Chapter 4

Sensation and Perception

Chapter 4 Preview
Perceptual Knowledge of the World

The Visual System

Hearing

Your Other Senses

Chapter 4 Preview

Organizational Processes in Perception

Identification and Recognition Processes

Recapping Main Points

What Is Perception?

• Processes that
organize information
in sensory image and
interpret it as
Perception produced by
properties of objects
or events in external,
three-dimensional
world

What Is Perception? Sensation Perception Perceptual process organization Identification and recognition .

What is Sensation? • Process by which stimulation of sensory receptor gives rise to neural Sensation impulses that result in experience. conditions inside or outside body . or awareness of.

What Is Perception? • Processes that put sensory information Perceptual together to give Organization perception of coherent scene over whole visual field .

What Is Perception? • Processes of assigning meaning Identification to percepts and recognition • Involves higher level cognitive processes .

Sensory Knowledge of World Proximity and Distal Stimulus Distal Stimulus • Physical object in Proximal Stimulus world • Optical image on retina .

Interpreting Retinal Images .

Sensation. Perceptual Organization. and Identification Recognition Stages .

Sensory Knowledge of the World • Study of correspondence between physical Psychophysics stimulation and psychological experience .

Sensory Knowledge of the World • Minimum amount of physical energy Absolute needed to produce Threshold reliable sensory experience • Graph that shows Psychometric percentage of function detections at each stimulus intensity .

Calculation of Absolute Thresholds .

Psychophysics • Receptor cells lose Sensory power to respond after Adaptation period of unchanged stimulation Response • Systematic tendency to Bias respond in certain way .

Psychophysics • Allows experimenter to identify and separate roles of Signal Detection sensory stimuli and Theory (SDT) individual’s criterion level in producing final response .

Theory of Signal Detection .

Psychophysics Just Difference Noticeable Weber’s Law Threshold Difference (JND) Smallest physical Size of difference difference Smallest threshold is between two difference proportional to stimuli that can between two intensity of still be recognized sensations standard stimulus as a difference .

Physical Events to Mental Events • Detect environmental Sensory stimuli • Transduce physical Receptors form of sensory signal into cellular signals • Transformation of one form of Transduction energy into another .

The Visual System Pupil and Lens: Process by which ciliary Accommodation muscles change thickness of lens of eye Occurs when range of Nearsightedness accommodation is shifted closer Occurs when range of Farsightedness accommodation is shifted further away .

Structure of Human Eye .

The Visual System Pupil Opening at front of eye through which light passes Lens Flexible tissue that focuses light on retina .

Nearsightedness and Farsightedness .

The Visual System Rods: Dim Illumination and Photoreceptors Photoreceptors Cones: Color Vision Retina Small region of densely Fovea packed cones at center of retina .

Retinal Pathways Ganglion Cells • Integrates impulses Bipolar cells from one or more bipolar cell into • Nerve cells that single firing rate combine impulses from many receptors to send to ganglion cells .

Retinal Pathways Amacrine cells • Link bipolar cells to Horizontal cells other bipolar cells and ganglion cells • Connect receptors to other ganglion to one another cells .

Retinal Pathways .

Find Your Blind Spot! .

Processes in Brain Portion of occipital lobe Axons of Visual that Optic ganglion cells processes from optic Cortex Nerve nerve • visual information .

Pathways in Human Visual System .

Visual Pathways to the Cortex .

Cell Receptive Field Visual field site to which neuron in visual system responds Receptive Field Cell David Hubel and Torsten Wisel .

Receptive Fields of Ganglion and Cortical Cells .

including light • Qualitative experience of color of light Hue • Corresponds to physical dimension of light’s wavelengths .Seeing Color • Physical property that distinguishes types of Wavelength electromagnetic energy.

Electromagnetic Spectrum .

Seeing Color • Psychological dimension that Saturation captures purity and vividness of color • Refers to intensity Brightness of light .

Color Circle

Seeing Color

• Wavelengths
that appear
directly
Complementary
Colors
across from
each other
on color
circle

Theories of Color Vision
All other colors are
additive or
Three types of color
subtractive
receptors: red,
combinations of
green, and blue
these three
receptors

Young-
Helmholtz
Trichromatic
Theory

Theories of Color Vision
Each system includes
two opponent elements
All color experiences • Red versus green
• Blue versus yellow
arise from three systems
• Black (no color) versus white
(all colors)

Opponent-
Process
Theory

The Physics of Sound Frequency • Measures physical property of strength of • Measures number of sound wave cycles wave completes in given time • Sound frequency is measured in hertz Sound is Amplitude vibrational energy .

Physics of Sound An Idealized Sine Wave .

Dimensions of Sound • Highness or Loudness • Complexity of lowness of sound • Amplitude of sound wave • Measured in sound wave Hertz (Hz) • Measured in decibels (dB) Pitch Timbre .

Hearing: The Auditory System Pinna (external ear) Auditory Tympanic Cortex membrane Auditory System Auditory Middle Ear Nerve Cochlea .

Structure of Human Ear .

Theories of Pitch Perception Different frequency tones produce Initially proposed by activation at Hermann von different locations Helmholtz along basilar membrane Place Theory .

Theories of Pitch Perception Tone produces rate of vibration in basilar Volley principle membrane equal to its frequency Frequency Theory .

Time Disparity and Sound Localization .

danger. and food sources . Smell chemical substances used Pheromones within given species to signal sexual receptivity. territorial boundaries.

Receptors for Smell .

Taste Gustation Technical term for sense of taste .

Receptors forTaste .

each other warmth. and cold Vestibular Sense • How one’s body is oriented in world with respect to gravity . Your Other Senses Kinesthetic Sense Cutaneous Senses • Bodily position and • Touch and skin movement of body senses parts relative to • Includes pressure.

Pain Cells in spinal cord act as neurological gates. interrupting and blocking Gate-control Theory some pain signals and allowing others to get through to brain Pain Incorporates reality that Neuromatrix Theory people experience pain without physical cause .

Psychology in Your Life • Does a painful break-up REALLY hurt? • What did the fMRI scans reveal about the study on page 103? • Can your heart really ache after the break-up of a meaningful relationship? .

Organizational Processes in Attention • State of focused awareness on a subset of Attention available perceptual information .

Processes That Select Attention .

Organizational Processes in Perception • Goal-directed selection • Reflects choices made as function of Selective personal goals • Stimulus-driven capture Attention • Reflects choices made as function of features of stimuli in environment .

Attentional Processes • Dichotic listening • Procedure in which subject hears two Fate of different taped messages at same time Unattended • Shadowing • Subject is instructed to Information repeat only one of two messages while ignoring other message • Cocktail party effect .

Principles of Perceptual Grouping Figure Ground • Object-like • Backdrop or regions of background visual field areas of that are visual field. distinguished against which from figures stand background out .

Figure and Ground .

Principles of Perceptual Grouping Psychological phenomena can be understood Gestalt only when viewed as organized. not when taken down into primitive perceptual elements . Psychology structured wholes.

Principles of Perceptual Grouping Law of Proximity Law of Law of Common Fate Similarity Law of Law of Good Closure Continuation .

Motion Perception The Phi Phenomenon Movement illusion in which one or more stationary lights going on and off in succession are perceived as single light .

Depth Perception Binocular Cues Retinal disparity Convergence Relative Motion Parallax .

Retinal Disparity .

Depth Perception Monocular Cues Pictorial Cues Interposition Relative size Linear perspective Texture gradients .

Convergent Cues to Depth .

Perceptual Constancies Size and Shape Constancy • Ability to perceive true size of object despite variations in size or shape of retinal image • The Ames Room .

grayness.Perceptual Constancies Lightness Constancy Tendency to perceive whiteness. or blackness of objects as constant across levels of illumination .

Perceptual Constancies experience of stimulus pattern in manner that is Illusions demonstrably incorrect but shared by others in same perceptual environment .

Four Illusions to Tease Your Brain .

Critical Thinking in Your Life • Are drivers distracted when they use their cell phones (or text)? • Did the study on page 113 convince you that people should be disallowed from using cells phones while driving? Why? Why not? .

Identification and Recognition Processes Top-down Processing • Individual factors influence way perceived object is interpreted and classified Bottom-up Processing • Perceptual analyses based on sensory data .

Influence of Contexts and Expectations Temporary readiness Set to perceive stimulus in given way .

Influence of Context and Expectations Property of perceptual object Ambiguity that may have more than one interpretation .

Perceptual Ambiguities .

Influence of Context and Expectations Motor Set Types of Mental Set Sets Perceptual Set .

TURKEY. D?CK – BOB. D?CK . SNAKE. Influence of Context and Expectations • Perceptual Set – FOX. DAVE. RAY. BILL. SWAN. HENRY. OWL.

Organizing. and Recognizing • Proximal and distal stimuli • Reality ambiguity and illusions Sensory Knowledge of World • Psychophysics • Physical events to mental events .Recapping Chapter 4 Main Points Sensing. Identifying.

Recapping Chapter 4 Main Points Visual System • Eye • Pupil and lens • Retina • Brain processes • Color vision .

Recapping Chapter 4 Main Points Hearing •Physics of Sound •Psychology of Sound •Physiology of Hearing .

Recapping Chapter 4 Main Points Other Senses • Smell • Taste • Touch and skin senses • Vestibular and kinesthetic senses • Pain .

Recapping Chapter 4 Main Points Organizational Processes in Perception Attentional Processes Perceptual Grouping Spatial and Temporal Integration .

Recapping Chapter 4 Main Points Motion Perception Depth Perception Perceptual Constancies Identification and Recognition Processes .