CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A locker is a small, usually narrow storage

compartment. They are commonly found in dedicated cabinets,

very often in large numbers, in various public places such

as locker rooms, workplaces, middle and highs schools,

transport hub and the like. They vary in size, purpose,

construction, and security. They are usually equipped with

a lock or at least a facility for padlocking. It is intended

for use in public places, and intended for the short- or

long-term private use of individuals for storing clothing or

other personal items. Users may rent a locker for a single

use or for a period of time for repeated use.

Lockers are usually physically joined together side by

side in banks, and are commonly made from steel, although

wood, laminate, and plastic are other materials sometimes

found. Steel lockers which are banked together share side

walls, and are constructed by starting with a complete

locker; further lockers may then be adding by constructing

the floor, roof, rear wall, door, and just one extra side

wall, the existing side wall of the previous locker serving

as the other side wall of the new one. The walls, floors,

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and roof of lockers may be either riveted together or, more

recently, welded together. Lockers were initially invented

to serve the purpose of protecting valuables from fire,

theft, insects and destructive chemicals. They are usually

made of fireproof and durable materials like steel coated

with powder to prevent corrosion. Through the years, they

evolved together with the technology available to men.

Common lockers were initially made of a steel body with

padlock and key. Locker doors usually have some kind of

ventilation to provide for the flow of air to aid in

cleanliness. These vents usually take the form of a series

of horizontal angled slats at the top and bottom of the

door, although sometimes parallel rows of small square or

rectangular holes are found instead, running up and down the

door. Less often, the side or rear walls may also have

similar ventilation.

Padlocks are small and portable locks that have been

used for several thousand years to defend against theft,

unauthorized entrance, vandalism and sabotage. They first

appeared in Ancient Egypt and Babylon, and slowly started to

spread across ancient civilizations such as China, Greece

and Rome. Today, padlocks are created in industrial

facilities that create padlocks of numerous sizes, types and

security ratings.

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1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Students leaving their lockers unlocked, leaving their

padlock keys and vulnerable padlocks are the common causes

of locker prank and theft in the University. These incidents

defeat the lockers purpose to keep safe of the stored

possessions and decrease the reliability of lockers.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

General Objective:

The main objective of the study is to design a reliable

locker system with IR feedback that will enable users to

access the locker with the aid of barcode and to be notified

through GSM technology.

Specific Objectives:

1. To design a locker system that only allows registered

users to access a specific locker by using barcode and

PIN code.
2. To be able to let the users set a unique numeric code

which serves as their password to access the locker.
3. To trigger an alarm mechanism when entering a wrong PIN

code for 3 consecutive attempts.
4. To notify the users when:
a. The locker was left open,
b. The numeric code was updated,

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c. The PIN code will be changed or will retain,
d. The validity of the locker rental is about to expire.
5. To develop a locker system that automatically locks

when the locker is properly closed.
6. To provide an LED indicator for locked or unlocked

locker.
7. To have a database of the locker system connected

between server at the Discipline Office and the locker.
8. To let the users and the system communicate through GSM

Technology.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The success of this study will provide a reliable

locker system that will lessen the rate of locker prank and

theft in the University. This will secure and serve the

purpose of protecting the valuables of the user and develop

trust for the system to be reliable at all times. Upgrading

the level of security features of the locker system with the

available technology today;

 Requiring 2 identification input (Barcode and PIN

code), increases the security level of the locker,
 GSM technology will be a tool to warn users of the

lockers left open,
 IR feedback will determine if the locker is properly

closed so the locker can be automatically locked.

This study would be beneficial to the following:

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USLS Locker Users. The success of this project will assure

the safety of the user’s belongings since the system will

require the registered barcode to be scanned, will allow the

users to create their own unique password, will notify them

when the locker was left open, confirmation when the numeric

code was successfully updated and be informed when their

rental is about to expire.

Discipline Office. Being the office in charge of the locker

rental system, it would be convenient for them to monitor

and remind the users of their due dates and at the same time

to increase the security and reliability of the locker.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study focuses on the barcode, IR and GSM

technology as an instrument to obtain a reliable locker

system.
 The system basically uses barcode technology with safety

pin configuration to unlock the mechanism.
 This is made up of Barcode Scanner, Numeric Keypad, GSM

modem, IR sensor, Servo motor, Raspberry pi, LED

indicators and a customized lock for this locker system.

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 When a user scans an incorrect barcode the system will

consider it as unregistered user and will not allow an

access to the locker.
 When a user entered an incorrect PIN for three consecutive

attempts the alarm mechanism of the system will be

triggered.
 The system sends a notification to the user if the locker

was left open for 5 minutes.
 For the validity of locker rental, an SMS notification

will remind the users of their subscription expiration.

This type of lockers will be reliable in providing

security, but there is a drawback that:
 Any person can open the lockers by giving the correct user

id and password, as the system will not know whether it is

the right person or not.
 The system relies on an electrical source so it cannot

operate during brownouts, but a UPS can be installed to

serve as a back-up power supply.
 The functionality of GSM modem depends on the network

signal. There will be low network signal during downtimes

thus affects the reliability of the system.
 The transmitter (mobile phone) and GSM modem must have a

sufficient balance in order to establish exchange of SMS.
 In times of unexpected incidents, the system need to use a

manual key which can serve as an alternative if the system

is down.

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1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Barcode - A graphical representation being used in this

study to identify information, formed by a two-dimensional

pattern of black and white shapes. It is also used to

transfer information such as the name of locker users and

the specific locker rented.

Downtime -The period of time when the locker system is not

in operation as a result of some malfunction, non-

availability of inputs such as the network connection and

power.

GSM modem – Global System for Mobile Communications used to

establish communication between the system and the users

through SMS.

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IR Sensor – an infrared sensor that emits and detects

infrared radiation which is used to detect the presence of

the locker door and transmit the information to the

microcontroller.

MySQL – the language used to program the database which

contains the information needed for the operation of the

system.

Python – the language used to build the desired operation of

the Raspberry Pi.

Raspberry Pi – a mini computer used to control the over-all

operation of the locker system.

Reliability – the extent of dependability provided by the

locker system to the users. The characteristic of the system

operating under specified conditions to perform

satisfactorily for a given period of time.

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Servomotor – the type of motor which controls the position

of the door lock.

UPS - is an electrical apparatus that is used to provide

emergency power to the system when the input power source

fails.

Visual Basic.NET – programming language used in designing

the desktop application for the server.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter will describe foreign and local studies

related to reliable locker system with IR feedback using

barcode and GSM technology.

In addition, this chapter will discuss similarities and

differences between the proposed study and other conducted

studies related to it.

2.1 Foreign Studies

In a study entitled locker system using barcoded

wristbands conducted by Keith Louis Amdahl and Kong MengVang

of Smart Carte Incorporated, the locker system used includes

one or more banks of electronic lockers. Each locker has a

door lock that releasable retains the door in the closed

position. The locker system also includes one barcode

scanner selectively unlocks the door of at least one of the

lockers. A locker manager is coupled to each of the

electronic lockers via an electronic network. The locker

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manager stores a list of unique barcodes that are each

associated with a locker rental plan including at least one

locker account. The unique barcodes are printed or otherwise

included on wristbands, which may be scanned at the barcode

scanner to gain access to one or more of the lockers. This

is similar to the proposed project since it also use barcode

to gain access to the locker but the said locker system only

provide a single barcode scanner that could cause traffic if

many locker users simultaneously want to access their

lockers. Another advantage of the proposed locker system is

the notification feature and its higher security level

because of an additional PIN code required to gain access to

the locker.

Another research presented by Ramesh

Gavva/KasarlaShanthan, entitled Locker Security System in

Advanced Banking Latest Project provides effective security

measures for the users. Here the user can open their

respective lockers by the specified user id and password.

The equipment of this system consists of barcode reader for

identification of ID cards and host computer is installed

which monitors the entire system. The host computer is fed

with the database of the users, so that when users enter

their id’s it checks the details and allot the respective

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locker. The application software checks the entered details

and verifies them and allows the use to access the locker.

This particular project is very much similar to the proposed

locker system. It also uses barcode and password to access

the locker and therefore could be a reference for the

implementation of the project but the desired locker system

utilizes GSM technology to further improve the reliability

of the system.

Finger print recognition based digital locker security

systemis a project presented by Ramesh

Gavva/KasarlaShanthanto provide a security lock system based

on fingerprint scanning. In this project, microcontroller

was used for opening and closing lock based on finger print

which is stored in microcontroller itself so that only

authorized person will access the security lock. Finger

print locking system is used which can provide high security

compare to regular methods. In this system finger prints of

user are compared with the finger prints in the database and

if they are matched, lock is opened else it will raise

alarm. This project may sound much reliable for a locker

system but obviously impractical considering that the locker

concerned is for rental purpose and biometric identification

system is far more expensive than the proposed system.

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Another point to consider is its technical vulnerability

that makes the information easy to copy and can undermine

privacy by making identity theft more likely.

2.2 Local Studies

A local study entitled Electronic Locker System by

Bonifacio, Cale, et. al. of the College of Engineering,

Tarlac State University, designed an Electronics Locker

System functionally comprises of a hardware and a software

in its assembly. The former is the construction of locker

units that operates electronically through the integration

of electronic devices such as barcode reader and magnetic

actuators that innovates the key – operated lockers into a

much modern time. In addition, a software system is

precisely analyzed and designed to come up with effective

system for the operators as well as the users which is

installed in control of a host computer.It consolidates a

computerized system wherein the provider or operator manages

a database containing a profile and all other necessary

information about the user and customer. This design project

is also to eliminate the use of key locks and number locks

in the existing lockers and replace them with an electronic

type locks for ease of use and security reasons.

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Another local study conducted by De Jesus, K.L. Neypes,

R.T. NIles, A.S. Pajarillo, M.B. (2003), a Bachelor's Thesis

of Don Bosco Technical College entitled the prepaid

electronic locker is an intelligent locker system ideal for

any person who wishes to avail a locker for only a specific

period of time. The patron can operate it easily by

following the instructions displayed on the counter's

screen. Nothing is mounted on every locker door, making the

locker system coin and padlock-free. In this system the

patron can put his own pin code. The prepaid electronic

locker system is centralized. Anyone who wishes to avail a

locker can do so at the system's counter. It has a prepaid

feature, so the patron must purchase a prepaid load and ID

serves as the "key" of the locker system, any student or

personnel of the campus is recognized a legitimate user. The

same with the other related studies, it also has the same

goal which is to provide a reliable locker system and has

some similar features but the locker system proposed by this

study has an additional feature of automatic lock if the

door is closed and notifications to the users with the help

of IR feedback and GSM technology.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter will discuss the methods to be used, the

different approaches and procedures to achieve the

objectives of this study.

3.1 PLANNING

The researchers discussed what will be the process of

the locker system. The user must register first to the

authorized office to encode the necessary information for

the operation of the system. It will send a confirmation to

the user via SMS for successful registration. The operation

of the locker system will start when the user scans the

barcode ID, the interpreted data will be verified by

comparing to the information stored in the database. After

verification, the user will enter the personal numeric code

and will be compared again to the database. If the barcode

and numeric code matches the data stored, the raspberry pi

will drive the motor to unlock the locker and an LED

indicator will turn on. If the user entered a wrong barcode

and numeric code, it will only allow up to 3 attempts.

Reaching the maximum attempts will trigger the alarm system

on.

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NUMERIC KEYPAD (PIN)
The IR sensor will detect if the locker is open or

close. The IR sensor will send the status of the locker to

the raspberry pi. If locker is closed, the Raspberry pi will

drive the motor to lock the locker and an LED indicator will

turn off. If locker was left open for 5 minutes, it will

transmit this information to the raspberry pi that will

trigger the GSM module to send an SMS notification to the

user that the locker is open.

Figure 1. System Block Diagram

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3.2 HARDWARE DESIGN

The hardware of this system consists of Alarm, Barcode

Scanner, GSM module, IR sensor, LED indicators, Motor,

Numeric Keypad, Raspberry Pi and a customized lock.

Alarm serves as a warning device. It will be triggered if

the maximum attempts of barcode and numeric code input were

reached.

Barcode Scanner was used to transfer information such as the

name of locker user and the specific locker rented. When the

user scanned the barcode, the information will be compared

to the database. If the data matches, the operation will

proceed.

GSM Modem was used to communicate over the mobile network.

It was also used for sending and receiving SMS for the

confirmation and notifications.

IR sensor was used to detect the presence of the door to

identify if the locker is open or not. This sensor feeds

back the status of the door to the Raspberry pi.

LED serves as an indicator of the locker operation and if

the door is locked or not.

Motor is a device that will operate the motion of the door

lock.

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Numeric Keypad is a device that will be used by the user to

input the 4 digit numeric code after the barcode was

verified. It will serve as a follow-up identification of the

user.

Raspberry Pi is the mini-computer that will be used to

control the operation of the locker system. It serves as a

connection between the server and the remote locker through

the router. It will compare the input data to the stored

data to verify the identification of the user and will drive

the motor to control the lock. This will also accept the

feedback from the IR sensor that will either control the

motor or activate the GSM notification.

3.3 SOFTWARE DESIGN

The functionality of the system will also depend on the

design of its software. The software design will include the

database, desktop application and different programming

languages that will be used for the operation of the locker

system.

Database – an organized collection of information necessary

for the operation of the locker system. This collection of

information includes the credentials of the users and other

useful data.

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Desktop Application – an application that will be used at

the server that able input of user’s credentials, management

of the locker rentals and organization of information

related to the locker system.

MySQL – a widely used open-source relational database

management system (RDBMS) which make it suitable to use for

the database of the system that holds the necessary

information of the users such as name, barcode, PIN code and

contact number.

Python – programming language used in building the desired

operation of the Raspberry Pi. Since it supports multiple

programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative

and functional programming or procedural styles, it will be

suitable to program the microcontroller which executes

majority of the system’s operation.

Visual Basic.NET – programming language used in designing

the desktop application for the server. It guarantees

maximum performance and helps ensure that type conversions

are correct. This is useful when building the system in

which speed of execution and execution correctness is

important.

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USER

ALARM

Barcode Input

NORASPBERRY PI
SMS; Change PIN or Retain PIN? Does the code match? YES
Made
3
YES
tries?

Numeric Input

Monthly PIN validations

Input USER’s Credentials
NO
Does the PIN match? SMS; locker is left OPEN

YES YES

DATABASE UNLOCK
Does the time exceed 5 minutes?

NO

IR senses the door

SMS; Confirmation

Figure 2.System Flow Chart
NO
Counter
Is the Door closed?

YES 21

LOCK
3.4 CONSTRUCTION

Some of the components were not available in the local

market and the shipment took time to arrive so the

researchers proceeded with materializing the desired desktop

application and construction of the prototype, specifically

the locking mechanism. After the mechanism has been done,

the installation of the microprocessor to the mechanism was

started. Proper connections must be observed.

The group came up with a bill of materials needed to

construct the system.

Table 1. Bill of Materials

Component Name Quantity Unit
1 MODULES, DEVICES AND MOTORS
Raspberry pi B+ 1 PC
GSM Modem 1 PC
Routers 1 PC
Cables 20 METERS
Barcode Scanner 1 PC
Numeric Keypad 1 PC
Servo Motor 5V 4 PCS
Infrared Sensor 4 PCS
Wi-Fi Dongle 1 PC
2 ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Connectors 120 PCS
Fan 1 PC
Buzzer 2 PCS
Light Emitting Diode: Red,Green,
15 PCS
Yellow and Blue
PCB 1 PC
Soldering Lead 3 METERS

3 PROTOTYPE MATERIALS

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Galvanized Sheet 1/2 PC
Ply wood 1 PC
Paint 1 LITER
Spray Paint 2 PCS
Door Lock (rod) 4 PCS
Door Lock (with key) 4 PCS
Door Handle 4 PCS

Table 1, shows the list of materials that the

researcher utilized in the completion of the project.

After the construction of the whole project, the group

tested the system and adjusted some parameters.

3.5 TESTING

Testing began as soon as the prototype was finished.

The testing includes the continuity of connections of the

device, test for component failures, test for efficiency and

system assessment if it works properly. The aim of the

testing is to:

 Check for possible errors
 Check for component malfunction
 Check for efficiency, stability, security and

reliability of the system.

Testing of the system was done repeatedly to check if

it works in different periods and locations as discussed in

Chapter IV.

3.5.1 Parameters to analyse

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There are some parameters needed to be measured and

analysed to determine the level of reliability of the locker

system. In order to attain a higher reliability level, the

communication system, hardware and software must be tested.

The researchers would be collecting the following data to

avail the optimum capabilities of the system: the response

time of different network, the response time to identify and

verify the input data, the response time to notify the user,

and the success rate of the operation with different

barcodes being scanned.

3.6 MAINTENANCE

To avoid unwanted device failure in the future, the

project needs to have maintenance. This includes, casing of

the device, lubrication for the locking mechanism, system

checking and circuits must be elevated or insulated to avoid

short circuit. With these, the project will be protected and

the risk of having malfunctions in the future will be

minimized.

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