/about connected with I conscious of identical with/to content with immune to crazy about impressed with crowded with inferior to curious about indifferent to D innocent of dissatisfied with interested in doubtful about involved with delighted at/about incapable of derived from 105 .

J sad about jealous of safe from K satisfied with kind to scared of keen on sensitive to L serious about late for sick of limited to similar to lucky at shocked by skilful at M slow at nervous of/about sorry for/about notorious for successful in O suitable for opposed to sure of/about P superior to patient with surprised at pessimistic about suspicious of pleased with sympathetic with polite to T popular with terrible at presented with terrified of proud of tired of punished for thankful to/for puzzled by/about trilled with Q troubled with qualified for typical of R U ready for unaware of related to upset about relevant to used to respectful for W responsible for wrong with/about rid of worried about S 106 .


Leech. M.ENGLISH GRAMMAR FILES WHAT DO THEY CONTAIN? The ENGLISH GRAMMAR – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX contains information regarding the different parts of speech and clauses existing in English and their function. Grammar Scan. Essex.com/grammar. and clause connectors. HOW ARE THEY ORGANISED? The English grammar presented here is divided into two parts: morphology and syntax. Students are expected to be able to use the parts of speech and the clauses indicated in the ENGLISH GRAMMAR – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX along with related topics indicated in the bibliography. David (2012). the numeral. the pronoun. the verb. 1988.. Malcolm &Taylore-Knowles. Thomson. assigned course leaders will provide information in this respect. Svartvik. http://www. exceptions that can occur. Michael. Further guidance will be provided by the teacher.... 1986. 1994) Vince. Intermediate Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT. Destination B2. time clauses. the adverb. N..G. OUP DISCLAIMER Students should note that the listed items do not necessarily cover the topics in an exhaustive manner. J.. S. Students are expected to devote ample time to reinforcing grammar problems. Baker. University Press. Martinet. A Practical English Grammar. the adjective.englishpage. Longman English Grammar. L. J. Essex. conditionals. Oxford.com 108 . 1998) Mann. MacMillan Swan. Advanced Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT. Longman. The second part offers a short perspective on the main problems raised by English syntax: nominal clauses. The grammar is of great use for undergraduate students with a business/economics profile at the Babeş-Bolyai University. 1 Free-access online grammar sites: http://www. The grammar items will be customized by the teacher in course formats and test formats.. The Language of Business English: Grammar & Functions. Hertfordshire. G. MacMillan Mann. The ENGLISH GRAMMAR – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX is based on official curricula and helps students clarify some of the most important problems related to English grammar. Sweeney. The student’s task is to obtain further information and practice by consulting the recommended bibliography. M. HOW CAN WE USE THEM? Each sub-unit comprises theoretical information related to a specific grammar problem: definition. The first part contains theoretical information regarding the different parts of speech and their use in a particular context: the noun. A Communicative Grammar of English. OUP Swan. the article. Malcolm &Taylore-Knowles. use in context. Mastery of the grammar presented here requires constant practice and self-study. 1975.. Vince.com. Longman. W. Steve (2008).ego4u.. Michael (2009).englishgrammarsecrets. A. 1 RECOMMENDED SOURCES Alexander. Diagnostic Tests for Practical English Usage. Steve (2008). Practical English Usage. and some examples. based on the guidance provided by the aforementioned sources. Destination C1&C2. http://www. 1994. A. sequence of tenses. other/more information should be obtained by the student from other books and tests. reported speech. Brieger.

I haven't got many pens. information. business. report. 3 In Computer Science: mice or mouses 109 . card. difficulty.: coin. assistance. etc. baggage. banknote. homework. abbreviations (kilo – kilos. plenty of.g. Uncountable nouns take a singular verb and are not used with a/an. mouse/mice . The most common uncountable nouns are: accommodation. evidence.g. tooth/teeth.: I've got some dollars. can be used with uncountable nouns. book. woman/women.g. 2 Certain nouns ending in –o take –s ending. any. advice. Have you got any pens? We can use a few and many with countable nouns: I've got a few dollars. education. behaviour. no. e.: nouns of foreign origin (piano – pianos). damage. hospitality. criterion criteria Irregular spelling: internal vowel change The following nouns form their plurals by changing the internal vowel(s) 3 foot/feet.g. much. e. letter.: There's little hope for our business to grow. e.g. The words some. help. partner. MORPHOLOGY THE NOUN The plural form of nouns Regular spelling Singular Plural -s after most nouns: letter letters product products -es after nouns ending in 2 -o : echo echoes -ss: mass masses -x: box boxes -ch: watch watches -sh: crash crashes consonant + -y becomes -ies: company companies Irregular spelling Some endings in -f/-fe take -ves: shelf shelves Nouns with plurals in -en: child children No change species species Foreign plurals. e. memo - memos). conduct. Countable and uncountable nouns Countable nouns are things that we can count. harm. equipment. man/men. health. etc. knowledge. (a) little. We can use some and any with countable nouns: e.

expensive more expensive the most more/ the most + adj. rubbish. understanding. clever cleverer the cleverest adj. + -er/ -est small smaller the smallest big bigger the biggest 2-syllable adjs. safety. shopping.g. ’s genitive (the possessor + ’s + the thing possessed) is used with animate nouns e. beautiful old Welsh farmer’s cottage: It is a beautiful old Welsh farmer’s cottage. an ice cube. a flash of lightning The Genitive case 1. a slice of bread. a bar of soap/chocolate.: long blue denim skirt: She is wearing a long blue denim skirt. a packet of biscuits/tea. writing Many uncountable nouns can be made countable in the following way: a piece of cake/information/baggage/ advice/furniture/work/ equipment. patience. a drop of water/oil. permission. an item of news. prepositional genitive . a game of football/chess. wealth. leisure. progress. a sheet of paper. news. Degrees of comparison Adjectives Positive Comparative Superlative 1-syllable adjs. scenery.g. rapid more rapid the most rapid 3 or more syllable adjs. cheap cheaper the cheapest adj. a tube of toothpaste. publicity.with of (the thing possessed + of + the possessor) is used with inanimate nouns e.: the legs of the chair THE ADJECTIVE Order Opinion / Size/ Age/ Style/ Colour/ Origin/ Material/ Purpose/ Noun e. travel.: Emily’s relations the child’s toys my partner’s office the company’s working capital -when the nouns are in the plural. wine.laughter. money. research.g. machinery. + -er/ -est heavy heavier the heaviest more/ the most + adj. luggage. transport. a metre of cloth.g. a cup of tea.: women’s bags children’s clothes 2. traffic. a pot of tea.g. luck. weather. work. a box chocolates.: our partners’ conditions b) irregular plurals: noun followed by ’s e. a bottle of wine/beer/whisky. a glass of water/beer/wine. a kilo of meat. a jar of jam. wavy brown hair: He is the one with the wavy brown hair. a loaf of bread. interesting more interesting expensive the most interesting 110 . the genitive is formed in the following way: a) regular plurals: noun followed by ’ e. trouble.

indoors. etc.). manner 2. adverbs of place: abroad. time e.omitted before nouns in the plural. Degrees of comparison Adverb type positive comparative superlative 1. early. .) . good better the best bad worse the worst little less the least many/ much more the most far farther/ further the farthest/ the old older/ elder furthest the oldest/ the eldest THE ADVERB Types .g. . uncountable or abstract nouns. . exceptions badly worse worst far farther/further farthest/furthest late later last little less least much more most well better best THE ARTICLE Definite form: the use: .g. 111 . etc. badly. Irregular adjs. adverbs of time: definite time (last Monday. –ly adverbs of manner easily more easily most easily 3.: Barbara read quietly in the library all afternoon.) .before a noun which is defined e. same form as adjective fast faster fastest 2. etc. place 3.g. indefinite time (recently. adverbs of degree: enough. etc. etc. fairly. unlikely. adverbs of manner: badly. some adverbs of frequency rarely more rarely most rarely 4. when we talk about them in general e. tomorrow).: Money doesn't grow on trees. indefinite frequency (always. adverbs of frequency: definite frequency (every day. etc. Order 1.: The management strategies have worked.

names of substances.g.: Creativity is essential in advertising.g.with singular countable nouns. THE PRONOUN Personal Subject pronouns come before the main verb: I.: We asked them a question. Do you agree? Object pronouns come after the main verb: me. they e. his/ hers/ (its). ours.: What is that? I would like one of those. itself. yours. he/ she/ it. that. you. John gave us the answer. e. Have you ever done business with an estate owner? Zero use: . I'm enjoying myself. Jill introduced herself to me. 112 . We use a reflexive pronoun if the object of the verb is the same as the subject. you. yourself.: I think it's cost-effective. theirs e. us. herself. Possessive pronouns .before: proper nouns.No apostrophe before s with possessive pronouns. we. These proposals are interesting Reflexive myself. names of countries/ cities/ streets/ buildings/ mountains/ continents. names of meals. ourselves. Compare: I'm enjoying the training. these.Indefinite form: a/an use: .g. abstract nouns. those e. I have an appointment with the MD on Tuesday. mine.: Is this document his or hers? Demonstrative this. themselves. colours e.: They decided to launch a profitable project as soon as possible. him/ her/ it. them e. Jill introduced me to her associate. when we don’t specify which one we talk about. himself. activities. yourselves. sports.g.g. days of the week.g.

nothing. I bought a computer which/ Here is the report Its lens is broken. bonus. refurbished his office He is the new employee There's the contractor last month. someone. none. everybody. whose lens/the lens of which is broken. That's Mr. Cardinal 0 zero 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 11 eleven 12 twelve 14 fourteen 20 twenty 40 forty 100 one hundred 1.000 one million 1. some e. things which/that which/that whose/of which /animals I bought a computer. which/that I found on the There's the camera top shelf. many. one. THE NUMERAL Types: cardinal and ordinal. anyone.: Somebody is here today.000. There's the camera. each.Indefinite are words that replace nouns without specifying which noun they replace. nobody. whose office was refurbished last month. I found it (formal) doesn't work properly. more. We met him yesterday. who/that was given a whom/who/that we met That's Mr. HeThere's the contractor. any. everyone. Brown. most. no one. somebody. few. several Singular or plural: all. He was given a bonus. yesterday.000. much. Singular: another. others. that doesn't work properly. little.000 one billion 113 . Is anybody on duty? Nobody is here today. Brown. other. something Plural: both. either.g.000. anything. neither. It Here's the report. Relative subject of the following object of the following possession (cannot verb (cannot be omitted) verb (can be omitted) be omitted) people who/that whom/who/that (informal) whose He is the new employee. on the top shelf. anybody.000 one thousand 1. everything.

: She works in a bank. Actions in progress/ temporary etc) actions e. shall/should. 14 and 40 ▬ 40 is the only one written without a –u after –o (see the spelling above) Ordinal 1st first 20th twentieth 2nd second 31st thirty-first 3rd third 52nd fifty-second 4th fourth 73rd seventy-third 5th fifth 89th eighty-ninth 11th eleventh 137th one hundred 12th twelfth thirty-seventh 13th thirteenth THE VERB Classification 1. ought to. write-wrote-written 2. forever. have to.) TENSES 1. do. Arranged future actions (timetables. According to the form: -regular verbs: e. can/could. make sure.) -notional verbs: (I write/ I am writing) function as predicates in the sentence -modal verbs: (e. fall asleep. 114 . prove useless. e.g.) TO BE (am/ are/ is) + Verb-ing Auxiliary: DO/ DOES Auxiliary: BE Habitual actions or permanent states Repeated actions with always. should.g.: The conference starts at 9 o’clock next Monday. voice.g. grow old. be in love. would) precede a notional verb to form the categories of tense.g. will/would. constantly (often to e. will.g. PRESENT CONTINUOUS Present Simple Present Continuous Verb (+ -s/ -es for 3rd pers. She is always making unintelligible signs! Nobody understands her. need etc. sg. work-worked -irregular verbs: e. aspect -linking verbs: + a nominal part (e. turn pale etc. must. PRESENT SIMPLE vs. The secretary writes the minutes of all meetings. shall.g.: He is describing a graph at the moment. get tired.g. may/might.: You're always leaving the phone in the kitchen. show annoyance) e. mood. According to the role played in the predication: -auxiliary verbs: (be. have.NOTE! 4.g. programmes. rest assured.

owe. doubt. have a good time. for the Mondays. time being. mind. Tom was taking notes. but then there's a change in meaning. (direct time e. belong. but: I think you are wrong.g. at the moment.g. PAST SIMPLE vs. please! I'm thinking. be. Be quiet. Laws of nature/scientific facts and instructions Fixed arrangements for the near future e. every day. still.: They are going on a receiver. but: Since you have his phone number. Time Expressions: now. before it was updated. often. on present.g. etc other: appear/seem. matter. etc. consider. tonight. loathe. PAST CONTINUOUS Past Simple Past Continuous Verb + – ed (regular verbs)/ 2nd form (irregular TO BE (was/ were) + Verb-ing verbs) Auxiliary: WAS/ WERE Auxiliary: DID Actions completed in the past when there is direct Past actions in progress/ at a or indirect time reference given point in time e.: While Jane was delivering the the office. in the morning. phone rang. forgive. you can call him. business trip to Spain tomorrow.g. consider and expect can have continuous forms when they refer to an activity. always. NOTE! State verbs describe a state and do not have continuous forms. We were having a good time at the party when we heard the news. possess/own etc • Verbs of the senses can have continuous forms. She phoned before the boss came. have (=possess).g. etc.: She was leaving when the sales representative. have fun. hate. believe. (= a prior arrangement) but: Do/Can you see those buildings? (ability to see) • The verbs think.: She was still working at eight reference) o'clock yesterday evening. 115 . love.g.: The lights go out and the workers get out the developments warehouse. regularly. smell. etc. nowadays. e. (= possess) 2.: He stood up. Time Expressions: usually. Dramatic narration Current trends and e. at never. I'm seeing my lawyer tomorrow. Past actions happening one after the other Simultaneous past actions e. (indirect time reference) I was developing an online database My old computer processed data at a low speed at this time last year. agree. then you speak into the e. taste thinking: think. These include verbs related to: senses: see.g. dislike. feel. presentation. like.g.: He called a meeting an hour ago. hear.g. Past habitual actions Past action in progress interrupted by another action e.: He travelled/used to travel a lot when he was a e. have a nap. (= I believe) • Have can have continuous forms in certain expressions such as: have a bath. normally. this month. picked up his briefcase and left e. sometimes.: First you dial the number. today. feel (=think) emotion & feeling: feel. wish. keep (=continue).g.: Oil prices are rising at present. expect. these days.

lately. recently. etc.: I was wondering if you could example. etc. already. just. focusing on continuing up to the present. maintaining an inflexible hierarchy.g. for. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE vs. (The calculator is on the table. 3. (We e. (He is still a driver. Managerial accountability had been a must in He had been offering counselling for two our company before the appointment of the years when he was dismissed. e.g. e.g. last night/ week/ year. How Time Expressions: while. when. night. new manager. Time Expressions: for. all morning/evening.: He has worked as a driver for four years. so far.g. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE vs.) HAD + BEEN + Verb-ing Auxiliary: HAD Auxiliary: HAD + (BEEN) Past action which happened before another A longer past action which continued up past action to another past action e. 116 . etc. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous TO HAVE (have/ has) + Past participle TO HAVE (have/has) + BEEN + Verb-ing (regular/ irregular vbs.g. mention the turnover of your company to me.g. since.: She has been calculating the expenses.: She had already typed all the letters e. how lately. as. ever. long.) computer? I've been to Berlin twice.. how long. recently. irritation or surprise e. ago. 4. when.g. ?.: She has just looked at the report. Indefinite past actions or experiences Action showing annoyance.In Conditionals Type II Polite inquiries e. day. Actions beginning in the past and An action beginning in the past and continuing up to the present.) Auxiliary: HAVE/ HAS + (BEEN) Auxiliary: HAVE/ HAS Recently completed actions Past actions producing visible results in the present e. Repeated actions still continuing e.) Time Expressions: since.: He has written three letters. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous HAD + Past participle (regular/ irregular vbs. Tom came home with their new associate.: She has been waiting for two hours but there's still no sign of him.: She had been reading all day long when before her boss arrived. still.g. etc..) They have just audited the state-owned Chinese companies have been enterprise.g.g.: She has seen this balance sheet. Time Expressions: yesterday. yet.: What have you been doing to my do not know when. then. focusing the result (time – not relevant) on the action especially with for or since e. long ago.g.: If you knew Henry Ford you would follow hise.

” e. for 117 .: I told him how much I had enjoyed past meeting him. WILL + HAVE/HAS + Past ing participle (regular/ irregular Auxiliary: WILL Auxiliary: BE + (GOING vbs. In Conditionals Type III e.: I know my assets until/till e. Intentions Actions in Actions finished before a offers. probation for one month. by. the future as a result of planned actions An action up to a certain especially with sth. think. Possible action seen in Previously Future Perfect Cont.g.: “Your actions in the approach is not present flexible enough..'s actions about sb. Continuous) continuity.g. hopes. until. but I had been refurbishing the outlet. WILL + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + Verb-ing Predictions.: By the end of July he the annual I’m going to read the tomorrow.g.g.g. certain time in the usually with before. for.In Indirect Speech and thoughts in the past Actions producing visible results in the e. I’ll for an interview next working in his for the job by now. just.g. examining all description? applications this time By the end of June. away. promises. Paris this time e. already. MEANS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME Future Simple Be going to Future Continuous Future Perfect Simple WILL + Verb BE + GOING TO + Verb WILL + BE + Verb. after.g. else (instead of time in the future.: She is going to sit e.g. never.. get you the job local newspaper.: Will you are valuable. improve it right month. couldn’t find it. by the time.: He will have applied “I see. I'm going e. 5.) TO) Auxiliary: WILL + Auxiliary: WILL + (BE) (HAVE/HAS) Future Perfect Cont. fears.: She was covered in dust because she I thought I had ordered a new catalogue. Time Expressions: for. progress at a certain future time. etc. e. usually with suppose. office now. how long.” Opinions. till/until. will have been in report? /Shall I job advertisements in the The board will be partnership for two months.g.: He will be e. he will Will you help next week.g. paid job in the oil industry? On the spot Planned actions Logical Logical assumptions decisions assumptions about sb. Time Expressions: before.: He would have saved the business from disaster if he had asked for the help of a troubleshooting company. future by then.'s e. have been working on me find a well. etc. requests. Present emphasising the expect. since. by the time. before. by. suggestions e.g.: I'll be flying to help me with to sell them tomorrow. since.

by tonight. this time tomorrow. the assistant). PASSIVE VOICE Tenses Active Voice Passive Voice Present Simple (am/are/is + e. Past Simple (was/were + e. Voice ACTIVE vs.: I’ll be seeing e. the assistant).: The assistant typed past participle) reports.g. advance.g.: The assistant has e. they make a fool of himself. happen Future Perfect in positive will happen sentences. Would you will have been using the like me to tell him new premises for two the news? years. fear. e. Time Expressions Time Expressions tomorrow.g. shortly.: I think he'll how to analyse the the President of pass the test.g.: Reports are typed (by the past participle) reports. The committee found cheap accommodation Cheap accommodation was found near the city centre. assistant). o'clock. near the city centre by the committee. will definitely by/before are used with whether sth. He's going to the company e. breakdown.g.g.: Perhaps e. now. etc.g.g.: By next Sunday.: The assistant was e.g. She won't have deposited any money until 6 o'clock.g.: Reports have been typed (by been + past participle) typed reports.: She will have cleared it'll rain have a nervous her bank account by 6 tomorrow. participle) e. the day after tomorrow.: He doesn't know e. by the end of July.g.g. until is used (prediction) in negative sentences e.: She's going to e. etc. When it is not When there is evidence Note certain that sth. in a now.: The assistant types e.g.: The assistant is e.g.: Reports are being typed (by (am/are/is + being + past typing reports. situation.g. 118 .: Reports were being typed (by Past Continuous (was/were typing reports. imagine. Present Continuous e. the assistant). They always book Charters are always booked in charters in advance. e.g. week/month/year.g. for two months. next week/month/year. tonight. until. soon. + being + past participle) Present Perfect (have/has + e.: Reports were typed (by the assistant). etc.

someone. (Someone destroyed the documents. etc. the assistant). NOTE! The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb.g. . reports./ We must have taken a wrong turning.: The assistant would e. Conditional (would + be + e. c) easily understood. Conditional Perfect (would + e. typed (by the assistant).: The assistant will e.: Resignations may have been been + past participle) resignations.g.: He must be the General Manager.g.g. The agent is omitted when it is a) a pronoun.: Reports would be typed (by past participle) type reports.g.defective (some of their forms are missing) .g.: The assistant had e. the assistant). MODAL VERBS Characteristics: . Future Simple (will + be + e.: The assistant ought e.: Reports ought to be typed (by past participle) to type reports.g.g. Present Infinitive (to be + e.g.g.g.followed by the infinitive in any of its forms e.: Several employees Past modals (modal + have may have handed in their e.the same form in all persons e.g.g.: Reports will have been typed been + past participle) have typed reports. (by the assistant). Modal verb Use Must • high probability e.: The assistant ought e.g. handed in by several employees.: The assistant e.g.g.: The assistant will e.g. • internal obligation 119 .g.: Susan might be given a new (modal + be + past participle) give Susan a new office. Future Perfect (will + have + e. Perfect Infinitive (to + have e. b) words like one.g./ May he come? .The documents were destroyed. . Gerund (being + past e.) Most transitive verbs can be used in the passive.: The assistant remembers Perfect Gerund (having + remembers her boss having been asked to type reports been + past participle) having asked her to type (by her boss).g.: The assistant hates being participle) people asking her to type asked to type reports (by her boss). I can swim.g. office.: The company might e.g.g.: Reports will be typed (by the past participle) type reports. Past Perfect (had + been + e.: The assistant would e.g. Present/ Future modals e.g.: Reports would have been have + been + past participle) have typed reports. assistant). reports.: Reports ought to have been + been + past participle) to have typed reports.g./ He can swim. typed (by the assistant).: The assistant hates e. people.the negative is formed by putting not after the modal and the interrogative by inverting subject and modal verb e. The subject of the active verb becomes the “agent” of the passive verb and is preceded by “by”. He must not do that. e. e.: Reports had been typed (by past participle) typed reports. You shouldn’t laugh at his mistakes. the assistant).

I must read the agenda first.
Have to • external obligation
e.g.: You have to attend the meeting!
Could • past ability
e.g.: He could read the accounts last year.
• probability/ possibility
e.g.: It could be him, but I’m not sure.
Should • advice
e.g.: You should help the blue-collar worker!
May • probability/ possibility
e.g.: He may arrive earlier than expected.
• permission
e.g.: You may sign the contract now.
Might • probability/ possibility
e.g.: She might help you, but I doubt it.
Can • ability
e.g.: He can easily make or break deals.
• request
e.g.: Can you hand me the ledger?




Present writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

e.g.: I consider moving to the town.
I considered moving to the town.
He denied having been there.

-it may have its own subject
e.g.: He resented my/me being promoted.
She insisted on the children doing the washing.


1. as a subject
e.g.: Learning a language is difficult.

2. as an object after the verbs: appreciate, admit, avoid, be busy, consider, deny, delay, detest, dislike,
enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, imagine, keep on, mention, mind, miss postpone, practise, recollect,
suggest, understand, risk, can’t help, can’t resist, can’t stand, it’s worth, want, need
e.g.: I tried to avoid meeting him.
I can no longer delay writing him.
She is busy preparing for the party.
I suggest going.
Do you mind my smoking?


3. Gerund or Infinitive?

a) propose = intend: I propose to go to London on Wednesday. (Infinitive)
= suggest: I propose resting for half an hour. (Gerund)

b) forget, remember, recollect, regret + Infinitive (= simultaneous actions)
e.g.: Did you remember/ didn’t you forget to post the letter?
forget, remember, recollect, regret + Gerund (= past actions)
e.g.: I remember posting the letter, but she says, she hasn’t received it.

c) stop + Infinitive
e.g.: I stopped to greet him. (stop in order to do sth./ with the purpose of doing sth.)
stop + Gerund
e.g.: He stopped talking. (= quit, finish)
He stopped me from listening to the radio. (prevent sb. from doing sth.)

d) go + Infinitive
e.g.: Let’s go to buy him a present.
go + Gerund
e.g.: Let’s go dancing/ shopping/ fishing/ hunting.

e) try + Infinitive: I tried to open the door. (attempt)
+ Gerund: Why didn’t you try using a screw-driver? (experiment)

4. Verbs + Prepositions: to succeed in, to apologize for, to complain of/ about, to thank for, to look
forward to, to be fed up with, to insist on, to intend on, to object to, to forget about, to worry about, to rely
on, to think of/ about, to depend on, to forgive for, to argue about, to approve of, to blame for, to care
about, to warn about, to boast of, to dream of, to threaten with, to spend on, to prevent from, to punish for,
to inform about, to count on, to feel like, to learn about, to aim at, to hesitate at, to fight / struggle against,
to retire from, to believe in, to consist of, to participate in, to decide on, to focus on, to concentrate on
e.g.: I’m looking forward to meeting him.
He succeeded in passing the exam.
She apologized for being late.

5. Adjectives + Prepositions
(to be angry, anxious, certain, enthusiastic, happy, optimistic, pleased, sure, worried + about)
(to be astonished, bad, clever, delighted, expert, good, surprised + at)
(to be responsible, sorry, suitable, useful + for)
(to be consistent, correct, experienced, fortunate, helpful, interested, late, quick, slow, successful + in)
(to be afraid, ashamed, aware, certain, convinced, fond, guilty, proud, tired + of)
(to be based, dependent, keen + on)
(to be accustomed, opposed + to)
(to be bored, content, disappointed, happy, satisfied, sick, upset + with)

6. Nouns + Prepositions
(to have doubts + about)
(to have cause, reason + for)
(to have belief, confidence, delight, difficulty, experience, faith, interest, luck, pride + in)
(to have habit, intention, hope, opportunity + of)
(to have contribution, objection, opposition + to)

7. Instead of, without, against, in spite of/ despite + Gerund
e.g.: He stayed at home instead of going for a holiday. / I am against spending so much money.



Present to write to be written
Present Continuous to be writing
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect Continuous to have been writing

e.g.: I am glad to see you. (Present)
He turned out to be sleeping. (Present Continuous)
I was glad to have met him. (Perfect)
He turned out to have been waiting for us for a long time. (Perfect Continuous)


1. As a subject:
e.g.: To learn languages is difficult.

2. After some adjectives: bad, difficult, easy, good, hard, possible, impossible, necessary, useless, nice,
clever, good, kind, wise, silly, stupid, selfish
e.g.: It is hard to understand him. (He is hard to understand.)
It was wise of her not to go there.

3. After some verbs: afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, begin, bother, care, claim, decide, demand,
determine, expect, fail, happen, hesitate, forget, hope, hate, intend, learn, like, love, manage, offer, mean,
need, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, regret, propose, prove, start, tend, seem, swear,
threaten, try, trouble, turn out, want, wish
e.g.: I happened to be in the shop when he came in.
He seems to have lost something.
The police hope to solve the crime soon.

4. Accusative + Infinitive: advise, allow, appoint, ask, beg, challenge, dare, command, direct, enable,
encourage, expect, force, help, implore, inspire, instruct, invite, lead, order, persuade, remind, request,
stimulate, teach, tell, trust, want, warn
e.g.: Why do you want me to be here?
He asked her not to cry.
I’d like you to help me.

! Accusative + short Infinitive

a) let, make, have
e.g.: Let me help you.
Don’t make me laugh!
Why don’t you have the tap mended?

b) verbs of perception (hear, see, notice)
e.g.: I see the clouds gather.

!!- to Infinitive in Passive Voice
e.g.: He was seen to go into the building.
We were made to work hard.

c) After the following verbs: say.: He seemed to be pleased with the results. prove. Nominative + Infinitive a) after intransitive verbs (seem. tell. b) after verbs of perception e. This glass is too dirty to drink from.5. 123 .g.: He loves parties. He is believed to have been promoted.: He is said to be clever. happen. Enough e. I’m not rich enough to buy a house. believe. 7.g. appear. Too. turn out) e.: They arranged for her to come.g.g.: He was seen to go into the building.g. 6.: It is too difficult for me to understand. he is the first to come and the last to leave. think e. 8. For + to Infinitive e. The first/ the second/ the last/ the only + to Infinitive e.g.

verb. question. sentences consist of one or more clauses. and object  the typical word order in an English sentence is as follows positive sentences: Subject Verb Indirect Direct Adverb of Adverb of Adverb of Object Object Place Time Manner The final form was signed in the yesterday. SYNTAX THE SENTENCE  group of words expressing a thought in the form of a statement. WORD ORDER  in English. usually containing a verb. instruction or exclamation. My colleague told me to solve the problem. questions: Interrogative Auxiliary Subject Other Indirect Direct Adverb Adverb of Adverb verb verb(s) Object Object of Place Time of Manner What did the offer to our travel company? agency Are you going a in front tomorrow? to start strike of the factory 124 . of the conference contract hall Our latest promotes a healthy in a advertisement way of life shocking way. types  simple  complex relationship between sentences  coordination  subordination THE CLAUSE  a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate. word order is very important  a sentence in English usually contains at least three elements: subject.

question. types  defining: provide essential information and the main clause does not make proper sense without it. when.: We should read the business plan extremely carefully before the bank offers them the loan. glad. Only applicants who have work experience will be shortlisted for the interview. before. sad. Time Clauses  show the moment when an action takes place. + the verb “to be” object of a preposition: after such expressions as: to be aware of.g. know.  can describe persons.  are introduced by relative pronouns such as: who whom when which whose why that where etc. think. to learn about.  introduced by such conjunctions as: after. problem. as. opinion. tell. rejected their offer. who had no idea about their plans. to be responsible for. subject complement: after such nouns as: concern. an action taking place before the action in the main clause: 125 . Relative Clauses  play the role of an adjective. etc. happy. wonder. etc. adjective complement: after such adjectives as: afraid.  non-defining: provide additional information about the subject and can be omitted. wish. always written between commas e.g. since. to listen to. until. learn. etc. mistake. to be concerned with. while  can show: an action taking place after the action in the main clause: e. remember. truth. no comma between the main clause and the relative clause e. etc. The vice-president.TYPES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Noun Clauses  in sentences noun-clauses perform the same functions that nouns do. say. things and events.  they can play the following roles: subject of a verb object of a verb: after such verbs as: imagine.g. desire.

Compare I will start writing the report when she comes.g. (when will I start? – time clause) I would like to know when he will come. NOTE Not all sentences introduced by when are time clauses! When can also introduce noun clauses.g.: After they had delivered the product improperly. I will tell him you phoned.: When the manager arrives.: Always ask for further information when something is not clear enough.g.  are introduced by: if. find a job. improbable If companies provided more unemployment would be condition jobs. He will inform us as soon as he has taken a decision. in which case a future form can be used after when.g.g. e. an action at a non-specific time: e. He will have taken a decision by the end of the week. 126 . unless.  never use a future form in a time clause! in time clauses future becomes present e.: You will send me the papers. any consumer complaints. provided.g. Combinations of types two and 3 may occur.e. second Past Simple would + Inf. they decided to offer us a discount due to the damages. (what would I like to know? – direct object clause) Conditional Clauses  show a condition. I will give you an answer when you send me the papers. but only if types Conditional Clause Main Clause first Present Simple Future Simple probable condition If the company applies an equal people of all races will opportunities policy. an action taking place at the same moment as the action in the main clause: e. depending on the meaning. future perfect becomes present perfect e. reduced. rd third Past Perfect would have + 3 form of impossible If the managers in the company the verb condition had attended courses on there wouldn’t have been communication.

Compare I will buy the house if he signs the contract.e. (what did he want to know? – direct object clause) SEQUENCE OF TENSES Reported Speech  reported or indirect speech refers to the situation in which we report what somebody said o requests and commands – reported with the infinitive o statements  the verb of the subordinate (object clause) remains in the same tense as it was in the direct speech when the main clause contains a verb in the present. if can also introduce noun clauses. (under what conditions will I buy the house? – conditional clause) The manager wanted to know if he will sign the contract.g. in which case the above rule no longer applies e. the following changes occur in the subordinate clause:  tenses (backshift): DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Present Simple Past Simple Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Simple Past Perfect Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Simple Future in the Past Future Continuous Future Continuous in the Past 127 . If I had worked on that project I would have been fired.  when the verb in the main clause is in the past tense. NOTE  no future form should be used in conditional clauses! However. Compare All the employees who worked on the project were fired.g. If I had worked on that project I would be unemployed now.

whereas in the same way while likewise nevertheless on the contrary on the other hand similarly still 128 .  modal verbs may might can could must had to / was. so that hence unless otherwise then therefore thus comparison but although by comparison and contrast clauses: yet as / than by contrast can show either a even though even so comparison or a though however concession. were to have to had to will would shall should  adverbs and pronouns here there now then today that day yesterday the day before / the previous day last week the week before / the previous week tomorrow the next day / the following day next week the next week / the following week this that these those o questions  the word order of the subordinate clause follows the word order of the declarative sentence. Clause Connectors  conjunctions  dependent words  transitional expressions Conjunctions Dependent Transitional words expressions cause and for as accordingly effect clauses: show the so because as a result cause of the action from if consequently the main clause or its since for this reason result.

examples and after conclusions for example for instance in conclusion in summary in fact in other words in particular of course specifically time clauses: show the and after also moment when the action as afterward from the main clause took before at the same time place. since besides until earlier when (+ever) eventually while finally first furthermore in addition later meanwhile moreover next now soon then too 129 .


htm. Longman. Irwin. It rests with students to look up these vocabulary items for meanings.oup. students are expected to devote ample time to reinforcing vocabulary (home assignments). V.org/elt/dictionaries/cald. Lesikar.com/elt/catalogue/isbn/0-19-431243-7?cc=global. HOW CAN THEY BE USED? Each list comprises expressions related to a specific function.ldoceonline. 2005/later Longman Business English Dictionary. Mastery of the functions listed here presupposes constant practice and self-study for success. along with related elements (collocations and other expressions). the Faculty of Business. Students majoring in business/economics-related fields are officially expected to master the usage of the items to be found on these lists. 1 RECOMMENDED SOURCES Brieger. based on the guidance provided. Macmillan. the Faculty of European Studies and International Relations and the Faculty of Political Science and Public Administration). http://www. Further guidance will be available in class. 2007/later Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English. http://www.com/. identified by a heading. USA: Richard D.cambridge. other/more words and phrases may be used in customized course books and tests – assigned course leaders will provide further information in this respect. Jr. D.macmillandictionaries. The expressions are accompanied by essential grammatical information and relevant examples. Romania (the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.oup.com/home.cambridge. other examples and collocations (see RECOMMENDED SOURCES below). http://www. Sweeney. Basic Business Communication.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/?cc=global. 131 . R. Cambridge University Press. from the assigned course leaders. (1994/later). Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2nd edition). Oxford University Press. Nick. J. Free-access online dictionaries: http://dictionary. 2002/later DISCLAIMER Students should note that the listed items do not necessarily cover the topics in an exhaustive manner. with the help of the sources recommended (see below). (1993).BUSINESS COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS c WHAT ARE THEY? The BUSINESS COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS are lists of expressions covering the business English topics studied by 1st and 2nd year undergraduate students majoring in a business/economics-related field at the Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca.. While all topics will be introduced in class. Simon.pearson.aspx.org/. http://www. http://www.. 2007/later Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners (2nd edition).htm. 1 Websites with more information on the sources indicated: http://www. Grammar and Functions. These functions will be customized by course leaders in syllabus/course formats and also test formats. Pettit. New York: Prentice Hall. The Language of Business English. E. 6th Edition.ch/LanguageTeaching/Dictionaries/Dictionaries-British/1449/9780582306066/New-Edition-Longman-Business- English. M. Flatley. He likes visiting his clients daily. ASKING FOR AND GIVING OPINIONS 2. Tactfully 132 .1.2.1. Neutrally Do you think this proposal is formal enough? Do you believe that we are the best on the market? Do you consider that they are not important rivals? Am I right in thinking that we should raise salaries? 2.1.nikkeibp. Prefer I prefer small banks to large banks when taking a loan. She prefers me to do prepare the minutes right after each meeting. 1.jp/english/NEWS_EN/20060623/118480/) 1. I prefer to have our meeting in the afternoon. FORMS AND USES 2. LIKES AND PREFERENCES They prefer investing in shares. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “I would rather make a bet than just sit and watch. I would rather you waited until later. They would like to have less frequent business trips.2. ASKING FOR OPINIONS 2. 1. I like to do things by the book. Like They like the new managing director.2.2.sanlam-cobalt.1.co. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “Are you absolutely positive that you are deducting the correct amount of tax from your employees’ salaries?” (http://www. 1.4. FORMS & USES: 1. http://techon. She likes me to keep to my agenda. Would like I would like a better computer. I would like all the files ready for tomorrow.2. Would rather I would rather not bring this up in the meeting.1. Strongly Are you absolutely positive/ convinced/ sure that you can manage on your own? Do you honestly/ really think that this is the best option? Do you honestly/ really believe that he is the best for the job? 2.jsp) 2.za/needs.1.” (Bill Gates.3.2.

but I would require a new computer. Partial agreement *with someone I would agree with you.” (http://hubpages. but the statistics are irrelevant. Then train the leaders. As I see it he will leave before the end of the year.2. To my mind we should revamp our products as soon as possible. Agreement * with someone I totally agree with you.2. You may have something there. I would accept that. I really do think that this is an excellent opportunity for you. Weakly I am inclined to think that you would be better off in the creative department. I tend to think that we are losing market share.1. It is my strong belief that you should not give up. 3. but shouldn’t you consider other alternatives as well? *to something To a certain extent/ Up to a point I think the teambuilding was a success. If you want a profitable home based business you have to find leaders. 133 . As far as I am concerned you should have chosen another bank. *to something I totally accept that I have to do his job too. I am convinced/ positive/ sure that we can find a replacement.2. 2.2. From my point of view he is not cut out for this job. FORMS AND USES: 3.2. I think/ believe/ consider/ feel that our prices are exaggeratedly high. I am in total agreement with you.2. That may be true.1.Would I be right in thinking/ assuming that you were unprepared for the meeting? Am I to understand that you would like to leave? 2. I can see what you mean. 3. Strongly I definitely/ certainly/ think that he is not a good manager. but how will you manage financially? You may be right. I strongly believe that this is the best job I have ever had. To a certain extent/ Up to a point we could trust him. AGREEING AND DISAGREEING 3.2. but I’m not sure they will believe you.com/forum/topic/2460#post42053) 3.2. I have absolutely no doubt that you will manage in your new position.2. Neutrally In my view/ opinion we should reconsider our marketing strategy. I really feel that I shouldn’t have gone to that interview. I completely/ fully agree.2.2. GIVING OPINIONS 2. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “I totally agree with you.2.1. 2.2. but their prices are higher.3.

*because/ as/ since/ for I could not attend the meeting because I was busy with clients.2.1. CAUSE AND EFFECT 4.2. *to account for Insufficient incentives account for a low level of job satisfaction in this organization.customersandcapital. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “Germany's finance minister has admitted for the first time that the introduction of euro notes and coins almost five months ago has led to significant price rises across the country and left consumers feeling they are carrying the burden of the transition to the new currency.1. I fully/ completely agree to the terms of the contract. *to result in His lack of motivation resulted in his being fired.uk/business/2002/may/13/theeuro. Disagreement *with someone I can’t/ don’t agree with you. *due to/ because of/ owing to/ as a consequence of/ on account of + noun phrase Due to the recent merger between our rivals.europeanunion) 4. *to something I can’t/ don’t accept that. Therefore.1. we are in danger of becoming uncompetitive. FORMS AND USES: 5.1. I am all in favor of the strategy.1. Directly 134 .” (http://www. *to bring about The sharp drop in interest rates brought about changes in people’s lifestyles.co. *therefore/ so/ accordingly/ consequently/ as a consequence/ as a result/ hence/ thus/ because of this/ that is the reason why A lot of students graduated this year. 5. *to give rise to The more frequent trainings gave rise to an increased level of satisfaction among employees. REQUESTING INFORMATION AND ACTION 5. there are fewer job opportunities.2.3. *to arise from Uncertainty arises from improper communication among staff.guardian. Requesting information 5. FORMS AND USES: *to lead to The sudden rise in prices has led to decreased purchases. 4.2. 3. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “Do you happen to know how the ratio of market value to sales revenue has changed over the years?” (http://www. *to stem from Increased demand in our product stems from our competitive prices.2. *to be responsible for Fewer opportunities to travel are responsible for insufficient networking with other companies. I beg to differ.com/book/kentons_interview/) 5.

*compel: The new market reality has compelled us to think of environmentally friendly practices. Do you think you could lend me your laptop? Would you mind sending me that report today? 6. I'm looking for information on this flight.guardian.1. Requesting action 5.mondaymediasection) 6.2. SAMPLE SENTENCE: "If capitalism is to be given a good name. Indirectly Could you please send me an e-mail with the details of the contract? I wonder if you could photocopy this file for me.1. *demand: He demanded that we quit smoking during lunch breaks. *force: They have forced us to comply with new regulations. 5. then essentially capitalists need to give back to society. Could you tell me where to look for him? Do you know when the meeting starts? I'd like to know how much this book costs. Directly Please send me the report before noon.2. OBLIGATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS Could you find out when she will be back? I'm interested in buying this house. http://www." (Richard Branson.2. Indirectly Do you happen to know what the interest rate is? I wonder if you know how to reach her.2.2. Oblige someone not to do something *prohibit: 135 . 6.2. *make: These changes have made us realize the managerial approach was indeed working. Could you fill me in a bit on the latest news? Can you put me in the picture about the new colleagues? 5.uk/media/2006/apr/28/citynews. FORMS & USES: THE OBLIGER 6. Does your company offer stimulating incentives to its employees? 5.1. *oblige: The team leader has obliged us to adopt the new dress code. I wonder if you could tell me how to order this product.2.1.2. Oblige someone to do something *require: These attitudes require us to re-evaluate our mission.

7. *have to I have to prepare a presentation for tomorrow’s meeting.shareguide.1. Not obliged to do something *need not/needn’t You needn’t agree with all company policies. ABILITY AND INABILITY 7.4.2.” (http://www.3. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “If you can shape your business life or your working life.html) 7. Obliged not to do something *must not/ mustn’t These rules must not be broken or termination of employment follows short.com/Roddick. *not be allowed to The company is not allowed to apply for bank loans. *cannot/ can’t The manager cannot dismiss employees without a formal notice. 136 .2. *need to They need to speak to the manager about the issue at hand. *may not Accountants may not cook the numbers. THE OBLIGED 6. Obliged to do something *must I must write a lot of reports daily. FORMS AND USES 7. *be forced to Tania was forced to bring the discussion to an end. *not be permitted to/be prohibited from The employees are not permitted to make personal phone calls while at work.1. * ban They have banned them from attending future fairs. 6. 6. The law prohibits employers from discriminating against the elderly. MAKING SOMEONE ABLE OR SOMETHING POSSIBLE The training courses enable employees to improve their skills. *forbid: The code of ethics forbids us from accepting gifts from clients. *be required to She is required to interact with potential buyers.2.5. *be supposed to The team is supposed to meet a tight deadline.2.2. you can just look at it as another extension--you just fulfill all your values as a human being in the work place. *not have to/not need to Managers don’t have to have a solid economic background.

Unfortunately.iht. Reported suggestion The manager advised us to make better use of our time.2. great success is hard to come by. We are able to use any consultancy business on the market.” (http://www. They cannot predict market changes with enough precision. 8. Employees can be promoted fast in our company. *I would advise you to/ I would recommend I would advise you to use a better bank. Our competition is unable to attract more target customers.com/articles/2006/10/04/news/defense. Without passion. William recommended that we should all get familiar with new company directives. sharing members and pursuing similar goals. the two organizations are engaged in a bitter competition that is bound to damage the credibility and effectiveness of both.3. 8.co. ADVISING AND SUGGESTING 8. *I suggest we should/we should/ we ought to We should try to target the right age group in our ads. SCALE OF LIKELIHOOD 9.php) 137 .2.1.2. Andrew is capable of working overtime when requested.guardian. 8. *it is advisable It is advisable for you to thoroughly research the market.2. Suggestions to another person *why don’t you Why don’t you confront him tomorrow? *how about How about bringing him along on the trip? *I suggest you should/I think you should I think you should follow company rules. Robert is incapable of working in a team effectively. Our superiors prohibit us from engaging in informal talks at the workplace. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “The European Union and NATO have much in common. Suggestions involving the speaker *shall we Shall we get into it right now? *why don’t we Why don’t we all calm down a bit? *let’s Let’s recap what we have decided on so far.1. She suggested that we (should) learn a foreign language. FORMS AND USES: 8.1.uk/business/2002/may/13/theeuro.2. 9. The bank permits us to request account assistance.europeanunion) 8. But instead of cooperating on defense. The pessimistic sales report has prevented us from achieving our targets.These regulations allow us to react effectively in a crisis. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “As a young entrepreneur you ought to love what you do.” (http://www. analysts say.

2.2. New employees are unlikely to be recruited. 10. Employees are certain/ sure/ bound to react vehemently to this downsizing wave. Profit definitely/ certainly won’t go up. 9. I have a point to make here. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “May I introduce myself? I am Mary Jones from the HR department. Impossibility I am sure/ certain/ positive that turnover will not increase shortly. Black will step down as president. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “Can I interrupt you for a moment? This meeting is about something another issue. Probability It is (very) likely/ probable that employee turnover will decrease. Hot-desking should become a viable option. FORMS AND USES 138 . Work-related practices cannot (possibly) change overnight. Improbability It is (very/ highly) unlikely/ improbable that Mr.2.1.” 11. INTRODUCING ONESELF AND GIVING PERSONAL INFORMATION 11.2. May I say something here? Can I interrupt you for a moment? Sorry to interrupt but… Excuse me but… Wait a minute! Hold on! Informal Hang on! 11. Our salaries will definitely/ certainly go hand in hand with the amount of work we do around here.” 10.2. Certainty I am absolutely sure/certain/positive that our department will have the best performances this year.2. 9. FORMS AND USES Formal I’d like to add something here if I may. Sales are (quite) likely to pick up. Possibility Our mission statement may/ might be changed to reflect the revolutionary management style.2.2. INTERRUPTING 10.5. FORMS AND USES: 9.1. 9.9.4.

Formal Allow me to/ I’d like to introduce myself. 139 . FORMS AND USES Formal I’d like to complain/ make a complaint about … I have got a complaint to make about… I am not prepared to tolerate/ put up with … any longer.1. SAMPLE SENTENCE: “I would like to make a complaint about your recruitment policy. How do you do? Hello! Informal Hi! 12. I am fed up with them behaving like that. MAKING COMPLAINTS 12. Informal It is about time you did that. I am …/ I am from …/ I work in … May I introduce myself? I am …/ I am from …/ I work in … How do you do? I am …/ I am from …/ I work in … Informal Hello!/ Hi! I am …/ I am from …/ I work in … Responses Formal Pleased to meet you.” 12.2. I am rather annoyed/ upset/ disturbed about… I have had enough of you doing that.